uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 51
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research. Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 621 Charles E Young Dr S, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Ethnol Hist Relig & Gender Studies, Univ Vagen 10 E, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gowaty, Patricia Adair
    Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 621 Charles E Young Dr S, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.;Smithsonian Trop Res Inst, DPO, Box 0948,AA 34002-9998, Washington, DC USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Environm & Sustainabil, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    A conceptual review of mate choice: stochastic demography, within-sex phenotypic plasticity, and individual flexibility2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 14, p. 4607-4642Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate choice hypotheses usually focus on trait variation of chosen individuals. Recently, mate choice studies have increasingly attended to the environmental circumstances affecting variation in choosers' behavior and choosers' traits. We reviewed the literature on phenotypic plasticity in mate choice with the goal of exploring whether phenotypic plasticity can be interpreted as individual flexibility in the context of the switch point theorem, SPT (Gowaty and Hubbell ). We found >3000 studies; 198 were empirical studies of within-sex phenotypic plasticity, and sixteen showed no evidence of mate choice plasticity. Most studies reported changes from choosy to indiscriminate behavior of subjects. Investigators attributed changes to one or more causes including operational sex ratio, adult sex ratio, potential reproductive rate, predation risk, disease risk, chooser's mating experience, chooser's age, chooser's condition, or chooser's resources. The studies together indicate that choosiness of potential mates is environmentally and socially labile, that is, induced - not fixed - in the choosy sex with results consistent with choosers' intrinsic characteristics or their ecological circumstances mattering more to mate choice than the traits of potential mates. We show that plasticity-associated variables factor into the simpler SPT variables. We propose that it is time to complete the move from questions about within-sex plasticity in the choosy sex to between- and within-individual flexibility in reproductive decision-making of both sexes simultaneously. Currently, unanswered empirical questions are about the force of alternative constraints and opportunities as inducers of individual flexibility in reproductive decision-making, and the ecological, social, and developmental sources of similarities and differences between individuals. To make progress, we need studies (1) of simultaneous and symmetric attention to individual mate preferences and subsequent behavior in both sexes, (2) controlled for within-individual variation in choice behavior as demography changes, and which (3) report effects on fitness from movement of individual's switch points.

  • 2.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Shipilina, Daria
    Bloom, Mozes
    Edwards, Scott
    Cis-regulatory sequence variation and association with Mycoplasma load in natural populations of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 655-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterization of the genetic basis of fitness traits in natural populations is important for understanding how organisms adapt to the changing environment and to novel events, such as epizootics. However, candidate fitness-influencing loci, such as regulatory regions, are usually unavailable in nonmodel species. Here, we analyze sequence data from targeted resequencing of the cis-regulatory regions of three candidate genes for disease resistance (CD74, HSP90α, and LCP1) in populations of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) historically exposed (Alabama) and naïve (Arizona) to Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our study, the first to quantify variation in regulatory regions in wild birds, reveals that the upstream regions of CD74 and HSP90α are GC-rich, with the former exhibiting unusually low sequence variation for this species. We identified two SNPs, located in a GC-rich region immediately upstream of an inferred promoter site in the gene HSP90α, that were significantly associated with Mycoplasma pathogen load in the two populations. The SNPs are closely linked and situated in potential regulatory sequences: one in a binding site for the transcription factor nuclear NFYα and the other in a dinucleotide microsatellite ((GC)6). The genotype associated with pathogen load in the putative NFYα binding site was significantly overrepresented in the Alabama birds. However, we did not see strong effects of selection at this SNP, perhaps because selection has acted on standing genetic variation over an extremely short time in a highly recombining region. Our study is a useful starting point to explore functional relationships between sequence polymorphisms, gene expression, and phenotypic traits, such as pathogen resistance that affect fitness in the wild.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Photosynthesis, growth, and decay traits in Sphagnum – a multispecies comparison2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 10, p. 3325-3341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peat mosses (Sphagnum) largely govern carbon sequestration in Northern Hemisphere peatlands. We investigated functional traits related to growth and decomposition in Sphagnum species. We tested the importance of environment and phylogeny in driving species traits and investigated trade-offs among them. We selected 15 globally important Sphagnum species, representing four sections (subgenera) and a range of peatland habitats. We measured rates of photosynthesis and decomposition in standard laboratory conditions as measures of innate growth and decay potential, and related this to realized growth, production, and decomposition in their natural habitats. In general, we found support for a trade-off between measures of growth and decomposition. However, the relationships are not strong, with r ranging between 0.24 and 0.45 for different measures of growth versus decomposition. Using photosynthetic rate to predict decomposition in standard conditions yielded R2 = 0.20. Habitat and section (phylogeny) affected the traits and the trade-offs. In a wet year, species from sections Cuspidata and Sphagnum had the highest production, but in a dry year, differences among species, sections, and habitats evened out. Cuspidata species in general produced easily decomposable litter, but their decay in the field was hampered, probably due to near-surface anoxia in their wet habitats. In a principal components analysis, PCA, photosynthetic capacity, production, and laboratory decomposition acted in the same direction. The species were imperfectly clustered according to vegetation type and phylogeny, so that some species clustered with others in the same section, whereas others clustered more clearly with others from similar vegetation types. Our study includes a wider range of species and habitats than previous trait analyses in Sphagnum and shows that while the previously described growth–decay trade-off exists, it is far from perfect. We therefore suggest that our species-specific trait measures offer opportunities for improvements of peatland ecosystem models. Innate qualities measured in laboratory conditions translate differently to field responses. Most dramatically, fast-growing species could only realize their potential in a wet year. The same species decompose fast in laboratory, but their decomposition was more retarded in the field than that of other species. These relationships are crucial for understanding the long-term dynamics of peatland communities.

  • 4.
    Bischof, Richard
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, Hogskoleveien 12, N-1430 As, Norway..
    Gregersen, Espen R.
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, Hogskoleveien 12, N-1430 As, Norway..
    Broseth, Henrik
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Tungasletta 2, N-7004 Trondheim, Norway..
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Flagstad, Oystein
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Tungasletta 2, N-7004 Trondheim, Norway..
    Noninvasive genetic sampling reveals intrasex territoriality in wolverines2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 1527-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to its conspicuous manifestations and its capacity to shape the configuration and dynamics of wild populations, territorial behavior has long intrigued ecologists. Territoriality and other animal interactions in situ have traditionally been studied via direct observations and telemetry. Here, we explore whether noninvasive genetic sampling, which is increasingly supplementing traditional field methods in ecological research, can reveal territorial behavior in an elusive carnivore, the wolverine (Gulo gulo). Using the locations of genotyped wolverine scat samples collected annually over a period of 12 years in central Norway, we test three predictions: (1) male home ranges constructed from noninvasive genetic sampling data are larger than those of females, (2) individuals avoid areas used by other conspecifics of the same sex (intrasexual territoriality), and (3) avoidance of same-sex territories diminishes or disappears after the territory owner's death. Each of these predictions is substantiated by our results: sex-specific differences in home range size and intrasexual territoriality in wolverine are patently reflected in the spatial and temporal configuration of noninvasively collected genetic samples. Our study confirms that wildlife monitoring programs can utilize the spatial information in noninvasive genetic sampling data to detect and quantify home ranges and social organization.

  • 5.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Aho, Teija
    Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca
    Isolation over 35 years in a heated biotest basin causes selection on MHC class II beta genes in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.)2015In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 1440-1455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genes that play key roles in host immunity such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates are expected to be major targets of selection. It is well known that environmental conditions can have an effect on host-parasite interactions and may thus influence the selection on MHC. We analyzed MHC class II ss variability over 35years in a population of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea that was split into two populations separated from each other. One population was subjected to heating from cooling water of a nuclear power plant and was isolated from the surrounding environment in an artificial lake, while the other population was not subjected to any change in water temperature (control). The isolated population experienced a change of the allelic composition and a decrease in allelic richness of MHC genes compared to the control population. The two most common MHC alleles showed cyclic patterns indicating ongoing parasite-host coevolution in both populations, but the alleles that showed a cyclic behavior differed between the two populations. No such patterns were observed at alleles from nine microsatellite loci, and no genetic differentiation was found between populations. We found no indications for a genetic bottleneck in the isolated population during the 35years. Additionally, differences in parasitism of the current perch populations suggest that a change of the parasite communities has occurred over the isolation period, although the evidence in form of in-depth knowledge of the change of the parasite community over time is lacking. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a selective sweep imposed by a change in the parasite community.

  • 6.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Borras, Antoni
    Cabrera, Josep
    Senar, Juan Carlos
    Increase in body size is correlated to warmer winters in a passerine bird as inferred from time series data2015In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 59-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to affect natural populations in many ways. One way of getting an understanding of the effects of a changing climate is to analyze time series of natural populations. Therefore, we analyzed time series of 25 and 20years, respectively, in two populations of the citril finch (Carduelis citrinella) to understand the background of a dramatic increase in wing length in this species over this period, ranging between 1.3 and 2.9 phenotypic standard deviations. We found that the increase in wing length is closely correlated to warmer winters and in one case to rain in relation to temperature in the summer. In order to understand the process of change, we implemented seven simulation models, ranging from two nonadaptive models (drift and sampling), and five adaptive models with selection and/or phenotypic plasticity involved and tested these models against the time series of males and females from the two population separately. The nonadaptive models were rejected in each case, but the results were mixed when it comes to the adaptive models. The difference in fit of the models was sometimes not significant indicating that the models were not different enough. In conclusion, the dramatic change in mean wing length can best be explained as an adaptive response to a changing climate.

  • 7.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The importance of selection at the level of the pair over 25 years in a natural population of birds2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 13, p. 4610-4619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the pattern of selection in natural populations is fundamental for our understanding of the evolutionary process. Selection at higher levels has gained considerable theoretical support in recent years, and one possible level of selection is the breeding pair where fitness is a function of the pair and cannot be reduced to single individuals. We analyzed the importance of pair-level selection over 25years in a natural population of the collared flycatcher. Pair-level selection was significant in five and probably in another 9years. The relative importance of pair-level selection varied over years and can have stronger or the same strength as directional selection. This means that selection can act on the combination of the breeding pair in addition to selection on each individual separately. Overall, the conservative estimates obtained here show that this is a potentially important form of selection.

