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  • 1.
    Abeysinghe, Kasun S.
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiao-Dong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Goodale, Eben
    Guangxi Univ, Coll Forestry, Nanning, Guangxi, Peoples R China..
    Anderson, Christopher W. N.
    Massey Univ, Inst Agr & Environm, Soil & Earth Sci, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Cao, Axiang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China.;Guizhou Normal Univ, Sch Chem & Mat Sci, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Xinbin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Shengjie
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Mammides, Christos
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Meng, Bo
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Quan, Rui-Chang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Key Lab Trop Forest Ecol, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Jing
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Coll Resources & Environm Sci, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Qiu, Guangle
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China..
    Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations over a gradient of contamination in earthworms living in rice paddy soil2017In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 1202-1210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) deposited from emissions or from local contamination, can have serious health effects on humans and wildlife. Traditionally, Hg has been seen as a threat to aquatic wildlife, because of its conversion in suboxic conditions into bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg), but it can also threaten contaminated terrestrial ecosystems. In Asia, rice paddies in particular may be sensitive ecosystems. Earthworms are soil-dwelling organisms that have been used as indicators of Hg bioavailability; however, the MeHg concentrations they accumulate in rice paddy environments are not well known. Earthworm and soil samples were collected from rice paddies at progressive distances from abandoned mercury mines in Guizhou, China, and at control sites without a history of Hg mining. Total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations declined in soil and earthworms as distance increased from the mines, but the percentage of THg that was MeHg, and the bioaccumulation factors in earthworms, increased over this gradient. This escalation in methylation and the incursion of MeHg into earthworms may be influenced by more acidic soil conditions and higher organic content further from the mines. In areas where the source of Hg is deposition, especially in water-logged and acidic rice paddy soil, earthworms may biomagnify MeHg more than was previously reported. It is emphasized that rice paddy environments affected by acidifying deposition may be widely dispersed throughout Asia.

  • 2.
    Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Sporndly-Nees, Ellinor
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ekstedt, Elisabeth
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Holm, Lena
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. U.
    New computerized staging method to analyze mink testicular tissue in environmental research2017In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 156-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Histopathology of testicular tissue is considered to be the most sensitive tool to detect adverse effects on male reproduction. When assessing tissue damage, seminiferous epithelium needs to be classified into different stages to detect certain cell damages; but stage identification is a demanding task. The authors present a method to identify the 12 stages in mink testicular tissue. The staging system uses Gata-4 immunohistochemistry to visualize acrosome development and proved to be both intraobserver-reproducible and interobserver-reproducible with a substantial agreement of 83.6% (kappa=0.81) and 70.5% (kappa=0.67), respectively. To further advance and objectify this method, they present a computerized staging system that identifies these 12 stages. This program has an agreement of 52.8% (kappa 0.47) with the consensus staging by 2 investigators. The authors propose a pooling of the stages into 5 groups based on morphology, stage transition, and toxicologically important endpoints. The computerized program then reached a substantial agreement of 76.7% (kappa=0.69). The computerized staging tool uses local ternary patterns to describe the texture of the tubules and a support vector machine classifier to learn which textures correspond to which stages. The results have the potential to modernize the tedious staging process required in toxicological evaluation of testicular tissue, especially if combined with whole-slide imaging and automated tubular segmentation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:156-164.

