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  • 1.
    Aartsen, M. G.
    et al.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Abraham, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 1, New Zealand.;Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea. Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Altmann, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Archinger, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Argueelles, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Arlen, T. C.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Becker, K. -H
    Beiser, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    BenZvi, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Berghaus, P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bindig, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Bissok, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Blumenthal, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boerner, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Bose, D.
    Boeser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Brayeur, L.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Bretz, H. -P
    Brown, A. M.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 1, New Zealand.;Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea. Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
    Buzinsky, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Casey, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Casier, M.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Christov, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.;TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.;Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Christy, B.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Clark, K.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Classen, L.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Daughhetee, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Davis, J. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    DeYoung, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dunkman, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Eagans, R.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Fadiran, O.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Fedynitch, A.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Feintzeig, J.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fuchs, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Glagla, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gaior, R.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gerhardth, L.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gier, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gladstone, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gliisenkamp, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Golup, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gora, D.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Gretskov, P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Groh, J. C.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Gross, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ha, C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hansmann, B.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hellwig, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hickford, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Holzapfel, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Homeier, A.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hulth, P. O.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    In, S.
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA..
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Jurkovic, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kaminsky, B.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kappes, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Karg, T.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Keivani, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kemp, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Klas, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kohnen, G.
    Univ Mons, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Konietz, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Koob, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Kopke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kowalski, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kroll, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kunnen, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Kuwabara, T.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Leuner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Lunemann, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Matis, H. S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    McNally, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Meli, A.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Middell, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Middlemas, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Miller, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mohrmann, L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Morse, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Nygren, D. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Obertacke, A.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Omairat, A.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Paul, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Perez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pfendner, C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Posselt, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Putz, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Quinnan, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Radel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Redl, P.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Richter, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Riedel, B.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rott, C.
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Saba, S. M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Sabbatini, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Sander, H. -G
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Sandroos, J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.;Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Schatto, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Scheriau, F.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schimp, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Schmitz, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schoneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schonwald, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schukraft, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schulte, L.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Shanidze, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Smith, M. W. E.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stahlberg, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stanisha, N. A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stezelberger, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stossl, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Strahler, E. A.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tesic, G.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tselengidou, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Unger, Lisa E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vallecorsa, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    van Santen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Veenkamp, J.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Vehring, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Voge, M.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Weaver, Ch
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Whitehorn, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Wichary, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Wissing, H.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Wolf, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Xun, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Yanez, J. P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Zoll, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Characterization of the atmospheric muon flux in IceCube2016In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 78, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Muons produced in atmospheric cosmic ray showers account for the by far dominant part of the event yield in large-volume underground particle detectors. The IceCube detector, with an instrumented volume of about a cubic kilometer, has the potential to conduct unique investigations on atmospheric muons by exploiting the large collection area and the possibility to track particles over a long distance. Through detailed reconstruction of energy deposition along the tracks, the characteristics of muon bundles can be quantified, and individual particles of exceptionally high energy identified. The data can then be used to constrain the cosmic ray primary flux and the contribution to atmospheric lepton fluxes from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. In this paper, techniques for the extraction of physical measurements from atmospheric muon events are described and first results are presented. The multiplicity spectrum of TeV muons in cosmic ray air showers for primaries in the energy range from the knee to the ankle is derived and found to be consistent with recent results from surface detectors. The single muon energy spectrum is determined up to PeV energies and shows a clear indication for the emergence of a distinct spectral component from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. The magnitude of the prompt flux, which should include a substantial contribution from light vector meson di-muon decays, is consistent with current theoretical predictions. The variety of measurements and high event statistics can also be exploited for the evaluation of systematic effects. In the course of this study, internal inconsistencies in the zenith angle distribution of events were found which indicate the presence of an unexplained effect outside the currently applied range of detector systematics. The underlying cause could be related to the hadronic interaction models used to describe muon production in air showers.

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    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alispach, C.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Altmann, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnber, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Andeen, K.
    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA.
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Ansseau, I
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Anton, G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnber, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Arguelles, C.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Axani, S.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Backes, P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Bagherpour, H.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Phys Dept, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA.
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Baum, V
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Becker, K-H
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
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    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.
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    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
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    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Blot, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boerner, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bourbeau, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bourbeau, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Bretz, H-P
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Bron, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Brostean-Kaiser, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Burgman, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Busse, R. S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Chen, C.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    SNOLAB, 1039 Reg Rd 24,Creighton Mine 9, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2, Canada.
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    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
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    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
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    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
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    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
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    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
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    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
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    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
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    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
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    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
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    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
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    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Phys Dept, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
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    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
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    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
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    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnber, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
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    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Griffith, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halve, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
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    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
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    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
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    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hoinka, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Hokanson-Fasig, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan.
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Huennefeld, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Hussain, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Iovine, N.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA.
    Jeong, M.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Jones, B. J. P.
    Univ Texas Arlington, Dept Phys, 502 Yates St,Sci Hall Rm 108,Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 USA.
    Kang, W.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Kappes, A.
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Kappesser, D.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Karl, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnber, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Kim, J.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Kintscher, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Kittler, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnber, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Koepke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Kopper, C.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kowalski, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Krueckl, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Kulacz, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Kunwar, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Kyriacou, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Lauber, F.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Lazar, J. P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Leonard, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Liu, Q. R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Lohfink, E.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Mariscal, C. J. Lozano
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Lu, L.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Luenemann, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Luszczak, W.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Makino, Y.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Mallot, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Mancina, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Maris, I. C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Medina, A.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Meier, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Meighen-Berger, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Micallef, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Momente, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Moore, R. W.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Moulai, M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Nagai, R.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Nakarmi, P.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Niederhausen, H.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    O'Sullivan, E.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Pankova, D. , V
    Park, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Peiffer, P.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Pérez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Pizzuto, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Plum, M.
    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA.
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Raissi, A.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rauch, L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA.
    Rea, I. C.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Relethford, B.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Renzi, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Robertson, S.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Rysewyk, D.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Safa, I
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Herrera, S. E. Sanchez
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Santander, M.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Sarkara, S.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PQ, England.
    Satalecka, K.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Schaufel, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Schlunder, P.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Schneider, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Schneider, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnber, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Sclafani, S.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Silva, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Snihur, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Soedingrekso, J.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stachurska, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stein, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stettner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Stoessl, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Stuttard, T.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Taboada, I
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Tenholt, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Tomankov, L.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Toennis, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Toscano, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Tselengidou, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnber, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Tung, C. F.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Turcotte, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Turley, C. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Ty, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Unger, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Elorrieta, M. A. Unland
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Van Driessche, W.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    van Eijk, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Watson, T. B.
    Univ Texas Arlington, Dept Phys, 502 Yates St,Sci Hall Rm 108,Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 USA.
    Weaver, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Weiss, M. J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Weldert, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Werthebach, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Whitehorn, N.
    UCLA, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Wills, L.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Wolf, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Wood, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Wrede, G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnber, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Yuan, T.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Neutrinos below 100 TeV from the southern sky employing refined veto techniques to IceCube data2020In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 116, article id 102392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Galactic sources of gamma rays, such as supernova remnants, are expected to produce neutrinos with a typical energy cutoff well below 100 TeV. For the IceCube Neutrino Observatory located at the South Pole, the southern sky, containing the inner part of the Galactic plane and the Galactic Center, is a particularly challenging region at these energies, because of the large background of atmospheric muons. In this paper, we present recent advancements in data selection strategies for track-like muon neutrino events with energies below 100 TeV from the southern sky. The strategies utilize the outer detector regions as veto and features of the signal pattern to reduce the background of atmospheric muons to a level which, for the first time, allows IceCube searching for point-like sources of neutrinos in the southern sky at energies between 100 GeV and several TeV in the muon neutrino charged current channel. No significant clustering of neutrinos above background expectation was observed in four years of data recorded with the completed IceCube detector. Upper limits on the neutrino flux for a number of spectral hypotheses are reported for a list of astrophysical objects in the southern hemisphere. 

