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  • 1.
    Aldahan, Ala Adin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Morad, Sadoon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics.
    Sturesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    ElSaiy, A.
    10Be in rhodochrosite nodules from Neogene sediments along the Galapagos Ridge, equatorial Pacific2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 7-8, p. 1253-1256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcrystalline, calcian rhodochrosite occurs as nodules around burrows in late Neogene pelagic sediments from the Galapagos Ridge in the Guatemala Basin, eastern equatorial Pacific (DSDP Leg 68; Site 503). Be-10 isotope revealed that the rhodochrosite nodules have formed under growth conditions much faster than those reported for Fe-Mn nodules. The overall REE patterns of the nodules and host pelagic sediments indicate element derivation mainly from marine pore water. However, variations in the shale normalised Eu values suggest influx of hydrothermal fluids into mounds area at Galapagos, which is also evidenced by the similar minor and major element contents in the nodules and host sediments.

  • 2.
    Aldahan, Ala
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Alfimov, V.
    Cato, I.
    Sveriges geologiska undersökning.
    Kekli, Aziz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Anthropogenic I-129 in the Baltic Sea2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 259, no 1, p. 491-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here data on the distribution of I-129 in water of the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak-Kattegat basins obtained through sampling campaigns during the years 2000 and 2001. I-129 in the water of the Skagerrak-Kattegat shows persistently high concentrations in both the surface and deep parts. A decreasing trend in surface water I-129 concentration is observed away from the Kattegat basin and into the Baltic Sea. Inventory calculations indicate that at least 95%of the isotope supply to the Baltic Sea is from the North Sea marine water via Skagerrak-Kattegat and only minor part is from riverine inflow and the Chernobyl accident. As the discharges from the nuclear reprocessing facilities were not decreased during the last decade, it is expected that more I-129 will accumulate in the Baltic Sea and related basins in the future. Consequently, systematic sampling is needed to reevaluate the concentration levels not only in the water, but also in the sediments and biota of the region.

  • 3. Alfimov, Vasily
    et al.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Water masses and I-129 distribution in the Nordic Seas2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 542-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 as a tracer of water circulation in the oceans has provided interesting information with respect to sources and mixing of different water masses. We here present results of I-129 distribution in water profiles located in the Nordic Seas and use the isotope to fingerprint water masses in the region. The samples were collected by the US research vessel Knorr in May-June 2002. I-129 signatures along the Norwegian Sea reflect a mixing of I-129-rich surface water along the Scandinavian continental slope and I-129-poor North Atlantic surface water. These two water masses become less segregated along the Fram Strait where apparent I-129 enrichment penetrates the return Arctic flow into the East Greenland Current. The I-129 data further suggest existence of a water mass that is not entirely labeled with respect to origin at the Denmark Strait bottom water. This water parcel probably originates from the Iceland Sea. I-129 data also shed light on the major deep water outflow from the Nordic Seas located at the Faeroe Bank Channel.

  • 4.
    Alfimov, Vasily
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Measurements of Cl-36 with a gas-filled magnet at the Uppsala tandem laboratory2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 259, no 1, p. 199-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a gas-filled magnet combined with a gas ionization detector for measurements of Cl-36 was systematically studied at the Uppsala tandem laboratory. Our tests were conducted at a terminal voltage of 4,6 MV using gas-foil stripping and a 37 MeV Cl-36(+7) ion beam. An optimal suppression of the interfering isobar S-36 in the stand-alone gas-filled magnet (2 mbar N-2 gas pressure) was found to be >= 300, and an additional >= 300 times reduction was achieved by the Eresidual signal of the two-anode gas ionization detector. The overall suppression in the order of >= 10(5) permits analysis of samples with a sulfur content of <= 5 ppm and Cl-36/Cl ratios of >= 10(-15). We have successfully measured samples with Cl-36/Cl ratios in the range of 10(-12)-10(-15) demonstrating the use of a mediumsized tandem accelerator system (similar to 1 MeV/amu) for Cl-36 AMS.

  • 5. Andersson, LP
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Hyder, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Jadrny, J
    Nilsson, Ö
    Dependence of gain on plate separation in a parallel plate channel multiplier1974In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 100, p. 539-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Andersson, LP
    et al.
    Hyder, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Berg, Sören
    Minority carrier injection and resistance moulation in silicon surface barrier diodes1974In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 114, p. 237-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Andersson, LP
    et al.
    Hyder, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Misra, M
    Semiconductor contracts to silicon surface barrier detectors1974In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 118, p. 537-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Andreeva, M. A.
    et al.
    Monina, N.G.
    Häggström, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Materials Physics.
    Lindgren, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Materials Physics.
    Kalska, B.
    Kamali, M
    Vdovichev, S. N
    Salashchenko, N. N.
    Semenov, V. G
    Leupold, O
    Rüffer, R
    Nuclear resonant reflectivity with standing waves for the investigation of a thin 57Fe layer buried inside a superconducting Si/[Mo/Si]45/57Fe/Nb multilayer2008In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 266, no 1, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A special multilayer sample Si/[Mo/Si]45/57Fe/Nb has been prepared for the depth selective investigations of the hyperfine fields in thin iron layer at low temperatures above and below the superconducting transition in the top Nb layer (Tc 8 K) by means of the nuclear resonant reflectivity with standing waves. The periodic multilayer [Mo/Si]45 below the iron layer in our sample was used as “a standing wave generator”. A weak magnetic hyperfine splitting in the 57Fe layer was detected just at low temperature. A slight variation of the nuclear resonant reflectivity time spectra measured above and below Tc was observed. At first it was supposed that this change of the spectrum shape is caused by the spatial modulation of ferromagnetic domains in the 57Fe layer caused by a proximity effect. A closer analysis, however, reveals that the spectrum variations are due to just the changes of the relative weights of the magnetic and paramagnetic phases in 57Fe layer.

