uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 22 of 22
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Cunha, J. M. V.
    et al.
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal.
    Fernandes, P. A.
    Univ Aveiro, I3N, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal;Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal;Inst Politecn Porto, Inst Super Engn Porto, Dept Fis, CIETI, P-4200072 Porto, Portugal.
    Hultqvist, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Teixeira, J. P.
    Univ Aveiro, I3N, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal;Univ Aveiro, Dept Fis, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.
    Bose, S.
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal.
    Vermang, B.
    IMEC Partner Solliance, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Univ Hasselt Partner Solliance, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium;IMOMEC Partner Solliance, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Garud, S.
    IMEC Partner Solliance, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Univ Hasselt Partner Solliance, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium;IMOMEC Partner Solliance, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Buldu, D.
    IMEC Partner Solliance, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Univ Hasselt Partner Solliance, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium;IMOMEC Partner Solliance, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Gaspar, J.
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Leitao, J. P.
    Univ Aveiro, I3N, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal;Univ Aveiro, Dept Fis, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.
    Salome, P. M. P.
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal;Univ Aveiro, Dept Fis, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.
    Insulator Materials for Interface Passivation of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin Films2018In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 1313-1319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, metal-insulator-semiconductor structures were fabricated in order to study different types of insulators, namely, aluminum oxide (Al2O3), silicon nitride, and silicon oxide (SiOx) to be used as passivation layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells. The investigated stacks consisted of SLG/Mo/CIGS/insulator/Al. Raman scattering and photoluminescence measurements were done to verify the insulator deposition influence on the CIGS surface. In order to study the electrical properties of the CIGS-insulator interface, capacitance versus conductance and voltage (C-G-V) measurements were done to estimate the number and polarity of fixed insulator charges (Q(f)). The density of interface defects (D-it) was estimated from capacitance versus conductance and frequency (C-G-f) measurements. This study evidences that the deposition of the insulators at high temperatures (300 degrees C) and the use of a sputtering technique cause surface modification on the CIGS surface. We found that, by varying the SiOx deposition parameters, it is possible to have opposite charges inside the insulator, which would allow its use in different device architectures. The material with lower Dit values was Al2O3 when deposited by sputtering.

  • 2.
    Edoff, Marika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Jarmar, Tobias
    Solibro Res AB, S-75651 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Shariati Nilsson, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Wallin, Erik
    Solibro Res AB, S-75651 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hogstrom, Daniel
    Solibro Res AB, S-75651 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Stolt, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Solibro Res AB, S-75651 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Shafarman, William
    Univ Delaware, Inst Energy Convers, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stolt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Solibro Res AB, S-75651 Uppsala, Sweden..
    High Voc in (Cu,Ag)(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells2017In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 1789-1794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, we show that silver substitution for copper in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) to form (Ag,Cu)(In, Ga)Se-2 (ACIGS) leads to a reduction of the voltage loss expressed as E-g/q-V-oc. This, in turn, leads to higher device efficiencies as compared to similar CIGS devices without Ag. We report V-oc at 814 mV at a conversion efficiency of 21% for our best ACIGS device with 20% of the group I element consisting of silver. Comparing ACIGS and CIGS devices with the same Ga/(Ga+ In) ratio, the ACIGS devices exhibit about 0.05 eV higher bandgap. Alkali postdeposition treatment with KF leads to improvements in efficiency both for CIGS and ACIGS, but we find that the dose of KF needed for optimum device for ACIGS is 10-20% of the dose used for CIGS.

  • 3.
    Fjällström, Viktor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Szaniawski, Piotr
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Vermang, Bart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Salome, Pedro M. P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rostvall, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zimmermann, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Recovery After Potential-Induced Degradation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Solar Cells With CdS and Zn(O,S) Buffer Layers2015In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 664-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with potential-induced degradation (PID) of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2-based solar cells and different approaches to subsequent recovery of efficiency. Three different recovery methods were studied: 1) etch recovery, 2) accelerated recovery, and 3) unaccelerated recovery. After being completely degraded, the solar cells with CdS buffer layers recovered their efficiencies at different rates, depending on the method which was used. On the other hand, if Zn(O,S) was used as a buffer layer instead of CdS, the recovery rate was close to zero. The buffer layer type clearly influenced the sodium distribution during PID stressing and recovery, as well as the possibilities for recovery of the electrical performance.