  • 3.
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    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand..
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    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA..
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
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    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
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    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
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    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
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    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Phys Dept, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
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    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
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    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
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    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
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    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA..
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
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    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
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    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
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    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
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    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
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    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
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    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
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    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
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    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
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    Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
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    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
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    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
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    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
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    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
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    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
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    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
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    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
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    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
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    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
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    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
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    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
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    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
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    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
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    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
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    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
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    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
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    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
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    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
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    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
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    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
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    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
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    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
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    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
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    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
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    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
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    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA..
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    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
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    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
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    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
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    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
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    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
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    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
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    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
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    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
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    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
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    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
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    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
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    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
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    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
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    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
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    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
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    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
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    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
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    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
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    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
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    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
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    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Moulai, M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Nygren, D. R.
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Pankova, D. V.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Peiffer, P.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Penek, O.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Pérez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Quinnan, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Radel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Relethford, B.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Riedel, B.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Rysewyk, D.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Sabbatini, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Herrera, S. E. Sanchez
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Westfal Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Satalecka, K.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schlunder, P.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schoneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stettner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stossl, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Tenholt, E.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tesic, G.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Toscano, S.
    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tselengidou, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Unger, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    van Rossem, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vehring, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Voge, M.
    Univ Bonn, Phys Inst, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Vogel, E.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Weaver, Ch.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Weiss, M. J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wickmann, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Wills, L.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Wolf, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woolsey, E.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Yanez, J. P.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Zoll, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The IceCube realtime alert system2017In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 92, p. 30-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although high-energy astrophysical neutrinos were discovered in 2013, their origin is still unknown. Aiming for the identification of an electromagnetic counterpart of a rapidly fading source, we have implemented a realtime analysis framework for the IceCube neutrino observatory. Several analyses selecting neutrinos of astrophysical origin are now operating in realtime at the detector site in Antarctica and are producing alerts for the community to enable rapid follow-up observations. The goal of these observations is to locate the astrophysical objects responsible for these neutrino signals. This paper highlights the infrastructure in place both at the South Pole site and at IceCube facilities in the north that have enabled this fast follow-up program to be implemented. Additionally, this paper presents the first realtime analyses to be activated within this framework, highlights their sensitivities to astrophysical neutrinos and background event rates, and presents an outlook for future discoveries.

  • 4. Aartsen, M. G.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Ahrens, M.
    Altmann, D.
    Anderson, T.
    Arguelles, C.
    Arlen, T. C.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Baum, V.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Becker, K. -H
    BenZvi, S.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bernhard, A.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Binder, G.
    Bindig, D.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Blumenthal, J.
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bohm, C.
    Bos, F.
    Bose, D.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brayeur, L.
    Bretz, H. -P
    Brown, A. M.
    Casey, J.
    Casier, M.
    Cheung, E.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christov, A.
    Christy, B.
    Clark, K.
    Classen, L.
    Cleverinann, F.
    Coenders, S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    Danninger, M.
    Daughhetee, J.
    Davis, J. C.
    Day, M.
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    De Clercq, C.
    De Ridder, S.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries, K. D.
    de With, M.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dunkman, M.
    Eagan, R.
    Eberhardt, B.
    Eichmann, B.
    Eisch, J.
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Fedynitch, A.
    Feintzeig, J.
    Felde, J.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Flis, S.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Frantzen, K.
    Fuchs, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gaior, R.
    Gallagher, J.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gier, D.
    Gladstone, L.
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Golup, G.
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Gora, D.
    Grant, D.
    Gretskov, P.
    Groh, J. C.
    Gross, A.
    Ha, C.
    Haack, C.
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Hallen, P.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hebecker, D.
    Heereman, D.
    Heinen, D.
    Helbing, K.
    Hellauer, R.
    Hellwig, D.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Hoffmann, R.
    Homeier, A.
    Hoshina, K.
    Huang, F.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobi, E.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Jagielski, K.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Jero, K.
    Jlelati, O.
    Jurkovic, M.
    Kaminsky, B.
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kauer, M.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Kheirandish, A.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Klaes, J.
    Klein, S. R.
    Koehne, J. -H
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koob, A.
    Koepke, L.
    Kopper, C.
    Kopper, S.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kriesten, A.
    Krings, K.
    Kroll, G.
    Kroll, M.
    Kunnen, J.
    Kurahashi, N.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Larsen, D. T.
    Larson, M. J.
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    Leuermann, M.
    Leute, J.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Maggi, G.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    Maunu, R.
    McNally, F.
    Meagher, K.
    Medici, M.
    Meli, A.
    Meures, T.
    Miarecki, S.
    Middell, E.
    Middlemas, E.
    Milke, N.
    Miller, J.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Naumann, U.
    Niederhausen, H.
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Obertacke, A.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Omairat, A.
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Palczewski, T.
    Paul, L.
    Penek, Oe.
    Pepper, J. A.
    de los Heros, Carlos Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pfendner, C.
    Pieloth, D.
    Pinat, E.
    Posselt, J.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Puetz, J.
    Quinnan, M.
    Raedel, L.
    Rameez, M.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Rees, I.
    Reimann, R.
    Relich, M.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Richman, M.
    Riedel, B.
    Robertson, S.
    Rodrigues, Jp.
    Rongen, M.
    Rott, C.
    Ruhe, T.
    Ruzybayev, B.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Saba, S. M.
    Sander, H. -G
    Sandroos, J.
    Santander, M.
    Sarkar, S.
    Schatto, K.
    Scheriau, F.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schmitz, M.
    Schoenen, S.
    Schoeneberg, S.
    Schoenwald, A.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schulte, L.
    Schulz, O.
    Seckel, D.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Shanidze, R.
    Smith, M. W. E.
    Soldin, D.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stanisha, N. A.
    Stasik, A.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoessl, A.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Terliuk, A.
    Tesic, G.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Tobin, M. N.
    Tosi, D.
    Tselengidou, M.
    Unger, E.
    Usner, M.
    Vallecorsa, S.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    van Santen, J.
    Vehring, M.
    Voge, M.
    Vraeghe, M.
    Walck, C.
    Wallraff, M.
    Weaver, Ch.
    Wellons, M.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whelan, B. J.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wichary, C.
    Wiebe, K.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wissing, H.
    Wolf, M.
    Wood, T. R.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, D. L.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    Ziemann, J.
    Zierke, S.
    Zoll, M.
    Searches for small-scale anisotropies from neutrino point sources with three years of IceCube data2015In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 66, p. 39-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, IceCube found evidence for a diffuse signal of astrophysical neutrinos in an energy range of similar to 60 TeV to the PeV-scale [1]. The origin of those events, being a key to understanding the origin of cosmic rays, is still an unsolved question. So far, analyses have not succeeded to resolve the diffuse signal into point-like sources. Searches including a maximum-likelihood-ratio test, based on the reconstructed directions and energies of the detected down- and up-going neutrino candidates, were also performed on IceCube data leading to the exclusion of bright point sources. In this paper, we present two methods to search for faint neutrino point sources in three years of IceCube data, taken between 2008 and 2011. The first method is an autocorrelation test, applied separately to the northern and southern sky. The second method is a multipole analysis, which expands the measured data in the northern hemisphere into spherical harmonics and uses the resulting expansion coefficients to separate signal from background. With both methods, the results are consistent with the background expectation with a slightly more sparse spatial distribution, corresponding to an underfluctuation. Depending on the assumed number of sources, the resulting upper limit on the flux per source in the northern hemisphere for an E-2 energy spectrum ranges from similar to 1.5. 10(-8) GeV/cm(2) s(-1), in the case of one assumed source, to similar to 4. 10(-10) GeV/cm(2) s(-1), in the case of 3500 assumed sources.