  • 9.
    Audren, Auregane
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Hallen, A.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Damage recovery in the oxygen sublattice of ZnO by post-implantation annealing2012In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 272, p. 418-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermally grown zinc oxide bulk samples were implanted with 200 key-Co ions with a fluence of 4.5 x 10(16) cm(-2) and then annealed in air during 30 min at different temperatures up to 900 degrees C. After the implantation and each annealing step, the samples were analyzed using the nuclear reaction O-16(alpha,alpha)O-16 at 3.045 MeV He in random and channeling directions to follow the annealing of the disorder profile in the O sublattice. For comparison, the disorder in the Zn sublattice was also observed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling directions. The results reveal that the disorder created during the Co implantation is slightly higher in the O sublattice than in the Zn sublattice. The disorder recovery induced by the thermal treatments, starts at 500 degrees C in the O sublattice and at 700 degrees C in the Zn sublattice. Although, the most part of the disorder recovery occurs between 700 and 800 degrees C in both sublattices.

  • 10.
    Audren, Auregane
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics.
    Hallén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics.
    Damage recovery in ZnO by post-implantation annealing2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 11-12, p. 1842-1846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO bulk samples were implanted with 200 key-Co ions at room temperature with two fluences, 1 x 10(16) and 8 x 10(16) cm(-2), and then annealed in air for 30 min at different temperatures up to 900 degrees C. After the implantation and each annealing step, the samples were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling directions to follow the evolution of the disorder profile. The RBS spectra reveal that disorder is created during implantation in proportion to the Co fluence. The thermal treatments induce a disorder recovery, which is however, not complete after annealing at 900 degrees C, where about 15% of the damage remains. To study the Co profile evolution during annealing, the samples were, in addition to RBS, characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The results show that Co diffusion starts at 800 degrees C, but also that a very different behavior is seen for Co concentrations below and above the solubility limit.

  • 11. Battistoni, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Broggi, Francesco
    Brugger, Markus
    Campanella, Mauro
    Carboni, Massimo
    Empl, Anton
    Fassó, Alberto
    Gadioli, Ettore
    Cerutti, Francesco
    Ferrari, Alfredo
    Ferrari, Anna
    Lantz, Mattias
    Riken Laboratory, Japan.
    Mairani, Andrea
    Margiotta, M.
    Morone, Cristina
    Muraro, Silvia
    Parodi, Katia
    Patera, Vincenzo
    Pelliccioni, Mauricio
    Pinsky, Larry
    Ranft, Johannes
    Roesler, Stefan
    Rollet, Sofia
    Sala, Paola R.
    Santana, Mario
    Sarchiapone, Lucia
    Sioli, Massimiliano
    Smirnov, George
    Sommerer, Florian
    Theis, Christian
    Trovati, Stefania
    Villari, R.
    Vincke, Heinz
    Vincke, Helmut
    Vlachoudis, Vasilis
    Vollaire, Joachim
    Zapp, Neil
    Applications of FLUKA Monte Carlo code for nuclear and accelerator physics2011In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 269, no 24, p. 2850-2856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo code capable of handling all radiation components from thermal energies (for neutrons) or 1 keV (for all other particles) to cosmic ray energies and can be applied in many different fields. Presently the code is maintained on Linux. The validity of the physical models implemented in FLUKA has been benchmarked against a variety of experimental data over a wide energy range, from accelerator data to cosmic ray showers in the Earth atmosphere. FLUKA is widely used for studies related both to basic research and to applications in particle accelerators, radiation protection and dosimetry, including the specific issue of radiation damage in space missions, radiobiology (including radiotherapy) and cosmic ray calculations.

    After a short description of the main features that make FLUKA valuable for these topics, the present paper summarizes some of the recent applications of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code in the nuclear as well high energy physics. In particular it addresses such topics as accelerator related applications.

  • 12.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Eriksson, B
    Timing and amplitude characteristics of a parallel plate electron multiplier1974In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 117, p. 345-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Berggren, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Haltia-Hovi, Eeva
    Saarinen, Timo
    Linking ice sheet and lake sediment archives of Be-10, 1468-1980 CE2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 524-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of understanding and reconstructing our climate history it is important to investigate the link between climate and solar activity. Ice cores and ocean sediments have provided information on a range of timescales on atmospheric Be-10 production, which is a proxy for past solar activity due to its cosmogenic nature of production. We here present results from the first, to our knowledge, multi-centennial and annual resolution study of Be-10 in varved lake sediments. Varves were sampled over an interval covering the period 1468-2006 CE in sediment cored from Lake Lehmilampi in eastern Finland. The measured concentrations were converted into annual Be-10 deposition rates by using the weights of dried samples as an estimation of sedimentation rates and scaling the result from sampling to catchment area size. We compare the lake catchment Be-10 deposition rates to those derived from the Greenlandic ice cores NGRIP and Dye-3 along with past solar activity. Sediment Be-10 concentrations range 2.1-17.6 x 10(8) atoms g(-1). The high end of this range is represented by a limited number of samples, and the average is near the lower end at 4.1 x 10(8) atoms g(-1). The deposition rates range 0.5-3.9 x 10(6) atoms cm(-2) year(-1), with an average of 1.8 x 10(6) atoms cm(-2) year (0.057 atoms cm(-2) s(-1)). We note higher Be-10 deposition during the Sporer (similar to 1415-1535 CE) and Maunder (similar to 1645-1715 CE) solar minima, and also at the onset of the Dalton (similar to 1790-1830 CE) minimum. Equally high Be-10 values in the 1840s and lower deposition during the Dalton minimum are not consistent with contemporaneous solar activity. Although this may in part be a result of incomplete measurements in the 19th century, it also shows the complexity of deposition and the intricacy of reconstructing past solar activity from sediment Be-10 data. A comparison with ice core data reveals particularly good agreement between sediment and Dye-3 Be-10 flux around 1500-1750 CE.