  • 4.
    Frisk, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ren, Yi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Törndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Annoni, Filippo
    CNR, IMEM..
    Platzer Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    On the extraction of doping concentration from capacitance-voltage: A Cu2ZnSnS4 and ZnS sandwich structure2017In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1421-1425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacitance-voltage (C-V) method is frequently used to evaluate the net doping of thin-film solar cells, an important parameter for the function of solar cells. However, complex materials such as kesterites are challenging to characterize. To minimize ambiguity when determining the apparent doping concentration (N-A) of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), we fabricated and investigated different structures: CZTS/ZnS metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) device, stand-alone CZTS and ZnS metal-sandwich structures, and CZTS solar cells. Characterization was carried out by means of admittance spectroscopy (AS) and C-V measurements. ZnS exhibits excellent intrinsic properties, and with the high-quality MIS sample we managed to successfully isolate the capacitive response of the CZTS itself. N-A, as extracted from the MIS structure, is found to be more reliable and four times higher compared with the solar cell, impacting any estimated collection efficiency substantially. Data herein presented also show that CZTS has a substantial low-frequency dispersive capacitance and the extraction of N-A depends on the chosen measurement frequency, symptoms of presence of deep defects. Furthermore, the CZTS/ZnS MIS structure is strongly resilient to leakage currents at both forward and reverse voltage bias where contribution from deep defects is minimized and maximized, respectively.

  • 5.
    Hultqvist, Adam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Stanford Univ, Dept Chem Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Sone, Takero
    Stanford Univ, Dept Chem Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Bent, Stacey F.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Chem Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Buffer Layer Point Contacts for CIGS Solar Cells Using Nanosphere Lithography and Atomic Layer Deposition2017In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 322-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Point contacts provide an interesting approach for reducing the buffer layer/Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 interface recombination that typically limits Cu(In, Ga) Se-2 solar cell performance when nontoxic alternatives to CdS buffer layers are used. In this study, we implement a scheme to create a point contact buffer layer on Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 solar cells using a combination of atomic layer deposition and nanosphere lithography. While we showcase these buffer layers using Al2O3 as the passivating material, ZnO as the conductive material, and a silica nanosphere size of 310 nm in diameter, this scheme is general and could readily be applied for other materials and other sphere sizes. The resulting solar cells with Al2O3 and ZnO point contact buffer layers demonstrate successful application of this scheme, yielding a higher conversion efficiency (6.58 +/- 0.58%) than either of the binary buffer layers Al2O3 (0%) and ZnO (5.15 +/- 0.57%). The improvement over ZnO is mainly due to an increased open circuit voltage, which is an indication of a reduced surface recombination.

  • 6.
    Larsen, Jes K
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Keller, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Solibro Res AB, S-75651 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jarmar, Tobias
    Solibro Res AB, S-75651 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Riekehr, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Scragg, Jonathan J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Platzer Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Sulfurization of Co-Evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 as a Postdeposition Treatment2018In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 604-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is investigated if the performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGSe) solar cells produced by co-evaporation can be improved by surface sulfurization in a postdeposition treatment. The expected benefit would be the formation of a sulfur/selenium gradient resulting in reduced interface recombination and increased open-circuit voltage. In the conditions used here it was, however, found that the reaction of the CIGSe layer in a sulfur environment results in the formation of a CuInS2 (CIS) surface phase containing no or very little selenium and gallium. At the same time, a significant pile up of gallium was observed at the CIGSe/CIS boundary. This surface structure was formed for a wide range of annealing conditions investigated in this paper. Increasing the temperature or extending the time of the dwell stage had a similar effect on the material. The gallium enrichment and CIS surface layer widens the surface bandgap and therefore increases the open-circuit voltage. At the same time, the fill factor is reduced, since the interface layer acts as an electron barrier. Due to the balance of these effects, the conversion efficiency could not be improved.