  • 5. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Abdou, Y.
    Abu-Zayyad, T.
    Ackermann, M.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Allen, M. M.
    Altmann, D.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R.
    Alba, J. L. Bazo
    Beattie, K.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechet, S.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    BenZvi, S.
    Berdermann, J.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bindig, D.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Blumenthal, J.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Bose, D.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brown, A. M.
    Buitink, S.
    Caballero-Mora, K. S.
    Carson, M.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clevermann, F.
    Cohen, S.
    Colnard, C.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    D'Agostino, M. V.
    Danninger, M.
    Daughhetee, J.
    Davis, J. C.
    De Clercq, C.
    Degner, T.
    Demiroers, L.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dierckxsens, M.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Dunkman, M.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegård, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Fedynitch, F. A.
    Feintzeig, J.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Fox, B. D.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    Goldschmidth, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Gora, D.
    Grant, D.
    Griesel, T.
    Gross, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gurtner, M.
    Ha, C.
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Han, K.
    Hanson, K.
    Heinen, D.
    Helbing, K.
    Hellauer, R.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Hoffmann, B.
    Homeier, A.
    Hoshina, K.
    Huesnitz, W.
    Huelss, J. -P
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobi, E.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Johansson, H.
    Kampert, K. -H
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kenny, P.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Klein, S. R.
    Koehne, J. -H
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kowarik, T.
    Krasberg, M.
    Kroll, G.
    Kurahashi, N.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Larson, M. J.
    Lauer, R.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Marotta, A.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Meszaros, P.
    Meures, T.
    Miarecki, S.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Miller, J.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Nam, J. W.
    Naumann, U.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, M.
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Panknin, S.
    Paul, L.
    Pérez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Petrovic, J.
    Piegsa, A.
    Pieloth, D.
    Porrata, R.
    Posselt, J.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richman, M.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Ruhe, T.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ruzybayev, B.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Santander, M.
    Sarkar, S.
    Schatto, K.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schoenwald, A.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schultes, A.
    Schulz, O.
    Schunck, M.
    Seckel, D.
    Semburg, B.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Silvestri, A.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoessl, A.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Stueer, M.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Swillens, Q.
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Toscano, S.
    Tosi, D.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Overloop, A.
    van Santen, J.
    Vehring, M.
    Voge, M.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Wallraff, M.
    Walter, M.
    Weaver, Ch.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebe, K.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Wolf, M.
    Wood, T. R.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, C.
    Xu, D. L.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    Zoll, M.
    The design and performance of IceCube DeepCore2012In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 615-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IceCube neutrino observatory in operation at the South Pole, Antarctica, comprises three distinct components: a large buried array for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection, a surface air shower array, and a new buried component called DeepCore. DeepCore was designed to lower the IceCube neutrino energy threshold by over an order of magnitude, to energies as low as about 10 GeV. DeepCore is situated primarily 2100 m below the surface of the icecap at the South Pole, at the bottom center of the existing IceCube array, and began taking physics data in May 2010. Its location takes advantage of the exceptionally clear ice at those depths and allows it to use the surrounding IceCube detector as a highly efficient active veto against the principal background of downward-going muons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. DeepCore has a module density roughly five times higher than that of the standard IceCube array, and uses photomultiplier tubes with a new photocathode featuring a quantum efficiency about 35% higher than standard IceCube PMTs. Taken together, these features of DeepCore will increase IceCube's sensitivity to neutrinos from WIMP dark matter annihilations, atmospheric neutrino oscillations, galactic supernova neutrinos, and point sources of neutrinos in the northern and southern skies. In this paper we describe the design and initial performance of DeepCore.

  • 6. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Abdou, Y.
    Abu-Zayyad, T.
    Ackermann, M.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Altmann, D.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Baum, V.
    Bay, R.
    Alba, J. L. Bazo
    Beattie, K.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechett, S.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bell, M.
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    BenZvi, S.
    Berdermann, J.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bindig, D.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Blumenthal, J.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Bose, D.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brayeur, L.
    Brown, A. M.
    Buitink, S.
    Caballero-Mora, K. S.
    Carson, M.
    Casier, M.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clevermann, F.
    Cohen, S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    D'Agostino, M. V.
    Danninger, M.
    Daughhetee, J.
    Davis, J. C.
    De Clercq, C.
    Degner, T.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Dunkman, M.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegard, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Fedynitch, A.
    Feintzeig, J.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Flis, S.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Gora, D.
    Grant, D.
    Gross, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gurtner, M.
    Ha, C.
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Han, K.
    Hanson, K.
    Heereman, D.
    Heimann, P.
    Heinen, D.
    Helbing, K.
    Hellauer, R.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Hoffmann, B.
    Homeier, A.
    Hoshina, K.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobi, E.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Johansson, H.
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Klein, S. R.
    Klepser, S.
    Koehne, J. -H
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Kopper, S.
    Koskinen, Dj.
    Kowalski, M.
    Krasberg, M.
    Kroll, G.
    Kunnen, J.
    Kurahashi, N.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Larson, M. J.
    Lauer, R.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Meszaros, P.
    Meures, T.
    Miarecki, S.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Miller, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Nam, J. W.
    Naumann, U.
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, M.
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Panknin, S.
    Paul, L.
    de los Heros, Carlos Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pieloth, D.
    Posselt, J.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richman, M.
    Riedel, B.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Ruhe, T.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ruzybayev, B.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Santander, M.
    Sarkar, S.
    Schatto, K.
    Scheel, M.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schoeneberg, S.
    Schonwald, A.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schulte, L.
    Schultes, A.
    Schulz, O.
    Schunck, M.
    Seckel, D.
    Semburg, B.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Silvestri, A.
    Smith, M. W. E.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stossl, A.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Stueer, M.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Toscano, S.
    Tosi, D.
    van Eijndhovenn, N.
    Van Overloop, A.
    van Santen, J.
    Vehring, M.
    Voge, M.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Wallraff, M.
    Walter, M.
    Wasserman, R.
    Weaver, Ch.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebe, K.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Wolf, M.
    Wood, T. R.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, C.
    Xu, D. L.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    Zoll, M.
    All-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum measured with 26 IceTop stations2013In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 44, p. 40-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum with the IceTop air shower array, the surface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The data used in this analysis were taken between June and October, 2007, with 26 surface stations operational at that time, corresponding to about one third of the final array. The fiducial area used in this analysis was 0.122 km(2). The analysis investigated the energy spectrum from 1 to 100 PeV measured for three different zenith angle ranges between 0 degrees and 46 degrees. Because of the isotropy of cosmic rays in this energy range the spectra from all zenith angle intervals have to agree. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum was determined under different assumptions on the primary mass composition. Good agreement of spectra in the three zenith angle ranges was found for the assumption of pure proton and a simple two-component model. For zenith angles theta < 30 degrees, where the mass dependence is smallest, the knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrum was observed at about 4 PeV, with a spectral index above the knee of about -3.1. Moreover, an indication of a flattening of the spectrum above 22 PeV was observed. 

