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  • 1.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    The environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (l-BMAA) is deposited into birds' eggs2018In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 147, p. 720-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    C-carboxyl-labeled BMAA were compared. The results revealed a pronounced incorporation of radioactivity in the eggs, predominantly in the yolk but also in the albumen. Imaging analysis showed that the concentrations of radioactivity in the liver decreased about seven times between the 24h and the 72h time points, while the concentrations in egg yolk remained largely unchanged. At 72h the egg yolk contained about five times the concentration of radioactivity in the liver. Both BMAA preparations gave rise to similar distribution pattern in the bird tissues and in the eggs, indicating metabolic stability of the labeled groups. The demonstrated deposition into eggs warrants studies of BMAAs effects on bird development. Moreover, birds' eggs may be a source of human BMAA exposure, provided that the laying birds are exposed to BMAA via their diet.

  • 2. Bergek, Sara
    et al.
    Ma, Qi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Vetemaa, Markus
    Franzen, Fredrik
    Appelberg, Magnus
    From individuals to populations: Impacts of environmental pollution on natural eelpout populations2012In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 79, p. 1-12Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigating how individuals are affected by environmental pollution is relatively straightforward, for example through conducting field studies or laboratory toxicity tests. Exploring such effects at a population level is considerably more difficult. Nonetheless, the exploration of population-level effects is important as the outcomes may differ from those seen at the individual level. Eelpout (Zoarces viviparus L) have been used for several years as a bioindicator for hazard substances in both the field and laboratory tests, and individual effects on reproduction have been reported. However, the influence of these effects at the population level remained unexplored. In this study, four Leslie matrix models were parameterized using data from non-polluted eelpout populations (Skagerrak, Baltic Proper, Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland). The four sites represent an environmental gradient in salinity. Furthermore, life-history data revealed differences between the sites with growth rate, fecundity, age at maturity and longevity being the most significant. The effect of pollution on natural eelpout populations was then simulated by combining the outputs from the Leslie matrices with data from laboratory and field studies exploring reproductive impairment in contaminated environments. Our results show that despite differences in life-history characteristics between sites, survival of early life stages (i.e. larvae and zero-year-old fish) was the most important factor affecting population growth and persistence for all sites. The range of change in survival of larvae necessary to change population dynamics (i.e. growth) and persistence is well within the range documented in recipient and experimental studies of chemicals and industrial waste waters. Overall, larval malformation resulting from environmental pollution can have large effects on natural populations, leading to population losses and possibly even extinction. This study hereby contributes valuable knowledge by extending individual-level effects of environmental contaminants to the population level. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Finotello, Simone
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Trieste, Dept Life Sci, Trieste, Italy..
    Feckler, Alexander
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bundschuh, Mirco
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Repeated pulse exposures to lambda-cyhalothrin affect the behavior, physiology, and survival of the damselfly larvae Ischnura graellsii (Insecta; Odonata)2017In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 144, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Damselflies form an essential part of the aquatic and terrestrial food web. Pesticides may, however, negatively affect their behavior, physiology, and survival. To assess this, a 42-day-lasting bioassay was conducted, during which damselfly larvae (Ischnura graellsii; n = 20) were repeatedly exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin (3 days at; 0, 10, 50, 250, 1250, and 6250 ng LCH L-1), followed by recovery phases (4 days) in pesticide-free medium for six weeks. This exposure design was used to simulate frequent runoff events in the field. Variables related to the behavior (strikes against prey and capture success), growth, physiology (lipid content and fatty acid composition), as well as mortality were assessed throughout the experiment. The two highest LCH concentrations induced 100% mortality within the first 48 h, whereas 85% of the test organisms survived 28 days under control conditions. The number of strikes against prey was not affected by LCH. In contrast, prey capture success decreased significantly (up to similar to 50% at 250 ng LCH L-1, for instance, after the third pulse exposure) following LCH-exposures compared to the control. This difference was not observed after recovery phases, however, which did not counteract the enhanced energy demand for detoxification and defense mechanisms indicated by a lower growth rate (up to similar to 20%) and lipid content (up to similar to 30%) of damselflies at 50 and 250 ng LCH L-1. In addition, two essential fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid) and two precursors (linolenic acid and alinolenic acid) decreased in their concentrations upon exposure towards 250 ng LCH L-1. Thus the results of this study indicate that long-term exposure towards LCH pulses can affect damselfly behavior, physiology and survival. Given the essential role of damselflies in food web dynamics, these effects may potentially translate into local population impairments with subsequent bottom-up directed effects within and across ecosystem boundaries.