  • 3. Holm, Lena
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Alexandra
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Ridderstråle, Yvonne
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Embryonic exposure to o,p'-DDT causes eggshell thinning and altered shell gland carbonic anhydrase expression in the domestic hen2006In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 2787-2793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism for contaminant-induced eggshell thinning in wild birds remains to be clarified. It is generally assumed, however, that it results from exposure of the adult laying female. We have reported that embryonic exposure to the synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) results in eggshell thinning in the domestic hen. The objective of this study was to investigate whether eggshell thinning can be induced following in ovo exposure to a bioaccumulating estrogenic environmental contaminant, o,p '-DDT. Ethynylestradiol was used as a positive control. Domestic hens exposed in ovo to o,p '-DDT (37 or 75 mu g/g egg) or EE2 (60 ng/g egg) laid eggs with thinner shells than the control birds. The hens from these exposure groups also had a significantly reduced frequency of shell gland capillaries with carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, a key enzyme in eggshell formation. The decreased number of capillaries with CA activity suggests that a developmentally induced disruption of CA expression in the shell gland was involved in the eggshell thinning found in this study. Egg laying was not affected in hens exposed embryonically to 37 or 75 mu g o,p '-DDT/g egg, whereas it was inhibited in hens exposed to higher doses. Decreased lengths of the left oviduct and its infundibulum were seen after embryonic treatment with o,p '-DDT or EE2. In addition, o,p '-DDT exposure resulted in right oviduct retention. The results support our hypothesis that eggshell thinning in avian wildlife can result from a functional malformation in the shell gland, induced by embryonic exposure to estrogenic substances.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Piha, Henna
    Kylin, H.
    Merilä, Juha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Toxicity of six pesticides to common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles2006In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 3164-3170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amphibian species inhabiting agricultural areas may be exposed to pesticides during their aquatic larval phase. We tested the toxicity of six commonly used pesticides on Rana temporaria spawn and tadpoles. In acute tests, tadpoles were exposed to relatively high concentrations of azoxystrobin, cyanazine, esfenvalerate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyl acetic acid), permethrin, and pirimicarb for 72 h. Chronic exposure tests were performed from fertilization to metamorphosis with azoxystrobin, cyanazine, and permethrin at concentrations similar to those found in surface waters in agricultural areas in Sweden. The most lethal pesticides in the acute exposure were azoxystrobin, permethrin, and pirimicarb. Also, negative effects on the growth of the tadpoles were observed with azoxystrobin, cyanazine, and permethrin. The chronic exposure at lower pesticide concentrations did not result in increased mortality or impaired growth. However, we found a positive effect of permethrin on growth and size at metamorphosis. The results suggest that the examined pesticides can inflict strong negative effects at high concentrations but have no or relatively weak effects on R. temporaria spawn or tadpoles at concentrations found in Swedish surface waters.

  • 5.
    Jönsson, E. Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Ingebrigtsen, Kristian
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Cell-specific CYP1A expression and benzo(a)pyrene adduct formation in gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ) following CYP1A induction in the laboratory and in the field2004In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 874-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)induction on cell-specific benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) adduct formation was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gills. Fish preexposed to β-naphthoflavone (βNF) or caged in a polluted river were exposed to waterborne 3H-benzo[a]pyrene (3H-BaP). The 3H-benzo[a]pyrene adducts in the gill filaments were localized by autoradiography and CYP1A protein by immunohistochemistry. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured using a gill filament-based ex vivo assay. Branchial 3H-BaP binding and EROD activity were enhanced by exposure to βNF or to the river water, and completely blocked by the CYP1A inhibitor ellipticine. The predominant sites of adduct formation were in epithelium of the secondary lamellae and in epithelium of the efferent edge of the gill filament. In βNF-exposed fish, the strongest CYP1A immunoreactivity was observed in differentiating cells and in pillar cells. In fish caged in the polluted river, strong CYP1A immunoreactivity was found in most cells in the secondary lamellae, whereas the primary lamellae were almost devoid of immunoreactivity. Our results reveal a discrepancy between the localization of CYP1A protein and BaP adducts in the gill. Consequently, other factors, such as bioavailability of waterborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the target cells, are important for the localization of PAH adducts in the gill.

  • 6.
    Jönsson, M. E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brunstrom, B.
    Ingebrigtsen, K.
    Brandt, I.
    Cell-specific CYP1A expression and benzo a pyrene adduct formation in gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following CYP1A induction in the laboratory and in the field2004In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 874-882Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ljungvall, Karl
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Div Reprod, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Div Reprod, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Korvela, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Norrby, Mattias
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Div Reprod, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Persson, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Heavy metal concentrations in female wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden: Sources of variation and associations with internal organ weights2017In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 2030-2035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The American mink is an invasive species in Sweden, and it is legally hunted all year. Therefore, the mink is well suited as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring. In the present study female mink (n = 91) from 6 different areas in Sweden were analyzed for the concentrations of silver, cadmium, mercury and lead in liver tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The wet concentrations in liver tissue were 42.6 +/- 52.7 ng/g for silver, 99.5 +/- 100 ng/g for cadmium, 652 +/- 537 ng/g formercury, and 196 +/- 401 ng/g for lead (expressed as mean + standard deviation). There were associations between the sample area and the concentrations of silver, lead, and mercury. The concentrations of lead and cadmium varied with season of capture and lead, cadmium, and mercury were positively associated with increasing age. Relative liver weight was positively associated with concentrations of mercury and negatively associated with lead and cadmium. Relative kidney weight was negatively associated with lead concentrations. In summary, it is of importance to take age and season of capture into account when assessing levels of heavy metals in wild mink. Also, liver and kidneys seem to be potential targets for heavy metal toxicity in wild female mink in Sweden.