  • 7.
    Ledinek, Dorothea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Salome, Pedro
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, Braga, Portugal; Univ Aveiro, Dept Phys, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Hägglund, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zimmermann, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rear Contact Passivation for High Bandgap Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Solar Cells With a Flat Ga profile2018In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 864-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells with a high bandgap (1.31 eV) and a flat Ga profile ([Ga]/([Ga]+[In]) ≈ 0.60) were examined. For absorber layer thicknesses varying from 0.60 to 1.45 μm, the Mo rear contact of one set of samples was passivated with an ultrathin (27 nm) Al2O3 layer with point contact openings, and compared with reference samples where the rear contact remained unpassivated. For the passivated samples, mainly large gains in the short-circuit current led to an up to 21% (relative) higher power conversion efficiency compared with unpassivated cells. The differences in temperature-dependent current voltage behavior between the passivated and the unpassivated samples and the thin and the thick samples can be explained by an oppositely poled secondary photodiode at the rear contact.

  • 8.
    Qviller, Atle Jorstad
    et al.
    Inst Energy Thchnol, NO-2027 Kjeller, Norway.
    Marstein, Erik Stensrud
    Inst Energy Thchnol, NO-2027 Kjeller, Norway.
    You, Chang Chuan
    Inst Energy Thchnol, NO-2027 Kjeller, Norway.
    Haug, Halvard
    Inst Energy Thchnol, NO-2027 Kjeller, Norway.
    Webster, John R. P.
    STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, ISIS Pulsed Neutron & Muon Source, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Frommen, Christoph
    Inst Energy Thchnol, NO-2027 Kjeller, Norway.
    Hauback, Bjorn Christian
    Inst Energy Thchnol, NO-2027 Kjeller, Norway.
    Hydrogen Concentration in Photovoltaic a-Si:H Annealed at Different Temperatures Measured by Neutron Reflectometry2018In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 1098-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) is an important material for surface defect passivation of photovoltaic silicon (Si) wafers in order to reduce their recombination losses. The material is, however, unstable with regard to hydrogen (H) desorption at elevated temperatures, which can be an issue during processing and device manufacturing. In this work, we determine the temperature stability of a-Si:H by structural characterization of a-Si:H/Si bilayers with neutron reflectometry and X-ray reflectometry combined with photoconductance measurements, yielding the minority carrier lifetime. The neutrons are sensitive to light elements such as H, while the X-rays, which are insensitive to the H concentration, provide an independent constraint on the layer structure. It is shown that H desorption takes place at a temperature of approximately T = 425 degrees C, and that the H content and minority carrier lifetimes have a strongly correlated linear relationship, which can be interpreted as one H atom passivating one defect.

  • 9.
    Ross, Nils
    et al.
    Univ Oslo, Ctr Mat Sci & Nanotechnol, Dept Phys, N-0316 Oslo, Norway;Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Angstrom Lab, Div Solid State Elect, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grini, Sigbjorn
    Univ Oslo, Ctr Mat Sci & Nanotechnol, Dept Phys, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Rudisch, Katharina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Vines, Lasse
    Univ Oslo, Ctr Mat Sci & Nanotechnol, Dept Phys, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Platzer Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Selenium Inclusion in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)(4) Solar Cell Absorber Precursors for Optimized Grain Growth2018In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 1132-1141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)(4) precursors are fabricated by compound cosputtering from metal sulfide and selenide targets, and annealed in mixed argon, sulfur, and selenium atmosphere at temperatures between 540 and 580 degrees C and at pressures between 24 and 47 kPa. We produce solar cell devices from these absorbers that range from 2.0% to 9.0% power conversion efficiency. We extensively characterize the morphology and elemental composition of the absorbers, and are able to closely relate the annealing conditions, precursor sulfur-selenium content, device performance, and absorber quality. We develop a qualitative model which relates the sulfur-selenium distribution in the precursor and the relative partial pressures of sulfur and selenium during the annealing process to the absorber properties. We show that selenium inclusion in the precursor allows more rapid recrystallization of the absorber at lower temperature. Alternating stacking of sulfur and selenium containing precursor material leads to differential rates of recrystallization, which allows some control over the morphology of the annealed absorber and Zn(S,Se) secondary phase segregation in that absorber. We further show that selenium containing precursors can be used to fabricate the superior devices relative to sulfur-only precursors, when the annealing phase space is subject to severe practical restrictions.

