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  • 1.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Simulated global change: contrasting short and medium term growth and reproductive responses of a common alpine/Arctic cushion plant to experimental warming and nutrient enhancement2014In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 3, article id 157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cushion plants are important components of alpine and Arctic plant communities around the world. They fulfill important roles as facilitators, nurse plants and foundation species across trophic levels for vascular plants, arthropods and soil microorganisms, the importance of these functions increasing with the relative severity of the environment. Here we report results from one of the few experimental studies simulating global change impacts on cushion plants; a factorial experiment with warming and nutrient enhancement that was applied to an alpine population of the common nurse plant, Silene acaulis, in sub-arctic Sweden. Experimental perturbations had significant short-term impacts on both stem elongation and leaf length. S. acaulis responded quickly by increasing stem elongation and (to a lesser extent) leaf length in the warming, nutrient, and the combined warming and nutrient enhancements. Cover and biomass also initially increased in response to the perturbations. However, after the initial positive short-term responses, S. acaulis cover declined in the manipulations, with the nutrient and combined warming and nutrient treatments having largest negative impact. No clear patterns were found for fruit production. Our results show that S. acaulis living in harsh environments has potential to react quickly when experiencing years with favorable conditions, and is more responsive to nutrient enhancement than to warming in terms of vegetative growth. While these conditions have an initial positive impact, populations experiencing longer-term increased nutrient levels will likely be negatively affected.

  • 2. Jagerbrand, Annika K.
    et al.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Effects of human trampling on abundance and diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine heath vegetation, Northern Sweden2015In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 4, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of human trampling on cover, diversity and species richness in an alpine heath ecosystem in northern Sweden. We tested the hypothesis that proximity to trails decreases plant cover, diversity and species richness of the canopy and the understory. We found a significant decrease in plant cover with proximity to the trail for the understory, but not for the canopy level, and significant decreases in the abundance of deciduous shrubs in the canopy layer and lichens in the understory. Proximity also had a significant negative impact on species richness of lichens. However, there were no significant changes in species richness, diversity or evenness of distribution in the canopy or understory with proximity to the trail. While not significant, liverworts, acrocarpous and pleurocarpous bryophytes tended to have contrasting abundance patterns with differing proximity to the trail, indicating that trampling may cause shifts in dominance hierarchies of different groups of bryophytes. Due to the decrease in understory cover, the abundance of litter, rock and soil increased with proximity to the trail. These results demonstrate that low-frequency human trampling in alpine heaths over long periods can have major negative impacts on lichen abundance and species richness. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that trampling can decrease species richness of lichens. It emphasises the importance of including species-level data on non-vascular plants when conducting studies in alpine or tundra ecosystems, since they often make up the majority of species and play a significant role in ecosystem functioning and response in many of these extreme environments.

  • 3. Lennartsson, Jan
    et al.
    Lindberg, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Probability Theory.
    Merton's problem for an investor with a benchmark in a Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard market2015In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 4, article id 87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To try to outperform an externally given benchmark with known weights is the most common equity mandate in the financial industry. For quantitative investors, this task is predominantly approached by optimizing their portfolios consecutively over short time horizons with one-period models. We seek in this paper to provide a theoretical justification to this practice when the underlying market is of Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard type. This is done by verifying that an investor who seeks to maximize her expected terminal exponential utility of wealth in excess of her benchmark will in fact use an optimal portfolio equivalent to the one-period Markowitz mean-variance problem in continuum under the corresponding Black-Scholes market. Further, we can represent the solution to the optimization problem as in Feynman-Kac form. Hence, the problem, and its solution, is analogous to Merton's classical portfolio problem, with the main difference that Merton maximizes expected utility of terminal wealth, not wealth in excess of a benchmark.

  • 4.
    Ly, Kien Hoa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Dahl, JoAnne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ, Huddinge Hosp, Div Psychiat, Dept Clin Neurosci,KarolinkalInst, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Development and initial evaluation of a smartphone application based on acceptance and commitment therapy2012In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An intervention, consisting of an ACT-based smartphone-application and a web-based psychoeducation, has been developed. The smartphone-application, together with the psychoeducation, aims to function as a self-help intervention for living consistently with one's values. The study is an exploratory investigation of this new smartphone-based tool. Case description: Primarily, the study aims at investigating a new field, providing a basis for generating hypotheses for further research. The first aim of this initial, exploratory study was to examine if this intervention had an effect on the variables of: valued actions, psychological flexibility, and life satisfaction as well as the states of depression, anxiety and stress, for a non-clinical sample of 11 Swedish Iphone users. This was made with a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design without control group. The second aim was to investigate how the participants experienced the intervention, as measured by a qualitative questionnaire. Discussion and evaluation: The group analyses showed that the participants increased their valued action and psychological flexibility significantly during the intervention. Furthermore, value-based actions and psychological flexibility showed small effect sizes when comparing pretest and posttest score. However, the design of the study makes it impossible to draw any certain conclusions. The qualitative questionnaire showed a general positive experience of the intervention. Conclusions: The results from the present study indicated that the intervention should be studied further. The findings also generated a number of hypotheses that could be investigated in further research.

