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  • 1.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro Univ, Örebro, Sweden.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden.
    Verification of a Method for Measuring Parkinson's Disease Related Temporal Irregularity in Spiral Drawings2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 10, article id 2431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    -value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

  • 2.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Renoux, Jennifer
    Örebro University.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    SICS East.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. SICS.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University.
    An Ontology-based Context-aware System for Smart Homes: E-care@ home2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Arapan, Lilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Alexieva, Gergana
    Dept of Solid State Physics and Microelectronics, University of Sofia, Bulgarien.
    Avramov, Ivan D
    Georgy nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Sofia,Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Radeva, Elisaveta
    Georgy Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Sofia, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Strashilov, Vesseline
    University of Sofia.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Yantchev, Ventsislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Highly Mass-Sensitive Thin Film Plate Acoustic Resonators (FPAR)2011In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 6942-6953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN) film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO)-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented.

  • 4.
    Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Umea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden;Menoufia Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Commun, Menoufia 32952, Egypt.
    Velander, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Redzwan, Syaiful
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Maastricht Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Surg, NL-6229 HX Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies2018In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 2752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7-2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of similar to 0.7 dB and similar to 1.9 dB per cm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.

  • 5. Elmlund, Louise
    et al.
    Kack, Camilla
    Aastrup, Teodor
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Physical Organic Chemistry.
    Study of the Interaction of Trastuzumab and SKOV3 Epithelial Cancer Cells Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor2015In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 5884-5894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical methods founded upon whole cell-based assays are of importance in early stage drug development and in fundamental studies of biomolecular recognition. Here we have studied the binding of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) on human ovary adenocarcinoma epithelial cancer cells (SKOV3) using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology. An optimized procedure for immobilizing the cells on the chip surface was established with respect to fixation procedure and seeding density. Trastuzumab binding to the cell decorated sensor surface was studied, revealing a mean dissociation constant, K-D, value of 7 +/- 1 nM (standard error of the mean). This study provides a new perspective on the affinity of the antibody-receptor complex presented a more natural context compared to purified receptors. These results demonstrate the potential for using whole cell-based QCM assay in drug development, the screening of HER2 selective antibody-based drug candidates, and for the study of biomolecular recognition. This real time, label free approach for studying interactions with target receptors present in their natural environment afforded sensitive and detailed kinetic information about the binding of the analyte to the target.

  • 6.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kish, L.-B.
    Sensing of Organic Pollution in Soil, Air, Water and Food: p.p. 148-161, 391-414, 3243-32522012In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 12, p. 148-3252Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kish, L.-B.
    Sensing of Organic Pollution in Soil, Air, Water and Food: p.p. 8910-8929, 10851-10858, 11056-11063, 11081-11102, 11510-11515, 11692-11716, 11901-119202011In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 11, p. 8910-11920Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Jeong, Seung Hee
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Wu, Zhigang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Tape Transfer Printing of a Liquid Metal Alloy for Stretchable RF Electronics2014In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 16311-16321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to make conductors with large cross sections for low impedance radio frequency (RF) electronics, while still retaining high stretchability, liquid-alloy-based microfluidic stretchable electronics offers stretchable electronic systems the unique opportunity to combine various sensors on our bodies or organs with high-quality wireless communication with the external world (devices/systems), without sacrificing enhanced user comfort. This microfluidic approach, based on printed circuit board technology, allows large area processing of large cross section conductors and robust contacts, which can handle a lot of stretching between the embedded rigid active components and the surrounding system. Although it provides such benefits, further development is needed to realize its potential as a high throughput, cost-effective process technology. In this paper, tape transfer printing is proposed to supply a rapid prototyping batch process at low cost, albeit at a low resolution of 150 mu m. In particular, isolated patterns can be obtained in a simple one-step process. Finally, a stretchable radio frequency identification (RFID) tag is demonstrated. The measured results show the robustness of the hybrid integrated system when the tag is stretched at 50% for 3000 cycles.

  • 9.
    Lentka, Lukasz
    et al.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Elect Telecommun & Informat, Narutowicza 11-12, PL-80233 Gdansk, Poland..
    Smulko, Janusz
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Elect Telecommun & Informat, Narutowicza 11-12, PL-80233 Gdansk, Poland..
    Kotarski, Mateusz
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Elect Telecommun & Informat, Narutowicza 11-12, PL-80233 Gdansk, Poland..
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ionescu, Radu
    Univ Rovira & Virgili, ETSE DEEEA, Dept Elect, Tarragona 43003, Spain..
    Non-Gaussian Resistance Fluctuations in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Gas Sensors: An Appraisal of Different Evaluation Techniques2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 4, article id 757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile organic compounds, such as formaldehyde, can be used as biomarkers in human exhaled breath in order to non-invasively detect various diseases, and the same compounds are of much interest also in the context of environmental monitoring and protection. Here, we report on a recently-developed gas sensor, based on surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles, which is able to generate voltage noise with a distinctly non-Gaussian component upon exposure to formaldehyde with concentrations on the ppm level, whereas this component is absent, or at least much weaker, when the sensor is exposed to ethanol or to pure air. We survey four different statistical methods to elucidate a non-Gaussian component and assess their pros and cons with regard to efficient gas detection. Specifically, the non-Gaussian component was clearly exposed in analysis using level-crossing parameters, which require nothing but a modest computational effort and simple electronic circuitry, and analogous results could be reached through the bispectrum function, albeit with more intense computation. Useful information could be obtained also via the Levy-stable distribution and, possibly, the second spectrum.

