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  • 1.
    Ashitani, T.
    et al.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Bioenvirom, Fac Agr, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 9978555, Japan.;Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Garboui, Samira Sadek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Schubert, F.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vongsombath, C.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Natl Univ Laos NOUL, Viangchan, Laos..
    Liblikas, I.
    Inst Technol, Sect Organ Chem, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Palsson, K.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borg-Karlson, A. -K
    Activity studies of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides from the plant Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and its repellency on Ixodes ricinus (Acari:Ixodidae)2015In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 595-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), a plant traditionally used as a mosquito repellent, has been investigated for repellent properties against nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. Essential oils and volatile compounds of fresh and dried leaves, from plants originating from Laos and Guinea-Bissau, were identified by GC-MS and tested in a tick repellency bioassay. All the essential oils were strongly repellent against the ticks, even though the main volatile constituents differed in their proportions of potentially tick repellent chemicals. (+)/(-)-sabinene were present in high amounts in all preparations, and dominated the emission from dry and fresh leaves together with 1,8-cineol and alpha-phellandrene. 1,8-Cineol and sabinene were major compounds in the essential oils from H. suaveolens from Laos. Main compounds in H. suaveolens from Guinea-Bissau were (-)-sabinene, limonene and terpinolene. Among the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified, alpha-humulene exhibited strong tick repellency (96.8 %). Structure activity studies of oxidation or sulfidation products of germacrene D, alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, showed increased tick repellent activity: of mint sulfide (59.4 %), humulene-6,7-oxide (94.5 %) and caryophyllene-6,7-oxide (96.9 %). The substitution of oxygen with sulfur slightly lowered the repellency. The effects of the constituents in the oils can then be regarded as a trade off between the subsequently lower volatility of the sesquiterpene derivatives compared to the monoterpenes and may thus increase their potential usefulness as tick repellents.

  • 2.
    Elfving, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Lukinius, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Life cycle, growth characteristics and host cell response of Rickettsia helvetica in a Vero cell line2012In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 179-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rickettsia helvetica, a spotted fever rickettsia and emerging pathogen with Ixodes ricinus ticks as the main vector, is an agent of human disease and may cause febrile illness as well as meningitis. In three parallel series the isolated standard type of R. helvetica, obtained from a PCR-positive I. ricinus tick, was high-passaged and propagated in a Vero cell line. By using quantitative real-time PCR, the generation time from inoculation to stationary phase of growth was calculated to 20-22 h. In the static cultivation system the stationary phase was observed from the seventh day after inoculation, and there was no observed degradation of R. helvetica DNA during the 14 days studied. Microscopy showed that the organisms invaded the host cells rapidly and were primarily found free in the cytoplasm and only occasionally located in the nucleus. Four days after inoculation some of the host cells were broken and many indifferent stages of cytoplasmic organic decomposition were seen. However the R. helvetica organism did not show any morphologic alterations and the number of organisms was stable after the replication peak which may indicate that R. helvetica is adapted to growth in a Vero cell line and/or that the phase of degradation occurs later than the 14 days studied. The findings differ from what has been reported for other rickettsiae of the spotted fever group and may be of importance for invasiveness and virulence of R. helvetica.

  • 3.
    Elmhalli, Fawzeia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Benghazi, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Infect Dis & Trop Dis, Dept Environm Hlth, Benghazi, Libya.
    Garboui, Samira S.
    Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya. .
    Karlson, Anna Karin M. Borg
    Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mozuraitis, Raimondas
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baldauf, Sandra L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Grandi, Giulio
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    The repellency and toxicity effects of Essential oils from the Libyan plants Salvadora persica and Rosmarinus officinalis against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus.2019In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 585-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Essential oils extracted from the leaves of Libyan Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and Miswak (Salvadora persica L.) were evaluated for their acaricidal and repellent effects on Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae) using a bioassay based on an “open filter paper method".  R. officinalis leaf essential oil diluted to 0.5 and 1µl/cm ² in acetone exhibited, respectively, 20% and 100% tick mortality after about 5 hours of exposure. A total of 50% and 95% of I. ricinus nymphs were killed by direct contact with the oil when exposed to lethal concentrations (LC) of 0.7µl/cm² (LC50) and 0.95 µl/cm² (LC95), respectively. The LC50 (0.5µl/cm²) was reached before the end of the first 24 hours of exposure time (ET), as tick mortality at 24 hours was 60%. S. persica leaf essential oil at 1µl/cm² showed a significant repellency effect against I. ricinus nymphs at 1.5 hours ET. A 95% repellency was observed at a repellent concentration (RC95) of 1µl/cm² of S. persica, but no significant mortality was recorded at this dose of S. persica oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main monoterpenes in both oils were 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, and β-pinene, although in markedly different proportions. These results suggest that essential oils have substantial potential as alternative approaches for I. ricinus tick control.