  • 10.
    Salome, Pedro M. P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Hultqvist, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Fjällström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Aitken, B. G.
    Zhang, K.
    Fuller, K.
    Williams, C. Kosik
    Incorporation of Na in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin-Film Solar Cells: A Statistical Comparison Between Na From Soda-Lime Glass and From a Precursor Layer of NaF2014In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 1659-1664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of Na in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 layers increases the electrical performance of this type of thin- film solar cell. A detailed comparison of incorporating Na in the CIGS layer by two different methods is performed by evaluating several hundred devices fabricated under similar conditions. The firstmethod is based on the conventionally used Na diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrate, whereas the second method is based on a NaF precursor layer deposited on a Mo- coated alkali- free glass substrate. The sample where Na is introduced by using a NaF precursor layer shows an orientation weighted toward (2 0 4)/(2 2 0) and a net acceptor concentration of 3.4 x 10(16) cm(-3), while SLG shows a (1 1 2) orientation with a 2.9 x 10(16) cm(-3) acceptor concentration. Both sample types show close identical elemental depth profiles, morphology, and electrical performance.

  • 11.
    Salome, Pedro M. P.
    et al.
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal..
    Ribeiro-Andrade, Rodrigo
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal.;Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Fis, BR-30123970 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Teixeira, Jennifer P.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Fis, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro, I3N, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal..
    Keller, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Törndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Nicoara, Nicoleta
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal..
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Gonzalez, Juan Carlos
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Fis, BR-30123970 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Leitao, Joaquim Pratas
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Fis, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro, I3N, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal..
    Sadewasser, Sascha
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal..
    Cd and Cu Interdiffusion in Cu(In, Ga) Se-2/CdS Hetero-Interfaces2017In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 858-863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a detailed characterization of an industrylike prepared Cu(In, Ga) Se-2 (CIGS)/CdS heterojunction by scanning transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence (PL). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows the presence of several regions in the CIGS layer that are Cu deprived and Cd enriched, suggesting the segregation of Cd-Se. Concurrently, the CdS layer shows Cd-deprived regions with the presence of Cu, suggesting a segregation of Cu-S. The two types of segregations are always found together, which, to the best of our knowledge, is observed for the first time. The results indicate that there is a diffusion process that replaces Cu with Cd in the CIGS layer and Cd with Cu in the CdS layer. Using a combinatorial approach, we identified that this effect is independent of focused-ion beam sample preparation and of the transmission electron microscopy grid. Furthermore, PL measurements before and after an HCl etch indicate a lower degree of defects in the postetch sample, compatible with the segregates removal. We hypothesize that Cu2-x Se nanodomains react during the chemical bath process to form these segregates since the chemical reaction that dominates this process is thermodynamically favorable. These results provide important additional information about the formation of the CIGS/CdS interface.

  • 12.
    Salome, Pedro M. P.
    et al.
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, Lab Nanostruct Solar Cells, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal..
    Teixeira, Jennifer P.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Fis, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro, I3N, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal..
    Keller, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Törndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Sadewasser, Sascha
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, Lab Nanostruct Solar Cells, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal..
    Leitao, Joaquim P.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Fis, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro, I3N, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal..
    Influence of CdS and ZnSnO Buffer Layers on the Photoluminescence of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin Films2017In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 670-675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for alternatives to the CdS buffer layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) solar cells has turned out to be quite promising in terms of power conversion efficiency. In this paper, the typically used chemical-bath-deposited CdS layer is compared with an atomic-layer-deposited Zn1-xSnxOy (ZnSnO). An optical study by external quantum efficiency and photoluminescence on the influence of different buffer layers on the defect properties of CIGS is presented. For both buffer layers, the CIGS bulk and CIGS/buffer interface are strongly influenced by electrostatic fluctuating potentials, which are less pronounced for the sample with the ZnSnO buffer layer. This is associated with a lower concentration of donor defects at the CIGS near-interface layer. A change in the bandgap of the CIGS as a consequence of the buffer layer deposition is observed. This study expands the knowledge of defects in the complex quaternary semiconductor CIGS, which, as discussed, can be affected even by the choice of buffer layer and its deposition process.