  • 8.
    Bodare, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Stocks, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Yang, J-C
    Taiwan Forestry Research Institute.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Origin and demographic history of the endemic Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola)2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 3320-3333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola) is a vulnerable conifer species endemic to the island of Taiwan. A warming climate and competition from subtropical tree species has limited the range of Taiwan spruce to the higher altitudes of the island. Using seeds sampled from an area in the central mountain range of Taiwan, 15 nuclear loci were sequenced in order to measure genetic variation and to assess the long-term genetic stability of the species. Genetic diversity is low and comparable to other spruce species with limited ranges such as Picea breweriana, Picea chihuahuana, and Picea schrenkiana. Importantly, analysis using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) provides evidence for a drastic decline in the effective population size approximately 0.3–0.5 million years ago (mya). We used simulations to show that this is unlikely to be a false-positive result due to the limited sample used here. To investigate the phylogenetic origin of Taiwan spruce, additional sequencing was performed in the Chinese spruce Picea wilsonii and combined with previously published data for three other mainland China species, Picea purpurea, Picea likiangensis, and P. schrenkiana. Analysis of population structure revealed that P. morrisonicola clusters most closely with P. wilsonii, and coalescent analyses using the program MIMAR dated the split to 4–8 mya, coincidental to the formation of Taiwan. Considering the population decrease that occurred after the split, however, led to a much more recent origin.

  • 9.
    Bodare, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Tsuda, Yoshiaki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ravikanth, G
    Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment.
    Uma Shaanker, R
    Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Genetic structure and demographic history of the endangered tree species, Dysoxylum  malabaricum (Meliaceae) in Western Ghats, India: Implications for conservation in a  biodiversity hotspot2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 3233-3248Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of fragmentation by human activities on genetic diversity of forest trees is an important concern in forest conservation, especially in tropical forests. Dysoxylummalabaricum (white cedar) is an economically important tree species, endemic to theWestern Ghats, India, one of the world's eight most important biodiversity hotspots. As D.malabaricum is under pressure of disturbance and fragmentation together with overharvesting, conservation efforts are required in this species. In this study, range-widegenetic structure of twelve D.malabaricum populations was evaluated to assess the impact ofhuman activities on genetic diversity and infer the species' evolutionary history, using both nuclear and chloroplast (cp) DNA simple sequence repeats (SSR). As genetic diversity and population structure did not differ among seedling, juvenile and adult age classes, reproductive success among the old-growth trees and long distance seed dispersal by hornbills were suggested to contribute to maintain genetic diversity. The fixation index (F-IS) was significantly correlated with latitude, with a higher level of inbreeding in the northern populations, possibly reflecting a more severe ecosystem disturbance in those populations. Both nuclear and cpSSRs revealed northern and southern genetic groups with some discordance of their distributions; however, they did not correlate with any of the two geographic gaps known as genetic barriers to animals. Approximate Bayesian computation-based inference from nuclear SSRs suggested that population divergence occurred beforethe last glacial maximum. Finally we discussed the implications of these results, in particularthe presence of a clear pattern of historical genetic subdivision, on conservation policies.

  • 10. Campbell-Staton, Shane C
    et al.
    Goodman, Rachel M
    Backström, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Edwards, Scott V
    Losos, Jonathan B
    Kolbe, Jason J
    Out of Florida: mtDNA reveals patterns of migration and Pleistocene range expansion of the Green Anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis).2012In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 2, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anolis carolinensis is an emerging model species and the sole member of its genus native to the United States. Considerable morphological and physiological variation has been described in the species, and the recent sequencing of its genome makes it an attractive system for studies of genome variation. To inform future studies of molecular and phenotypic variation within A. carolinensis, a rigorous account of intraspecific population structure and relatedness is needed. Here, we present the most extensive phylogeographic study of this species to date. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequence data support the previous hypothesis of a western Cuban origin of the species. We found five well-supported, geographically distinct mitochondrial haplotype clades throughout the southeastern United States. Most Florida populations fall into one of three divergent clades, whereas the vast majority of populations outside Florida belong to a single, shallowly diverged clade. Genetic boundaries do not correspond to major rivers, but may reflect effects of Pleistocene glaciation events and the Appalachian Mountains on migration and expansion of the species. Phylogeographic signal should be examined using nuclear loci to complement these findings.

  • 11. Carlos Senar, Juan
    et al.
    Conroy, Michael J.
    Quesada, Javier
    Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 13, p. 2625-2632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture-recapture is a powerful tool to test it.

  • 12. Collin, Helene
    et al.
    Burri, Reto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Comtesse, Fabien
    Fumagalli, Luca
    Combining molecular evolution and environmental genomics to unravel adaptive processes of MHC class IIB diversity in European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus)2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 8, p. 2568-2585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Host-pathogen interactions are a major evolutionary force promoting local adaptation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) represent unique candidates to investigate evolutionary processes driving local adaptation to parasite communities. The present study aimed at identifying the relative roles of neutral and adaptive processes driving the evolution of MHC class IIB (MHCIIB) genes in natural populations of European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). To this end, we isolated and genotyped exon 2 of two MHCIIB gene duplicates (DAB1 and DAB3) and 1665 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in nine populations, and characterized local bacterial communities by 16S rDNA barcoding using 454 amplicon sequencing. Both MHCIIB loci exhibited signs of historical balancing selection. Whereas genetic differentiation exceeded that of neutral markers at both loci, the populations' genetic diversities were positively correlated with local pathogen diversities only at DAB3. Overall, our results suggest pathogen-mediated local adaptation in European minnows at both MHCIIB loci. While at DAB1 selection appears to favor different alleles among populations, this is only partially the case in DAB3, which appears to be locally adapted to pathogen communities in terms of genetic diversity. These results provide new insights into the importance of host-pathogen interactions in driving local adaptation in the European minnow, and highlight that the importance of adaptive processes driving MHCIIB gene evolution may differ among duplicates within species, presumably as a consequence of alternative selective regimes or different genomic context.

  • 13. de Heij, Maaike E.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Brommer, Jon E.
    Experimental manipulation shows that the white wing patch in collared flycatchers is a male sexual ornament2011In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 1, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Descriptive analysis suggests that a conspicuous white wing patch in dichromatic (black and white) pied and collared flycatchers is under sexual selection. Here, we use an experimental approach to test whether this trait is indeed the target of selection. We caught 100 collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis males soon after their arrival on the breeding site. We reduced (blackened) part of the white wing patch in half of these males and recorded their mating success and within and extra-pair offspring production. Reduction of the size of the white wing patch lowered a male's probability to attract a secondary social female, but not a primary female. However, primary females paired to males with a reduced wing patch were smaller (in tarsus), suggesting that male choice of partner or female-female competition over mates occurs in this species. The probability of pairing with a primary female (but not other components of male reproductive success) declined with arrival time (proxied by the date of capture). Males with a reduced wing patch size tended to sire less extra-pair offspring, although this relationship was reversed in one of the three study plots, suggesting that mating dynamics are context dependent. While our findings show that wing patch size is the target of sexual selection, the pathways and the strength of selection on this ornament differed markedly from a previous descriptive study. Nonexperimental studies of sexual selection in the wild may overestimate its importance because male fitness and ornamentation both depend positively on environmental conditions.

  • 14.
    Erkosar, Berra
    et al.
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Dept Fundamental Microbiol, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Yashiro, Erika
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Fundamental Microbiol, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Zajitschek, Felix
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ New South Wales, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Friberg, Urban
    Linkoping Univ, AVIAN Behav Genom & Physiol Grp, IFM Biol, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Maklakov, Alex A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    van der Meer, Jan R.
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Fundamental Microbiol, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Kawecki, Tadeusz J.
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Host diet mediates a negative relationship between abundance and diversity of Drosophila gut microbiota2018In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, no 18, p. 9491-9502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient supply to ecosystems has major effects on ecological diversity, but it is unclear to what degree the shape of this relationship is general versus dependent on the specific environment or community. Although the diet composition in terms of the source or proportions of different nutrient types is known to affect gut microbiota composition, the relationship between the quantity of nutrients supplied and the abundance and diversity of the intestinal microbial community remains to be elucidated. Here, we address this relationship using replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster maintained over multiple generations on three diets differing in the concentration of yeast (the only source of most nutrients). While a 6.5-fold increase in yeast concentration led to a 100-fold increase in the total abundance of gut microbes, it caused a major decrease in their alpha diversity (by 45-60% depending on the diversity measure). This was accompanied by only minor shifts in the taxonomic affiliation of the most common operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Thus, nutrient concentration in host diet mediates a strong negative relationship between the nutrient abundance and microbial diversity in the Drosophila gut ecosystem.

  • 15.
    Goncalves, Ines Braga
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Anim Behav, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Evolutionary ecology of pipefish brooding structures: embryo survival and growth do not improve with a pouch2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 3608-3620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For animals that reproduce in water, many adaptations in life-history traits such as egg size, parental care, and behaviors that relate to embryo oxygenation are still poorly understood. In pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons, males care for the embryos either in some sort of brood pouch, or attached ventrally to the skin on their belly or tail. Typically, egg size is larger in the brood pouch group and it has been suggested that oxygen supplied via the pouch buffers the developing embryos against hypoxia and as such is an adaptation that has facilitated the evolution of larger eggs. Here, using four pipefish species, we tested whether the presence or absence of brood pouch relates to how male behavior, embryo size, and survival are affected by hypoxia, with normoxia as control. Two of our studied species Entelurus aequoreus and Nerophis ophidion (both having small eggs) have simple ventral attachment of eggs onto the male trunk, and the other two, Syngnathus typhle (large eggs) and S. rostellatus (small eggs), have fully enclosed brood pouches on the tail. Under hypoxia, all species showed lower embryo survival, while species with brood pouches suffered greater embryo mortality compared to pouchless species, irrespective of oxygen treatment. Behaviorally, species without pouches spent more time closer to the surface, possibly to improve oxygenation. Overall, we found no significant benefits of brood pouches in terms of embryo survival and size under hypoxia. Instead, our results suggest negative effects of large egg size, despite the protection of brood pouches.