  • 10. Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Khan, Taha
    Grenholm, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Westin, Jerker
    Automatic and Objective Assessment of Alternating Tapping Performance in Parkinson's Disease2013In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 13, no 12, p. 16965-16984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of a method for enabling quantitative and automatic scoring of alternating tapping performance of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Ten healthy elderly subjects and 95 patients in different clinical stages of PD have utilized a touch-pad handheld computer to perform alternate tapping tests in their home environments. First, a neurologist used a web-based system to visually assess impairments in four tapping dimensions (‘speed’, ‘accuracy’, ‘fatigue’ and ‘arrhythmia’) and a global tapping severity (GTS). Second, tapping signals were processed with time series analysis and statistical methods to derive 24 quantitative parameters. Third, principal component analysis was used to reduce the dimensions of these parameters and to obtain scores for the four dimensions. Finally, a logistic regression classifier was trained using a 10-fold stratified cross-validation to map the reduced parameters to the corresponding visually assessed GTS scores. Results showed that the computed scores correlated well to visually assessed scores and were significantly different across Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale scores of upper limb motor performance. In addition, they had good internal consistency, had good ability to discriminate between healthy elderly and patients in different disease stages, had good sensitivity to treatment interventions and could reflect the natural disease progression over time. In conclusion, the automatic method can be useful to objectively assess the tapping performance of PD patients and can be included in telemedicine tools for remote monitoring of tapping.

  • 11. Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Sadikov, Aleksander
    Groznik, Vida
    Zabkar, Jure
    Mozina, Martin
    Bergquist, Filip
    Johansson, Anders
    Haubenberger, Dietrich
    Nyholm, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Automatic Spiral Analysis for Objective Assessment of Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease2015In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 23727-23744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge for the clinical management of advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is the emergence of fluctuations in motor performance, which represents a significant source of disability during activities of daily living of the patients. There is a lack of objective measurement of treatment effects for in-clinic and at-home use that can provide an overview of the treatment response. The objective of this paper was to develop a method for objective quantification of advanced PD motor symptoms related to off episodes and peak dose dyskinesia, using spiral data gathered by a touch screen telemetry device. More specifically, the aim was to objectively characterize motor symptoms (bradykinesia and dyskinesia), to help in automating the process of visual interpretation of movement anomalies in spirals as rated by movement disorder specialists. Digitized upper limb movement data of 65 advanced PD patients and 10 healthy (HE) subjects were recorded as they performed spiral drawing tasks on a touch screen device in their home environment settings. Several spatiotemporal features were extracted from the time series and used as inputs to machine learning methods. The methods were validated against ratings on animated spirals scored by four movement disorder specialists who visually assessed a set of kinematic features and the motor symptom. The ability of the method to discriminate between PD patients and HE subjects and the test-retest reliability of the computed scores were also evaluated. Computed scores correlated well with mean visual ratings of individual kinematic features. The best performing classifier (Multilayer Perceptron) classified the motor symptom (bradykinesia or dyskinesia) with an accuracy of 84% and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.86 in relation to visual classifications of the raters. In addition, the method provided high discriminating power when distinguishing between PD patients and HE subjects as well as had good test-retest reliability. This study demonstrated the potential of using digital spiral analysis for objective quantification of PD-specific and/or treatment-induced motor symptoms.

  • 12.
    Raaben, Marco
    et al.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Surg, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Holtslag, Herman R.
    Acad Med Ctr Amsterdam, Dept Rehabil Med, Meibergdreef 9, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    van Merkerk, Rutger O.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Pontes Med, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Koopman, Bart F. J. M.
    Univ Twente, Dept Biomech Engn, Drienerlolaan 5, NL-7522 NB Enschede, Netherlands.
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Maastricht Univ, Dept Surg, Med Ctr, P Debyelaan 25, NL-6229 HX Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Technical Aspects and Validation of a New Biofeedback System for Measuring Lower Limb Loading in the Dynamic Situation2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 3, article id 658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A variety of techniques for measuring lower limb loading exists, each with their own limitations. A new ambulatory biofeedback system was developed to overcome these limitations. In this study, we described the technical aspects and validated the accuracy of this system. Methods: A bench press was used to validate the system in the static situation. Ten healthy volunteers were measured by the new biofeedback system and a dual-belt instrumented treadmill to validate the system in the dynamic situation. Results: Bench press results showed that the sensor accurately measured peak loads up to 1000 N in the static situation. In the healthy volunteers, the load curves measured by the biofeedback system were similar to the treadmill. However, the peak loads and loading rates were lower in the biofeedback system in all participants at all speeds. Conclusions: Advanced sensor technologies used in the new biofeedback system resulted in highly accurate measurements in the static situation. The position of the sensor and the design of the biofeedback system should be optimized to improve results in the dynamic situation.