  • 13. Simchi, H.
    et al.
    Larsen, J. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Shafarman, W. N.
    Transparent Back Contacts for Superstrate (AG,CU)(IN,GA)SE2 Thin Film Solar Cells2015In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 406-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO3) and tungsten oxide (WO3) are considered as transparent back contacts for (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se-2 thin film solar cells. MoO3 and WO3 films were deposited by reactive RF sputtering at room temperature in an Ar/O-2 ambient on (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga) Se-2 absorber layers with various Ga/(Ga + In) and Ag/(Ag + Cu) ratios. Determination of the valence band offsets by XPS showed that Ag-alloying of absorber layer changes the energy band alignment at the absorber-back contact interface with MoO3 and WO3 contacts. This produces a primary contact with lower valence band offset compared with Cu(In,Ga) Se-2 counterparts. The effect is less significant in films with Ga > 0.5 and Ag > 0.5 (corresponding to E-g > 1.4 eV) probably due to the different nature of ordered vacancy compounds forming near the surface phases.

  • 14.
    Szaniawski, Piotr
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Frisk, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Fjällström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ledinek, Dorothea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zimmermann, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    A Systematic Study of Light-On-Bias Behavior in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells With Varying Absorber Compositions2017In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 882-891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-on-bias effects were investigated in multiple Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells with varying absorber layer compositions. A strong link between deformations caused by red-on-bias treatments in current-voltage (IV ) and capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristics was demonstrated. Similarly to red-on-bias, blue-on-bias leads to a local increase in static negative charge, but in samples with CdS buffers this increase is shifted away from the interface and has no impact on device performance. IV characteristics of samples with Cd-free buffers are not affected by any light-on-bias treatments, suggesting that CdS plays a vital role in the decreased performance after red-on-bias. A statistical approach was used to search for compositional trends in red-on-bias behavior. Deformation factors were defined for IV and CV characteristics before and after the treatment. While there is a strong relationship between the deformations observed in both types of measurements, the degree to which red-on-bias affects IV and CV curves can vary dramatically. These variations cannot be attributed to changes in composition, since no clear compositional trends were found. Rather, other factors related to sample manufacturing and to the buffer layer seem to have major impact on red-on-bias behavior.

  • 15.
    Szaniawski, Piotr
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Salome, Pedro
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, LaNaSC, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal..
    Fjällström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Törndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zimmermann, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Influence of Varying Cu Content on Growth and Performance of Ga-Graded Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Solar Cells2015In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 1775-1782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 thin-film solar cells with Ga-graded absorber layers and a [Cu]/([In] + [Ga]) ratio varying between 0.5 and 1.0 were prepared by coevaporation and investigated. Except for the sample with a final [Cu]/([In] + [Ga]) ratio of 1.0, the samples were Cu-poor at all times during the evaporation. The variation in copper was found to influence the material properties in several ways: 1) Changing the Cu content had a strong impact on In and Ga interdiffusion, resulting in decreased Ga gradients in samples with large Cu deficiency; 2) the Cu-poor Cu(In, Ga)(3)Se-5 phase was detected in absorbers with [Cu]/([In] + [Ga]) ratios of 0.65 and below; and 3) the grain size changed significantly with the Cu variation. We observe a trend of reduced solar cell efficiencies for [Cu]/([In] + [Ga]) ratios of 0.65 and below, with an efficiency of 13.4% for the sample with a [Cu]/([In] + [Ga]) ratio of only 0.5, i.e., far from stoichiometry. We tentatively attribute the efficiency loss to a high concentration of point defects caused by the Cu deficiency.