  • 16.
    Immonen, Elina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Snook, Rhonda R.
    Ritchie, Michael G.
    Mating system variation drives rapid evolution of the female transcriptome in Drosophila pseudoobscura2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 11, p. 2186-2201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between the sexes are believed to be a potent source of selection on sex-specific evolution. The way in which sexual interactions influence male investment is much studied, but effects on females are more poorly understood. To address this deficiency, we examined gene expression in virgin female Drosophila pseudoobscura following 100 generations of mating system manipulations in which we either elevated polyandry or enforced monandry. Gene expression evolution following mating system manipulation resulted in 14% of the transcriptome of virgin females being altered. Polyandrous females elevated expression of a greater number of genes normally enriched in ovaries and associated with mitosis and meiosis, which might reflect female investment into reproductive functions. Monandrous females showed a greater number of genes normally enriched for expression in somatic tissues, including the head and gut and associated with visual perception and metabolism, respectively. By comparing our data with a previous study of sex differences in gene expression in this species, we found that the majority of the genes that are differentially expressed between females of the selection treatments show female-biased expression in the wild-type population. A striking exception is genes associated with male-specific reproductive tissues (in D.melanogaster), which are upregulated in polyandrous females. Our results provide experimental evidence for a role of sex-specific selection arising from differing sexual interactions with males in promoting rapid evolution of the female transcriptome.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Magnus P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Maximum thermal tolerance trades off with chronic tolerance of high temperature in contrasting thermal populations of Radix balthica2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 3149-3156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal adaptation theory predicts that thermal specialists evolve in environments with low temporal and high spatial thermal variation, whereas thermal generalists are favored in environments with high temporal and low spatial variation. The thermal environment of many organisms is predicted to change with globally increasing temperatures and thermal specialists are presumably at higher risk than thermal generalists. Here we investigated critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and preferred temperature (T-p) in populations of the common pond snail (Radix balthica) originating from a small-scale system of geothermal springs in northern Iceland, where stable cold (ca. 7 degrees C) and warm (ca. 23 degrees C) habitats are connected with habitats following the seasonal thermal variation. Irrespective of thermal origin, we found a common T-p for all populations, corresponding to the common temperature optimum (T-opt) for fitness-related traits in these populations. Warm-origin snails had lowest CTmax. As our previous studies have found higher chronic temperature tolerance in the warm populations, we suggest that there is a trade-off between high temperature tolerance and performance in other fitness components, including tolerance to chronic thermal stress. T-p and CTmax were positively correlated in warm-origin snails, suggesting a need to maintain a minimum "warming tolerance" (difference in CTmax and habitat temperature) in warm environments. Our results highlight the importance of high mean temperature in shaping thermal performance curves.

  • 18.
    Jones, William
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kulma, Katarzyna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Bensch, Staffan
    MEMEG, Molecular Ecology and Evolution Group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Cichoń, Mariusz
    Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
    Kerimov, Anvar
    Faculty of Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
    Krist, Miloš
    Department of Zoology and Laboratory of Ornithology, Faculty of Science, Palacky University,Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Turku, Finland; Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Moreno, Juan
    Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Munclinger, Pavel
    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Slater, Fred M.
    School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Szöllősi, Eszter
    Department of Systematic Zoology and Ecology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Visser, Marcel E.
    Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO‐KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Interspecific transfer of parasites following a range‐shift in Ficedula flycatcher2018In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, no 23, p. 12183-12192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human‐induced climate change is expected to cause major biotic changes in species distributions and thereby including escalation of novel host‐parasite associations. Closely related host species that come into secondary contact are especially likely to exchange parasites and pathogens. Both the Enemy Release Hypothesis (where invading hosts escape their original parasites) and the Novel Weapon Hypothesis (where invading hosts bring new parasites that have detrimental effects on native hosts) predict that the local host will be most likely to experience a disadvantage. However, few studies evaluate the occurrence of interspecific parasite transfer by performing wide‐scale geographic sampling of pathogen lineages, both within and far from host contact zones. In this study, we investigate how haemosporidian (avian malaria) prevalence and lineage diversity vary in two, closely related species of passerine birds; the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca and the collared flycatcher F. albicollis in both allopatry and sympatry. We find that host species is generally a better predictor of parasite diversity than location, but both prevalence and diversity of parasites vary widely among populations of the same bird species. We also find a limited and unidirectional transfer of parasites from pied flycatchers to collared flycatchers in a recent contact zone. This study therefore rejects both the Enemy Release Hypothesis and the Novel Weapon Hypothesis and highlights the complexity and importance of studying host‐parasite relationships in an era of global climate change and species range shifts.

  • 19.
    Kozma, Radoslav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lillie, Mette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Benito, Blas M.
    Department of Bioscience, Section for Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, building 1540, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Svenning, Jens-Christian
    Department of Bioscience, Section for Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, building 1540, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Past and potential future population dynamics of three grouse species using ecological and whole genome coalescent modeling2018In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, no 13, p. 6671-6681Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying demographic history of species provides insight into how the past has shaped the current levels of overall biodiversity and genetic composition of species, but also how these species may react to future perturbations. Here we investigated the demographic history of the willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus), rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta), and black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) through the Late Pleistocene using two complementary methods and whole genome data. Species distribution modeling (SDM) allowed us to estimate the total range size during the Last Interglacial (LIG) and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as well as to indicate potential population subdivisions. Pairwise Sequentially Markovian Coalescent (PSMC) allowed us to assess fluctuations in effective population size across the same period. Additionally, we used SDM to forecast the effect of future climate change on the three species over the next 50years. We found that SDM predicts the largest range size for the cold-adapted willow grouse and rock ptarmigan during the LGM. PSMC captured intraspecific population dynamics within the last glacial period, such that the willow grouse and rock ptarmigan showed multiple bottlenecks signifying recolonization events following the termination of the LGM. We also see signals of population subdivision during the last glacial period in the black grouse, but more data are needed to strengthen this hypothesis. All three species are likely to experience range contractions under future warming, with the strongest effect on willow grouse and rock ptarmigan due to their limited potential for northward expansion. Overall, by combining these two modeling approaches, we have provided a multifaceted examination of the biogeography of these species and how they have responded to climate change in the past. These results help us understand how cold-adapted species may respond to future climate changes.

  • 20.
    Krizsan, Sophie J
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mateos-Rivera, Alejandro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Felton, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Anttila, Anne
    Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ramin, Mohammad
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vaga, Merko
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Helena
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Huhtanen, Pekka
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    An in vitro evaluation of browser and grazer fermentation efficiency and microbiota using European moose spring and summer foods2018In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, p. 4183-4196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary morphological and physiological differences between browsers and grazers contribute to species- specific digestion efficiency of food resources. Rumen microbial community structure of browsers is supposedly adapted to characteristic nutrient composition of the diet source. If this assumption is correct, domesticated ruminants, or grazers, are poor model animals for assessing the nutritional value of food consumed by browsing game species. In this study, typical spring and summer foods of the European moose (Alces alces) were combined with rumen fluid collected from both dairy cows (Bos taurus) and from moose, with the aim of comparing fer- mentation efficiency and microbial community composition. The nutritional value of the food resources was characterized by chemical analysis and advanced in vitro measurements. The study also addressed whether or not feed evaluation based on in vitro techniques with cattle rumen fluid as inoculum could be a practical alternative when evaluating the nutritional value of plants consumed by wild browsers. Our re- sults suggest that the fermentation characteristics of moose spring and summer food are partly host- specific and related to the contribution of the bacterial phyla Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes to the rumen microbial community. Host- specific adaptations of the ruminal microbial community structure could be explained from the evolutionary adaptations related to feeding habitats and morphophysiological differences be- tween browsers and grazers. However, the observed overall differences in microbial community structure could not be related to ruminal digestion parameters measured in vitro. The in vitro evaluation of digestion efficiency reveals that equal amounts of methane were produced across all feed samples regardless of whether the ruminal fluid was from moose or dairy cow. The results of this study suggested that the nutri- tional value of browsers’ spring and summer food can be predicted using rumen fluid from domesticated grazers as inoculum in in vitro assessments of extent of digestion when excluding samples of the white water lily root, but not of fermentation characteristics as indicated by the proportions of individual fermentation fatty acids to the total of volatile fatty acids.

  • 21.
    Lamichhaney, Sangeet
    et al.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Organism & Evolutionary Biol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Harvard Univ, Museum Comparat Zool, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Texas A&M Univ, Dept Vet Integrat Biosci, College Stn, TX USA;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A comparison of the association between large haplotype blocks under selection and the presence/absence of inversions2019In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 4888-4896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inversions may contribute to ecological adaptation and phenotypic diversity, and with the advent of second and third generation sequencing technologies, the ability to detect inversion polymorphisms has been enhanced dramatically. A key molecular consequence of an inversion is the suppression of recombination allowing independent accumulation of genetic changes between alleles over time. This may lead to the development of divergent haplotype blocks maintained by balancing selection. Thus, divergent haplotype blocks are often considered as indicating the presence of an inversion. In this paper, we first review the features of a 7.7Mb inversion causing the Rose-comb phenotype in chicken, as a model for how inversions evolve and directly affect phenotypes. Second, we compare the genetic basis for alternative mating strategies in ruff and timing of reproduction in Atlantic herring, both associated with divergent haplotype blocks. Alternative male mating strategies in ruff are associated with a 4.5Mb inversion that occurred about 4 million years ago. In fact, the ruff inversion shares some striking features with the Rose-comb inversion such as disruption of a gene at one of the inversion breakpoints and generation of a new allele by recombination between the inverted and noninverted alleles. In contrast, inversions do not appear to be a major reason for the fairly large haplotype blocks (range 10-200kb) associated with ecological adaptation in the herring. Thus, it is important to note that divergent haplotypes may also be maintained by natural selection in the absence of structural variation.