  • 14.
    Berggren, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Hansson, M.
    Steen-Larsen, H. C.
    Storm, Anna Sturevik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Morth, C. -M
    Murad, A.
    Variability of Be-10 and delta O-18 in snow pits from Greenland and a surface traverse from Antarctica2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 568-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine temporal variability of Be-10 in glacial ice, we sampled snow to a depth of 160 cm at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) drilling site in Greenland. The samples span three years between the summers of 2006 and 2009. At the same time, spatial variability of Be-10 in glacial ice was explored through collection of the upper similar to 5 cm of surface snow in Antarctica during part of the Swedish-Japanese traverse from Svea to Syowa station during the austral summer in 2007-2008. The results of the Greenlandic 1 Be snow suggested variable concentrations that apparently do not clearly reflect the seasonal change as indicated by the delta O-18 data. The Be-10 concentration variability most likely reflects also effects of aerosol loading and deposition pathways, possibly in combination with post-depositional processes. The Antarctic traverse data expose a negative correlation between Be-10 and delta O-18, while there are weaker but still significant correlations to altitude and distance to the coast (approximated by the distance to the 70th latitude). These relationships indicate that geographical factors, mainly the proximity to the coast, may strongly affect 1 Be concentrations in snow in Queen Maud Land, Antarctica.

  • 15.
    Berggren, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Enhanced beam currents with co-precipitated niobium as a matrix for AMS measurements of 10Be2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 7-8, p. 795-798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When dealing with small amounts of 10Be, it is challenging to achieve the good performance in the ion source that is needed to enable a reliable AMS measurement. We have co-precipitated beryllium with dissolved NbCl5, using a range of mixing ratios, to establish an optimal and practical procedure. 9Be16O beam currents for co-precipitated samples of 9Be-Nb are often higher, but show a slower rise than for samples either co-precipitated or mixed with silver. However, while the Ag sample currents soon deteriorate, Nb sample currents stay high for an extended time, leading to higher measuring performance and better statistics. Although co-precipitated Be-Nb mixtures do not reach such high beam currents as BeO mechanically mixed with Nb powder, we prefer co-precipitation as it provides enough material for handling and an additional mixing step is avoided. We recommend use of NbCl5 as an alternative to AgNO3 on account of the much lower boron association of niobium compared to silver. No critical limit in the matrix:Be mixing ratio was observed, but we note a steady decline of maximum currents reached with increasing mixing ratio.

  • 16. Bergsaker, H.
    et al.
    Bykov, I.
    Petersson, P.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Likonen, J.
    Koivuranta, S.
    Coad, J. P.
    Widdowson, A. M.
    Microstructure and inhomogeneous fuel trapping at divertor surfaces in the JET tokamak2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 332, p. 266-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plasma deposited layers at divertor surfaces in the JET tokamak with carbon wall have been studied post mortem, using micro ion beam analysis (mu-IBA) methods, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The layers were formed during plasma operations over different periods through 1998-2009. They frequently have a columnar structure. For mu-IBA a 3 MeV He-3 beam was used, focused to about 5-15 mu m size. Nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure D, Be and C. Elemental mapping was carried out both at the original surface and on polished layer cross sections. Trapped deuterium is predominantly found in remote areas on the horizontal bottom divertor tiles and in regions with locally enhanced deuterium concentration on the vertical tiles. Pockets with enhanced deuterium concentration are found in the carbon fibre composite (CFC) substrate. Areas with dimensions of about 100 mu m with enhanced deuterium concentration are also found inside the deposited layers. The inhomogeneous fuel trapping is tentatively explained with co-deposition in partly protected pits in the substrate and by incorporation of dust particles in the growing layers.

  • 17.
    Blachucki, Wojciech
    et al.
    Univ Fribourg, Dept Phys, Chemin Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland..
    Szlachetko, Jakub
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Swiss Light Source, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.;Jan Kochanowski Univ Humanities & Sci, Inst Phys, PL-25406 Kielce, Poland..
    Kayser, Yves
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Swiss Light Source, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Dousse, Jean-Claude
    Univ Fribourg, Dept Phys, Chemin Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland..
    Hoszowska, Joanna
    Univ Fribourg, Dept Phys, Chemin Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland..
    Zeeshan, Faisal
    Univ Fribourg, Dept Phys, Chemin Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland..
    Sá, Jacinto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys Chem, Warsaw, Poland.
    In situ high energy resolution off-resonant spectroscopy applied to a time-resolved study of single site Ta catalyst during oxidation2017In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 411, p. 63-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) was employed at a synchrotron to study a silica supported Ta(V) bisalkyl catalyst activated in hydrogen. The Ta L alpha(1) HEROS spectra were measured during oxidation of the starting complex and the relative species' concentration was successfully retrieved as a function of time using the fingerprint HEROS spectra measured for the unoxidized and the oxidized catalyst. Based on the experimental data and theory-based calculations, it was shown that oxidation of the active Ta catalyst leads to the formation of mono- and di-meric species on the SiO2 surface. The obtained results were compared to those of the previously reported time resolved HEROS study on an inactive silica supported Ta(V) bisalkyl catalyst's concentration evolution during its oxidation Blachucki et al. (2015). The study allowed observation of an immediate transition of the active Ta catalyst from its unoxidized form to the oxidized one. This finding is dissimilar to the result of the study on the inactive Ta catalyst, where the oxidation led through an intermediate step.