  • 7. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Abdou, Y.
    Abu-Zayyad, T.
    Actis, O.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R.
    Alba, J. L. Bazo
    Beattie, K.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechet, S.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    Berdermann, J.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bradley, L.
    Braun, J.
    Buitirik, S.
    Carson, M.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clem, J.
    Clevermann, F.
    Cohen, S.
    Colnard, C.
    Cowen, D. F.
    D'Agostino, M. V.
    Danninger, M.
    Davis, J. C.
    De Clercq, C.
    Demiroers, L.
    Depaepe, O.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Duvoort, M. R.
    Ehrlich, R.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegård, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Foerster, M. M.
    Fox, B. D.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Geisler, M.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Grant, D.
    Griesel, T.
    Gross, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gunasingha, R. M.
    Gurtner, M.
    Ha, C.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Han, K.
    Hanson, K.
    Helbing, K.
    Herquet, P.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Homeier, A.
    Hoshina, K.
    Hubert, D.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Huelss, J. -P
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Imlay, R. L.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Johansson, H.
    Joseph, J. M.
    Kampert, K. -H
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Kemming, N.
    Kenny, P.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Klein, S. R.
    Knops, S.
    Koehne, J. -H
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kowarik, T.
    Krasberg, M.
    Krings, T.
    Kroll, G.
    Kuehn, K.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Lafebre, S.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Lauer, R.
    Lehmann, R.
    Lennarz, D.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Majumdar, P.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    Matusik, M.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Meszaros, P.
    Meures, T.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Miller, J.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Nam, J. W.
    Naumann, U.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, Martino
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ono, M.
    Panknin, S.
    Paul, L.
    de los Heros, Carlos Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Petrovic, J.
    Piegsa, A.
    Pieloth, D.
    Porrata, R.
    Posselt, J.
    Price, P. B.
    Prikockis, M.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Rizzo, A.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Roth, P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Roucelle, C.
    Ruhe, T.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ruzybayev, B.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Sarkar, S.
    Schatto, K.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schultes, A.
    Schulz, O.
    Schunck, M.
    Seckel, D.
    Semburg, B.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Silvestri, A.
    Slipak, A.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stephens, G.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoyanov, S.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Straszheim, T.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Swillens, Q.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Tosi, D.
    Turcan, D.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Overloop, A.
    van Santen, J.
    Voigt, B.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Wallraff, M.
    Walter, M.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebe, K.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wikstroem, G.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, C.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    Search for neutrino-induced cascades with five years of AMANDA data2011In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 420-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the search for electromagnetic and hadronic showers ("cascades") produced by a diffuse flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos in the AMANDA neutrino telescope. Data for this analysis were recorded during 1001 days of detector livetime in the years 2000-2004. The observed event rates are consistent with the background expectation from atmospheric neutrinos and muons. An upper limit is derived for the diffuse flux of neutrinos of all flavors assuming a flavor ratio of v(e):v(mu):v(tau) = 1:1:1 at the detection site. The all-flavor flux of neutrinos with an energy spectrum Phi proportional to E-2 is less than 5.0 x 10(-7) GeV s(-1) sr(-1) cm(-2) at a 90% C.L. Here, 90% of the simulated signal would fall within the energy range 40 TeV to 9 PeV. We discuss flux limits in the context of several specific models of extraterrestrial and prompt atmospheric neutrino production.

  • 8. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Abdou, Y.
    Abu-Zayyad, T.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R.
    Alba, J. L. Bazo
    Beattie, K.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechet, S.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    BenZvi, S.
    Berdermann, J.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bindig, D.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Blumenthal, J.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Bose, D.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Braun, J.
    Brown, A. M.
    Buitink, S.
    Carson, M.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clem, J.
    Clevermann, F.
    Cohen, S.
    Colnard, C.
    Cowen, D. F.
    D'Agostino, M. V.
    Danninger, M.
    Daughhetee, J.
    Davis, J. C.
    De Clercq, C.
    Demiroers, L.
    Denger, T.
    Depaepe, O.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dierckxsens, M.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Ehrlich, R.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegård, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Fedynitch, A.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Foerster, M. M.
    Fox, B. D.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Geisler, M.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Grant, D.
    Griesel, T.
    Gross, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gurtner, M.
    Ha, C.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Han, K.
    Hanson, K.
    Heinen, D.
    Helbing, K.
    Herquet, P.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Homeier, A.
    Hoshina, K.
    Hubert, D.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Huelss, J. -P
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Johansson, H.
    Joseph, J. M.
    Kampert, K. -H
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Kenny, P.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Klein, S. R.
    Koehne, J. -H
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Kopper, S.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kowarik, T.
    Krasberg, M.
    Krings, T.
    Kroll, G.
    Kuehn, K.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Lafebre, S.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Larson, M. J.
    Lauer, R.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Majumdar, P.
    Marotta, A.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Meszaros, P.
    Meures, T.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Miller, J.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Nam, J. W.
    Naumann, U.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, M.
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Ono, M.
    Panknin, S.
    Paul, L.
    Pérez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Petrovic, J.
    Piegsa, A.
    Pieloth, D.
    Porrata, R.
    Posselt, J.
    Price, P. B.
    Prikockis, M.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Rizzo, A.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Roth, P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Ruhe, T.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ruzybayev, B.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Santander, M.
    Sarkar, S.
    Schatto, K.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schoenwald, A.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schultes, A.
    Schulz, O.
    Schunck, M.
    Seckel, D.
    Semburg, B.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Silvestri, A.
    Slipak, A.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stephens, G.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoessl, A.
    Stoyanov, S.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Straszheim, T.
    Stuer, M.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Swillens, Q.
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Toscano, S.
    Tosi, D.
    Turcan, D.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Overloop, A.
    van Santen, J.
    Vehring, M.
    Voge, M.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Wallraff, M.
    Walter, M.
    Weaver, Ch
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebe, K.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Wolf, M.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, C.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Zarzhitsk, P.
    Background studies for acoustic neutrino detection at the South Pole2012In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 312-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of acoustic signals from ultra-high energy neutrino interactions is a promising method to measure the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos expected on Earth. The energy threshold for this process depends strongly on the absolute noise level in the target material. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), deployed in the upper part of four boreholes of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has monitored the noise in Antarctic ice at the geographic South Pole for more than two years down to 500 m depth. The noise is very stable and Gaussian distributed. Lacking an in situ calibration up to now, laboratory measurements have been used to estimate the absolute noise level in the 10-50 kHz frequency range to be smaller than 20 mPa. Using a threshold trigger, sensors of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup registered acoustic events in the IceCube detector volume and its vicinity. Acoustic signals from refreezing IceCube holes and from anthropogenic sources have been used to test the localization of acoustic events. An upper limit on the neutrino flux at energies E-v>10(11) GeV is derived from acoustic data taken over eight months. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Abdou, Y.
    Abu-Zayyad, T.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R.
    Alba, J. L. Bazo
    Beattie, K.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechet, S.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    Berdermann, J.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bradley, L.
    Braun, J.
    Buitink, S.
    Carson, M.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clem, J.
    Clevermann, F.
    Cohen, S.
    Colnard, C.
    Cowen, D. F.
    D'Agostino, M. V.
    Danninger, M.
    De Clercq, C.
    Demiroers, L.
    Depaepe, O.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Duvoort, M. R.
    Ehrlich, R.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegård, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Foerster, M. M.
    Fox, B. D.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Geisler, M.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Grant, D.
    Griesel, T.
    Gross, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gunasingha, R. M.
    Gurtner, M.
    Gustafsson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ha, C.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Han, K.
    Hanson, K.
    Helbing, K.
    Herquet, P.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Homeier, A.
    Hoshina, K.
    Hubert, D.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Huelss, J. -P
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Imlay, R. L.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Johansson, H.
    Joseph, J. M.
    Kampert, K. -H
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Kemming, N.
    Kenny, P.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Klein, S. R.
    Knops, S.
    Koehne, J. -H
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Koskinen, Dj.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kowarik, T.
    Krasberg, M.
    Krings, T.
    Kroll, G.
    Kuehn, K.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Lafebre, S.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Lauer, R.
    Lehmann, R.
    Lennarz, D.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Majumdar, P.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    Matusik, M.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Meszaros, P.
    Meures, T.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Nam, J. W.
    Naumann, U.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, Martino
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ono, M.
    Panknin, S.
    Paul, L.
    de los Heros, Carlos Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Petrovic, J.
    Piegsa, A.
    Pieloth, D.
    Porrata, R.
    Posselt, J.
    Price, P. B.
    Prikockis, M.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Rizzo, A.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Roth, P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Roucelle, C.
    Ruhe, T.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ruzybayev, B.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Sarkar, S.
    Schatto, K.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schultes, A.
    Schulz, O.
    Schunck, M.
    Seckel, D.
    Semburg, B.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Silvestri, A.
    Slipakaj, A.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stephens, G.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoyanov, S.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Straszheim, T.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Swillens, Q.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Tarasova, O.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Tosi, D.
    Turcan, D.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Overloop, A.
    van Santen, J.
    Voigt, B.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Wallraff, M.
    Walter, M.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebe, K.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wikstrom, G.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, C.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice2011In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 382-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient alpha = 3.20 +/- 0.57 km(-1) between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for lambda equivalent to 1/alpha of similar to 300 m with 20% uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.

