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  • 1.
    Abdelmoniem, Amr M.
    et al.
    Cairo Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Giza, Egypt.
    Elnagdi, Mohamed H.
    Cairo Univ, Giza, Egypt;Kuwait Univ, Safat, Kuwait.
    Elsehemy, Mohamed S.
    Cairo Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Pharm, Giza, Egypt.
    El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Menoufia Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt.
    Abdelhamid, Ismail A.
    Cairo Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Giza, Egypt.
    Synthesis, Chemistry and Utilities of Diaminoazoles with Special Reference to 3,5-Diaminopyrazoles2018In: Current Organic Synthesis, ISSN 1570-1794, E-ISSN 1875-6271, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 487-514Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although the chemistry of heteroaromatic monoamino azoles has been surveyed more than once in the last decade, the chemistry of the di- and triaminoazoles has not been reviewed. In this article we will survey the synthesis, chemistry and utility of the diaminoazoles. In this review, the chemistry of the diaminoazoles as well as their most important utilities will be surveyed. Objective: The review focuses on recent progress in diaminoazoles (i.e. diaminopyrazoles, diaminoimidazoles, diaminotriazoles and diaminothiazole) with especial references to diaminopyrazoles. The synthesis as well as pharmaceutical utilities are reported. There are several methods for synthesis of diaminopyrazoles. 3,5-Diaminopyrazole and its derivatives are prepared through the reaction of malononitrile or arylhydrazononitrile with hydrazine derivatives. 3,4-Diaminopyrazoles are prepared via nitration of 3-aminopyrazole with subsequent reduction of the produced compound. The diaminopyrazoles have several applications in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. They also have useful utilities as a constituent in oxidative hair dyes. Conclusion: We managed to report the common methods for the synthesis of diaminoazoles with especial reference to aminopyrazoles that are prepared through the reaction of malononitrile or hydrazononitriles with hydrazine derivatives. Some important applications that include pharmaceutical utilities such as hair dye constituents are reported.

  • 2.
    Moustafa, Moustafa Sherief
    et al.
    Univ Kuwait, Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Safat Kuwait, Kuwait.
    Al-Mousawi, Saleh Mohammed
    Univ Kuwait, Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Safat Kuwait, Kuwait.
    El-Seedi, Hesham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Elnagdi, Mohamed Hilmy
    Cairo Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Giza, Egypt.
    Tales of the Unexpected in Synthesis of Polyfunctional Heteroaromatics2018In: Current Organic Synthesis, ISSN 1570-1794, E-ISSN 1875-6271, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 587-602Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Our research group has a longstanding interest in the synthesis of novel functionalized heteroaromatic compounds, and the development of new methods for this purpose. During our ongoing investigations, we recently had an instance to check the reproducibility of some published results concerning the chemistry of arylhydrazonals, enamines and other functionally substituted carbonyl compounds. This work has led to the discovery of some new rearrangements, and the revision of the structures originally assigned to several molecules.

    Objective: This review surveys some correction of several erroneous reports that have appeared in the literature, and presents some interesting new rearrangements discovered in the course of investigating older reports.

    Results: The crystallographic studies revealed that the condensation of arylhydrazonals with active methylenenitriles yields arylazoniconates rather than pyridazenones as previously reported. Additionally, phenathylthiocyanate reacts with malononitrile to afford thiazoles rather than the previously reported condensation with the carbonyl group. In another example, the reaction of phenethylmalononitrile with hydrazine yields pyrazolopyridazenes rather than phenacylpyrazol-3,5-diamine. In yet another case, several interesting Dimrothtype rearrangements were observed when malononitrile was condensed with enaminones, contradicting earlier reports. Unexpectedly, these enaminones underwent self-trimerization to yield 1,3,5-trisubstituted benzenes under certain conditions. Enaminonitriles also undergo interesting and novel Dimroth rearrangements when reacted with cyclohexanedione or dehydroacetic acid derivatives.

    Conclusion: We have shown that the structures of several complex heterocyclic compounds that have been reported in the literature over the last 50 years were incorrectly assigned, possibly because the authors who originally reported them were using substandard or outdated analytical equipments.

  • 3.
    Shahid, Shereena
    et al.
    Univ Karachi, HEJ Res Inst Chem, Int Ctr Chem & Biol Sci, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.
    Faisal, Muhammad
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Dept Chem, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.
    Saeed, Aamer
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Dept Chem, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.
    Ghumro, Sarfaraz Ali
    Univ Karachi, HEJ Res Inst Chem, Int Ctr Chem & Biol Sci, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.
    El-Seedi, Hesham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Rasheed, Samina
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Dept Chem, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.
    Abbas, Nadir
    Univ Hail, Dept Chem Engn, Hail, Saudi Arabia.
    Larik, Fayaz Ali
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Dept Chem, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.
    Channar, Pervaiz Ali
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Dept Chem, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.
    Fattah, Tanzeela Abdul
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Dept Chem, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.
    Ashraf, Zaman
    Allama Iqbal Open Univ, Dept Chem, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.
    Solangi, Zulfiqar Ali
    Shah Abdul Latif Univ, Dept Chem, Khairpur, Pakistan.
    A Review on the Scope of TFDO-Mediated Oxidation in Organic Synthesis-Reactivity and Selectivity2018In: Current Organic Synthesis, ISSN 1570-1794, E-ISSN 1875-6271, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1091-1108Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dioxiranes are three-membered strained ring peroxides that are typical archetype examples of electrophilic entities. A dioxirane-based oxidant named 3-methyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane (TFDO) is a fluorinated analogue of the extremely valuable oxidant dimethyldioxirane (DMDO). Owing to the strained three-membered ring and presence of electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group, TFDO is several times more reactive than DMDO and acts as a significant chemical reagent. Moreover, TFDO exhibits high regio-, chemo- and stereo-selectivity even under unusual reaction conditions, i.e. at pH values close to neutrality and at sub-ambient temperatures. The TFDO transfers an oxygen atom to "unactivated" carbon-hydrogen bonds of alkanes as well as to the double bonds of alkenes and also helps in oxidation of compounds containing heteroatoms having a lone pair of electrons, such as sulfides and amines. TFDO-mediated oxidation is considered to be one of the main procedures in the 21st century for the synthesis of oxygen-containing organic molecules. This review throws light on the applications of TFDO in organic syntheses to provide an insight into the future research and gives a comprehensive summary of the selective functionalization of activated and non-activated organic compounds.

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