  • 22.
    Liu, Baoyan
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Systemat & Biodivers, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Fjeldsa, Jon
    Univ Copenhagen, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, Zool Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Quan, Qing
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Roselaar, Kees C. S.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Saitoh, Takema
    Yamashina Inst Ornithol, Abiko, Chiba, Japan..
    Yao, Cheng-te
    COA, Endem Species Res Inst, High Altitude Expt Stn, Chi Chi, Taiwan..
    Hao, Yan
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Wenjuan
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Life Sci, Ctr Watershed Ecol, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China.;Nanchang Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Poyang Lake Environm & Resource Utilizat, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Qu, Yanhua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Explosive radiation and spatial expansion across the cold environments of the Old World in an avian family2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 16, p. 6346-6357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our objective was to elucidate the biogeography and speciation patterns in an entire avian family, which shows a complex pattern of overlapping and nonoverlapping geographical distributions, and much variation in plumage, but less in size and structure. We estimated the phylogeny and divergence times for all of the world's species of Prunella based on multiple genetic loci, and analyzed morphometric divergence and biogeographical history. The common ancestor of Prunella was present in the Sino-Himalayan Mountains or these mountains and Central Asia-Mongolia more than 9 million years ago (mya), but a burst of speciations took place during the mid-Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The relationships among the six primary lineages resulting from that differentiation are unresolved, probably because of the rapid radiation. A general increase in sympatry with increasing time since divergence is evident. With one exception, species in clades younger than c. 3.7 my are allopatric. Species that are widely sympatric, including the most recently diverged (2.4 mya) sympatric sisters, are generally more divergent in size/structure than allo-/parapatric close relatives. The distributional pattern and inferred ages suggest divergence in allopatry and substantial waiting time until secondary contact, likely due to competitive exclusion. All sympatrically breeding species are ecologically segregated, as suggested by differences in size/structure and habitat. Colonizations of new areas were facilitated during glacialperiods, followed by fragmentation during interglacials-contrary to the usual view that glacial periods resulted mainly in fragmentations.

  • 23. Liu, Yang
    et al.
    Webber, Simone
    Bowgen, Katharine
    Schmaltz, Lucie
    Bradley, Katharine
    Halvarsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Abdelgadir, Mohanad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Griesser, Michael
    Environmental factors influence both abundance and genetic diversity in a widespread bird species2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 14, p. 4683-4695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic diversity is one of the key evolutionary variables that correlate with population size, being of critical importance for population viability and the persistence of species. Genetic diversity can also have important ecological consequences within populations, and in turn, ecological factors may drive patterns of genetic diversity. However, the relationship between the genetic diversity of a population and how this interacts with ecological processes has so far only been investigated in a few studies. Here, we investigate the link between ecological factors, local population size, and allelic diversity, using a field study of a common bird species, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). We studied sparrows outside the breeding season in a confined small valley dominated by dispersed farms and small-scale agriculture in southern France. Population surveys at 36 locations revealed that sparrows were more abundant in locations with high food availability. We then captured and genotyped 891 house sparrows at 10 microsatellite loci from a subset of these locations (N=12). Population genetic analyses revealed weak genetic structure, where each locality represented a distinct substructure within the study area. We found that food availability was the main factor among others tested to influence the genetic structure between locations. These results suggest that ecological factors can have strong impacts on both population size per se and intrapopulation genetic variation even at a small scale. On a more general level, our data indicate that a patchy environment and low dispersal rate can result in fine-scale patterns of genetic diversity. Given the importance of genetic diversity for population viability, combining ecological and genetic data can help to identify factors limiting population size and determine the conservation potential of populations.

  • 24. Lönnstedt, Oona M.
    et al.
    McCormick, Mark I.
    Chivers, Douglas P.
    Degraded environments alter prey risk assessment2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 38-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Lönnstedt, Oona M.
    et al.
    Munday, Phil L.
    McCormick, Mark I.
    Ferrari, Maud C.O.
    Chivers, Douglas P.
    Ocean acidification and impaired responses to predation cues: can sensory compensation reduce the apparent impacts of elevated CO2 on fish?2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 3565-3575Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Marklund, Maria H. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. School of Biological Sciences and The Environment Institute, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5005, Australia.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Faulks, Leanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Sugadaira Montane Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Sugadairakogen 1278-294, Ueda, Nagano 386-2204, Japan.
    Breed, Martin F.
    School of Biological Sciences and The Environment Institute, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5005, Australia.
    Scharnweber, Kristin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Zha, Yinghua
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, NKS BioClinicum, Solna, Sweden.
    Eklöv, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Asymmetrical habitat coupling of an aquatic predator: The importance of individual specialization2019In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 3405-3415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predators should stabilize food webs because they can move between spatially separate habitats. However, predators adapted to forage on local resources may have a reduced ability to couple habitats. Here, we show clear asymmetry in the ability to couple habitats by Eurasian perch—a common polymorphic predator in European lakes. We sampled perch from two spatially separate habitats—pelagic and littoral zones—in Lake Erken, Sweden. Littoral perch showed stronger individual specialization, but they also used resources from the pelagic zone, indicating their ability to couple habitats. In contrast, pelagic perch showed weaker individual specialization but near complete reliance on pelagic resources, indicating their preference to one habitat. This asymmetry in the habitat coupling ability of perch challenges the expectation that, in general, predators should stabilize spatially separated food webs. Our results suggest that habitat coupling might be constrained by morphological adaptations, which in this case were not related to genetic differentiation but were more likely related to differences in individual specialization.

  • 27.
    Marzal, Julia Carolina Segami
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rudh, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ecol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Rosher, Charlotte
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Linkoping, Sweden.;Univ Manchester, Fac Life Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cryptic female Strawberry poison frogs experience elevated predation risk when associating with an aposematic partner2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 744-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population divergence in sexual signals may lead to speciation through prezygotic isolation. Sexual signals can change solely due to variation in the level of natural selection acting against conspicuousness. However, directional mate choice (i.e., favoring conspicuousness) across different environments may lead to gene flow between populations, thereby delaying or even preventing the evolution of reproductive barriers and speciation. In this study, we test whether natural selection through predation upon mate-choosing females can favor corresponding changes in mate preferences. Our study system, Oophaga pumilio, is an extremely color polymorphic neotropical frog with two distinctive antipredator strategies: aposematism and crypsis. The conspicuous coloration and calling behavior of aposematic males may attract both cryptic and aposematic females, but predation may select against cryptic females choosing aposematic males. We used an experimental approach where domestic fowl were encouraged to find digitized images of cryptic frogs at different distances from aposematic partners. We found that the estimated survival time of a cryptic frog was reduced when associating with an aposematic partner. Hence, predation may act as a direct selective force on female choice, favoring evolution of color assortative mating that, in turn, may strengthen the divergence in coloration that natural selection has generated.

  • 28. McCormick, Mark I.
    et al.
    Lönnstedt, Oona M.
    Degrading habitats and the effect of topographic complexity on risk assessment2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 4221-4229Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. McFarlane, S. Eryn
    et al.
    Gorrell, Jamieson C.
    Coltman, David W.
    Humphries, Murray M.
    Boutin, Stan
    McAdam, Andrew G.
    Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 1729-1738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components than would be expected from mutation-selection balance. Here, we used a long-term study of an individually marked population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) to look for evidence of (1) additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success and (2) fitness trade-offs between fitness components, such as male and female fitness or fitness in high- and low-resource environments. Animal model analyses of a multigenerational pedigree revealed modest maternal effects on fitness, but very low levels of additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success overall as well as fitness measures within each sex and environment. It therefore appears that there are very low levels of direct genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in red squirrels to facilitate contemporary adaptation in this population.

  • 30.
    McFarlane, S. Eryn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Edinburgh, Inst Evolutionary Biol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Ålund, Murielle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sirkiä, Paivi M.
    Univ Helsinki, Finnish Museum Nat Hist, Zool Unit, Helsinki, Finland; Univ Turku, Dept Biol, Sect Ecol, Turku, Finland.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Difference in plasticity of resting metabolic rate - the proximate explanation to different niche breadth in sympatric Ficedula flycatchers2018In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 4575-4586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in relative fitness of competing recently formed species across heterogeneous environments promotes coexistence. However, the physiological traits mediating such variation in relative fitness have rarely been identified. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is tightly associated with life history strategies, thermoregulation, diet use, and inhabited latitude and could therefore moderate differences in fitness responses to fluctuations in local environments, particularly when species have adapted to different climates in allopatry. We work in a long‐term study of collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a recent hybrid zone located on the Swedish island of Öland in the Baltic Sea. Here, we explore whether differences in RMR match changes in relative performance of growing flycatcher nestlings across environmental conditions using an experimental approach. The fitness of pied flycatchers has previously been shown to be less sensitive to the mismatch between the peak in food abundance and nestling growth among late breeders. Here, we find that pied flycatcher nestlings have lower RMR in response to higher ambient temperatures (associated with low food availability). We also find that experimentally relaxed nestling competition is associated with an increased RMR in this species. In contrast, collared flycatcher nestlings did not vary their RMR in response to these environmental factors. Our results suggest that a more flexible nestling RMR in pied flycatchers is responsible for the better adaptation of pied flycatchers to the typical seasonal changes in food availability experienced in this hybrid zone. Generally, subtle physiological differences that have evolved when species were in allopatry may play an important role to patterns of competition, coexistence, or displacements between closely related species in secondary contact.

  • 31.
    Moghadam, Neda N.
    et al.
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Chem & Biosci, Aalborg E, Denmark;Univ Jyvaskyla, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Ctr Excellence Biol Interact, Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Novicic, Zorana Kurbalija
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Pertoldi, Cino
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Chem & Biosci, Aalborg E, Denmark;Aalborg Zoo, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Kristensen, Torsten N.
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Chem & Biosci, Aalborg E, Denmark;Aarhus Univ, Dept Biosci, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Bahrndorff, Simon
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Chem & Biosci, Aalborg E, Denmark.
    Effects of photoperiod on life-history and thermal stress resistance traits across populations of Drosophila subobscura2019In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 2743-2754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Organisms use environmental cues to match their phenotype with the future availability of resources and environmental conditions. Changes in the magnitude and frequency of environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature along latitudes can be used by organisms to predict seasonal changes. While the role of temperature variation on the induction of plastic and seasonal responses is well established, the importance of photoperiod for predicting seasonal changes is less explored. Materials and methods Here we studied changes in life-history and thermal stress resistance traits in Drosophila subobscura in response to variation in photoperiod (6:18, 12:12 and 18:6 light:dark cycles) mimicking seasonal variations in day length. The populations of D. subobscura were collected from five locations along a latitudinal gradient (from North Africa and Europe). These populations were exposed to different photoperiods for two generations, whereafter egg-to-adult viability, productivity, dry body weight, thermal tolerance, and starvation resistance were assessed. Results We found strong effects of photoperiod, origin of populations, and their interactions on life-history and stress resistance traits. Thermal resistance varied between the populations and the effect of photoperiod depended on the trait and the method applied for the assessment of thermal resistance. Perspectives Our results show a strong effect of the origin of population and photoperiod on a range of fitness-related traits and provide evidence for local adaptation to environmental cues (photoperiod by population interaction). The findings emphasize an important and often neglected role of photoperiod in studies on thermal resistance and suggest that cues induced by photoperiod may provide some buffer enabling populations to cope with a more variable and unpredictable future climate.