  • 13.
    Redzwan, Syaiful
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Velander, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Mathur, Parul
    Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amrita Sch Engn, Dept Elect & Commun, Bengaluru 560035, India.
    Perez, Mauricio D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Asan, Noor Badariah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Kurup, Dhanesh G.
    Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amrita Sch Engn, Dept Elect & Commun, Bengaluru 560035, India.
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Maastricht Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Surg, POB 5800, NL-6202 AZ Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Split-Ring Resonator Sensor Penetration Depth Assessment Using In Vivo Microwave Reflectivity and Ultrasound Measurements for Lower Extremity Trauma Rehabilitation2018In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 2, article id 636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent research, microwave sensors have been used to follow up the recovery of lower extremity trauma patients. This is done mainly by monitoring the changes of dielectric properties of lower limb tissues such as skin, fat, muscle, and bone. As part of the characterization of the microwave sensor, it is crucial to assess the signal penetration in in vivo tissues. This work presents a new approach for investigating the penetration depth of planar microwave sensors based on the Split-Ring Resonator in the in vivo context of the femoral area. This approach is based on the optimization of a 3D simulation model using the platform of CST Microwave Studio and consisting of a sensor of the considered type and a multilayered material representing the femoral area. The geometry of the layered material is built based on information from ultrasound images and includes mainly the thicknesses of skin, fat, and muscle tissues. The optimization target is the measured S-11 parameters at the sensor connector and the fitting parameters are the permittivity of each layer of the material. Four positions in the femoral area (two at distal and two at thigh) in four volunteers are considered for the in vivo study. The penetration depths are finally calculated with the help of the electric field distribution in simulations of the optimized model for each one of the 16 considered positions. The numerical results show that positions at the thigh contribute the highest penetration values of up to 17.5 mm. This finding has a high significance in planning in vitro penetration depth measurements and other tests that are going to be performed in the future.

  • 14.
    Türkmen, Dervis
    et al.
    Ulm University, Germany.
    Dettenrieder, Carina
    Ulm University, Germany.
    Forsberg, Pontus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Mattsson, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Nikolajeff, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Mizaikoff, Boris
    Ulm University, Germany.
    Corrosion detection by infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy via diamond-like carbon coated silicon wafers and iron-sensitive dyes2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 15, article id 3373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The durability of metal-based constructions, especially those containing reinforced concrete, is mainly limited by corrosion processes. Diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated silicon (Si) wafers provide a chemically inert and mechanically robust sensing interface for application in aggressive environments. In this study, iron-sensitive dyes, i.e., 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP) and 1,2-dihydroxybenzol (DHB), were coated onto DLC-modified Si wafers for evaluating the potential of detecting corrosion processes via evanescent field absorption spectroscopy using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained IR spectra reveal discernible changes of the dye layer after exposure to iron solutions, which indicates that indeed corrosion processes may be studied at molecular level detail.

  • 15.
    Wang, Wendong
    et al.
    Beijing Univ Posts & Telecommun, State Key Lab Networking & Switching Technol, XiTuCheng Rd 10, Beijing 100876, Peoples R China.
    Xi, Teng
    Beijing Univ Posts & Telecommun, State Key Lab Networking & Switching Technol, XiTuCheng Rd 10, Beijing 100876, Peoples R China.
    Ngai, Edith C.-H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Song, Zheng
    Virginia Tech, Dept Comp Sci, Blacksburg, VA 24060 USA.
    Energy-efficient collaborative outdoor localization for participatory sensing2016In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 16, no 6, article id 762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Location information is a key element of participatory sensing. Many mobile and sensing applications require location information to provide better recommendations, object search and trip planning. However, continuous GPS positioning consumes much energy, which may drain the battery of mobile devices quickly. Although WiFi and cell tower positioning are alternatives, they provide lower accuracy compared to GPS. This paper solves the above problem by proposing a novel localization scheme through the collaboration of multiple mobile devices to reduce energy consumption and provide accurate positioning. Under our scheme, the mobile devices are divided into three groups, namely the broadcaster group, the location information receiver group and the normal participant group. Only the broadcaster group and the normal participant group use their GPS. The location information receiver group, on the other hand, makes use of the locations broadcast by the broadcaster group to estimate their locations. We formulate the broadcaster set selection problem and propose two novel algorithms to minimize the energy consumption in collaborative localization. Simulations with real traces show that our proposed solution can save up to 68% of the energy of all of the participants and provide more accurate locations than WiFi and cellular network positioning.

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