  • 5.
    Pettersson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    The intuition of neutrality and consequentialist thinking: potential antinatalist implications2013In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 2, article id 99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many people seem to share some version of what has been called the “intuition of neutrality” aboutcreating new people, which, roughly, says that there exists a certain range of levels of well-beingsuch that creating people within this range is, in itself, morally neutral, but creating people with alevel of well-being outside this range is not morally neutral. In this paper, I will discuss differentinterpretations of this intuition, and specifically distinguish between what I will call counterfactualinterpretations and Do-interpretations of the intuition. I will argue that it is hard to interpret theintuition in a way that does not give rise to antinatalist moral reasons, i.e. reasons favoring an emptyfuture population, when it comes to choices of social policy. In particular, this holds if we assume aconception of relevant outcomes of actions reflecting consequentialist moral intuitions. In the end, I will formulate a normative principle of welfare promotion which I argue respects the most plausiblecounterfactual version of the neutrality intuition.

  • 6.
    Sandvig, Axel
    et al.
    Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Pharmacol & Clin Neurosci, Div Neurosurg & Clin Neurophysiol, Umea, Sweden.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, Trondheim, Norway..
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Ortoped, Spinal Unit, Umea, Sweden.
    Spontaneous chronic epidural hematoma in the lumbar spine associated with Warfarin intake: a case report2016In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 5, article id 1832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas are rare. However, in patients on anticoagulant treatment the risk may increase. Symptomatically patients may present with radiculopathy and even progressive neurological deficits. Case description: We present a case of a warfarin treated patient with left L5 radiculopathy. MRI was evaluated as showing a lumbar disc prolapse or synovial cyst at L4-L5 level. The patient was operated and an organized material was removed and analysed as a hematoma. No prolapsed disc or synovial cyst was found. The patient was neurologically restored following the operation. Discussion and Evaluation: This case illustrates how spontaneous epidural spinal hematomas can present with symptoms of radiculopathy and radiologically be misinterpreted as a protruding disc or cyst. Conclusion: Warfarin treated patients may have an increased risk of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas.

  • 7.
    Strand, Carina
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Bak, Martin
    Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark..
    Borgquist, Signe
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Chebil, Gunilla
    Unilabs, Mammog, SE-25223 Helsingborg, Sweden..
    Falck, Anna-Karin
    Helsingborg Hosp, Dept Surg, SE-28185 Helsingborg, Sweden..
    Fjällskog, Marie-Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Grabau, Dorthe
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Hedenfalk, Ingrid
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Jirström, Karin
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Pathol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Klintman, Marie
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Malmström, Per
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Skane Dept Oncol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Olsson, Hans
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Cty Council Ostergotland,Mol & Immunol Pathol, Dept Clin Pathol & Clin Genet,Dept Clin & Expt Me, SE-58191 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Rydén, Lisa
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Surg, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Stål, Olle
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Cty Council Ostergotland, Dept Clin & Expt Med,Div Oncol, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Bendahl, Pär-Ola
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Fernö, Mårten
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    The combination of Ki67, histological grade and estrogen receptor status identifies a low-risk group among 1,854 chemo-naive women with N0/N1 primary breast cancer2013In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 2, article id 111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim was to confirm a previously defined prognostic index, combining a proliferation marker, histological grade, and estrogen receptor (ER) in different subsets of primary N0/N1 chemo-naive breast cancer patients. Methods/design: In the present study, including 1,854 patients, Ki67 was used in the index (KiGE), since it is the generally accepted proliferation marker in clinical routine. The low KiGE-group was defined as histological grade 1 patients and grade 2 patients which were ER-positive and had low Ki67 expression. All other patients made up the high KiGE-group. The KiGE-index separated patients into two groups with different prognosis. In multivariate analysis, KiGE was significantly associated with disease-free survival, when adjusted for age at diagnosis, tumor size and adjuvant endocrine treatment (hazard ratio: 3.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.6-4.7, P<0.0001). Discussion: We have confirmed a prognostic index based on a proliferation marker (Ki67), histological grade, and ER for identification of a low-risk group of patients with N0/N1 primary breast cancer. For this low-risk group constituting 57% of the patients, with a five-year distant disease-free survival of 92%, adjuvant chemotherapy will have limited effect and may be avoided.

  • 8.
    Svennebring, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Wikberg, Jarl E. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Net present value approaches for drug discovery2013In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 2, article id 140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three dedicated approaches to the calculation of the risk-adjusted net present value (rNPV) in drug discovery projects under different assumptions are suggested. The probability of finding a candidate drug suitable for clinical development and the time to the initiation of the clinical development is assumed to be flexible in contrast to the previously used models. The rNPV of the post-discovery cash flows is calculated as the probability weighted average of the rNPV at each potential time of initiation of clinical development. Practical considerations how to set probability rates, in particular during the initiation and termination of a project is discussed.

1 - 8 of 8
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