  • 32. Moller, Anders P.
    et al.
    Adriaensen, Frank
    Artemyev, Alexandr
    Banbura, Jerzy
    Barba, Emilio
    Biard, Clotilde
    Blondel, Jacques
    Bouslama, Zihad
    Bouvier, Jean-Charles
    Camprodon, Jordi
    Cecere, Francesco
    Charmantier, Anne
    Charter, Motti
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Cusimano, Camillo
    Czeszczewik, Dorota
    Demeyrier, Virginie
    Doligez, Blandine
    Doutrelant, Claire
    Dubiec, Anna
    Eens, Marcel
    Eeva, Tapio
    Faivre, Bruno
    Ferns, Peter N.
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    Garcia-Del-Rey, Eduardo
    Goldshtein, Aya
    Goodenough, Anne E.
    Gosler, Andrew G.
    Gozdz, Iga
    Gregoire, Arnaud
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hartley, Ian R.
    Heeb, Philipp
    Hinsley, Shelley A.
    Isenmann, Paul
    Jacob, Staffan
    Jaervinen, Antero
    Juskaitis, Rimvydas
    Korpimaeki, Erkki
    Krams, Indrikis
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Leclercq, Bernard
    Lehikoinen, Esa
    Loukola, Olli
    Lundberg, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mainwaring, Mark C.
    Maend, Raivo
    Massa, Bruno
    Mazgajski, Tomasz D.
    Merino, Santiago
    Mitrus, Cezary
    Moenkkoenen, Mikko
    Morales-Fernaz, Judith
    Morin, Xavier
    Nager, Ruedi G.
    Nilsson, Jan-Ake
    Nilsson, Sven G.
    Norte, Ana C.
    Orell, Markku
    Perret, Philippe
    Pimentel, Carla S.
    Pinxten, Rianne
    Priedniece, Ilze
    Quidoz, Marie-Claude
    Remes, Vladimir
    Richner, Heinz
    Robles, Hugo
    Rytkoenen, Seppo
    Carlos Senar, Juan
    Seppaenen, Janne T.
    da Silva, Luis P.
    Slagsvold, Tore
    Solonen, Tapio
    Sorace, Alberto
    Stenning, Martyn J.
    Toeroek, Janos
    Tryjanowski, Piotr
    van Noordwijk, Arie J.
    von Numers, Mikael
    Walankiewicz, Wieslaw
    Lambrechts, Marcel M.
    Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 3583-3595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited to small-scale studies performed over short time periods. Here, we quantified the relationship between clutch size and nest size, using an exhaustive database of 116 slope estimates based on 17,472 nests of 21 species of hole and non-hole-nesting birds. There was a significant, positive relationship between clutch size and the base area of the nest box or the nest, and this relationship did not differ significantly between open nesting and hole-nesting species. The slope of the relationship showed significant intraspecific and interspecific heterogeneity among four species of secondary hole-nesting species, but also among all 116 slope estimates. The estimated relationship between clutch size and nest box base area in study sites with more than a single size of nest box was not significantly different from the relationship using studies with only a single size of nest box. The slope of the relationship between clutch size and nest base area in different species of birds was significantly negatively related to minimum base area, and less so to maximum base area in a given study. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that bird species have a general reaction norm reflecting the relationship between nest size and clutch size. Further, they suggest that scientists may influence the clutch size decisions of hole-nesting birds through the provisioning of nest boxes of varying sizes.

  • 33.
    Monroe, Melanie J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Alonzo, Suzanne H.
    Sexual size dimorphism is not associated with the evolution of parental care in frogs2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 20, p. 4001-4008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in parental care are thought to arise from differential selection on the sexes. Sexual dimorphism, including sexual size dimorphism (SSD), is often used as a proxy for sexual selection on males. Some studies have found an association between male-biased SSD (i.e., males larger than females) and the loss of paternal care. While the relationship between sexual selection on males and parental care evolution has been studied extensively, the relationship between female-biased SSD (i.e., females larger than males) and the evolution of parental care has received very little attention. Thus, we have little knowledge of whether female-biased SSD coevolves with parental care. In species displaying female-biased SSD, we might expect dimorphism to be associated with the evolution of paternal care or perhaps the loss of maternal care. Here, drawing on data for 99 extant frog species, we use comparative methods to evaluate how parental care and female-biased SSD have evolved over time. Generally, we find no significant correlation between the evolution of parental care and female-biased SSD in frogs. This suggests that differential selection on body size between the sexes is unlikely to have driven the evolution of parental care in these clades and questions whether we should expect sexual dimorphism to exhibit a general relationship with the evolution of sex differences in parental care.

  • 34.
    Moritz, Kim K.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, POB 102, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Female Salix viminalis are more severely infected by Melampsora spp. but neither sex experiences associational effects2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1154-1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associational effects of plant genotype or species on plant biotic interactions are common, not least for disease spread, but associational effects of plant sex on interactions have largely been ignored. Sex in dioecious plants can affect biotic interactions with herbivores and pollinators; however, its effects on plant-pathogen interactions are understudied and associational effects are unknown. In a replicated field experiment, we assessed Melampsora spp. leaf rust infection in monosexual and mixed sex plots of dioecious Salix viminalis L. to determine whether plant sex has either direct or associational effects on infection severity. We found no differences in Melampsora spp. infection severity among sexual monocultures and mixtures in our field experiment. However, female plants were overall more severely infected. In addition, we surveyed previous studies of infection in S.viminalis clones and reevaluated the studies after we assigned sex to the clones. We found that females were generally more severely infected, as in our field study. Similarly, in a survey of studies on sex-biased infection in dioecious plants, we found more female-biased infections in plant-pathogen pairs. We conclude that there was no evidence for associational plant sex effects of neighboring conspecifics for either females or males on infection severity. Instead, plant sex effects on infection act at an individual plant level. Our findings also suggest that female plants may in general be more severely affected by fungal pathogens than males.

  • 35.
    Nunes, Ana L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rebelo, Rui
    Morphological and life-history responses of anurans to predation by an invasive crayfish: an integrative approach2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 8, p. 1491-1503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity has been widely documented in response to native predators, but studies examining the extent to which prey can respond to exotic invasive predators are scarce. As native prey often do not share a long evolutionary history with invasive predators, they may lack defenses against them. This can lead to population declines and even extinctions, making exotic predators a serious threat to biodiversity. Here, in a community-wide study, we examined the morphological and life-history responses of anuran larvae reared with the invasive red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, feeding on conspecific tadpoles. We reared tadpoles of nine species until metamorphosis and examined responses in terms of larval morphology, growth, and development, as well as their degree of phenotypic integration. These responses were compared with the ones developed in the presence of a native predator, the larval dragonfly Aeshna sp., also feeding on tadpoles. Eight of the nine species altered their morphology or life history when reared with the fed dragonfly, but only four when reared with the fed crayfish, suggesting among-species variation in the ability to respond to a novel predator. While morphological defenses were generally similar across species (deeper tails) and almost exclusively elicited in the presence of the fed dragonfly, life-history responses were very variable and commonly elicited in the presence of the invasive crayfish. Phenotypes induced in the presence of dragonfly were more integrated than in crayfish presence. The lack of response to the presence of the fed crayfish in five of the study species suggests higher risk of local extinction and ultimately reduced diversity of the invaded amphibian communities. Understanding how native prey species vary in their responses to invasive predators is important in predicting the impacts caused by newly established predator-prey interactions following biological invasions.

  • 36.
    Onuţ-Brännström, Ioana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Tibell, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    A worldwide phylogeography of the whiteworm lichens Thamnolia reveals three lineages with distinct habitats and evolutionary histories2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 3602-3615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thamnolia is a lichenized fungus with an extremely wide distribution, being encountered in arctic and alpine environments in most continents. In this study, we used molecular markers to investigate the population structure of the fungal symbiont and the associated photosynthetic partner of Thamnolia. By analyzing molecular, morphological, and chemical variation among 253 specimens covering the species distribution range, we revealed the existence of three mycobiont lineages. One lineage (Lineage A) is confined to the tundra region of Siberia and the Aleutian Islands, a second (Lineage B) is found in the high alpine region of the Alps and the Carpathians Mountains, and a third (Lineage C) has a worldwide distribution and covers both the aforementioned ecosystems. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the split of the three lineages is older than the last glacial maximum, but the distribution ranges and the population genetic analyses suggest an influence of last glacial period on the present-day population structure of each lineage. We found a very low diversity of Lineage B, but a higher and similar one in Lineages A and C. Demographic analyses suggested that Lineage C has its origin in the Northern Hemisphere, possibly Scandinavia, and that it has passed through a bottleneck followed by a recent population expansion. While all three lineages reproduce clonally, recombination tests suggest rare or past recombination in both Lineages A and C. Moreover, our data showed that Lineage C has a comparatively low photobiont specificity, being found associated with four widespread Trebouxia lineages (three of them also shared with other lichens), while Lineages A and B exclusively harbor T. simplex s. lat. Finally, we did not find support for the recognition of taxa in Thamnolia based on either morphological or chemical characters.