  • 4.
    Kunce, Warren
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Combination effects of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids on development and survival of Chironomus riparius2015In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 122, p. 426-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard ecotoxicological risk assessments are conducted on individual substances, however monitoring of streams in agricultural areas has shown that pesticides are rarely present alone. In fact, brief but intense pulse events such as storm water runoff and spray drift during application subject freshwater environments to complex mixtures of pesticides at high concentrations. This study investigates the potential risks to non-target aquatic organisms exposed to a brief but intense mixture of the neonicotinoid pesticides imidacloprid and thiacloprid and the pyrethroid pesticides deltamethrin and esfenvalerate, compared to single substance exposure. All four of these pesticides have been detected in surface waters at concentrations higher than benchmark values and both classes of pesticides are known to exert adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms under single substance exposure scenarios. First instar midge larvae of the non-target aquatic organism, Chironomus riparius, were exposed to combinations of these four pesticides at 50% of their LC50 (96 h) values in a 1 h pulse. They were then reared to adulthood in uncontaminated conditions and assessed for survival, development time and fecundity. Our results show that the risk of disruption to survival and development of non-target aquatic organisms under this scenario is not negligible on account of the significant increases in mortality of C. riparius found in the majority of the pesticide exposures and the delays in development after pyrethroid exposure. While none of the deleterious effects appear to be amplified by combination of the pesticides, there is some evidence for antagonism. No effects on fecundity by any of the pesticide treatments were observed.

  • 5.
    Lind, Monica P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olsén, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Elevated circulating levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy2012In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 86, p. 66-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identified risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are hypertension, diabetes and obesity. However, since these risk factors only explain a part of the variation in left ventricular mass, we investigated if trace and heavy metals might also play a role in LVH. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were determined by echocardiography together with eleven different trace and heavy metals in 993 subjects aged 70 years. Only copper levels were significantly related to LVMI following adjustment for sex, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, diabetes and body mass index (BMI) (p<0.0001). However, both copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were related to RWT following adjustment (p<0.0001). When divided into four geometric groups, both Cu and Ni were elevated in subjects with concentric remodelling and concentric LVH, but not in those with eccentric hypertrophy, when compared to subjects with a normal left ventricle. No relationships were found for zinc, aluminium, manganese, molybdenum, mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt or chromium. Elevated levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with LVH, especially of the concentric type, following adjustment for known risk factors for LVH.

  • 6.
    Lu, Chan
    et al.
    Cent S Univ, XiangYa Sch Publ Hlth, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China;Cent S Univ, XiangYa Hosp, Hunan Engn Res Ctr Early Life Dev & Dis Prevent, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Lanqin
    Cent S Univ, XiangYa Hosp, Dept Gynecol, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Li, Yuguo
    Univ Hong Kong, Dept Mech Engn, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Jing
    Cent S Univ, Sch Architecture & Art, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Deng, Qihong
    Cent S Univ, XiangYa Sch Publ Hlth, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China;Cent S Univ, XiangYa Hosp, Hunan Engn Res Ctr Early Life Dev & Dis Prevent, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China;Cent S Univ, Sch Architecture & Art, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Combined effects of traffic air pollution and home environmental factors on preterm birth in China2019In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 184, article id 109639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although mounting evidence have linked traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) with increased risk of preterm birth (PTB), whether it can interact with indoor environmental factors remains unknown, and its window(s) susceptibility at the stage of gestation is unclear.

    Objective: To explore PTB risk for prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and home environmental factors during pregnancy, so as to identify critical window(s) in the combined effect of traffic air pollution and main home environmental factor(s) on PTB development.

    Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 3,509 preschool children was performed in Changsha, China during 2011-2012. The PTB prevalence was reported by the parents based on a questionnaire. We estimated each mother's exposure to traffic-related air pollutant NO2 in different windows of gestation, including conception month, three trimesters, birth month, and whole gestation. Maternal exposure to home environmental factors was considered by renovation (new furniture/redecoration) in pregnancy, and mold/damp stains and window condensation during perinatal period. Associations of PTB with both ambient NO2 and home environmental factors, and their interactions on PTB were evaluated by logistic regression models using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).

    Results: Traffic air pollutant NO2 exposure in utero was significantly associated with PTB, with adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) of 1.41 (1.00-1.98) for an IQR increase in NO2 exposure during whole pregnancy, particularly in the conception month and 1st trimester. We further found a positive relationship between perinatal exposure to mold/damp stains in the homes and PTB, OR (95% CI) = 1.73 (1.04-2.90). Especially, we detected a significant interaction between outdoor NO2 and indoor mold/damp stains on PTB risk. Male and female foetus were respectively more susceptible to perinatal mold/dampness at home and outdoor NO2 exposure in early gestation.