  • 4.
    Elmhalli, Fawzeia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Palsson, Katinka
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Grandi, Giulio
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Acaricidal properties of ylang-ylang oil and star anise oil against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)2018In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 209-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ylang-ylang oil (YYO) from Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson and star anise oil (SAO) from Illicium verum Hook.f. were tested at four concentrations 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mu l/cm(2). Mortality rates were obtained by counting dead nymphs at 30-min intervals during the first 5h after the start of exposure and then at 24, 48 and 72h. Mortality increased with increasing oil concentration and time of exposure. The two highest concentrations of YYO (0.2, 0.4 mu l/cm(2)) gave maximum lethal concentrations (LC) of 50 and 95% mortality after 4.5h exposure. Mortality of 95% was obtained after 24h with the next highest dose (0.1 mu l/cm(2)), whereas LC95 required 3days with the lowest YYO (0.05 mu l/cm(2)). The lethal effect time (LT) was correlated with the duration of exposure, with a significant effect at 0.4l YYO/cm(2) after 3h' (LT50=3.2h, LT95=4.3h). In contrast, only the highest concentration of SAO, 0.4 mu l SAO/cm(2), showed increasing mortality with time of exposure. This reached LT50 after 10h and LT95 after 24h. However, with the lower concentration (0.2 mu l/cm(2)) 50% mortality was reached after 24h and 100% at 72h. At to the lowest concentration of SAO (0.1 mu l/cm(2)), 67% mortality after 48h. The study indicates that YYO and SAO exhibit strong acaricidal properties against nymphs of I. ricinus and suggest that both YYO and SAO should be evaluated as potentially useful in the control of ticks.

  • 5.
    Elmhalli, Fawzeia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Pålsson, Katinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Acaricidal effects of Corymbia citriodora oil containing para-menthane-3,8-diol against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)2009In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 251-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicity of para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), the main arthropod-repellent compound in the oil of the lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora, was evaluated against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus using five methods (A-E) of a contact toxicity bioassay. Mortality rates were estimated by recording numbers of dead nymphs at 30 min intervals during the first 5 h after the start of exposure and at longer intervals thereafter. The mortality rate increased with increasing concentration of PMD and duration of exposure with a distinct effect after 3.5 h. From the results obtained by methods A, C and E, the LC(50) range was 0.035-0.037 mg PMD/cm(2) and the LC(95) range was 0.095-0.097 mg PMD/cm(2) at 4 h of exposure; the LT(50) range was 2.1-2.8 h and the LT(95) range was 3.9-4.2 h at 0.1 mg PMD/cm(2). To determine the duration of toxic activity of PMD, different concentrations (0.002, 0.01, 0.1 mg PMD/cm(2)) were tested and mortality was recorded at each concentration after 1 h; thereafter new ticks were tested. This test revealed that the lethal activity of PMD remained for 24 h but appeared absent after 48 h. The overall results show that PMD is toxic to nymphs of I. ricinus and may be useful for tick control.

  • 6.
    El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy. Univ Malaya, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.;Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp,KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.;Menoufia Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Shibin Al Kawm, Egypt..
    Azeem, Muhammad
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp,KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.;COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Dept Chem, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan..
    Khalil, Nasr S.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp,KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.;Agr Res Ctr, Cairo, Egypt..
    Sakr, Hanem H.
    Menoufia Univ, Dept Zool, Fac Sci, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt..
    Khalifa, Shaden A. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Awang, Khalijah
    Univ Malaya, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia..
    Saeed, Aamer
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan..
    Farag, Mohamed A.
    Cairo Univ, Dept Pharmacognosy, Coll Pharm, Kasr El Aini St,PB 11562, Cairo, Egypt..
    AlAjmi, Mohamed F.
    King Saud Univ, Dept Pharmacognosy, Coll Pharm, POB 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia..
    Palsson, Katinka
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp,KTH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp,KTH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Essential oils of aromatic Egyptian plants repel nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)2017In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 139-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the role of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of many serious pathogens, personal protection against bites of this tick is essential. In the present study the essential oils from 11 aromatic Egyptian plants were isolated and their repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs was evaluated Three oils (i.e. Conyza dioscoridis L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Calendula officinalis L.) elicited high repellent activity in vitro of 94, 84.2 and 82%, respectively. The most active essential oil (C. dioscoridis) was applied in the field at a concentration of 6.5 A mu g/cm(2) and elicited a significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs by 61.1%. The most repellent plants C. dioscoridis, C. officinalis and A. herba-alba yielded essential oils by 0.17, 0.11 and 0.14%, respectively. These oils were further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. alpha-Cadinol (10.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (10.5%) were the major components of C. dioscoridis whereas in C. officinalis, alpha-cadinol (21.2%) and carvone (18.2%) were major components. Artemisia herba-alba contained piperitone (26.5%), ethyl cinnamate (9.5%), camphor (7.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (6.9%). Essential oils of these three plants have a potential to be used for personal protection against tick bites.