  • 18.
    Bruckner, Barbara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Roth, D.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Goebl, D.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Bauer, P.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    A note on extracting electronic stopping from energy spectra of backscattered slow ions applying Bragg's rule2018In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 423, p. 82-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic stopping measurements in chemically reactive targets, e.g., transition and rare earth metals are challenging. These metals often contain low Z impurities, which contribute to electronic stopping. In this article, we present two ways how one can correct for the presence of impurities in the evaluation of proton and He stopping in Ni for primary energies between 1 and 100 keV, either considering or ignoring the contribution of the low Z impurities to multiple scattering. We find, that for protons either method leads to concordant results, but for heavier projectiles, e.g. He ions, the influence on multiple scattering must not be neglected.

  • 19. Bykov, I.
    et al.
    Bergsaker, H.
    Petersson, P.
    Likonen, J.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Widdowson, A.
    Combined ion micro probe and SEM analysis of strongly non uniform deposits in fusion devices2015In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 342, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional ion beam analysis (IBA) of deposited layers from fusion devices may have insufficient accuracy due to strongly uneven appearance of the layers. Surface roughness and spatial variation of the matrix composition make interpretation of broad beam spectra complex and non obvious. We discuss complications of applied IBA arising for fusion-relevant surfaces and demonstrate how quantification can be improved by employing micro IBA methods. The analysis is bound to pre-defined regions on the sample surface and can be extended by employing beams of several types, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereo SEM techniques. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 20. Bykov, I.
    et al.
    Petersson, P.
    Bergsåker, H.
    Hallén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Investigation of tritium analysis methods for ion microbeam application2012In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 273, p. 250-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trapping and retention of tritium in deposited layers on plasma-facing components is a critical issue for the international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER) and for future power producing tokamak fusion reactors. Cross sections of deposited layers at surfaces in the JET tokamak divertor are being investigated using ion microbeam analysis. To include tritium analysis with high spatial resolution, a number of plausible ion beam techniques have been investigated. Calibration samples with 150 nm tritiated titanium films were used. Absolute concentrations were determined with classical ERD using 2.5-3.5 MeV C-12(+). Cross sections for non-Rutherford ERD and for the T(C-12,p)C-14 and T(C-12,alpha)B-11 nuclear reactions were measured for different angles in the energy range 2.5-15 MeV. Background spectra were collected from pure carbon, beryllium and deuterium enriched samples and the sensitivity for microbeam NRA measurements of the tritium concentration in thick targets with predominantly Be-C-D matrix was estimated.

  • 21. Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    Bergsaker, Henric
    Petersson, Per
    Likonen, Jari
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Quantitative plasma-fuel and impurity profiling in thick plasma-deposited layers by means of micro ion beam analysis and SIMS2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 332, p. 280-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation of the Joint European Torus (JET) with full-carbon wall during the last decades has proven the importance of material re-deposition processes in remote areas of the tokamak. The thickness of the deposits in shadowed areas can reach 1 mm. The main constituent is carbon, with little inclusion of Inconel components. Atomic fractions Be/C and D/C can locally reach 1. Three methods were used to study thick deposits on JET divertor surfaces: (i) NRA analysis with a 15 mu m wide, 3 MeV He-3 ion microbeam on a polished cross section of the layer to determine the concentration distribution of D, Be and C and the distribution of Ni by particle induced X-ray emission; (ii) elastic proton scattering (EPS) from the top of the layers with a broad proton beam at 3.5 and 4.6 MeV. These methods were absolutely calibrated using thick elemental targets. (iii) Depth profiling of D, Be and Ni was done with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), sputtering the layers from the surface. The three methods are complementary. The thickest layers are accessible only by microbeam mapping of the cross sections, albeit with limited spatial resolution. The SIMS has the best depth resolution, but is difficult for absolute quantification and is limited in accessible depth. The probed depth with proton backscattering is limited to about 30 mu m. The combination of all three methods provided a coherent picture of the layer composition. It was possible to correlate the SIMS profiling results to quantitative data obtained by the microbeam method.

  • 22.
    Chen, Xuegao
    et al.
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Gong, Meng
    Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yi, Peng
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. United Arab Emirates Univ, Dept Geol, Al Ain, U Arab Emirates..
    Yu, Zhongbo
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Chen, Li
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Distribution of I-129 in terrestrial surface water environments2015In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 361, p. 604-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global distribution of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 in surface waters (lakes and rivers) is presented here and compared with the atmospheric deposition and distribution in surface marine waters. The results indicate relatively high concentrations in surface water systems in close vicinity of the anthropogenic release sources as well as in parts of Western Europe, North America and Central Asia. I-129 level is generally higher in the terrestrial surface water of the Northern hemisphere compared to the southern hemisphere. The highest values of I-129 appear around 50 degrees N and 40 degrees S in the northern and southern hemisphere, separately. Direct gaseous and marine atmospheric emissions are the most likely avenues for the transport of 1291 from the sources to the terrestrial surface waters. To apply iodine-129 as process tracer in terrestrial surface water environment, more data are needed on I-129 distribution patterns both locally and globally.