    Conclusion: Our finding indicates that both outdoor traffic air pollutant and indoor mold/dampness play key roles in PTB development, and their interaction effect in early pregnancy significantly increases PTB risk.

  • 7.
    Olsén, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lampa, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Birkholz, Detlef A
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lind, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Circulating levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates in an elderly population in Sweden, based on the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS)2012In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 242-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plastic manufacture compounds, bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, are ubiquitous and have therefore been detected in virtually all types of analyzed human samples. The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate concentrations of serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites in seniors residing in the city of Uppsala, Sweden (2) to evaluate gender differences in relation to serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites in the subjects. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), encompassing 1016 subjects, all aged 70, serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites were measured by Isotope Dilution-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. BPA and four out of ten phthalate metabolites, namely, Monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), Monomethyl phthalate (MMP), Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), were detectable in almost all subjects. Of the remaining phthalate metabolites, Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), Mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MeHHP), and Mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were seen in some 300-700 of the subjects, whereas Monoisononyl phthalate (MINP) and Mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) were found in only a few and Monocyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP) was not detected in any subject. Neither the circulation levels of BPA nor those of phthalate metabolites differ between the genders in this elderly population of residents in Uppsala, Sweden.

  • 8.
    Olsén, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Associations between circulating levels of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites and coronary risk in the elderly2012In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 80, p. 179-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have pointed out associations between various chemicals with estrogenic activity and cardiovascular disease. Being ubiquitous, the plastic additive substances bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates have been detected in almost all types of analyzed human samples. The aim of this study was to investigate whether circulating levels of BPA and/or four selected phthalate metabolites are associated to coronary risk in an elderly population. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, coronary risk was assessed by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) together with circulating serum levels of BPA and the four phthalate metabolites monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in 1016 subjects aged 70 years. BPA, MEHP, and MMP were associated to LDL-cholesterol and MEHP to HDL-cholesterol, MEP to diastolic blood pressure and MiBP to fasting glucose when the compounds were investigated one by one. After Bonferronni correction, only the relations for MMP to LDL-cholesterol (p<0.0001), MEP to diastolic blood pressure (p<0.0002), and MiBP to fasting glucose (p<0.0001) remained significant. MMP was associated to the FRS (p=0.02), but after Bonferronni correction, this association was not significant. In conclusion, associations were found between MMP and LDL-cholesterol, MEP and diastolic blood pressure, and MiBP and fasting glucose. We did not observe any strong associations between BPA nor any of the four phthalate metabolites and Framingham Risk Score in this elderly population.

  • 9.
    Roos, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Rigét, Frank
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Bone mineral density in Swedish otters (Lutra lutra) in relation to PCB and DDE concentrations2010In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 73, no 5, p. 1063-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to elucidate if DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) or PCB (polybrominated diphenyls), are responsible for the pathological alterations observed in Swedish otter bone tissues. Femurs from 86 male otters collected between 1832 and 2004 were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Some otters had very high and others fairly low concentrations of OCs (ranging between 1.4-970 mg SigmaPCB/kg l.w. and 0.0-24 mg DDE/kg l.w. in muscle tissue). Positive relationships were found between three of the four cortical bone variables analysed (area, content and thickness) and SigmaPCB concentration, while no significant relationships with DDE concentration were found. None of the trabecular variables were significantly related to PCB or DDE concentration. Three of the four trabecular bone variables showed decreasing values in the beginning and increasing values at the end of period 1974-2004. No temporal trends were found for cortical bone variables. OC concentrations decreased between 1974 and 2004.

  • 10. Taggart, Mark A.
    et al.
    Green, Andy J.
    Mateo, Rafael
    Svanberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Hillström, Lars
    Meharg, Andy A.
    Metal levels in the bones and livers of globally threatened marbled teal and white-headed duck from El Hondo, Spain2009In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    El Hondo is a key area for marbled teal and white-headed duck. We present Pb, Cu, Zn, Se, and As data for bone and liver in birds found dead between 1996 and 2001. Several metals were higher in adult white-headed ducks than in marbled teal. They were higher in female than in male white-headed ducks, and did not differ with sex in marbled teal, but did by age. Lead in liver of adults was influenced by Pb shot ingestion, which was detected in 21% of marbled teal and in 71% of white-headed duck. No marbled teal had liver levels indicative of Pb poisoning, while 86% of white-headed ducks did. Selenium, Zn, and Cu were elevated in 13%, 7%, and 39% of birds, respectively. Whilst Pb shot poses the greatest threat to these species, further work should assess exposure via plants, invertebrates, water, and sediments for other metals, and investigate possible sub-lethal effects.

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