  • 37.
    Richter-Boix, Alex
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Tejedo, Miguel
    Rezende, Enrico L.
    Evolution and plasticity of anuran larval development in response to desiccation: A comparative analysis2011In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 15-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anurans breed in a variety of aquatic habitats with contrasting levels of desiccation risk, which may result in selection for faster development during larval stages. Previous studies suggest that species in ephemeral ponds reduce their developmental times to minimize desiccation risks, although it is not clear how variation in desiccation risk affects developmental strategies in different species. Employing a comparative phylogenetic approach including data from published and unpublished studies encompassing 62 observations across 30 species, we tested if species breeding in ephemeral ponds (High risk) develop faster than those from permanent ponds (Low risk) and/or show increased developmental plasticity in response to drying conditions. Our analyses support shorter developmental times in High risk, primarily by decreasing body mass at metamorphosis. Plasticity in developmental times was small and did not differ between groups. However, accelerated development in High risk species generally resulted in reduced sizes at metamorphosis, while some Low risk species were able compensate this effect by increasing mean growth rates. Taken together, our results suggest that plastic responses in species breeding in ephemeral ponds are constrained by a general trade-off between development and growth rates.

  • 38.
    Rogell, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    Palm, Stefan
    Dahl, Jonas
    Petersson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Adaptive divergence in body size overrides the effects of plasticity across natural habitats in the brown trout2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 7, p. 1931-1941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of life-history traits is characterized by trade-offs between different selection pressures, as well as plasticity across environmental conditions. Yet, studies on local adaptation are often performed under artificial conditions, leaving two issues unexplored: (i) how consistent are laboratory inferred local adaptations under natural conditions and (ii) how much phenotypic variation is attributed to phenotypic plasticity and to adaptive evolution, respectively, across environmental conditions? We reared fish from six locally adapted (domesticated and wild) populations of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in one semi-natural and three natural streams and recorded a key life-history trait (body size at the end of first growth season). We found that population-specific reaction norms were close to parallel across different streams and Q(ST) was similar - and larger than F-ST - within all streams, indicating a consistency of local adaptation in body size across natural environments. The amount of variation explained by population origin exceeded the variation across stream environments, indicating that genetic effects derived from adaptive processes have a stronger effect on phenotypic variation than plasticity induced by environmental conditions. These results suggest that plasticity does not swamp the phenotypic variation, and that selection may thus be efficient in generating genetic change.

  • 39.
    Sedlacek, Janosch
    et al.
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Biol, Ecol, Univ Str 10, D-78457 Constance, Germany.
    Cortés, Andrés
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Swedish Agr Univ, Dept Plant Biol, Undervisningsplan 7E, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wheeler, Julia
    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res SLF, Fluelastr 11, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Inst Bot, Schonbeinstr 6, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland;Univ Massachusetts, Dept Environm Conservat, Amherst, MA 01003 USA.
    Bossdorf, Oliver
    Univ Tubingen, Plant Evolutionary Ecol, Inst Evolut & Ecol, Morgenstelle 5, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.
    Hoch, Guenter
    Univ Basel, Inst Bot, Schonbeinstr 6, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.
    Klapste, Jaroslav
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Forest & Conservat Sci, Fac Forestry, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada;Czech Univ Life Sci Prague, Dept Genet & Physiol Forest Trees, Fac Forestry & Wood Sci, Kamycka 129, Prague 16521 6, Czech Republic;Univ Massachusetts, Dept Environm Conservat, Amherst, MA 01003 USA.
    Lexer, Christian
    Univ Vienna, Dept Bot & Biodivers Res, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Rixen, Christian
    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res SLF, Fluelastr 11, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland.
    Wipf, Sonja
    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res SLF, Fluelastr 11, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland.
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    van Kleunen, Mark
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Biol, Ecol, Univ Str 10, D-78457 Constance, Germany.
    Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 3940-3952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers. Salix herbacea occurs in early-and late-snowmelt microhabitats (ridges and snowbeds), and we assessed how performance consequences of phenological traits and leaf size differ between these microhabitats in order to infer potential for evolutionary responses. Salix herbacea showed low, but significant, heritabilities of leaf size, clonal and sexual reproduction, and moderate heritabilities of phenological traits. In both microhabitats, we found that larger leaves, longer intervals between snowmelt and leaf expansion, and longer GDD (growing-degree days) until leaf expansion resulted in a stronger increase in the number of stems (clonal reproduction). In snowbeds, clonal reproduction increased with a shorter GDD until flowering, while the opposite was found on ridges. Furthermore, the proportion of flowering stems increased with GDD until flowering in both microhabitats. Our results suggest that the presence of significant heritable variation in morphology and phenology might help S. herbacea to adapt to changing environmental conditions. However, it remains to be seen if the rate of such an evolutionary response can keep pace with the rapid rate of climate change.

  • 40.
    Segami Marzal, Julia Carolina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rudh, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ecol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Rosher, Charlotte
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Linkoping, Sweden.;Univ Manchester, Fac Life Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cryptic female Strawberry poison frogs experience elevated predation risk when associating with an aposematic partner2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 744-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population divergence in sexual signals may lead to speciation through prezygotic isolation. Sexual signals can change solely due to variation in the level of natural selection acting against conspicuousness. However, directional mate choice (i.e., favoring conspicuousness) across different environments may lead to gene flow between populations, thereby delaying or even preventing the evolution of reproductive barriers and speciation. In this study, we test whether natural selection through predation upon mate-choosing females can favor corresponding changes in mate preferences. Our study system, Oophaga pumilio, is an extremely color polymorphic neotropical frog with two distinctive antipredator strategies: aposematism and crypsis. The conspicuous coloration and calling behavior of aposematic males may attract both cryptic and aposematic females, but predation may select against cryptic females choosing aposematic males. We used an experimental approach where domestic fowl were encouraged to find digitized images of cryptic frogs at different distances from aposematic partners. We found that the estimated survival time of a cryptic frog was reduced when associating with an aposematic partner. Hence, predation may act as a direct selective force on female choice, favoring evolution of color assortative mating that, in turn, may strengthen the divergence in coloration that natural selection has generated.

  • 41.
    Shipilina, Daria
    et al.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Dept Vertebrate Zool, Moscow, Russia..
    Serbyn, Maksym
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ivanitskii, Vladimir
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Dept Vertebrate Zool, Moscow, Russia..
    Marova, Irina
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Dept Vertebrate Zool, Moscow, Russia..
    Backström, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Patterns of genetic, phenotypic, and acoustic variation across a chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita abietinus/tristis) hybrid zone2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 2169-2180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterizing patterns of evolution of genetic and phenotypic divergence between incipient species is essential to understand how evolution of reproductive isolation proceeds. Hybrid zones are excellent for studying such processes, as they provide opportunities to assess trait variation in individuals with mixed genetic background and to quantify gene flow across different genomic regions. Here, we combine plumage, song, mtDNA and whole-genome sequence data and analyze variation across a sympatric zone between the European and the Siberian chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita abietinus/tristis) to study how gene exchange between the lineages affects trait variation. Our results show that chiffchaff within the sympatric region show more extensive trait variation than allopatric birds, with a large proportion of individuals exhibiting intermediate phenotypic characters. The genomic differentiation between the subspecies is lower in sympatry than in allopatry and sympatric birds have a mix of genetic ancestry indicating extensive ongoing and past gene flow. Patterns of phenotypic and genetic variation also vary between regions within the hybrid zone, potentially reflecting differences in population densities, age of secondary contact, or differences in mate recognition or mate preference. The genomic data support the presence of two distinct genetic clades corresponding to allopatric abietinus and tristis and that genetic admixture is the force underlying trait variation in the sympatric region-the previously described subspecies ("fulvescens") from the region is therefore not likely a distinct taxon. In addition, we conclude that subspecies identification based on appearance is uncertain as an individual with an apparently distinct phenotype can have a considerable proportion of the genome composed of mixed alleles, or even a major part of the genome introgressed from the other subspecies. Our results provide insights into the dynamics of admixture across subspecies boundaries and have implications for understanding speciation processes and for the identification of specific chiffchaff individuals based on phenotypic characters.

  • 42.
    Stephenson, Jessica F.
    et al.
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Biosci, Cardiff CF10 3AX, S Glam, Wales.;ETH, Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Ctr Adaptat Changing Environm ACE, Zurich, Switzerland.;EAWAG, Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Dept Aquat Ecol, Dubendorf, Switzerland..
    Kinsella, Michael Cormac
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Cardiff Univ, Sch Biosci, Cardiff CF10 3AX, S Glam, Wales..
    Cable, Joanne
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Biosci, Cardiff CF10 3AX, S Glam, Wales..
    van Oosterhout, Cock
    Univ E Anglia, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich Res Pk, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England..
    A further cost for the sicker sex?: Evidence for male-biased parasite-induced vulnerability to predation2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 2506-2515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males are typically the sicker sex. Data from multiple taxa indicate that they are more likely to be infected with parasites, and are less "tolerant," or less able to mitigate the fitness costs of a given infection, than females. One cost of infection for many animals is an increased probability of being captured by a predator. A clear, hitherto untested, prediction is therefore that this parasite-induced vulnerability to predation is more pronounced among males than females. We tested this prediction in the sexually size dimorphic guppy, Poecilia reticulata, in which females are typically larger than males. We either sham or experimentally infected guppies with Gyrodactylus turnbulli, elicited their escape response using an established protocol and measured the distance they covered during 60 ms. To discriminate between the effects of body size and those of other inherent sex differences, we size-matched fish across treatment groups. Infection with G. turnbulli reduced the distance covered during the escape response of small adults by 20.1%, whereas that of large fish was unaffected. This result implies that parasite-induced vulnerability to predation is male-biased in the wild: although there was no difference in escape response between our experimentally size-matched groups of males and females, males are significantly smaller across natural guppy populations. These results are consistent with Bateman's principle for immunity: Natural selection for larger body sizes and longevity in females seems to have resulted in the evolution of increased infection tolerance. We discuss the potential implications of sex-and size-biased parasite-induced vulnerability to predation for the evolutionary ecology of this host-parasite interaction in natural communities.