  • 23. Czekajewski, J
    et al.
    Tove, PA
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Grabowski, Z
    A solid state spectrometer for measuring the distribution of charged particles in aurorae1964In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 66-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Englund, Edvard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hou, X. L.
    Petersen, R.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Speciation of iodine (127I and 129I) in lake sediments2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 7-8, p. 1102-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fallout of anthropogenic I-129 at northern Europe has been occurring since the early 1950. Nevertheless, it is still unclear where and how this radioactive iodine is incorporated in the surface environment. In order to elucidate part of this problem, we here present an investigation of the occurrence modes of I-129 in varved lake sediments, collected in central Sweden and cover the period 1941-2007. Using a sequential extraction method, the results of I-129 and I-127 indicate that the partitioning of the two isotopes were more or less similar, despite the large gradient of I-129 within the sediment. Organic bound iodine was the dominant form over other fractions, while iodine bound to metal oxides was negligible. The leachable part constituted 5-6% of the iodine. Diagenetic influence seems to exert a limited effect on distribution of iodine in the examined sediment section.

  • 25.
    Englund, Edvard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hou, X. L.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Söderström, C.
    Iodine (129I and 127I) in aerosols from northern Europe2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 7-8, p. 1139-1141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Huge amount of I-129 has been emitted to the environment during the last decades from a variety of anthropogenic nuclear activities. Aerosols represent a carrier of iodine in the atmosphere in addition to gaseous forms for which data are lacking in Sweden. In this study the first time series of iodine isotopes (I-129 and I-127) in aerosols covering the period of 1983 to 2008 from two sites in Sweden are presented. The results show that both I-129 and I-127 concentrations are considerably higher in southern compared to northern Sweden. Furthermore there is a significant difference in the relative concentrations between the sites being similar to 6 times higher for I-129 compared to similar to 3 times for I-127. The portion of the I-129 related to dry deposition, based on aerosol data, represents only a minor amount of the total fallout which is dominated by wet deposition.

  • 26.
    Englund, Edvard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Alfimov, V.
    A routine preparation method for AMS measurement of 129I in solid material2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 259, no 1, p. 365-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present results of an 129I extraction procedure applied to solid matrices (soils and organic matters), which is based on combustion of samples in an oxygen atmosphere. Stepwise heating and continuous warming of the whole system were critical points in order to achieve relatively satisfactory yields of iodine from samples ranging up to 1.5 g. Repeated combustions of blanks show both stable background levels and no significant memory effects. We have processed a series of different types of sample materials including standard soil, maple leaves and surface soil from Uppsala in Central Sweden. The results show analytical reproducibility and agreement with reported values.

  • 27. Falk, K
    et al.
    Tove, PA
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Madakbas, M
    Influence of non-constant carrier mobility on the charge transport time in semiconductor detectors1965In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 34, p. 157-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Goebl, D.
    et al.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Abad, E.
    Monreal, R. C.
    Bauer, P.
    Auger neutralization of He+ on Cu surfaces: Simulation of azimuthal scans2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 317, no Part A, p. 23-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Charge exchange by Auger neutralization (AN) plays an important role in surface analysis techniques such as low energy ion scattering (LEIS). Recent advances in the theoretical description of AN have included a model based on a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) approach, which is able to calculate accurate neutralization probabilities of He+ due to AN in LEIS. Previous investigations have shown that the neutralization probability is strongly influenced by the distance dependent shift of the He 1s level. In this study simulations of He+ scattered from Cu(100) and Cu(110) surfaces at fixed azimuth angles are presented. Additionally, the azimuth dependence of ion- and neutral-yield for He+ scattered from Cu(100) is simulated and compared to experimental data. Calculations were performed using the LCAO model in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. The excellent agreement between simulation and experiment provides evidence that the obtained values for the level shift are a characteristic property of the surface.

  • 29. Gorelov, D.
    et al.
    Penttilä, H.
    Al-Adili, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eronen, T.
    Hakala, J.
    Jokinen, A.
    Kankainen, A.
    Kolhinen, V. S.
    Koponen, J.
    Lantz, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Mattera, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Moore, I. D.
    Pohjalainen, I.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Rakoupoulos, V
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Reinikainen, J.
    Rinta-Antila, S.
    Simutkin, V.
    Solders, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Voss, A.
    Äystö, J.
    Developments for neutron-induced fission at IGISOL-42016In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract At the IGISOL-4 facility, neutron-rich, medium mass nuclei have usually been produced via charged particle-induced fission of natural uranium and thorium. Neutron-induced fission is expected to have a higher production cross section of the most neutron-rich species. Development of a neutron source along with a new ion guide continues to be one of the major goals since the commissioning of IGISOL-4. Neutron intensities at different angles from a beryllium neutron source have been measured in an on-line experiment with a 30 MeV proton beam. Recently, the new ion guide coupled to the neutron source has been tested as well. Details of the neutron source and ion guide design together with preliminary results from the first neutron-induced fission experiment at IGISOL-4 are presented in this report.