  • 16.
    Szaniawski, Piotr
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zabierowski, Pawel
    Warsaw Univ Technol, Fac Phys, PL-00662 Warsaw, Poland.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zimmermann, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Advancing the understanding of reverse breakdown in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells2017In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1136-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reverse breakdown is investigated in multiple Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 solar cells with varying buffer layer thicknesses. A method to extract transition voltage, which marks the change of conduction mechanism that leads to electrical breakdown, is described as an alternative to the often less-meaningful breakdown voltage. Transition voltages for samples with CdS and ZnxSn1-xOy buffers are extracted from breakdown measurements performed in darkness and under illumination. The electric field is calculated for ZTO-based samples measured in darkness, and its implications for the energy band structure are examined. Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and Poole-Frenkel conduction are considered as candidates for the main breakdown mechanism in darkness. A model combining the two conduction mechanisms is proposed, and fits for experimental data are presented and discussed. Involvement of defects is debated, and defect-andbreakdown- related phenomena are showcased.

  • 17.
    van Duren, Stephan
    et al.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Dept Struct & Dynam Energy Mat, D-14109 Berlin, Germany..
    Ren, Yi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Scragg, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Just, Justus
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Dept Struct & Dynam Energy Mat, D-14109 Berlin, Germany..
    Unold, Thomas
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Dept Struct & Dynam Energy Mat, D-14109 Berlin, Germany..
    In Situ Monitoring of Cu2ZnSnS4 Absorber Formation With Raman Spectroscopy During Mo/Cu2SnS3/ZnS Thin-Film Stack Annealing2017In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 906-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Cu-2 ZnSn(S,Se)(4) (kesterite) has become increasingly popular as a sustainable alternative absorber material. Many processes for kesterite synthesis involve a high temperature annealing step (>450 degrees C). This study investigates the possibility of Raman spectroscopy as an in situ monitoring technique during high temperature annealing up to 550 degrees C. Temperature-dependent behavior of Cu2SnS3 (CTS) and Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) was studied for reference purposes. The synthesis of CZTS was performed by annealing a stacked Mo/CTS/ZnS precursor on a glass substrate. Annealing of the precursor stack resulted in formation of kesterite and could be monitored in situ by its main A-mode at 338 cm(-1). At higher temperatures, this mode shifts to lower wavenumbers, is broadened and reduced in intensity. This can be attributed to combined effects of thermal expansion and anharmonic phonon coupling. The shift of the peak position is linearly proportional to the temperature. Thus, given proper calibration, fitting the peak position of the 338 cm(-1) mode during the process yields the sample temperature. Implementation of in situ monitoring with Raman spectroscopy would be a step forward toward desired process control and monitoring during this crucial high temperature annealing step in kesterite synthesis.

  • 18.
    Vermang, Bart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Fjällström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Gao, Xindong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Improved Rear Surface Passivation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells: A Combination of an Al2O3 Rear Surface Passivation Layer and Nano-Sized Local Rear Point Contacts2014In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 486-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative rear contacting structure for copper indium gallium (di) selenide (CIGS) thin-film solar cells is developed in an industrially viable way and demonstrated in tangible devices. The idea stems from the silicon (Si) industry, where rear surface passivation layers are combined with micron-sized local point contacts to boost the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and, hence, cell efficiency. However, compared with Si solar cells, CIGS solar cell minority carrier diffusion lengths are several orders lower in magnitude. Therefore, the proposed CIGS cell design reduces rear surface recombination by combining a rear surface passivation layer and nanosized local point contacts. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 is used to passivate the CIGS surface and the formation of nanosphere-shaped precipitates in chemical bath deposition of CdS to generate nanosized point contact openings. The manufactured Al2O3 rear surface passivated CIGS solar cells with nanosized local rear point contacts show a significant improvement in VOC compared with unpassivated reference cells.