  • 43.
    Strand, Tanja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Segelbacher, Gernot
    Dept Wildlife Ecology and Management, University Freiburg.
    Quintela, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Dept of Animal Biology, Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of A Coruña.
    Xiao, Lyngyun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Can balancing selection on MHC loci counteract genetic drift in small fragmented populations of black grouse?2012In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 341-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of natural populations to adapt to new environmental conditions is crucial for their survival and partly determined by the standing genetic variation in each population. Populations with higher genetic diversity are more likely to contain individuals that are better adapted to new circumstances than populations with lower genetic diversity. Here we use both neutral and MHC markers to test whether small and highly fragmented populations hold lower genetic diversity than large ones. We use black grouse as it is distributed across Europe and found in populations with varying degrees of isolation and size. We sampled eleven different populations; five continuous, three isolated and three small and isolated. We tested patterns of genetic variation in these populations using three different types of genetic markers: nine microsatellites and 21 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) which both were found to be neutral, and two functional MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) genes that are presumably under selection. The small isolated populations displayed significantly lower neutral genetic diversity compared to continuous populations. A similar trend, but not as pronounced, was found for genotypes at MHC class II loci. Populations were less divergent at MHC genes compared to neutral markers. Measures of genetic diversity and population genetic structure were positively correlated among microsatellites and SNPs, but none of them were correlated to MHC when comparing all populations. Our results suggest that balancing selection at MHC loci does not counteract the power of genetic drift when populations get small and fragmented. 

  • 44.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Zha, Yinghua
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The interaction between predation risk and food ration on behavior and morphology of Eurasian perch2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 20, p. 8567-8577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of both predation and food level has been shown to affect phenotypic development of organisms. However, these two factors also influence animal behavior that in turn may influence phenotypic development. Hence, it might be difficult to disentangle the behavioral effect from the predator or resource-level effects. This is because the presence of predators and high resource levels usually results in a lower activity, which in turn affects energy expenditure that is used for development and growth. It is therefore necessary to study how behavior interacts with changes in body shape with regard to resource density and predators. Here, we use the classic predator-induced morphological defense in fish to study the interaction between predator cues, resource availability, and behavioral activity with the aim to determine their relative contribution to changes in body shape. We show that all three variables, the presence of a predator, food level, and activity, both additively and interactively, affected the body shape of perch. In general, the presence of predators, lower swimming activity, and higher food levels induced a deep body shape, with predation and behavior having similar effect and food treatment the smallest effect. The shape changes seemed to be mediated by changes in growth rate as body condition showed a similar effect as shape with regard to food-level and predator treatments. Our results suggests that shape changes in animals to one environmental factor, for example, predation risk, can be context dependent, and depend on food levels or behavioral responses. Theoretical and empirical studies should further explore how this context dependence affects fitness components such as resource gain and mortality and their implications for population dynamics.

  • 45.
    Trunschke, Judith
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    The independent and combined effects of floral traits distinguishing two pollination ecotypes of a moth-pollinated orchid2019In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 1191-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying traits and agents of selection involved in local adaptation is important for understanding population divergence. In southern Sweden, the moth-pollinated orchid Platanthera bifolia occurs as a woodland and a grassland ecotype that differ in dominating pollinators. The woodland ecotype is taller (expected to influence pollinator attraction) and produces flowers with longer spurs (expected to influence efficiency of pollen transfer) compared to the grassland ecotype. We examined whether plant height and spur length affect pollination and reproductive success in a woodland population, and whether effects are non-additive, as expected for traits influencing two multiplicative components of pollen transfer. We reduced plant height and spur length to match trait values observed in the grassland ecotype and determined the effects on pollen removal, pollen receipt, and fruit production. In addition, to examine the effects of naturally occurring variation, we quantified pollinator-mediated selection through pollen removal and seed production in the same population. Reductions of plant height and spur length decreased pollen removal, number of flowers receiving pollen, mean pollen receipt per pollinated flower, and fruit production per plant, but no significant interaction effect was detected. The selection analysis demonstrated pollinator-mediated selection for taller plants via female fitness. However, there was no current selection mediated by pollinators on spur length, and pollen removal was not related to plant height or spur length. The results show that, although both traits are important for pollination success and female fitness in the woodland habitat, only plant height was sufficiently variable in the study population for current pollinator-mediated selection to be detected. More generally, the results illustrate how a combination of experimental approaches can be used to identify both traits and agents of selection.

  • 46.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Shoji, Jun
    Hiroshima Univ, Ctr Field Sci Seto Inland Sea, 5-8-1 Minatomachi, Takehara City, Hiroshima 7250024, Japan..
    Sogabe, Atsushi
    Hirosaki Univ, Fac Agr & Life Sci, Dept Biol, 1-1 Bunkyo Cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 0368560, Japan..
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ethol, Svante Arrhenius vag 18B, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Within species support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: a negative association between brain size and visceral fat storage in females of the Pacific seaweed pipefish2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 647-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the high cost of brain development and maintenance is predicted to constrain adaptive brain size evolution (the expensive tissue hypothesis, ETH). Here, we test the ETH in a teleost fish with predominant female mating competition (reversed sex roles) and male pregnancy, the pacific seaweed pipefish Syngnathus schlegeli. The relative size of the brain and other energetically expensive organs (kidney, liver, heart, gut, visceral fat, and ovary/testis) was compared among three groups: pregnant males, nonpregnant males and egg producing females. Brood size in pregnant males was unrelated to brain size or the size of any other organ, whereas positive relationships were found between ovary size, kidney size, and liver size in females. Moreover, we found that the size of energetically expensive organs (brain, heart, gut, kidney, and liver) as well as the amount of visceral fat did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant males. However, we found marked differences in relative size of the expensive organs between sexes. Females had larger liver and kidney than males, whereas males stored more visceral fat than females. Furthermore, in females we found a negative correlation between brain size and the amount of visceral fat, whereas in males, a positive trend between brain size and both liver and heart size was found. These results suggest that, while the majority of variation in the size of various expensive organs in this species likely reflects that individuals in good condition can afford to allocate resources to several organs, the cost of the expensive brain was visible in the visceral fat content of females, possibly due to the high costs associated with female egg production.

  • 47.
    Vallin, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Nonaka, Yuki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Feng, Jue
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Relative performance of hybrid nestlings in Ficedula flycatchers: a translocation experiment2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 356-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological speciation predicts that hybrids should experience relatively low fitness in the local environments of their parental species. In this study, we performed a translocation experiment of nestling hybrids between collared and pied flycatchers into the nests of conspecific pairs of their parental species. Our aim was to compare the performance of hybrids with purebred nestlings. Nestling collared flycatchers are known to beg and grow faster than nestling pied flycatchers under favorable conditions, but to experience higher mortality than nestling pied flycatchers under food limitation. The experiment was performed relatively late in the breeding season when food is limited. If hybrid nestlings have an intermediate growth potential and begging intensity, we expected them to beg and grow faster, but also to experience lower survival than pied flycatchers. In comparison with nestling collared flycatchers, we expected them to beg and grow slower, but to survive better. We found that nestling collared flycatchers indeed begged significantly faster and experienced higher mortality than nestling hybrids. Moreover, nestling hybrids had higher weight and tended to beg faster than nestling pied flycatchers, but we did not detect a difference in survival between the latter two groups of nestlings. We conclude that hybrid Ficedula nestlings appear to have a better intrinsic adaptation to food limitation late in the breeding season compared with nestling collared flycatchers. We discuss possible implications for gene flow between the two species.