  • 30.
    Hallen, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Hakansson, P
    Uppsala University.
    Keskitalo, N
    Uppsala University.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Brunelle, A
    Uppsala University.
    Della-Negra, S.
    Le-Beyec, Y
    Vacancy related defect profiles in MeV cluster-ion irradiated silicon1995In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 106, no 1-4, p. 233-236p. 233-236Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Haussmann, Natalie
    et al.
    Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Boelhouwers, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    10Be application to soil development on Marion Island, southern Indian Ocean2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 7-8, p. 1058-1061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marion Island, located in the southern Indian Ocean, constitutes the summit of an active shield volcano. It is a small terrestrial environment where glacially abraded bedrock became exposed c × 10 kyr ago. These conditions provide an interesting possibility for the assessment of 10Be accumulation rates and their application to soil erosion studies on the island. 10Be concentrations were measured in precipitation, soil profiles and an Azorella selago cushion plant. The data reveal a 10Be precipitation flux several times higher than model prediction. Estimation of the 10Be accumulation based on the soil inventory suggests a span between 2000 and 7000 yr. This time span is not in accordance with the accepted notion that the island was covered with ice about 10,000 yr ago and suggests either removal of 10Be from the soil profile, an overestimated Holocene 10Be-flux or a delayed soil development history. Our results provide new data on 10Be concentrations from the sub-Antarctic islands and contribute towards enlarging the southern-hemisphere 10Be database.

  • 32.
    He, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Aldahan, A.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Hou, X. L.
    A summary of global 129I in marine waters2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 537-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the many investigations concerning the occurrence of anthropogenic iodine-129 in the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine environments, there is a lack of a comprehensive collection of data on the distribution of the isotope in marine waters. The temporal and spatial variability of anthropogenic 129I is strongly linked to the major point sources in the Irish Sea and the English Channel and the global marine spreading pathways are partly outlined from these sources. The temporal evolution is still, however, not well defined when transport and dissipation are considered in the different oceans and ocean compartments. We here summarize available published literature data on 129I temporal and spatial distribution in the global marine water. The results show presence of numerous data sets for the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans where strong variability in terms of water depth, time and location also occur. Scarcity of data on 129I from the Pacific, Indian and South Atlantic Oceans demonstrates gaps in the coverage of the isotope spatial extent. These shortcomings in the spatial coverage may relate to the understanding that the anthropogenic 129I signal will take a long time to be transported, if at all, from the North Atlantic into other oceans. Data from recent expeditions in the Southern oceans and the Geotraces ocean profiling will reveal additional information about 129I distribution in the marine waters.

  • 33.
    Hedfors, Jim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Clouds and beryllium-72010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 7-8, p. 1129-1134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a 10-year record of 10 different cloud cover types at three different locations in Scandinavia together with Be-7 surface concentration data. The aim is to estimate the degree of correlation, if any, between various cloud types at different latitudes and measured Be-7 concentrations. The study matches weekly Be-7 data to cloud raster data from high resolution multispectral satellite sensors recorded on a monthly basis between 1991 and 2001. The results are presented as a Be-7 correlation coefficient and show a consistent pattern with small variations across the latitudes and rather large variations between the different cloud classes. The strongest coherence is inverse and associated with Be-7 and high-level clouds (cumulonimbus and nimbostratus), generally, at low latitudes while mid-level clouds (altocumulus, altostratus and cumulus congestus) show little (insignificant) correlation. Despite variable correlation trends, merging of the two data sets has proven valuable in order to understand aerosols-Be-7 (and likely Be-10) correlation to different cloud types.

  • 34. Intarasiri, Saweat
    et al.
    Dangtip, S.
    Hallén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Jensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Yu, L.D.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Singkarat, S.
    Activation energy of the growth of ion-beam-synthesized nano-crystalline 3C-SiC2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 257, no 1-2, p. 195-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this experiment, carbon ions at 40 keV were implanted into (10 0) high-purity p-type silicon wafers at 400 degrees C to a fluence of 6.5 x 10(17) ions/cm(2). Subsequent thermal annealing of the implanted samples was performed in a vacuum furnace at 800-1000 degrees C. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) was used to characterize the crystalline quality and estimate the grain size of nano-crystalline 3C-SiC. Activation energy for the growth of 3C-SiC was evaluated following the annealing behaviour of the GIXRD-characteristic 3C-SiC (111) peaks. It was found that the 3C-SiC was directly formed during ion implantation at this substrate temperature and the activation energy of the process was about 0.05 eV. Such a low energy was explained in terms of ion beam induced precipitate formation.

  • 35. Issa, Shams A. M.
    et al.
    Uosif, M. A. M.
    Michel, R.
    Herpers, U.
    Malmborg, P.
    Uppsala University, The Svedberg Laboratory.
    Holmqvist, B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Proton-induced production of residual radionuclides in Re-nat up to 2590 MeV2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 298, p. 19-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The excitation functions for residual nuclide production by proton reactions on rhenium was investigated using activated targets from irradiation experiments at the cyclotron of the Svedberg Laboratory at Uppsala up to 180 MeV and the higher energies were used at the Laboratoire Saturne at Saclay. The measured experimental results were compared with previous published and theoretical models calculations by the codes TALYS, INCL4 + ABLA and Bertini/Dresner. A total of 5252 cross-section was determined covering 54 residual nuclides in the energy range from 78.2 to 2590 MeV.

  • 36.
    Jensen, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Sanz, R.
    Martin, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Surpi, Alessandro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Vázquez, M.
    Hernandez-Velez, M.
    Implantation of anatase thin film with 100 keV 56Fe ions: Damage formation and magnetic behaviour2009In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 267, no 16, p. 2725-2730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the damage morphology and magnetic properties of titanium dioxide thin films following implantation with Fe ions. The titanium dioxide films, having a polycrystalline anatase structure, were implanted with 100 keV 56Fe+ ions to a total fluence of 1.3 × 1016 ions/cm2. The ion bombardment leads to an amorphized surface with no indication of the presence of secondary phases or Fe clusters. The ion-beam induced damage manifested itself by a marked change in surface morphology and film thickness. A room temperature ferromagnetic behaviour was observed by SQUID in the implanted sample. It is believed that the ion-beam induced damage and defects in the polycrystalline anatase film were partly responsible for the observed magnetic response.