  • 19.
    Vermang, Bart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ren, Yi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Donzel-Gargand, Olivier
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Frisk, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Joel, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Salome, Pedro
    Borme, Jerome
    Sadeswasser, Sascha
    Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rear Surface Optimization of CZTS Solar Cellsby Use of a Passivation Layer WithNanosized Point Openings2015In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Vermang, Bart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Solar Ctr, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Leuven, Dept Elect Engn, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;IMEC, Thin Film Photovolta, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Ren, Yi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Donzel-Gargand, Olivier
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Frisk, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Joel, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Salome, Pedro
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, Lab Nanostruct Solar Cells, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal..
    Borme, Jerome
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, Lab Nanostruct Solar Cells, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal..
    Sadewasser, Sascha
    Int Iberian Nanotechnol Lab, Lab Nanostruct Solar Cells, P-4715330 Braga, Portugal..
    Platzer-Bjorkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rear Surface Optimization of CZTS Solar Cells by Use of a Passivation Layer With Nanosized Point Openings2016In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 332-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, an innovative way to reduce rear interface recombination in Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)(2) (CIGSSe) solar cells has been successfully developed. In this work, this concept is established in Cu-2(Zn, Sn)(S, Se)(4) (CZTSSe) cells to demonstrate its potential for other thin-film technologies. Therefore, ultrathin CZTS cells with an Al2O3 rear surface passivation layer having nanosized point openings are fabricated. The results indicate that introducing such a passivation layer can have a positive impact on open-circuit voltage (V-OC; +17% rel.), short-circuit current (J(SC); +5% rel.), and fill factor (FF; +9% rel.), compared with corresponding unpassivated cells. Hence, a promising efficiency improvement of 32% rel. is obtained for the rear passivated cells.

  • 21.
    Vermang, Bart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Wätjen, Jörn Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Frisk, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Fjällström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rostvall, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Salomé, Pedro
    Borme, Jérome
    Nicoara, Nicoleta
    Sadewasser, Sascha
    Introduction of Si PERC Rear Contacting Designto Boost Efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells2014In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 1644-1649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) solar cells have achieved 21% world-record efficiency, partly due to the introduction of a postdeposition potassium treatment to improve the front interface of CIGS absorber layers. However, as high-efficiency CIGS solar cells essentially require long diffusion lengths, the highly recombinative rear of these devices also deserves attention. In this paper, an Al2O3 rear surface passivation layer with nanosized local point contacts is studied to reduce recombination at the standard Mo/CIGS rear interface. First, passivation layers with well-controlled grids of nanosized point openings are established by use of electron beam lithography. Next, rear-passivated CIGS solar cells with 240-nm-thick absorber layers are fabricated as study devices. These cells show an increase in open-circuit voltage (+57 mV), short-circuit current (+3.8 mA/cm(2)), and fill factor [9.5% (abs.)], compared with corresponding unpassivated reference cells, mainly due to improvements in rear surface passivation and rear internal reflection. Finally, solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS) modeling is used to calculate the effect of reduced back contact recombination on high-efficiency solar cells with standard absorber layer thickness. The modeling shows that up to 50-mV increase in open-circuit voltage is anticipated.

  • 22.
    Widén, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Shepero, Mahmoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Munkhammar, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Probabilistic Load Flow for Power Grids With High PV Penetrations Using Copula-Based Modeling of Spatially Correlated Solar Irradiance2017In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 1740-1745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and applies an improved model for the instantaneous power generation from distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems intended for probabilistic load flow (PLF) simulations. The model combines a probability distribution model for the instantaneous solar irradiance at individual sites with an improved spatial correlation model and uses a Gaussian copula to allow correlated sampling from the distributions for an arbitrary set of distributed PV systems. We show that the model realistically reproduces the spatially distributed clear-sky index over a set of sites, based on comparisons with irradiance sensor network data. We also demonstrate that the probability distributions for system parameters such as customer voltage, substation loading, and power losses, obtained from PLF simulations with the model, differ substantially from those of a nonspatial approach. The results show that spatial irradiance modeling needs to be incorporated in PLF simulations in order not to overestimate the grid impacts of PV systems.

1 - 22 of 22
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf