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  • 1.
    Abou-Ras, Daniel
    et al.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat & Energie GmbH, Hahn Meitner Pl 1, D-14109 Berlin, Germany..
    Wagner, Sigurd
    Princeton Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Stanbery, Bill J.
    Siva Power, 5102 Calle Sol, Santa Clara, CA 95054 USA..
    Schock, Hans-Werner
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat & Energie GmbH, Hahn Meitner Pl 1, D-14109 Berlin, Germany..
    Scheer, Roland
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Phys, Photovolta Grp, D-06120 Halle, Saale, Germany..
    Stolt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Solibro Res AB, Sweden.
    Siebentritt, Susanne
    Univ Luxembourg, Phys & Mat Sci Res Unit, Lab Photovolta, Belvaux, Luxembourg..
    Lincot, Daniel
    CNRS EDF Chim Paristech PSL, Inst Photovolta Ile France IPVF, IRDEP, 6 Quai Watier, F-78401 Chatou, France..
    Eberspacher, Chris
    Solopower Syst Inc, Corp & Mfg Headquarters, 6308 North Marine Dr, Portland, OR 97203 USA..
    Kushiya, Katsumi
    Solar Frontier KK, 123-1 Shimo Kawairi, Atsugi, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Tiwari, Ayodhya N.
    Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Lab Thin Films & Photovolta, Ueberlandstr 129, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland..
    Innovation highway: Breakthrough milestones and key developments in chalcopyrite photovoltaics from a retrospective viewpoint2017In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 633, 2-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present contribution is a summary of an event that was organized as a special evening session in Symposium V "Chalcogenide Thin-Film Solar Cells" at the E-MRS 2016 Spring Meeting, Lille, France. The presentations in this session were given by the coauthors of this paper. These authors present retrospectives of key developments in the field of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)(2) solar cells as they themselves had witnessed in their laboratories or companies. Also, anecdotes are brought up, which captured interesting circumstances in that evolutionary phase of the field. Because the focus was on historical perspectives rather than a comprehensive review of the field, recent developments intentionally were not addressed.

  • 2.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Plasma & Coatings Physics Division, IFM, Material Physics, Linköping University.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Larsson, Petter
    Plasma & Coatings Physics Division, IFM, Material Physics, Linköping University.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Plasma & Coatings Physics Division, IFM, Material Physics, Linköping University.
    Jensen, Jens
    Thin Film Physics Division , IFM, Material Physics, Linköping University.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Plasma & Coatings Physics Division, IFM, Material Physics, Linköping University.
    Hysteresis and process stability in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of metal oxides2011In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 22, 7779-7784 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the further development of reactive sputter deposition, strategies which allow for stabilization of the transition zone between the metallic and compound modes, elimination of the process hysteresis, and increase of the deposition rate, are of particular interest. In this study, the hysteresis behavior and the characteristics of the transition zone during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Al and Ce targets in an Ar-O(2) atmosphere as a function of the pulsing frequency and the pumping speed are investigated. Comparison with reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) reveals that HiPIMS allows for elimination/suppression of the hysteresis and a smoother transition from the metallic to the compound sputtering mode. For the experimental conditions employed in the present study, optimum behavior with respect to the hysteresis width is obtained at frequency values between 2 and 4 kHz, while HiPIMS processes with values below or above this range resemble the DCMS behavior. Al-O films are deposited using both HiPIMS and DCMS. Analysis of the film properties shows that elimination/suppression of the hysteresis in HiPIMS facilitates the growth of stoichiometric and transparent Al(2)O(3) at relatively high deposition rates over a wider range of experimental conditions as compared to DCMS.

  • 3.
    Alfredsson, Ylfi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Åhlund, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Nilson, Katharina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Kjeldgaard, Lisbeth
    O´Shea, J. N.
    Theobald, J.
    Bao, Zhuo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Mårtensson, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Sandell, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Puglia, Carla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Phase and molecular orientation in H2Pc on conducting glass: characterization of two deposition methods2005In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 493, no 1-2, 13-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, metal-free phthalocyanine has been deposited on a conducting glass surface by two methods: by spreading the molecular powder directly on the substrate in air and by vapor sublimation under ultra-high vacuum conditions (evaporation). The films have been characterized by means of core level X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Ultra Violet and Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Our results show that the two deposition methods produce molecular overlayers in different polymorphic phases; the UV-Vis measurements indicate that the film obtained by powder deposition is of x-phase type whereas sublimation leads to an α-polymorph structure. The XAS results show that in the powder deposited film the molecules are mainly oriented parallel to the surface. This is opposite to the case of the vapor deposited film, where the molecules mainly are oriented orthogonal to the surface.

  • 4. Anders, Andre
    et al.
    Lim, Sunnie H. N.
    Yu, Kin Man
    Andersson, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rosen, Johanna
    McFarland, Mike
    Brown, Jeff
    High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, no 12, 3313-3319 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide. In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200 degrees C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10(-4) Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85% in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

  • 5. Andersson, LP
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Norström, H
    Olaison, R
    Towta, S
    Properties and coating rates of diamond-like carbon films produced by RF glow discharge of hydrocarbon gases1979In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 58, 117- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Urbonaite, Sigita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Magnetron sputtering of Zr-Si-C thin films2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, no 20, 6375-6381 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase composition and chemical bonding of Zr-C and Zr-Si-C films deposited by magnetron sputtering has been studied. The results show that the binary Zr-C films at higher carbon contents form nanocrystallites of ZrC in an amorphous carbon matrix. The addition of Si induces a complete amorphization of the films above a critical concentration of about 15 at.%. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirm that the amorphous films contain no nanocrystallites and therefore can be described as truly amorphous carbides. The amorphous films are thermally stable but start to crystallize above 500 degrees C. Analysis of the chemical bonding with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that the amorphous films exhibit a mixture of different chemical bonds such as Zr-C, Zr-Si and Si-C and that the electrical and mechanical properties are dependent on the distribution of these bonds. For higher carbon contents, strong Si-C bonds are formed in the amorphous Zr-Si-C films making them harder than the corresponding binary Zr-C films.

  • 7.
    Barbe, Jeremy
    et al.
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble, och Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, Frankrike.
    Xie, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Faucherand, Pascal
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Morin, Christine
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble Frankrike.
    Rapisarda, Dario
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    De Vito, Eric
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Makasheva, Kremena
    Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, Frankrike.
    Despax, Bernard
    Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, Frankrike.
    Perraud, Simon
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Silicon nanocrystals on amorphous silicon carbide alloy thin films: Control of film properties and nanocrystals growth2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 522, 136-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study demonstrates the growth of silicon nanocrystals on amorphous silicon carbide alloy thin films. Amorphous silicon carbide films [a-Si1 − xCx:H (with x < 0.3)] were obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from a mixture of silane and methane diluted in hydrogen. The effect of varying the precursor gas-flow ratio on the film properties was investigated. In particular, a wide optical band gap (2.3 eV) was reached by using a high methane-to-silane flow ratio during the deposition of the a-Si1 − xCx:H layer. The effect of short-time annealing at 700 °C on the composition and properties of the layer was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that the silicon-to-carbon ratio in the layer remains unchanged after short-time annealing, but the reorganization of the film due to a large dehydrogenation leads to a higher density of SiC bonds. Moreover, the film remains amorphous after the performed short-time annealing. In a second part, it was shown that a high density (1 × 1012 cm− 2) of silicon nanocrystals can be grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on a-Si0.8C0.2 surfaces at 700 °C, from silane diluted in hydrogen. The influence of growth time and silane partial pressure on nanocrystals size and density was studied. It was also found that amorphous silicon carbide surfaces enhance silicon nanocrystal nucleation with respect to SiO2, due to the differences in surface chemical properties.

  • 8. Bardos, L
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Barankova, Hana
    Carlsson, JO
    Reactive deposition of diamond and Si carbide films by hydrogen plasma etching of graphite and Si in rf plasma jet1993In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 223, 218-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Andersson, LP
    Diamond-like carbonfilms produced in a butane plasma1979In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 58, 117- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Katardjiev, Ilia V
    Nender, C
    Carlsson, P
    Large area selective thin film deposition by bias sputtering1994In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 241, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Masszi, Ferenc
    Biersack, JP
    Substrate dependent escape depths of sputtered substrate atoms through thin film overlayers1989In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Särhammar, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Upgrading the “Berg-model” for reactive sputtering processes2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 565, 186-192 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several phenomena are neglected in the original “Berg model” in order to provide a simple model of the reactive sputtering process. There exist situations, however, where this simplified treatment limits the usefulness of the model. To partly correct for this, we introduce an upgraded version of the basic model. We abandon the simplifying assumption that compound targets are sputter eroded as molecules. Instead, the molecule is split and individual atoms will be sputter ejected. Also, the effect of ionized reactive gas atoms implanted into the target will be considered. We outline how to modify the original model to include these effects. Still, the mathematical treatment is maintained simple so that the new model may serve as an easy-to-understand tutorial of the complex mechanisms of reactive sputtering.

  • 13.
    Björck, Matts
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Soroka, Inna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Chacon-Carillo, Cyril
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Andersson, Gabriella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    The asymmetric interface structure of bcc Fe82Ni18/Co superlattices as revealed by neutron diffraction2007In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 7-8, 3619-3623 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interface structure of Fe82Ni18/Co (001) superlattices has been studied with a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. The analysis reveals highly asymmetric interfaces with total interface widths of 10 ± 1 ML(monolayers) for Fe82Ni18 on Co and a maximum interface width of 1 ML for Co on Fe82Ni18. In addition it is concluded that there is no detectable long range B2-type chemical order occurring in the interface region. These results are also discussed in the context of previously measured magnetic moments of the same system.

  • 14.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Berg, Sören
    Larsson, T
    Mass flow limitations in reactive sputtering1985In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 130, 307-313 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Norström, H
    Östling, m
    Nygren, S
    Buchta, R
    Petersson, CS
    A comparative study of the diffusion barrier properties for TiN and ZrN1984In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Boettger, P. H. M.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Crystallography, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Lewin, Erik
    Laboratory of Nanoscale Materials Science, Empa, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Patscheider, J.
    Laboratory of Nanoscale Materials Science, Empa, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Shklover, V.
    Laboratory of Crystallography, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Cahill, D. G.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Ghisleni, R.
    Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Empa, Thun, Switzerland.
    Sobiech, M.
    Oerlikon Balzers Coating AG, Balzers, Liechtenstein.
    Thermal conductivity of hard oxynitride coatings2013In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 549, 232-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Borges, J.
    et al.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Kumar, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rodrigues, M. S.
    Duarte, N.
    Martins, B.
    Dias, J. P.
    Cavaleiro, A.
    Vaz, F.
    Microstructural evolution of Au/TiO2 nanocomposite films: The influence of Au concentration and thermal annealing2015In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 580, 77-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposite thin films consisting of a dielectric matrix, such as titanium oxide (TiO2), with embedded gold (Au) nanoparticles were prepared and will be analysed and discussed in detail in the present work. The evolution of morphological and structural features was studied for a wide range of Au concentrations and for annealing treatments in air, for temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 degrees C. Major findings revealed that for low Au atomic concentrations (at.%), there are only traces of clustering, and just for relatively high annealing temperatures, T >= 500 degrees C. Furthermore, the number of Au nanoparticles is extremely low, even for the highest annealing temperature, T = 800 degrees C. It is noteworthy that the TiO2 matrix also crystallizes in the anatase phase for annealing temperatures above 300 degrees C. For intermediate Au contents (5 at.% <= C-Au <= 15 at.%), the formation of gold nanoclusters was much more evident, beginning at lower annealing temperatures (T >= 200 degrees C) with sizes ranging from 2 to 25 nm as the temperature increased. A change in the matrix crystallization from anatase to rutile was also observed in this intermediate range of compositions. For the highest Au concentrations (>20 at.%), the films tended to form relatively larger clusters, with sizes above 20 nm (for T >= 400 degrees C). It is demonstrated that the structural and morphological characteristics of the films are strongly affected by the annealing temperature, as well as by the particular amounts, size and distribution of the Au nanoparticles dispersed in the TiO2 matrix.

  • 18.
    Borges, J.
    et al.
    Czech Tech Univ, Fac Elect Engn, Dept Control Engn, Tech 2, CR-16635 Prague 6, Czech Republic..
    Rodrigues, M. S.
    Univ Minho, Ctr Fis, P-4710057 Braga, Portugal.;Inst Pedro Nunes, Lab Ensaios Desgaste & Mat, P-3030199 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Kumar, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Evaristo, M.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Mech Engn, SEG CEMUC, P-3030788 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Cavaleiro, A.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Mech Engn, SEG CEMUC, P-3030788 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Apreutesei, M.
    INSA Lyon, MATEIS Lab, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France..
    Pereira, R. M. S.
    Univ Minho, Ctr Fis, P-4710057 Braga, Portugal.;Univ Minho, Ctr Matemat, Braga, Portugal..
    Vasilevskiy, M. I.
    Univ Minho, Ctr Fis, P-4710057 Braga, Portugal..
    Polcar, T.
    Czech Tech Univ, Fac Elect Engn, Dept Control Engn, Tech 2, CR-16635 Prague 6, Czech Republic.;Univ Southampton, Natl Ctr Adv Tribol Southampton nCATS, Southampton SO17 1BJ, Hants, England..
    Vaz, F.
    Univ Minho, Ctr Fis, P-4710057 Braga, Portugal..
    Thin films composed of gold nanoparticles dispersed in a dielectric matrix: The influence of the host matrix on the optical and mechanical responses2015In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 596, 8-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gold nanoparticles were dispersed in two different dielectric matrices, TiO2 and Al2O3, using magnetron sputtering and a post-deposition annealing treatment. The main goal of the present work was to study how the two different host dielectric matrices, and the resulting microstructure evolution (including both the nanoparticles and the host matrix itself) promoted by thermal annealing, influenced the physical properties of the films. In particular, the structure and morphology of the nanocomposites were correlated with the optical response of the thin films, namely their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) characteristics. Furthermore, and in order to scan the future application of the two thin film system in different types of sensors (namely biological ones), their functional behaviour (hardness and Young's modulus change) was also evaluated. Despite the similar Au concentrations in both matrices (similar to 11 at.%), very different microstructural features were observed, which were found to depend strongly on the annealing temperature. The main structural differences included: (i) the early crystallization of the TiO2 host matrix, while the Al2O3 one remained amorphous up to 800 degrees C; (ii) different grain size evolution behaviours with the annealing temperature, namely an almost linear increase for the Au:TiO2 system (from 3 to 11 nm), and the approximately constant values observed in the Au:Al2O3 system (4-5 nm). The results from the nanoparticle size distributions were also found to be quite sensitive to the surrounding matrix, suggesting different mechanisms for the nanoparticle growth (particle migration and coalescence dominating in TiO2 and Ostwald ripening in Al2O3). These different clustering behaviours induced different transmittance-LSPR responses and a good mechanical stability, which opens the possibility for future use of these nanocomposite thin film systems in some envisaged applications (e.g. LSPR-biosensors).

  • 19. Boschloo, G.
    et al.
    Marinado, T.
    Nonomura, K.
    Edvinsson, T.
    Agrios, A. G.
    Hagberg, D. P.
    Sun, L.
    Quintana, M.
    Karthikeyan, C. S.
    Thelakkat, M.
    Hagfeldt, A.
    A comparative study of a polyene-diphenylaniline dye and Ru(dcbpy)(2)(NCS)(2) in electrolyte-based and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, no 20, 7214-7217 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bras, Patrice
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Frisk, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Tempez, Agnes
    Niemi, Esko
    Platzer Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ga-grading and Solar Cell Capacitance Simulation of an industrial Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell produced by an in-line vacuum, all-sputtering process2017In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 636, 367-374 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium-free Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) solar cells are fabricated on stainless steel substrate using an industrial, inline vacuum, all sputtering process. The absorber layer is deposited from compound CIGS targets and crystallized simultaneously by high temperature processing. In-depth compositional and structural characterization of the chalcopyrite material is conducted and a Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS) model for the complete device is set-up. Ga-grading of the absorber through the successive use of different CIGS target compositions and resulting in solar cell performance enhancement is shown. At the research and development scale, efficiency values of 15.1% and 13.2% are reported for 1 cm(2) and 225 cm(2) total area solar cells, respectively. Successful transfer to production is also demonstrated. A series of a hundred 225 cm(2) solar cells produced following an optimized process including the Ga grading studied in the present contribution average at 14.8% total area efficiency.

  • 21.
    Bras, Patrice
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Sterner, Jan
    Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Influence of hydrogen sulfide annealing on copper-zinc-tin-sulfide solar cells sputtered from a quaternary compound target2015In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 582, 233-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a theoretical efficiency around 30% and an optimized band gap for sunlight absorption, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising, earth-abundant, material for thin film solar cells. Sputtering CZTS from a quaternary compound target is a quick and potentially industrial-scaled process that has not been investigated deeply yet. Our approach is based on an in-line vacuum system for the complete device. CZTS is sputtered from a compound target on a sodium molybdate (MoNa) pre-sputtered stainless steel substrate, and then annealed in high-pressure H2S atmosphere. A 1 mu m thick absorber is obtained within 7 minute sputtering. Top layers are then deposited, without vacuum breaking. The effects of different annealing temperatures on the absorber morphology and composition are investigated. It is observed that recrystallization already occurs at 420 degrees C and that crystallinity improves with increasing temperature up to 550 degrees C. However, micro-sphere formation underneath the film degrades the corresponding solar cell performance dramatically above 510 degrees C. It is shown that sodium is needed in order to enhance recrystallization of CZTS but the MoNa layer thickness seems not to be a critical parameter. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and current-voltage measurement were used to characterize the samples.

  • 22.
    Bárdos, Ladislav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Baránková, Hana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cold atmospheric plasma: Sources, processes, and applications2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, no 23, 6705-6713 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric pressure gas discharge plasmas, especially those operated at energy non-equilibrium and low gas temperatures, have recently become a subject of great interest for a wide variety of technologies including surface treatment and thin-film deposition. A driving force for these developments is the avoidance of expensive equipment required for competing vacuum-based plasma technologies. Although there are many applications where non-equilibrium (cold) plasma at atmospheric and higher pressures represents a substantial advantage, there are also a number of applications where low-pressure plasmas simply cannot be replaced due to specific properties and limitations of the atmospheric plasma and related equipment. In this critical review, the primary principles and characteristics of the cold atmospheric plasma and differences from vacuum-based plasma processes are described and discussed to provide a better understanding of the capabilities and limits of emerging atmospheric plasma technologies.

  • 23.
    Böhnke, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Copper indium gallium diselenide thin films for sun angle detectors in space applications2009In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 6, 2063-2068 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on processing, analysis and characterization of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)used as a photosensitive layer for sensors such as sun angle detectors in space applications. CIGS-based solarcell devices with different CIGS layer thicknesses and the pn-junction located on the opposite side of theincidence of light were illuminated through their ultra-thin transparent molybdenum back contacts. Theresults from the current density versus voltage and quantum efficiency measurement indicate that the CIGSabsorber layer may not exceed 750 nm at backside illumination, due to the limited CIGS diffusion length.

  • 24. Cacucci, Arnaud
    et al.
    Heintz, Olivier
    Tsiaoussis, Ioannis
    Avril, Ludovic
    Potin, Valerie
    Imhoff, Luc
    Martin, Nicolas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Flash annealing influence on structural and electrical properties of TiO2/TiO/Ti periodic multilayers2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 553, 47-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered structures with a 40 nm period composed of titanium and two different titanium oxides, TiO and TiO2, were accurately produced by DC magnetron sputtering using the reactive gas pulsing process. These multilayers were sputtered onto Al2O3 sapphire to avoid substrate compound diffusion during flash annealing ( ranging from 350 degrees C to 550 degrees C). Structure and composition of these periodic TiO2/TiO/Ti stacks were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy techniques. Two crystalline phases alpha-Ti and fcc-TiO were identified in the metallic-rich sub-layers whereas the oxygen-rich ones were composed of a mixture of amorphous and rutile TiO2 phase. DC electrical resistivity. measured for temperatures ranging from 25 to 200 degrees C was influenced by the thermal treatments. The temperature coefficients of resistance of these periodic TiO2/TiO/Ti multilayers were modified from 11.7 x 10(-04) to -8.81 x 10(-04) K-1. Local changes of crystallinity were reported and the resistivity responses of these annealed films could be linked to the typical electrical behavior of a metal-oxide mixture.

  • 25.
    Campa, A.
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering.
    Krc, J.
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering.
    Malmström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Smole, F.
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering.
    Topic, M.
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering.
    The potential of textured front ZnO and flat TCO/metal back contact to improve optical absorption in thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells2007In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 15, 5968-5972 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of additionally textured front transparent conductive oxide − TCO (ZnO:Al) and flat TCO/metal contact on optical improvements in thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells are investigated by means of numerical simulations. A de-coupled analysis of two effects related to additional texturing of front surface of ZnO:Al TCO − (i) enhancement of light scattering and (ii) decreased total reflectance (antireflective effect) − reveals that the improvements in quantum efficiency, QE, and short-circuit current, JSC, of the solar cell originate from an antireflective effect only. In order to improve optical properties of the back contact the introduction of a TCO layer (undoped ZnO) between CIGS and back metal contact is investigated from the optical point of view. In addition to ZnO/Mo, a highly reflective ZnO/Ag contact (ZnO is also assumed to work as a protection layer for Ag) is also included in simulations. Results show significant increase in reflectance related to introduced ZnO in front of Mo. Drastically increased reflectance is obtained if ZnO/Mo is substituted with ZnO/Ag. The improvements in QE and JSC of a thin CIGS solar cell, related to ZnO/metal contacts are presented.

  • 26.
    Coronel, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Olsson, E
    The effect of carbon content on the microstructure of hydrogen-free physical vapour deposited titanium carbide films2009In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, no 1, 71-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium carbide (TiC) coatings for tribological applications were deposited on high speed steel. Several coatings with different titanium to carbon ratio were deposited by means of physical vapour deposition in which titanium was evaporated and carbon was sputtered. The coatings were characterised using analytical electron microscopy. It was observed that the change in titanium to carbon ratio significantly changed the microstructure of the coatings. The low carbon containing coatings consisted of columnar grains exhibiting a preferred crystallographic orientation whereas the coating with highest carbon content consisted of randomly ordered TiC grains in an amorphous carbon matrix. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy revealed a change in Ti/C ratio as the distance from the substrate increased. The titanium to carbon ratio was observed to increase with distance from the substrate until a stable level was reached. This is due to a variation in the titanium evaporation during the early stages of film growth. This change of the titanium to carbon ratio affected the columnar growth in the initial stage of coating growth for the coatings with low carbon content.

  • 27.
    Crossley, A
    et al.
    AEA Technology, UK.
    Johnston, C
    Hutchings, I M
    Myhra, S
    Temple, J A G
    Wiklund, U
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Surface treatment for galling protection of titanium alloys: characterization by surface-specific electron and Raman spectroscopies2002In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 414, no 2, 224-230 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Donzel-Gargand, Olivier
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Thersleff, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Fourdrinier, Lionel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Surface defect passivation by a thin metallic barrier for Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2 co-evaporation on Cr-steel substrates2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 619, 220-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Cr-steel substrates for the fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells is highly desirable and is a topic of considerable research interest. However, solar cells on non-treated steel substrates often exhibit decreased performance compared to their homologues on soda lime glass substrates. This is partly attributed to out-diffusion of steel components (Fe, Cr, Mn, etc.) into the solar cell. To avoid this contamination, thin film barriers can be added on top of the steel surface, but they do not always prevent the diffusion completely. In this paper we study the potential of using Cr and Ti as thin barrier layers. We find that local surface defects on the steel, several micrometers in height, lead to cracks in the back contact as well as in the barrier layers. Advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques reveal that elemental diffusion and chemical reactions occur at these openings during heat treatments in Se atmosphere. TEM-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX) analysis in combination with calculation of the solid state diffusion coefficient demonstrate that a Cr-barrier sacrificially protects the Cr-steel substrate, blocking most of the Fe out-diffusion, whereas a Ti-barrier is less efficient.

  • 29.
    Droulias, Sotirios A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Pálsson, Gunnar K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Palonen, Heikki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Ali, Hasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Kapaklis, Vassilios
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Wolff, Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Crystal perfection by strain engineering: The case of Fe/V (001)2017In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 636, 608-614 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of bilayer thickness at fixed volume fraction on the structural quality of Fe/V (001)superlattices. We find that such artificial metallic superlattices can be manufactured with excellent crystalquality and layering up to at least 50 Å in repeat distance (K = LFe +LV). For an intended fixed ratio of theconstituents: LFe/LV= 1/7, out-of-plane coherence lengths comparable to the thicknesses of the sampleswere obtained. We evaluate the strain in- and out-of-plane of both layers as a function of the bilayer thicknessand comment on the growth using the framework of linear elasticity theory. We interpret the stabilityof the superlattice against crystal degradation due to the alternating compressive and tensile strain, yieldingclose to ideal lattice matching to the substrate.

  • 30.
    Edoff, Marika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Schleussner, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Wallin, Erik
    Solibro Research AB.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Solibro Research AB.
    Technological and economical aspects on the influence of reduced Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga grading for co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 modules2011In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 21, 7530-7533 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thickness is one way of improving the throughput and capacity in existing production, provided that the efficiency can be kept at a high level. Our experimental results from an in-line co-evaporation process show that it is possible to produce CIGS solar cells with good efficiency at a CIGS thickness of less than 1 µm. An efficiency of 14.4% was obtained for an evaporation time of 8 min and a resulting CIGS thickness of only 0.8 [mu]m. The quantum efficiency measurements show only a minor reduction of the collection in the infrared region that can be related to losses caused by reduced absorption. Passivation of the back contact has been found to be important for thin devices and one way of obtaining good back contact properties, or to reduce the impact of back contact recombination is to use an increased Ga content near the back contact. We have found that Ga grading is feasible also in the three stage process, i.e. a Ga-rich layer near the back contact from stage one is to a high degree retained also after stages two and three. In this paper we discuss the implication of efficiency reduction for the economy of the production and how high efficiency loss that can be tolerated, provided that the output is doubled at equal production cost for the CIGS layer.

  • 31. Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Högberg, Hans
    Hultman, Lars
    The Mn + 1AXn phases: Materials science and thin-film processing2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, no 8, 1851-1878 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a Critical review of the M(n + 1)AX(n) phases ("MAX phases", where n = 1, 2, or 3) from a materials science perspective. MAX phases are a class of hexagonal-structure ternary carbides and nitrides ("X") of a transition metal ("M") and an A-group element. The most well known are Ti2AlC, Ti3SiC2, and Ti4AlN3. There are similar to 60 MAX phases with at least 9 discovered in the last five years alone. What makes the MAX phases fascinating and potentially useful is their remarkable combination of chemical, physical, electrical, and mechanical properties, which in many ways combine the characteristics of metals and ceramics. For example, MAX phases are typically resistant to oxidation and corrosion, elastically stiff, but at the same time they exhibit high thermal and electrical conductivities and are machinable. These properties stem from an inherently nanolaminated crystal structure, with M1 + nXn slabs intercalated with pure A-element layers. The research on MAX phases has been accelerated by the introduction of thin-film processing methods. Magnetron sputtering and arc deposition have been employed to synthesize single-crystal material by epitaxial growth, which enables studies of fundamental material properties. However, the surface-initiated decomposition of M(n + 1)AX(n) thin films into MX compounds at temperatures of 1000-1100 degrees C is much lower than the decomposition temperatures typically reported for the corresponding bulk material. We also review the prospects for low-temperature synthesis, which is essential for deposition of MAX phases onto technologically important substrates. While deposition of MAX phases from the archetypical Ti-Si-C and Ti-Al-N systems typically requires synthesis temperatures of similar to 800 degrees C, recent results have demonstrated that V2GeC and Cr2AlC can be deposited at similar to 450 degrees C. Also, thermal spray of Ti2AlC powder has been used to produce thick coatings. We further treat progress in the use of first-principle calculations for predicting hypothetical MAX phases and their properties. Together with advances in processing and materials analysis, this progress has led to recent discoveries of numerous new MAX phases such as Ti4SiC3, Ta4AlC3. and Ti3SnC2. Finally, important future research directions are discussed. These include charting the unknown regions in phase diagrams to discover new equilibrium and metastable phases, as well as research challenges in understanding their physical properties, such as the effects of anisotropy, impurities, and vacancies on the electrical properties, and unexplored properties such as Superconductivity, magnetism, and optics.

  • 32.
    Englund, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Uppsala universitet.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ren, Yi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Donzel-Gargand, Olivier
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Larsen, Jes K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Scragg, Jonathan J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Platzer Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Characterization of TiN back contact interlayers with varied thickness for Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin film solar cells2017In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 639, 91-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiN thin films have previously been used as intermediate barrier layers on Mo back contacts in CZTS(e) solar cells to suppress excessive reaction of the Mo in the annealing step. In this work, TiN films with various thickness (20, 50 and 200 nm) were prepared with reactive DC magnetron sputtering on Mo/SLG substrates and annealed, without CZTS(e) layers, in either S or Se atmospheres. The as-deposited references and the annealed samples were characterized with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Time-of-Flight-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis, Time-of-Flight-Medium-Energy Ion Scattering, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy – Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy. It was found that the as-deposited TiN layers below 50 nm show discontinuities, which could be related to the surface roughness of the Mo. Upon annealing, TiN layers dramatically reduced the formation of MoS(e)2, but did not prevent the sulfurization or selenization of Mo. The MoS(e)2 had formed near the discontinuities, both below and above the TiN layers. Another unexpected finding was that the thicker TiN layer increased the amount of Na diffused to the surface after anneal, and we suggest that this effect is related to the Na affinity of the TiN layers and the MoS(e)2 thickness.

  • 33.
    Ericson, Tove
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Scragg, Jonathan J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Reactive sputtering of precursors for Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, no 24, 7093-7099 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quaternary semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a possible In-free replacement for Cu(In,Ga)Se-2. Here we present reactive sputtering with the possibility to obtain homogeneous CZTS-precursors with tunable composition and a stoichiometric quantity of sulfur. The precursors can be rapidly annealed to create large grained films to be used in solar cells. The reactive sputtering process is flexible, and morphology, stress and metal and sulfur contents were varied by changing the H2S/Ar-flow ratio, pressure and substrate temperature. A process curve for the reactive sputtering from CuSn and Zn targets is presented. The Zn-target is shown to switch to compound mode earlier and faster compared to the CuSn-target. The precursors containing a stoichiometric amount of sulfur exhibit columnar grains, have a crystal structure best matching ZnS and give a broad peak, best matching CZTS, in Raman scattering. In comparing process gas flows it is shown that the sulfur content is strongly dependent on the H2S partial pressure but the total pressures compared in this study have little effect on the precursor properties. Increasing the substrate temperature changes the film composition due to the high vapor pressures of Zn, SnS and S. High substrate temperatures also give slightly denser and increasingly oriented films. The precursors are under compressive stress, which is reduced with higher deposition temperatures. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Ericson, Tove
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Scragg, Jonathan J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Törndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Annealing behavior of reactively sputtered precursor films for Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells2013In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 535, 22-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactively sputtered Cu–Zn–Sn–S precursor films are prepared and recrystallized by rapid thermal processing to generate Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell absorber layers. We study how the film properties are affected by substrate heating and composition. The stress, density and texture in the films were measured. Compressive stress was observed for the precursors but did not correlate to the deposition temperature, and had no influence on the properties of the annealed films or solar cells. However, the substrate temperature during precursor deposition had a large effect on the behavior during annealing and on the solar cell performance. The films deposited at room temperature had, after annealing, smaller grains and cracks, and gave shunted devices. Cracking is suggested to be due to a slightly higher sulfur content, lower density or to minor differences in material quality. The grain size in the annealed films seems to increase with higher copper content and higher precursor deposition temperature. The best device in the current series gave an efficiency of 4.5%.

  • 35. Fortunato, E.
    et al.
    Hosono, H.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Wagner, J.
    Advances in Transparent Electronics: From Materials to Devices2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, 1313- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Fortunato, E.
    et al.
    Hosono, H.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Wagner, J.
    Advances in Transparent Electronics: From Materials to Devices I2007In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, no 7, 1313-2346 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Ghamgosar, Pedram
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Dye adsorption on TiO2 electrodes studied using modulated photocurrent measurements2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 560, 10-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Ginley, D.
    et al.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kamiya, T.
    Shigesato, Y.
    Hosono, H.
    The International Symposium on Transparent Oxides and Related Materials for Elextronics and Optics2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 559, 1-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Ginley, David
    et al.
    Granqvist, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kamiya, Toshio
    Shigesato, Yuzo
    Hosono, Hideo
    Preface2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 559, 1-1 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Ginley, David
    et al.
    NREL, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kiriakidis, George
    Univ Crete, Rethimnon, Greece..
    Klein, Andreas
    Tech Univ Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany..
    Kamiya, Toshio
    Tokyo Tech, Tokyo, Japan..
    Hosono, Hideo
    Tokyo Tech, Tokyo, Japan..
    9th International Symposium on Transparent Oxide and Related Materials for Electronics and Optics (TOEO9) Preface2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 614, 43-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Recent Progress in Thermochromics and Electrochromics: A Brief Survey2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, no 614, 90-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Granqvist, Claes G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Recent progress in electrochromics and thermochromics: A brief survey2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 614, 90-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary architecture is characterized by large glazings, which are able to accomplish good indoors-outdoors contact and daylighting. However, glazings, encompassing windows and glass facades, are challenging with regard to energy efficiency and often lead to excessive solar energy ingress and to large thermal losses, which must be balanced by energy-demanding cooling or heating. Cooling, especially, has grown strongly in importance during recent years. Emerging technologies utilizing thermochromics and electrochromics allow control of the inflow of visible light and solar energy and thereby produce better energy efficiency than traditional glazings employing static solutions. Thermochromic thin films, based on vanadium dioxide, let through less solar energy at high temperature than at low temperature, whereas electrochromic devices include thin films-usually based on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide-that can change their transmittance of solar energy and visible light upon the application of a voltage. It is important that electrochromics, and to some degree thermochromics, can enhance indoor comfort and lead to better living and working conditions. The present brief review covers a number of recent advances in thermochromics and electrochromics with a view to applications in energy-efficient buildings.

  • 43.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Green, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Jonsson, E K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Azens, A
    Georen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Gustavsson, G
    Karmhag, R
    Smulko, J
    Kish, L B
    Electrochromic foil-based devices: Optical transmittance and modulation range, effect of ultravioled irradiation, and quality assessment by 1/f current noise2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, no 17, 5921-5926 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce electrochromic (EC) technology for modulating the transmittance of visible light and solar radiation in window apertures, with focus on recent work on foil-type devices embodying sputter deposited WO3 and NiO films joined by a polymer electrolyte. The purpose of this paper is to present a number of new and preliminary results showing that (i) double-sided antireflection coatings based on dip coating can enhance the transmittance significantly, (ii) tandem foils can yield a ratio between bleached-state and colored-state transmittance exceeding fifty, (iii) solar irradiance onto the EC device can enhance its charge insertion dynamics and thereby its optical modulation, and (iv) electromagnetic noise spectroscopy may serve as quality assessment of EC devices.

  • 44.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 564, 1-38 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment particularly its varying temperature than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films at least one of which having EC properties and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007-2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the possibilities to accomplish further porosity by having suitable thin-film deposition parameters. A number of examples on the importance of the detailed deposition conditions are presented, and Section 4 ends with a presentation of the EC properties of films with compositions across the full tungsten-nickel oxide system. Section 5 is devoted to transparent electrical conductors and electrolytes, both of which are necessary in EC devices. Detailed surveys are given of transparent conductors comprising doped-oxide semiconductors, coinage metals, nanowire meshes and other alternatives, and also of electrolytes based on thin films and on polymers. Particular attention is devoted to electrolyte functionalization by nanoparticles. Section 6 considers one particular device construction: A foil that is suitable for glass lamination and which, in the author's view, holds particular promise for low-cost large-area implementation of EC smart windows. Device data are presented, and a discussion is given of quality assessment by use of 1/f noise. The "battery-type" EC device covered in the major part of this critical review is not the only alternative, and Section 7 consists of brief discussions of a number of more or less advanced alternatives such as metal hydrides, suspended particle devices, polymer-dispersed liquid crystals, reversible electroplating, and plasmonic electrochromism based on transparent conducting oxide nanoparticles. Finally, Section 8 provides a brief summary and outlook. The aim of this critical review is not only to paint a picture of the state-of-the-art for electrochromics and its applications in smart windows, but also to provide ample references to current literature of particular relevance and thereby, hopefully, an easy entrance to the research field.  

  • 45.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ji, Yu -Xia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Li, Shu-Yi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromics and thermochromics for energy efficient fenestration: Functionalities based on nanoparticles of In2O3:Sn and VO22014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 559, 2-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Windows incorporating electrochromic (EC) and thermochromic (TC) materials are of great interest for today's and tomorrow's buildings and can create energy efficiency jointly with indoor comfort. This paper summarizes several recent studies and shows that nanoparticles of transparent conducting oxides-specifically In2O3: Sn (ITO) and thermochromic VO2-can lead to desirable functionalities. We consider three examples: (i) the use of ITO nanoparticles in conventional polaronic EC devices in order to suppress near-infrared solar transmittance, (ii) performance limits for plasmonic EC devices based on ITO nanoparticles, and (iii) ITO-VO2-based nanocomposites combining low thermal emittance with TC properties. We also consider Mg doping of VO2 to enhance the luminous transmittance and Al2O3/VO2 double layers with improved durability. Both experimental and theoretical results are reported. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Green, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Mlyuka, Nuru R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    von Kraemer, S.
    Georén, P.
    Advances in chromogenic materials and devices2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, no 11, 3046-3053 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromogenic materials allow the transmittance of visible light and solar energy to be varied under the action of an external stimulus This paper first discusses buildings related energy savings that can be accomplished by chromogenic technologies, and their beneficial effects on comfort issues We then summarize recent work on thermochromic VO2-based thin films with particular attention to multi-layers of VO2 and TiO2 and to new VO2 Mg films for which the doping gives significantly lowered absorption of visible light The final part covers electrochromic materials and devices with foci on coloration efficiency and on durability issues for foil-type constructions based on films of WO3 and NiO.

  • 47.
    Green, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kuzmin, A
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Purans, J
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Structure and composition of sputter-deposited nickel-tungsten oxide films2011In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 7, 2062-2066 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Films of mixed nickel-tungsten oxide, denoted NixW1-x oxide, were prepared by reactive DC magnetron co-sputtering from metallic targets and were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. A consistent picture of the structure and composition emerged, and at x<0.50 the films comprised a mixture of amorphous WO3 and nanosized NiWO4, at x = 0.50 the nanosized NiWO4 phase was dominating, and at x>0.50 the films contained nanosized NiO and NiWO4.

  • 48.
    Green, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kuzmin, Alexei
    Purans, Juris
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Structure and composition of sputter-deposited nickel-tungsten oxide films2011In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 7, 2062-2066 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Films of mixed nickel-tungsten oxide, denoted NixW1−x oxide, were prepared by reactive DC magnetron cosputtering from metallic targets and were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. A consistent picture of the structure and composition emerged, and at x<0.50 the films comprised a mixture of amorphous WO3 and nanosized NiWO4, at x=0.50 the nanosized NiWO4 phase was dominating, and at x>0.50 the films contained nanosized NiO and NiWO4.

  • 49.
    Green, Sara V.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Watanabe, M.
    Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Oka, N.
    Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Shigesato, Y.
    Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Electrochromic properties of nickel oxide based thin films sputter deposited in the presence of water vapor2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, no 10, 3839-3842 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic nickel oxide based thin films were prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering from metallic nickel in the presence of Ar, O-2 and H2O. The water vapor led to enhanced optical modulation and charge capacity. At a wavelength of 550 nm the bleached state transmittance was 0.73 and the transmittance for the colored state was 0.28 and 0.15 for water partial pressures of p(H2O)<10(-3) Pa and p(H2O) similar to 7 x 10(-2) Pa, respectively. The charge densities were 14 and 25 mC/cm(2) for p(H2O)<10(-3) Pa and P-H2O similar to 7 x 10(-2) Pa, respectively. The coloration efficiency was decreased with increased water partial pressure, from about 0.07 to 0.06 cm(2)/mC. Preliminary results show that the H2O promotes an amorphous structure and makes the films increasingly hydrous. 

  • 50. Grehk, T. M.
    et al.
    Engkvist, J.
    Bexell, U.
    Richter, J. H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Karlsson, P. G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Sandell, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Initial stages of metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition of ZrO2 on a FeCrAl alloy2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, no 6, 875-879 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial stages of metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition of ZrO2 on a model FeCrAl alloy was investigated using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, scanning Auger microprobe, and time of flight secondary mass spectrometry. The coatings were grown in ultra-high vacuum at 400 degrees C and 800 degrees C using the single source precursor zirconium tetra-tert-butoxide. At 400 degrees C the coatings mainly consist of tetragonal ZrO2 and at 800 degrees C a mixed ZrO2/Al2O3 layer is formed. The Al metal diffuses from the FeCrAl bulk to the metal/coating interface at 400 degrees C and to the surface of the coating at 800 degrees C. The result indicates that the reaction mechanism of the growth process is different at the two investigated temperatures.

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