  • 37.
    Jensen, Jens
    et al.
    Linkoping University.
    Martin, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Surpi, Alessandro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    ERD analysis and modification of TiO2 thin films with heavy ions2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 11-12, p. 1893-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Jensen, Jens
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Skupinski, Marek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Sanz, R
    Heavy ion beam-based nano- and micro-structuring of TiO2 single crystals using self-assembled masks2008In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 266, no 12-13, p. 3113-3119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast heavy ion beam-based lithography using masks of self-assembled materials has been applied for transferring well-ordered nano- and micropatterns to rutile TiO2 single crystals. As the induced damage has a high etching selectivity the patterns can be developed in hydrofluoric acid with very high-contrast. Here we present resulting patterns when using a mask of self-ordered silica spheres. The obtained pattern are replicas of the mass distribution of the mask. In addition the shape and size of the regular structures depend on the applied ion energy and fluence. Direct modifications of the optical properties of TiO2 in a well-defined pattern are also presented. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 39. Juslin, N.
    et al.
    Nordlund, K.
    Wallenius, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Neutron Research.
    Malerba, L.
    Simulation of threshold displacement energies in FeCr2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 255, no 1, p. 75-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the role of chromium on threshold displacement energies in FeCr for the fusion reactor steel relevant concentration 10% Cr. We have used molecular dynamics simulations in order to determine whether the observed Cr-content dependence of macroscopic properties can be due to the defect production. We compare FeCr-alloys with pure iron and chromium, employing two different potential sets for the Fe-Cr system. We find that there are no significant differences between pure iron and FeCr with 10% Cr for the 100, 110 and 111 directions and the average threshold energy.

  • 40. Katardjiev, Ilia V
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Nender, C
    Miteva, V
    On the impact parameter probability distribution in atomic collisions for Monte Carlo simulations1992In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 72, p. 28-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41. Keogh, S. M.
    et al.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Vintro, L. Leon
    Mitchell, P. I.
    Smith, K. J.
    McGinnity, P.
    Anthropogenic 129I in precipitation and surface waters in Ireland2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 7-8, p. 1232-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The I-129 content in precipitation, lake and river waters sampled in Ireland in 2005-2006 has been determined by accelerator mass spectrometry. In the case of lake and river waters, the data reveal little if any geographic dispersion with a mean (n = 14) concentration of 4.6 +/- 1.2(1 sigma) x 10(8) atoms L-1. In contrast, concentrations of I-129 in precipitation show significant variations both in time and space, with concentrations ranging from a low of 1.9 x 10(8) atoms L-1 to a high of 303 x 10(8) atoms L-1. These variations in precipitation are attributed to temporal changes in on-going discharges of I-129 from west European reprocessing plants in conjunction with the trajectories of airstreams prevailing over Ireland at the time of sampling.

  • 42.
    Klintberg, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Lindeberg, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Sodium hypochlorite as a developer for heavy ion tracks in polyimide2001In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 184, no 4, p. 536-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    he developing and etching of heavy ion tracks in polyimide with sodium hypochlorite have been studied to gain control over the parameters that affect the etch result. The shape of the resulting pores is a function of both alkalinity and hypochlorite content of the solution. Sodium hypochlorite decomposes during etching, and the rate constant has been determined as a function of the alkalinity at 62 °C. Polished cross-sections have been examined to determine the pore shape, and this method has shown to be a straightforward way to characterise the pores. Decreasing the alkalinity gives more cylindrical pores, but increases the decomposition rate of the hypochlorite solution and decreases the etch rate.

  • 43. Kolhinen, V. S.
    et al.
    Eronen, T.
    Gorelov, D.
    Hakala, J.
    Jokinen, A.
    Jokiranta, K.
    Kankainen, A.
    Koikkalainen, M.
    Koponen, J.
    Kulmala, H.
    Lantz, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Mattera, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Moore, I. D.
    Penttilä, H.
    Pikkarainen, T.
    Pohjlainen, I.
    Reponen, M.
    Rinta-Antila, S.
    Rissanen, J.
    Rodriguez Triguero, C.
    Rytkönen, K.
    Saastamoinen, A.
    Solders, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sonnenschein, V.
    Ąystö, J.
    Recommissioning of JYFLTRAP at the new IGISOL-4 facility2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 317, no Part B, p. 506-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The JYFLTRAP double Penning-trap system was moved to a new location along with the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-line (IGISOL) facility at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä. The move made it possible to upgrade various parts of the facility. For example, separate beam lines for JYFLTRAP and the collinear laser spectroscopy station were constructed after the radio-frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher. In this contribution we give an overview of the new JYFLTRAP facility and results from the first stable ion-beam tests.