  • 10. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Abdou, Y.
    Abu-Zayyad, T.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, Sw
    Bay, R.
    Alba, J. L. Bazo
    Beattie, K.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechet, S.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    Berdermann, J.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Bradley, L.
    Braun, J.
    Buitink, S.
    Carson, M.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clem, J.
    Clevermann, F.
    Cohen, S.
    Colnard, C.
    Cowen, D. F.
    D'Agostino, M. V.
    Danninger, M.
    De Clercq, C.
    Demiroers, L.
    Depaepe, O.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Duvoort, M. R.
    Ehrlich, R.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegard, O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Fedynitch, A.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Foerster, M. M.
    Fox, B. D.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Geisler, M.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Grant, D.
    Griesel, T.
    Gross, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gunasingha, R. M.
    Gurtner, M.
    Ha, C.
    Hallgren, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Halzen, F.
    Han, K.
    Hanson, K.
    Helbing, K.
    Herquet, P.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Homeier, A.
    Hoshina, K.
    Hubert, D.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Huelss, J. -P
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Imlay, R. L.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Johansson, H.
    Joseph, J. M.
    Kampert, K. -H
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Kemming, N.
    Kenny, P.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Klein, S. R.
    Knops, S.
    Koehne, J. -H
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kowarik, T.
    Krasberg, M.
    Krings, T.
    Kroll, G.
    Kuehn, K.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Lafebre, S.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Lauer, R.
    Lehmann, R.
    Lennarz, D.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Majumdar, P.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    Matusik, M.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Meszaros, P.
    Meures, T.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Muenich, K.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Nam, J. W.
    Naumann, U.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Ono, M.
    Panknin, S.
    Paul, L.
    de los Heros, C. Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Petrovic, J.
    Piegsa, A.
    Pieloth, D.
    Porrata, R.
    Posselt, J.
    Price, P. B.
    Prikockis, M.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Rizzo, A.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Roth, P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Roucelle, C.
    Ruhe, T.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ruzybayev, B.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Sarkar, S.
    Schatto, K.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schultes, A.
    Schulz, O.
    Schunck, M.
    Seckel, D.
    Semburg, B.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Silvestri, A.
    Slipak, A.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stephens, G.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoyanov, S.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Straszheim, T.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Swillens, Q.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Tarasova, O.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Tosi, D.
    Turcan, D.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Overloop, A.
    van Santen, J.
    Voigt, B.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Wallraff, M.
    Walter, M.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebe, K.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wikstrom, G.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, C.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    The energy spectrum of atmospheric neutrinos between 2 and 200 TeV with the AMANDA-II detector2010In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The muon and anti-muon neutrino energy spectrum is determined from 2000-2003 AMANDA telescope data using regularised unfolding. This is the first measurement of atmospheric neutrinos in the energy range 2-200 TeV. The result is compared to different atmospheric neutrino models and it is compatible with the atmospheric neutrinos from pion and kaon decays. No significant contribution from charm had-ron decays or extraterrestrial neutrinos is detected. The capabilities to improve the measurement of the neutrino spectrum with the successor experiment IceCube are discussed.

  • 11. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Abdou, Y.
    Ackermann, M.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Altmann, D.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Baum, V.
    Bay, R.
    Beattie, K.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechet, S.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bell, M.
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    Benzvi, S.
    Berdermann, J.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bindig, D.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Blumenthal, J.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Bose, D.
    Böser, S.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brayeur, L.
    Brown, A. M.
    Bruijn, R.
    Brunner, J.
    Buitink, S.
    Caballero-Mora, K. S.
    Carson, M.
    Casey, J.
    Casier, M.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clevermann, F.
    Cohen, S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Silva, A. H. C.
    Danninger, M.
    Daughhetee, J.
    Davis, J. C.
    De Clercq, C.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    Deyoung, T.
    Díaz-Vélez, J. C.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Dunkman, M.
    Eagan, R.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegård, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Fedynitch, A.
    Feintzeig, J.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Flis, S.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Frantzen, K.
    Fuchs, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Glüsenkamp, T.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Góra, D.
    Grant, D.
    Groß, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gurtner, M.
    Ha, C.
    Ismail, A. H.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Heereman, D.
    Heimann, P.
    Heinen, D.
    Helbing, K.
    Hellauer, R.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Hoffmann, R.
    Homeier, A.
    Hoshina, K.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobi, E.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Jlelati, O.
    Johansson, H.
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Kläs, J.
    Klein, S. R.
    Köhne, J. -H
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Köpke, L.
    Kopper, C.
    Kopper, S.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Kowalski, M.
    Krasberg, M.
    Kroll, G.
    Kunnen, J.
    Kurahashi, N.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Larson, M. J.
    Lauer, R.
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    Lünemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    McNally, F.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Mészáros, P.
    Meures, T.
    Miarecki, S.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Miller, J.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Naumann, U.
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Obertacke, A.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, M.
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Panknin, S.
    Paul, L.
    Pepper, J. A.
    Pérez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pieloth, D.
    Pirk, N.
    Posselt, J.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rädel, L.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richman, M.
    Riedel, B.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Ruhe, T.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ruzybayev, B.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Salameh, T.
    Sander, H. -G
    Santander, M.
    Sarkar, S.
    Saba, S. M.
    Schatto, K.
    Scheel, M.
    Scheriau, F.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schmitz, M.
    Schoenen, S.
    Schöneberg, S.
    Schönherr, L.
    Schönwald, A.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schulte, L.
    Schulz, O.
    Seckel, D.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Smith, M. W. E.
    Soiron, M.
    Soldin, D.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stasik, A.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stößl, A.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Toscano, S.
    Usner, M.
    Van Eijndhoven, N.
    Van Der Drift, D.
    Van Overloop, A.
    Van Santen, J.
    Vehring, M.
    Voge, M.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Wallraff, M.
    Walter, M.
    Wasserman, R.
    Weaver, C.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebe, K.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wissing, H.
    Wolf, M.
    Wood, T. R.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, C.
    Xu, D. L.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    Ziemann, J.
    Zilles, A.
    Zoll, M.
    Cosmic ray composition and energy spectrum from 1-30 PeV using the 40-string configuration of IceTop and IceCube2013In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 42, p. 15-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mass composition of high energy cosmic rays depends on their production, acceleration, and propagation. The study of cosmic ray composition can therefore reveal hints of the origin of these particles. At the South Pole, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory is capable of measuring two components of cosmic ray air showers in coincidence: the electromagnetic component at high altitude (2835 m) using the IceTop surface array, and the muonic component above ∼1 TeV using the IceCube array. This unique detector arrangement provides an opportunity for precision measurements of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and composition in the region of the knee and beyond. We present the results of a neural network analysis technique to study the cosmic ray composition and the energy spectrum from 1 PeV to 30 PeV using data recorded using the 40-string/40-station configuration of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.

  • 12. Abbasi, R.
    et al.
    Abdou, Y.
    Ackermann, M.
    Adams, J.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Ahlers, M.
    Andeen, K.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Bai, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R.
    Alba, J. L. Bazo
    Beattie, K.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechet, S.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    Berdermann, J.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Bohm, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Bradley, L.
    Braun, J.
    Breder, D.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christy, B.
    Clem, J.
    Cohen, S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    D'Agostino, M. V.
    Danninger, M.
    Day, C. T.
    De Clercq, C.
    Demiroers, L.
    Depaepe, O.
    Descamps, F.
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dreyer, J.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Duvoort, M. R.
    Edwards, W. R.
    Ehrlich, R.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Engdegård, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Foerster, M. M.
    Fox, B. D.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Franke, R.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Gozzini, R.
    Grant, D.
    Griesel, T.
    Gross, A.
    Grullon, S.
    Gunasingha, R. M.
    Gurtner, M.
    Ha, C.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Halzen, F.
    Han, K.
    Hanson, K.
    Hasegawa, Y.
    Heise, J.
    Helbing, K.
    Herquet, P.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Hoshina, K.
    Hubert, D.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Huelss, J. -P
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Imlay, R. L.
    Inaba, M.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Johansson, H.
    Joseph, J. M.
    Kampert, K. -H
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Kenny, P.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Kislat, F.
    Klein, S. R.
    Klepser, S.
    Knops, S.
    Kohnen, G.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kowarik, T.
    Krasberg, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Lafebre, S.
    Laihem, K.
    Landsman, H.
    Lauer, R.
    Leich, H.
    Lennarz, D.
    Lucke, A.
    Lundberg, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Majumdar, P.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Meszaros, P.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Mohr, A.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Movit, S. M.
    Muenich, K.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Nam, J. W.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    Olivo, Martino
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Ono, M.
    Panknin, S.
    Patton, S.
    de los Heros, Carlos Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Petrovic, J.
    Piegsa, A.
    Pieloth, D.
    Pohl, Arvid C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Porrata, R.
    Potthoff, N.
    Price, P. B.
    Prikockis, M.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Rizzo, A.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Roth, P.
    Rothmaier, F.
    Rott, C.
    Roucelle, C.
    Rutledge, D.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Sarkar, S.
    Satalecka, K.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schukraft, A.
    Schulz, O.
    Schunck, M.
    Seckel, D.
    Semburg, B.
    Seo, S. H.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Silvestri, A.
    Slipak, A.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stephens, G.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoufer, M. C.
    Stoyanov, S.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Straszheim, T.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Swillens, Q.
    Taboada, I.
    Tarasova, O.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Terranova, C.
    Tilav, S.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Toale, P. A.
    Tosi, D.
    Turcan, D.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Van Overloop, A.
    Vogt, C.
    Voigt, B.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Walter, M.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, A.
    Wikstrom, G.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy2010In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 33, no 5-6, p. 277-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at similar to 5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 13. Abdallah, J.
    et al.
    Abreu, P.
    Adam, W.
    Adzic, P.
    Albrecht, T.
    Alemany-Fernandez, R.
    Allmendinger, T.
    Allport, P. P.
    Amaldi, U.
    Amapane, N.
    Amato, S.
    Anashkin, E.
    Andreazza, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics.
    Andringa, S.
    Anjos, N.
    Antilogus, P.
    Apel, W. -D
    Arnoud, Y.
    Ask, S.
    Asman, B.
    Augustinus, A.
    Baillon, P.
    Ballestrero, A.
    Bambade, P.
    Barbier, R.
    Bardin, D.
    Barker, G. J.
    Baroncelli, A.
    Battaglia, M.
    Baubillier, M.
    Beeks, K-H
    Begalli, M.
    Behrmann, A.
    Ben-Haim, E.
    Benekos, N.
    Benvenuti, A.
    Berat, C.
    Berggren, M.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besancon, M.
    Besson, N.
    Bloch, D.
    Blom, M.
    Bluj, M.
    Bonesini, M.
    Boonekamp, M.
    Booth, P. S. L.
    Borisov, G.
    Botner, O.
    Bouquet, B.
    Bowcock, T. J. V.
    Boyko, I.
    Bracko, M.
    Brenner, R.
    Brodet, E.
    Bruckman, P.
    Brunet, J. M.
    Buschbeck, B.
    Buschmann, P.
    Calvi, M.
    Camporesi, T.
    Canale, V.
    Carena, F.
    Castro, N.
    Cavallo, F.
    Chapkin, M.
    Charpentier, Ph.
    Checchia, P.
    Chierici, R.
    Chliapnikov, P.
    Chudoba, J.
    Chung, S. U.
    Cieslik, K.
    Collins, P.
    Contri, R.
    Cosme, G.
    Cossutti, F.
    Costa, M. J.
    Crennell, D.
    Cuevas, J.
    D'Hondt, J.
    da Silva, T.
    Da Silva, W.
    Della Ricca, G.
    De Angelis, A.
    De Boer, W.
    De Clercq, C.
    De Lotto, B.
    De Maria, N.
    De Min, A.
    de Paula, L.
    Di Ciaccio, L.
    Di Simone, A.
    Doroba, K.
    Drees, J.
    Eigen, G.
    Ekelof, T.
    Ellert, M.
    Elsing, M.
    Santo, M. C. Espirito
    Fanourakis, G.
    Fassouliotis, D.
    Feindt, M.
    Fernandez, J.
    Ferrer, A.
    Ferro, F.
    Flagmeyer, U.
    Foeth, H.
    Fokitis, E.
    Fulda-Quenzer, F.
    Fuster, J.
    Gandelman, M.
    Garcia, C.
    Gavillet, Ph.
    Gazis, E.
    Gokieli, R.
    Golob, B.
    Gomez-Ceballos, G.
    Goncalves, P.
    Graziani, E.
    Grosdidier, G.
    Grzelak, K.
    Guy, J.
    Haag, C.
    Hallgren, A.
    Hamacher, K.
    Hamilton, K.
    Haug, S.
    Hauler, F.
    Hedberg, V.
    Hennecke, M.
    Herr, H.
    Hoffman, J.
    Holmgren, S. -O
    Holt, P. J.
    Houlden, M. A.
    Jackson, J. N.
    Jarlskog, G.
    Jarry, P.
    Jeans, D.
    Johansson, E. K.
    Jonsson, P.
    Joram, C.
    Jungermann, L.
    Kapusta, F.
    Katsanevas, S.
    Katsoufis, E.
    Kernel, G.
    Kersevan, B. P.
    Kerzel, U.
    King, B. T.
    Kjaer, N. J.
    Kluit, P.
    Kokkinias, P.
    Kourkoumelis, C.
    Kouznetsov, O.
    Krumstein, Z.
    Kucharczyk, M.
    Lamsa, J.
    Leder, G.
    Ledroit, F.
    Leinonen, L.
    Leitner, R.
    Lemonne, J.
    Lepeltier, V.
    Lesiak, T.
    Liebig, W.
    Liko, D.
    Lipniacka, A.
    Lopes, J. H.
    Lopez, J. M.
    Loukas, D.
    Lutz, P.
    Lyons, L.
    MacNaughton, J.
    Malek, A.
    Maltezos, S.
    Mandl, F.
    Marco, J.
    Marco, R.
    Marechal, B.
    Margoni, M.
    Marin, J. -C
    Mariotti, C.
    Markou, A.
    Martinez-Rivero, C.
    Masik, J.
    Mastroyiannopoulos, N.
    Matorras, F.
    Matteuzzi, C.
    Mazzucato, F.
    Mazzucato, M.
    Mc Nulty, R.
    Meroni, C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics.
    Migliore, E.
    Mitaroff, W.
    Mjoernmark, U.
    Moa, T.
    Moch, M.
    Moenig, K.
    Monge, R.
    Montenegro, J.
    Moraes, D.
    Moreno, S.
    Morettini, P.
    Mueller, U.
    Muenich, K.
    Mulders, M.
    Mundim, L.
    Murray, W.
    Muryn, B.
    Myatt, G.
    Myklebust, T.
    Nassiakou, M.
    Navarria, F.
    Nawrocki, K.
    Nicolaidou, R.
    Nikolenko, M.
    Oblakowska-Mucha, A.
    Obraztsov, V.
    Olshevski, A.
    Onofre, A.
    Orava, R.
    Osterberg, K.
    Ouraou, A.
    Oyanguren, A.
    Paganoni, M.
    Paiano, S.
    Palacios, J. P.
    Palka, H.
    Papadopoulou, Th. D.
    Pape, L.
    Parkes, C.
    Parodi, F.
    Parzefall, U.
    Passeri, A.
    Passon, O.
    Peralta, L.
    Perepelitsa, V.
    Perrotta, A.
    Petrolini, A.
    Piedra, J.
    Pieri, L.
    Pierre, F.
    Pimenta, M.
    Piotto, E.
    Podobnik, T.
    Poireau, V.
    Pol, M. E.
    Polok, G.
    Pozdniakov, V.
    Pukhaeva, N.
    Pullia, A.
    Rames, J.
    Read, A.
    Rebecchi, P.
    Rehn, J.
    Reid, D.
    Reinhardt, R.
    Renton, P.
    Richard, F.
    Ridky, J.
    Rivero, M.
    Rodriguez, D.
    Romero, A.
    Ronchese, P.
    Roudeau, P.
    Rovelli, T.
    Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.
    Ryabtchikov, D.
    Sadovsky, A.
    Salmi, L.
    Salt, J.
    Sander, C.
    Savoy-Navarro, A.
    Schwickerath, U.
    Sekulin, R.
    Shellard, R. C.
    Siebel, M.
    Sisakian, A.
    Smadja, G.
    Smirnova, O.
    Sokolov, A.
    Sopczak, A.
    Sosnowski, R.
    Spassov, T.
    Stanitzki, M.
    Stocchi, A.
    Strauss, J.
    Stugu, B.
    Szczekowski, M.
    Szeptycka, M.
    Szumlak, T.
    Tabarelli, T.
    Taffard, A. C.
    Tegenfeldt, F.
    Timmermans, J.
    Tkatchev, L.
    Tobin, M.
    Todorovova, S.
    Tome, B.
    Tonazzo, A.
    Tortosa, P.
    Travnicek, P.
    Treille, D.
    Tristram, G.
    Trochimczuk, M.
    Troncon, C.
    Turluer, M. -L
    Tyapkin, I. A.
    Tyapkin, P.
    Tzamarias, S.
    Uvarov, V.
    Valenti, G.
    Van Dam, P.
    Van Eldik, J.
    van Remortel, N.
    Van Vulpen, I.
    Vegni, G.
    Veloso, F.
    Venus, W.
    Verdier, P.
    Verzi, V.
    Vilanova, D.
    Vitale, L.
    Vrba, V.
    Wahlen, H.
    Washbrook, A. J.
    Weiser, C.
    Wicke, D.
    Wickens, J.
    Wilkinson, G.
    Winter, M.
    Witek, M.
    Yushchenko, O.
    Zalewska, A.
    Zalewski, P.
    Zavrtanik, D.
    Zhuravlov, V.
    Zimin, N. I.
    Zintchenko, A.
    Zupan, M.
    Study of multi-muon bundles in cosmic ray showers detected with the DELPHI detector at LEP2007In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 273-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The DELPHI detector at LEP has been used to measure multi-muon bundles originating from cosmic ray interactions with air. The cosmic events were recorded in "parasitic mode" between individual e(+)e(-) interactions and the total live time of this data taking is equivalent to 1.6 x 10(6) s. The DELPHI apparatus is located about 100 m underground and the 84 metres rock overburden imposes a cutoff of about 52 GeV/c on muon momenta. The data from the large volume Hadron Calorimeter allowed the muon multiplicity of 54,201 events to be reconstructed. The resulting muon multiplicity distribution is compared with the prediction of the Monte Carlo simulation based on CORSIKA/QGSJETOI. The model fails to describe the abundance of high multiplicity events. The impact of QGSJET internal parameters on the results is also studied.

  • 14. Acharya, BS
    et al.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zychowski, P
    Introducing the CTA concept2013In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 43, no SI, p. 3-18Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  • 15. Achterberg, A.
    et al.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Bouchta, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Conrad, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Davour, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Marciniewski, Pawel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Pérez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Biermann, P.L.
    On the selection of AGN neutrino source candidates for a source stacking analysis with neutrino telescopes2006In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 26, no 4-5, p. 282-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensitivity of a search for sources of TeV neutrinos can be improved by grouping potential sources together into generic classes in a procedure that is known as source stacking. In this paper, we define catalogs of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and use them to perform a source stacking analysis. The grouping of AGN into classes is done in two steps: first, AGN classes are defined, then, sources to be stacked are selected assuming that a potential neutrino flux is linearly correlated with the photon luminosity in a certain energy band (radio, IR, optical, keV, GeV, TeV). Lacking any secure detailed knowledge on neutrino production in AGN, this correlation is motivated by hadronic AGN models, as briefly reviewed in this paper.The source stacking search for neutrinos from generic AGN classes is illustrated using the data collected by the AMANDA-II highenergy neutrino detector during the year 2000. No significant excess for any of the suggested groups was found.

  • 16. Achterberg, A.
    et al.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Bouchta, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Conrad, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Davour, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Marciniewski, Pawel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Pérez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Zornoza, J. D.
    Limits on the Muon Flux from Neutralino Annihilations at the Center of the Earth with AMANDA2006In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 129-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A search has been performed for nearly vertically upgoing neutrino-induced muons with the Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA), using data taken over the three year period 1997-99. No excess above the expected atmospheric neutrino background has been found. Upper limits at 90% confidence level have been set on the annihilation rate of neutralinos at the center of the Earth, as well as on the muon flux at AMANDA induced by neutrinos created by the annihilation products.

  • 17. Achterberg, A.
    et al.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Bouchta, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Conrad, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Davour, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Marciniewski, Pawel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Pérez de los Heros, Carlos.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, High Energy Physics.
    Zornoza, J.D.
    First Year Performance of the IceCube Neutrino Telescope2006In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 155-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first sensors of the IceCube neutrino observatory were deployed at the South Pole during the austral summer of 2004-2005 and have been producing data since February 2005. One string of 60 sensors buried in the ice and a surface array of eight ice Cherenkov tanks took data until December 2005 when deployment of the next set of strings and tanks began. We have analyzed these data, demonstrating that the performance of the system meets or exceeds design requirements. Times are determined across the whole array to a relative precision of better than 3 ns, allowing reconstruction of muon tracks and light bursts in the ice, of air-showers in the surface array and of events seen in coincidence by surface and deep-ice detectors separated by up to 2.5 km.

  • 18. Barwick, S. W.
    et al.
    Berg, E. C.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Binder, G.
    Binns, W. R.
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bose, R. G.
    Braun, D. L.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Buitink, S.
    Dookayka, K.
    Dowkontt, P. F.
    Duffin, T.
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gustafsson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Hanson, J. C.
    Israel, M. H.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Klein, S. R.
    Kleinfelder, S.
    Niederhausen, H.
    Olevitch, M. A.
    Persichelli, C.
    Ratzlaff, K.
    Rauch, B. F.
    Reed, C.
    Roumi, M.
    Samanta, A.
    Simburger, G. E.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Tatar, J.
    Uggerhoj, U. I.
    Walker, J.
    Yodh, G.
    Young, R.
    A first search for cosmogenic neutrinos with the ARIANNA Hexagonal Radio Array2015In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 70, p. 12-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ARIANNA experiment seeks to observe the diffuse flux of neutrinos in the 10(8)-10(10) GeV energy range using a grid of radio detectors at the surface of the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica. The detector measures the coherent Cherenkov radiation produced at radio frequencies, from about 100 MHz-1 GHz, by charged particle showers generated by neutrino interactions in the ice. The ARIANNA Hexagonal Radio Array (HRA) is being constructed as a prototype for the full array. During the 2013-14 austral summer, three HRA stations collected radio data which was wirelessly transmitted off site in nearly real-time. The performance of these stations is described and a simple analysis to search for neutrino signals is presented. The analysis employs a set of three cuts that reject background triggers while preserving 90% of simulated cosmogenic neutrino triggers. No neutrino candidates are found in the data and a model-independent 90% confidence level Neyman upper limit is placed on the all flavor nu + (nu) over bar flux in a sliding decade-wide energy bin. The limit reaches a minimum of 1.9 x 10(-23) GeV-1 cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) in the 10(8.5)-10(9.5) GeV energy bin. Simulations of the performance of the full detector are also described. The sensitivity of the full ARIANNA experiment is presented and compared with current neutrino flux models.

  • 19.
    Barwick, S. W.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.;Natl Res Nucl Univ, MEPhI Moscow Engn Phys Inst, Moscow 115409, Russia..
    Burgman, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Chiem, E.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Irvine, CA USA..
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Hanson, J. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys CCAPP, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Klein, S. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kleinfelder, S. A.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Irvine, CA USA..
    Nelles, A.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Persichilli, C.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Phillips, S.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Prakash, T.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Irvine, CA USA..
    Reed, C.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Shively, S. R.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.;Univ Calif Irvine, Off Informat Technol, Res Comp, Irvine, CA USA..
    Unger, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Walker, J.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Radio detection of air showers with the ARIANNA experiment on the Ross Ice Shelf2017In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 90, p. 50-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ARIANNA hexagonal radio array (HRA) is an experiment in its pilot phase designed to detect cosmogenic neutrinos of energies above 10(16) eV. The most neutrino-like background stems from the radio emission of air showers. This article reports on dedicated efforts of simulating and detecting the signals of cosmic rays. A description of the fully radio self-triggered data-set, the properties of the detected air shower signals in the frequency range of 100-500 MHz and the consequences for neutrino detection are given. 38 air shower signals are identified by their distinct waveform characteristics, are in good agreement with simulations and their signals provide evidence that neutrino-induced radio signals will be distinguishable with high efficiency in ARIANNA. The cosmic ray flux at a mean energy of 6.5(-1.0)(+1.2) x 10(17) eV is measured to be 1.1(-0.7)(+1.0) x 10(-16) eV(-1) km(-2) sr(-1) yr(-1) and one five-fold coincident event is used to illustrate the capabilities of the ARIANNA detector to reconstruct arrival direction and energy of air showers.

  • 20.
    Retino, Alessandro
    et al.
    Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,LPP UMR 7648, Route Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.
    Univ Orleans, Observ Sci Univers Reg Ctr, UMS 3116, CNRS,UMR LPC2E 7328, 3A Ave Rech Sci, F-45071 Orleans, France..
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Solar wind test of the de Broglie-Proca massive photon with Cluster multi-spacecraft data2016In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 82, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of the universe at large and small scales relies largely on electromagnetic observations. As photons are the messengers, fundamental physics has a concern in testing their properties, including the absence of mass. We use Cluster four spacecraft data in the solar wind at 1 AU to estimate the mass upper limit for the photon. We look for deviations from Ampere's law, through the curlometer technique for the computation of the magnetic field, and through the measurements of ion and electron velocities for the computation of the current. We show that the upper bound for m(gamma) lies between 1.4 x 10(-49) and 3.4 x 10(-51) kg, and thereby discuss the currently accepted lower limits in the solar wind.

1 - 20 of 20
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