  • 8. Natal-da-Luz, Tiago
    et al.
    Lee, Iwa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Verweij, Rudo A.
    Morais, Paula V.
    Van Velzen, Martin J. M.
    Sousa, Jose Paulo
    Van Gestel, Cornelis A. M.
    Influence of earthworm activity on microbial communities related with the degradation of persistent pollutants2012In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 794-803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earthworms may promote the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, but the mechanism through which they exert such influence is still unknown. To determine if the stimulation of PAH degradation by earthworms is related to changes in microbial communities, a microcosm experiment was conducted consisting of columns with natural uncontaminated soil covered with PAH-contaminated dredge sediment. Columns without and with low and high Eisenia andrei densities were prepared. Organic matter and PAH content, microbial biomass, and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were measured in soil and sediment over time. Biolog Ecoplate(TM) and polymerase chain reaction using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to evaluate changes in metabolic and structural diversity of the microbial community, respectively. Earthworm activity promoted PAH degradation in soil, which was significant for biphenyl, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[e]pyrene. Microbial biomass and DHA activity generally did not change over the experiment. Earthworm activity did change microbial community structure, but this did not affect its functioning in terms of carbon substrate consumption. Results suggest no relationship between changes in the microbial community by earthworm activity and increased PAH disappearance. The role of shifts in soil microbial community structure induced by earthworms in PAH removal needs further investigation.

  • 9. Ovesen, Rikke Gleerup
    et al.
    Brandt, Kristian Koefoed
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Nielsen, John
    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun
    Cedergreen, Nina
    Biomedicine in the environment: Cyclotides constitute potent natural toxins in plants and soil bacteria2011In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 1190-1196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioactive compounds produced by plants are easily transferred to soil and water and may cause adverse ecosystem effects. Cyclotides are gene-encoded, circular, cystine-rich mini-proteins produced in Violaceae and Rubiaceae in high amounts. Based on their biological activity and stability, cyclotides have promising pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. We report the toxicity of the cyclotides: kalata B1, kalata B2, and cycloviolacin O2 extracted from plants to green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), duckweed (Lemna minor L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and bacteria extracted from soil measured as [3H]leucine incorporation. Quantification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated up to 98% loss of cyclotides from aqueous solutions because of sorption to test vials. Sorption was prevented by adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) to the aqueous media. Cyclotides were toxic to all test organisms with EC50 values of 12 through 140 µM (algae), 9 through 40 µM (duckweed), 4 through 54 µM (lettuce), and 7 through 26 µM (bacteria). Cycloviolacin O2 was the most potent cyclotide in all assays examined. This report is the first to document toxic effects of cyclotides in plants and soil bacteria and to demonstrate that cyclotides are as toxic as commonly used herbicides and biocides. Hence, cyclotides may adversely affect soil and aquatic environments, which needs to be taken into account in future risk assessment of cropping systems for production of these highly bioactive compounds.

  • 10.
    Pettersson, Irina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Ethynylestradiol Cause Female-Biased Sex Ratios in Xenopus tropicalis and Rana temporaria2007In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 1005-1009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The susceptibility of Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis and Rana temporaria to ethynylestradiol (EE2), a potent estrogenic pharmaceutical and environmental pollutant, was investigated. Larval EE2 exposure caused female-biased sex ratios at concentrations as low as 0.06 nM, which is comparable to levels found in the environment. The susceptibility of the two frog species to EE2 was comparable, supporting the use of X. tropicalis as a model organism for research on developmental reproductive toxicity of estrogenic pollutants.

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