  • 44. Lindroos, M.
    et al.
    Bousson, S.
    Calaga, R.
    Danared, H.
    Devanz, G.
    Duperrier, R.
    Eguia, J.
    Eshraqi, M.
    Gammino, S.
    Hahn, H.
    Jansson, A.
    Oyon, C.
    Pape-Moller, S.
    Peggs, S.
    Ponton, A.
    Rathsman, K.
    Ruber, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Satogata, T.
    Trahern, G.
    The European Spallation Source2011In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 269, no 24, p. 3258-3260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  • 45. Linnarsson, M. K.
    et al.
    Khartsev, S.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Hallen, A.
    ToF-MEIS stopping measurements in thin SiC films2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 332, p. 130-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic stopping in thin, amorphous, SiC films has been studied by time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering and conventional Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Amorphous SiC films (8, 21 and 36 nm) were prepared by laser ablation using a single crystalline silicon carbide target. Two kinds of substrate films, one with a lower atomic mass (carbon) and one with higher atomic mass (iridium) compared to silicon has been used. Monte Carlo simulations have been used to evaluate electronic stopping from the shift in energy for the signal scattered from Ir with and without SiC. The two kinds of samples are used to illustrate the strength and challenges for ToF-MEIS compared to conventional RBS.  

  • 46.
    Lohmann, Svenja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ion-induced particle desorption in time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering2018In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 423, p. 22-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary ions emitted from solids upon ion impact are studied in a time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering (ToF-MEIS) set-up. In order to investigate characteristics of the emission processes and to evaluate the potential for surface and thin film analysis, experiments employing TiN and Al samples were conducted. The ejected ions exhibit a low initial kinetic energy of a few eV, thus, requiring a sufficiently high acceleration voltage for detection. Molecular and atomic ions of different charge states originating both from surface contaminations and the sample material are found, and relative yields of several species were determined. Experimental evidence that points towards a predominantly electronic sputtering process is presented. For emitted Ti target atoms an additional nuclear sputtering component is suggested.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-15 00:00
  • 47.
    Lohmann, Svenja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sortica, Mauricio A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Analysis of photon emission induced by light and heavy ions in time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering2018In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 417, p. 75-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a systematic analysis of the photon emission observed due to impact of pulsed keV ion beams in time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering (ToF-MEIS) experiments. Hereby, hydrogen, helium and neon ions served as projectiles and thin gold and titanium nitride films on different substrates were employed as target materials. The present experimental evidence indicates that a significant fraction of the photons has energies of around 10 eV, i.e. on the order of typical valence and conduction band transitions in solids. Furthermore, the scaling properties of the photon emission with respect to several experimental parameters were studied. A dependence of the photon yield on the projectile velocity was observed in all experiments. The photon yield exhibits a dependence on the film thickness and the scattering angle, which can be explained by photon production along the path of the incident ion through the material. Additionally, a strong dependence on the projectile type was found with the photon emission being higher for heavier projectiles. This difference is larger than the respective difference in electronic stopping cross section. The photon yield shows a strong material dependence, and according to a comparison of SiO2 and Si seems to be subject to matrix effects. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 48. Mameli, A.
    et al.
    Greco, F.
    Fidanzio, A.
    Fusco, V.
    Cilla, S.
    D'Onofrio, G.
    Grimaldi, L.
    Augelli, B. G.
    Giannini, Gianrossano
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Totaro, Pierluigi
    Tommasino, L.
    Azario, L.
    Piermattei, Angelo
    CR-39 detector based thermal neutron flux measurements, in the photo neutron project2008In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 266, no 16, p. 3656-3660Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Man, L. C. T.
    et al.
    Apel, P.
    Cheung, T.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Yu, K. N.
    Zet, C.
    Spohr, R.
    Influence of a surfactant on single ion track etching: preparing and manipulating cylindrical micro wires2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 265, no 2, p. 621-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the alkali resistant surfactant Dowfax 2A1 on single ion track etching in 30 μm polycarbonate foils is studied at low etch rate (5 M NaOH at 41.5 ± 2 °C) using electro conductivity measurements. At surfactant concentrations above 10−4 vol.% break-through times are predictable (Δt/t < 0.25). At high surfactant concentrations (0.1 vol.%) the formation of cylindrical channels is favoured. The shape of these channels (length  26 μm, diameter  1.8 μm) is verified by electro-replication and SEM observation of the resulting wires. Agreement of radii is better than 0.1 μm. Depending on the current limit set during electro replication compact or hollow cylinders can be obtained. A technique for localizing and manipulating individual micro wires by their head buds is described.

  • 50. Michel, R.
    et al.
    Hansmann, D.
    Neumann, S.
    Glasser, W.
    Schuhmacher, H.
    Dangendorf, V.
    Nolte, R.
    Herpers, U.
    Smirnov, A. N.
    Ryzhov, I. V.
    Prokofiev, Alexander V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Uppsala University, The Svedberg Laboratory.
    Malmborg, P.
    Uppsala University, The Svedberg Laboratory.
    Kollar, D.
    Meulders, J. -P
    Excitation functions for the production of radionuclides by neutron-induced reactions on C, O, Mg, Al, Si, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Te, Pb, and U up to 180 MeV2015In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 343, p. 30-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Irradiation experiments with well-characterized, quasi mono-energetic neutrons of energies between 32.7 MeV and 175.4 MeV were performed at UCL/Louvain-la-Neuve and TSL/Uppsala. The abundances of relatively short-lived residual radionuclides from 13 different target elements were determined by 7-spectrometry. More than 100 excitation functions of neutron-induced reactions were unfolded based on the neutron spectra and the radionuclide abundances with the aid of additional information that was provided by "guess" excitation functions calculated by the TALYS 1.0 code. The results are compared with the sparse existing data from other authors. The new excitation functions were validated by calculation of and comparison with experimental thick-target production rates. Consistency with neutron excitation functions up to 1.6 GeV, which were derived earlier by unfolding the thick-target production rates, was so demonstrated.

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