  • 7. Estrada-Peña, A.
    et al.
    Farkas, R.
    Jaenson, Thomas GT
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Koenen, F.
    Madder, M.
    Pascucci, I.
    Salman, M.
    Tarrés-Call, J.
    Jongejan, F.
    Association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (Acari Ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western Palearctic: a digital data set2013In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 351-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of building reliable collections of ticks with specific references as to collection point, host and date of capture. The data set is freely downloadable.

  • 8.
    Garboui, Samira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Pålsson, Katinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
    Repellency of methyl jasmonate to Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae)2007In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our search for tick repellents of plant origin, to be used as alternatives to commercial arthropod repellents, we investigated the effect of the well known plant signaling compound methyl jasmonate (MJ) using nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. In laboratory tests, pieces of cloth with MJ at 0.075, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.75 mg/cm2 yielded increasing repellencies against the nymphs: 57%, 71%, 92% and 99%, respectively, of the nymphs did not cling to the cloth. Repellency of MJ was also investigated in a tick-infested woodland area in central Sweden. Cotton flannel cloths sprayed with 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 mg/cm2 MJ dissolved in acetone were dragged over the ground vegetation. The numbers of nymphs on the treated cloths were significantly lower than those on the untreated cloth. Thus, MJ has, at the concentrations tested, significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs.

  • 9.
    Garboui, Samira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
    Pålsson, Katinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
    Repellency of MyggA® Natural spray (para-menthane 3, 8-diol) and RB86 (neem oil) against the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the field in east-central Sweden2006In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 40, no 3-4, p. 271-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field in south-central Sweden, we tested by randomised, standardised methodology the potential anti-tick repellent activity of two concentrations of MyggA® Natural spray (containing PMD) (4.2 and 3.2 g/m2) and one of RB86 (with 70% neem oil containing azadirachtin)(3 g/m2) to host seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus. Each substance was applied separately to 1 m2 cotton flannel cloths. Nymphal ticks on the cloths, pulled over the vegetation, were recorded at 10-m stops. Nymphal numbers recorded differed significantly between treated cloths [4.2 or 3.2 g MyggA® Natural spray/m2 and 3 g RB86/m2] and the untreated control (df = 3, χ2 = 112.74, P < 0.0001). Nymphal numbers also differed significantly among collectors (df = 3, χ2 = 15.80, P < 0.001). Repellency of treated cloths, i.e., 4.2 or 3.2 g MyggA® Natural spray/m2 and 3 g RB 86/m2 declined from day 0 (i.e. the day of impregnation) to day 3 after impregnation from 77 to 24%, 58 to 16% and 47 to 0.5%, respectively. This study suggests that all three treatments have significant repellent activities against I. ricinus nymphs.

  • 10.
    Mejlon, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Zoology.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Questing behaviour of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)1997In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 747-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vertical distribution in the vegetation of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks was investigated in two different vegetation types ('high' and 'low' vegetation) at two localities in south-central Sweden during 1992-1993 (Torö) and 1995 (Bogesund). Significant correlations were found between the vertical distribution of immature ticks and the height of the vegetation. The greatest mean availabilities of the larvae and nymphs in low vegetation were in the intervals 0-9 and 30-39 cm, respectively. The larval numbers were greatest close to the ground (0-29) in both high and low vegetation. The larval : nymphal ratio, at ground level at localities free of ground vegetation, varied between 8:1 and 32:1. In high vegetation, the greatest mean numbers of nymphal and adult ticks were at height intervals of 50-59 and 60-79 cm, respectively. These ranges are within the estimated height interval (40-100 cm) of the main part of the body surface of their 'preferred' host, the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The presence of most questing I. ricinus larvae at ground level would favour the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., since this is where the highly reservoir-competent rodents and shrews usually occur.

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