  • 48.
    Vaugoyeau, Marie
    et al.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Ecol Systemat Evolut, Univ Paris Sud, CNRS,Agro Paris Tech, Orsay, France..
    Adriaensen, Frank
    Univ Antwerp, Dept Biol, Evolutionary Ecol Grp, Antwerp, Belgium..
    Artemyev, Alexandr
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Biol, Karelian Res Ctr, Petrozavodsk, Russia..
    Banbura, Jerzy
    Univ Lodz, Dept Expt Zool & Evolutionary Biol, Lodz, Poland..
    Barba, Emilio
    Univ Valencia, Terr Vertebrates Res Unit Cavanilles, Inst Biodivers & Evolutionary Biol, Paterna, Spain..
    Biard, Clotilde
    Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Inst Ecol & Sci Environm Paris, UPEC,CNRS,INRA,IRD, Paris, France..
    Blondel, Jacques
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, Campus CNRS, Montpellier, France..
    Bouslama, Zihad
    Univ Badji Mokhtar, Res Lab Ecol Terr & Aquat Syst, Annaba, Algeria..
    Bouvier, Jean-Charles
    INRA, Plantes & Syst Culture Hort, Avignon, France..
    Camprodon, Jordi
    Ctr Tecnol Forestal Catalunya, Area Biodiversitat, Grp Biol Conservacio, Solsona, Spain..
    Cecere, Francesco
    Str Bine, Acquanegra Sul Chiese, MM, Italy..
    Charmantier, Anne
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, Campus CNRS, Montpellier, France..
    Charter, Motti
    Univ Haifa, Haifa, Israel.;Univ Lausanne, Soc Protect Nat, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland..
    Cusimano, Camillo
    Univ Palermo, Dept Agr & Forest Sci, Palermo, Italy..
    Czeszczewik, Dorota
    Siedlce Univ Nat Sci & Humanities, Dept Zool, Fac Nat Sci, Siedlce, Poland..
    Demeyrier, Virginie
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, Campus CNRS, Montpellier, France..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Lyon 1, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Villeurbanne, France..
    Doutrelant, Claire
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, Campus CNRS, Montpellier, France..
    Dubiec, Anna
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Warsaw, Poland..
    Eens, Marcel
    Univ Antwerp, Dept Biol, Behav Ecol & Ecophysiol Grp, Antwerp, Belgium..
    Eeva, Tapio
    Univ Turku, Sect Ecol, Dept Biol, Turku, Finland..
    Faivre, Bruno
    Univ Bourgogne, BioGeoSci, Dijon, France..
    Ferns, Peter N.
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Biosci, Cardiff, S Glam, Wales..
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    Univ Oulu, Dept Ecol, Oulu, Finland..
    Garcia-del-Rey, Eduardo
    Univ La Laguna, Dept Ecol, Fac Biol, San Cristobal Laguna, Tenerife Canary, Spain..
    Goldshtein, Aya
    Tel Aviv Univ, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Goodenough, Anne E.
    Univ Gloucestershire, Dept Nat & Social Sci, Cheltenham, Glos, England..
    Gosler, Andrew G.
    Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Dept Zool, Oxford, England.;Inst Human Sci, Oxford, England..
    Gregoire, Arnaud
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, Campus CNRS, Montpellier, France..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Anim Ecol, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Harnist, Iga
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Warsaw, Poland..
    Hartley, Ian R.
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster, England..
    Heeb, Philipp
    UPS Toulouse III, Lab Evolut & Diversite Biol, Toulouse, France..
    Hinsley, Shelley A.
    CEH Wallingford, Maclean Bldg, Wallingford, Oxon, England..
    Isenmann, Paul
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, Campus CNRS, Montpellier, France..
    Jacob, Staffan
    UPS Toulouse III, Lab Evolut & Diversite Biol, Toulouse, France..
    Juskaitis, Rimvydas
    Nat Res Ctr, Inst Ecol, Akad 2, Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Korpimaki, Erkki
    Univ Turku, Sect Ecol, Dept Biol, Turku, Finland..
    Krams, Indrikis
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia..
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Univ Turku, Sect Ecol, Dept Biol, Turku, Finland..
    Lambrechts, Marcel M.
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, Campus CNRS, Montpellier, France..
    Leclercq, Bernard
    Crx St Pierre, Fleurey Sur Ouche, France..
    Lehikoinen, Esa
    Univ Turku, Sect Ecol, Dept Biol, Turku, Finland..
    Loukola, Olli
    Univ Oulu, Dept Ecol, Oulu, Finland..
    Lundberg, Arne
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Anim Ecol, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mainwaring, Mark C.
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster, England..
    Mand, Raivo
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia..
    Massa, Bruno
    Univ Palermo, Dept Agr & Forest Sci, Palermo, Italy..
    Mazgajski, Tomasz D.
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Warsaw, Poland..
    Merino, Santiago
    Agencia Estatal Consejo Super Invest Cient, Dept Ecol Evolut, Museo Nacl Ciencias Nat, Madrid, Spain..
    Mitrus, Cezary
    Rzeszow Univ, Dept Zool, Rzeszow, Poland..
    Monkkonen, Mikko
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, Campus CNRS, Montpellier, France.;Univ Jyvaskyla, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Jyvaskyla, Finland..
    Morin, Xavier
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, Campus CNRS, Montpellier, France..
    Nager, Ruedi G.
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Biodivers Anim Hlth & Comparat Med, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Nilsson, Jan-Ake
    Lund Univ, Anim Ecol, Lund, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Sven G.
    Lund Univ, Anim Ecol, Lund, Sweden..
    Norte, Ana C.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Life Sci, Inst Marine Res, Coimbra, Portugal.;Univ Coimbra, Dept Life Sci, MARE Marine & Environm Sci Ctr, Coimbra, Portugal..
    Orell, Markku
    Univ Oulu, Dept Ecol, Oulu, Finland..
    Perret, Philippe
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, Campus CNRS, Montpellier, France..
    Perrins, Christopher M.
    Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Dept Zool, Oxford, England.;Inst Human Sci, Oxford, England..
    Pimentel, Carla S.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Agron, Ctr Estudos Florestais, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Pinxten, Rianne
    Univ Antwerp, Dept Biol, Behav Ecol & Ecophysiol Grp, Antwerp, Belgium.;Univ Antwerp, Fac Social Sci, Didact Res Unit, Antwerp, Belgium..
    Richner, Heinz
    Univ Bern, IEE, Bern, Switzerland..
    Robles, Hugo
    Univ Antwerp, Dept Biol, Evolutionary Ecol Grp, Antwerp, Belgium.;Univ A Coruna, Evolutionary Biol Grp GIBE, Falculty Sci, La Coruna, Spain..
    Rytkonen, Seppo
    Univ Oulu, Dept Ecol, Oulu, Finland..
    Carlos Senar, Juan
    Nat Museu Ciencies Nat Barcelona, Unidad Asociada CSIC Ecol Evolut & Conducta, Barcelona, Spain..
    Seppanen, Janne T.
    Univ Oulu, Dept Ecol, Oulu, Finland..
    da Silva, Luis Pascoal
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Life Sci, Inst Marine Res, Coimbra, Portugal..
    Slagsvold, Tore
    Univ Oslo, Dept Biosci, Oslo, Norway..
    Solonen, Tapio
    Luontotutkimus Solonen Oy, Helsinki, Finland..
    Sorace, Alberto
    SROPU, Rome, Italy..
    Stenning, Martyn J.
    Univ Sussex, Sch Life Sci, Brighton BN1 9RH, E Sussex, England..
    Tryjanowski, Piotr
    Poznan Univ Life Sci, Inst Zool, Poznan, Poland..
    von Numers, Mikael
    Abo Akad Univ, Environm & Marine Biol, Turku, Finland..
    Walankiewicz, Wieslaw
    Siedlce Univ Nat Sci & Humanities, Dept Zool, Fac Nat Sci, Siedlce, Poland..
    Moller, Anders Pape
    Univ Paris Saclay, Ecol Systemat Evolut, Univ Paris Sud, CNRS,Agro Paris Tech, Orsay, France..
    Interspecific variation in the relationship between clutch size, laying date and intensity of urbanization in four species of hole-nesting birds2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 16, p. 5907-5920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in size of human populations in urban and agricultural areas has resulted in considerable habitat conversion globally. Such anthropogenic areas have specific environmental characteristics, which influence the physiology, life history, and population dynamics of plants and animals. For example, the date of bud burst is advanced in urban compared to nearby natural areas. In some birds, breeding success is determined by synchrony between timing of breeding and peak food abundance. Pertinently, caterpillars are an important food source for the nestlings of many bird species, and their abundance is influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and date of bud burst. Higher temperatures and advanced date of bud burst in urban areas could advance peak caterpillar abundance and thus affect breeding phenology of birds. In order to test whether laying date advance and clutch sizes decrease with the intensity of urbanization, we analyzed the timing of breeding and clutch size in relation to intensity of urbanization as a measure of human impact in 199 nest box plots across Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East (i.e., the Western Palearctic) for four species of hole-nesters: blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), great tits (Parus major), collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Meanwhile, we estimated the intensity of urbanization as the density of buildings surrounding study plots measured on orthophotographs. For the four study species, the intensity of urbanization was not correlated with laying date. Clutch size in blue and great tits does not seem affected by the intensity of urbanization, while in collared and pied flycatchers it decreased with increasing intensity of urbanization. This is the first large-scale study showing a species-specific major correlation between intensity of urbanization and the ecology of breeding. The underlying mechanisms for the relationships between life history and urbanization remain to be determined. We propose that effects of food abundance or quality, temperature, noise, pollution, or disturbance by humans may on their own or in combination affect laying date and/or clutch size.

  • 49.
    Vowles, Tage
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Frida
    Univ Copenhagen, Terr Ecol, Dept Biol, Copenhagen, Denmark; Univ Copenhagen, Ctr Permafrost, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro Univ, Sch Sci & Technol, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Tartu, Dept Bot, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Furneaux, Brendan R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Ryberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Björk, Robert G.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden; Gothenburg Global Biodivers Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Complex effects of mammalian grazing on extramatrical mycelial biomass in the Scandes forest-tundra ecotone2018In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 1019-1030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mycorrhizal associations are widespread in high‐latitude ecosystems and are potentially of great importance for global carbon dynamics. Although large herbivores play a key part in shaping subarctic plant communities, their impact on mycorrhizal dynamics is largely unknown. We measured extramatrical mycelial (EMM) biomass during one growing season in 16‐year‐old herbivore exclosures and unenclosed control plots (ambient), at three mountain birch forests and two shrub heath sites, in the Scandes forest‐tundra ecotone. We also used high‐throughput amplicon sequencing for taxonomic identification to investigate differences in fungal species composition. At the birch forest sites, EMM biomass was significantly higher in exclosures (1.36 ± 0.43 g C/m2) than in ambient conditions (0.66 ± 0.17 g C/m2) and was positively influenced by soil thawing degree‐days. At the shrub heath sites, there was no significant effect on EMM biomass (exclosures: 0.72 ± 0.09 g C/m2; ambient plots: 1.43 ± 0.94). However, EMM biomass was negatively related to Betula nana abundance, which was greater in exclosures, suggesting that grazing affected EMM biomass positively. We found no significant treatment effects on fungal diversity but the most abundant ectomycorrhizal lineage/cortinarius, showed a near‐significant positive effect of herbivore exclusion (p = .08), indicating that herbivory also affects fungal community composition. These results suggest that herbivory can influence fungal biomass in highly context‐dependent ways in subarctic ecosystems. Considering the importance of root‐associated fungi for ecosystem carbon balance, these findings could have far‐reaching implications.

  • 50.
    Warsi, Omar M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Dykhuizen, Daniel E.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Evolutionary implications of Liebig's law of the minimum: Selection under low concentrations of two nonsubstitutable nutrients2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 14, p. 5296-5309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between different axes of an organism's niche determine the evolutionary trajectory of a population. An extreme case of these interactions is predicted from ecological theory in Liebig's law of the minimum. This law states that in environments where multiple nutrients are in relatively low concentrations, only one nutrient will affect the growth of the organism. This implies that the evolutionary response of the population would be dictated by the most growth-limiting nutrient. Alternatively, it is possible that an initial adaptation to the most limiting nutrient results in other nutrients present in low concentration affecting the evolutionary dynamics of the population. To test these hypotheses, we conducted twelve evolution experiments in chemostats using Escherichia coli populations: four under nitrogen limitation, four under magnesium limitation, and four in which both nitrogen and magnesium are in low concentrations. In the last environment, only magnesium seems to limit growth (Low Nitrogen Magnesium Limited environment, LNML). We observe a decrease in nitrogen concentration in the LNML environment over the course of our evolution experiment indicating that nitrogen might become limiting in these environments. Genetic reconstruction results show that clones adapted to magnesium limitation have genes involved in nitrogen starvation, that is, glnG (nitrogen starvation transcriptional regulator) and amtB (transport protein) to be upregulated only in the LNML environment as compared to magnesium-limiting environments. Together, our results highlights that in low-nutrient environments, adaptation to the growth-limiting nutrient results in other nutrients at low concentrations to play a role in the evolutionary dynamics of the population.

12 1 - 50 of 51
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf