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  • 1.
    Arndt, D. S.
    et al.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Blunden, J.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Dunn, R. J. H.
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P.
    Trinidad & Tobago Meteorol Serv, Piarco, Trinid & Tobago.
    Abdallah, A.
    Agence Natl Aviat Civile & Meteorol, Moroni, Comoros.
    Ackerman, Steven A.
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Adler, Robert
    Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD USA.
    Alfaro, Eric J.
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Allan, Richard P.
    Univ Reading, Reading, Berks, England.
    Allan, Rob
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Alvarez, Luis A.
    Inst Hidrol Meteorol & Estudios Ambientales Colom, Bogota, Colombia.
    Alves, Lincoln M.
    Inst Nacl Pesquisas Espaciais, Ctr Ciencias Sistema Terrestre, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Amador, Jorge A.
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Andreassen, L. M.
    Norwegian Water Resources & Energy Directorate, Sect Glaciers Ice & Snow, Oslo, Norway.
    Arce, Dayana
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Argueez, Anthony
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Arndt, Derek S.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Arzhanova, N. M.
    Russian Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
    Augustine, John
    NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Awatif, E. M.
    Egyptian Meteorol Author, Cairo Numer Weather Predict, Dept Seasonal Forecast & Climate Res, Cairo, Egypt.
    Azorin-Molina, Cesar
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Reg Climate Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Baez, Julian
    Direcc Meteorol & Hidrol DINAC, Asuncion, Paraguay.
    Bardin, M. U.
    Islamic Republ Iran Meteorol Org, Tehran, Iran.
    Barichivich, Jonathan
    Ctr Climate & Resilience Res, Santiago, Chile;Pontificia Univ Catolica Valparaiso, Inst Geog, Valparaiso, Chile;Univ Austral Chile, Inst Conservac Biodiversidad & Terr, Valdivia, Chile.
    Baringer, Molly O.
    NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
    Barreira, Sandra
    Argentine Naval Hydrog Serv, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Baxter, Stephen
    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Beck, H. E.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Princeton, NJ 08536 USA.
    Becker, Andreas
    Deutsch Wetterdienst, Global Precipitat Climatol Ctr, Offenbach, Germany.
    Bedka, Kristopher M.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Behrenfeld, Michael J.
    Oregon State Univ, Corvallis, OR USA.
    Bell, Gerald D.
    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Belmont, M.
    Seychelles Natl Meteorol Serv, Pointe Larue, Mahe, Seychelles.
    Benedetti, Angela
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Bernhard, G. H.
    Biospher Instruments, San Diego, CA USA.
    Berrisford, Paul
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Berry, David I.
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Bettolli, Maria L.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Dept Ciencias Atmosfera & Oceanos, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Bhatt, U. S.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Bidegain, Mario
    Inst Uruguayo Meteorol, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Biskaborn, B.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Potsdam, Germany.
    Bissolli, Peter
    Deutscher Wetterdienst, WMO RA VI Reg Climate Ctr Network, Offenbach, Germany.
    Bjerke, J.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Tromso, Norway.
    Blake, Eric S.
    NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
    Blunden, Jessica
    Bosilovich, Michael G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Global Modeling & Assimilat Off, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Boucher, Olivier
    CNRS UPMC, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Paris, France.
    Boudet, Dagne
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Box, J. E.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Boyer, Tim
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Braathen, Geir O.
    WMO Atmospher Environm Res Div, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Brimelow, Julian
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Bromwich, David H.
    Ohio State Univ, Byrd Polar & Climate Res Ctr, Columbus, OH USA.
    Brown, R.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Buehler, S.
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Bulygina, Olga N.
    Russian Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
    Burgess, D.
    Geol Survey Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Calderon, Blanca
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Camargo, Suzana J.
    Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, Palisades, NY USA.
    Campbell, Jayaka D.
    Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Cappelen, J.
    Danish Meteorol Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Caroff, P.
    RSMC La Reunion, Meteo France, La Reunion, France.
    Carrea, Laura
    Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, England.
    Carter, Brendan R.
    NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA;Univ Washington, Joint Inst Study Atmosphere & Ocean, Seattle, WA USA.
    Chambers, Don P.
    Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL USA.
    Chandler, Elise
    Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Cheng, Ming-Dean
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan;Cent Weather Bur, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Christiansen, Hanne H.
    Univ Ctr Svalbard, Dept Geol, Longyearbyen, Norway.
    Christy, John R.
    Univ Alabama Huntsville, Huntsville, AL USA.
    Chung, Daniel
    Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria.
    Chung, E. -S
    Clem, Kyle R.
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Geography Environm & Earth Sci, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Coelho, Caio A. S.
    CPTEC INPE, Ctr Weather Forecasts & Climate Studies, Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil.
    Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie
    German Aerosp Ctr DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany.
    Colwell, Steve
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England.
    Cooper, Owen R.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA;NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Copland, L.
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Geography, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Cross, J. N.
    NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA.
    Crouch, Jake
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Cutie, Virgen
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Davis, Sean M.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
    de Eyto, Elvira
    Marine Inst, Newport, Ireland.
    de Jeu, Richard A. M.
    VanderSat BV, Haarlem, Netherlands.
    de Laat, Jos
    Royal Netherlands Meteorol Inst KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands.
    DeGasperi, Curtis L.
    King Cty Water & Land Resources Div, Seattle, WA USA.
    Degenstein, Doug
    Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Demircan, M.
    Turkish State Meteorol Serv, Ankara, Turkey.
    Derksen, C.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Di Girolamo, Larry
    Univ Illinois, Urbana, IL USA.
    Diamond, Howard J.
    NOAA OAR Air Resources Lab, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Dindyal, S.
    Mauritius Meteorological Serv, Vacoas, Mauritius.
    Dlugokencky, Ed J.
    NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Dohan, Kathleen
    Earth & Space Res, Seattle, WA USA.
    Dokulil, Martin T.
    Univ Innsbruck, Res Inst Limnology, Mondsee, Austria.
    Dolman, A. Johannes
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci Earth & Climate Cluster, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Domingues, Catia M.
    Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tas, Australia;Antarctic Climate & Ecosyst Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Donat, Markus G.
    Univ New S Wales, Climate Change Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Dong, Shenfu
    Cooperat Inst Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
    Dorigo, Wouter A.
    Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria.
    Drozdov, D. S.
    Earth Cryosphere Inst, Tumen, Russia;Tyumen State Oil & Gas Univ, Tyumen, Russia.
    Dunn, Robert J. H.
    Duran-Quesada, Ana M.
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Dutton, Geoff S.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
    ElKharrim, M.
    Direction Meteorol Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
    Elkins, James W.
    Epstein, H. E.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Environm Sci, Charlottesville, VIRGINIA.
    Espinoza, Jhan C.
    Inst Geofisico Peru, Lima, Peru.
    Etienne-LeBlanc, Sheryl
    Meteorol Dept St Maarten, St Maarten, Netherlands.
    Famiglietti, James S.
    CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Farrell, S.
    Univ Maryland, Earth Syst Sci Interdiscipl Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Fateh, S.
    Islamic Republic Iranian Meteorol, Tehran, Iran.
    Fausto, R. S.
    Geolog Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Feely, Richard A.
    Feng, Z.
    FCSD ASGC Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, Richland, WA USA.
    Fenimore, Chris
    Fettweis, X.
    Univ Liege, Liege, Belgium.
    Fioletov, Vitali E.
    Flannigan, Mike
    Univ Alberta, Dept Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Flemming, Johannes
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Fogt, Ryan L.
    Ohio Univ, Dept Geography, Athens, Ohio.
    Folland, Chris
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England;Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia;Univ East Anglia, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, England.
    Fonseca, C.
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Forbes, B. C.
    Univ Lapland, Arctic Ctr, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Foster, Michael J.
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Francis, S. D.
    Nigerian Meteorol Agcy, Natl Weather Forecast & Climate Res Ctr, Abuja, Nigeria.
    Franz, Bryan A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Frey, Richard A.
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Frith, Stacey M.
    Sci Syst & Appl Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA;NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Froidevaux, Lucien
    CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Ganter, Catherine
    Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Gerland, S.
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Fram Ctr, Tromso, Norway.
    Gilson, John
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    Gobron, Nadine
    European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Ispra, Italy.
    Goldenberg, Stanley B.
    Goni, Gustavo
    Gonzalez, Idelmis T.
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Goto, A.
    Japan Meteorol Agcy, Tokyo, Japan.
    Greenhough, Marianna D.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Grooss, J. -U
    Gruber, Alexander
    Guard, Charles
    NOAA NWS Weather Forecast Off, Mangilao, GU USA.
    Gupta, S. K.
    Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Hampton, VA USA.
    Gutierrez, J. M.
    CSIC Univ Cantabria, Inst Fis Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
    Haas, C.
    York Univ, Earth & Space Sci & Engn, Toronto, ON, Canada;Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Hagos, S.
    Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, FCSD ASGC Climate Phys Grp, Richland, WA USA.
    Hahn, Sebastian
    Haimberger, Leo
    Univ Vienna, Dept Meteorol & Geophys, Vienna, Austria.
    Hall, Brad D.
    Halpert, Michael S.
    Hamlington, Benjamin D.
    Old Dominion Univ, Ctr Coastal Phys Oceanography, Norfolk, VA USA.
    Hanna, E.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Geography, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Hanssen-Bauer, I
    Norwegian Meteorol Inst, Blindern, Oslo, Norway.
    Hare, Jon
    NOAA NMFS Northeast Fisheries Sci Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA.
    Harris, Ian
    Univ East Anglia, Natl Ctr Atmospheric Sci, Norwich, NY USA;Univ East Anglia, Climatic Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, NY USA.
    Heidinger, Andrew K.
    NOAA NESDIS STAR Univ Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI USA.
    Heim, Richard R., Jr.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr, Asheville, NC USA.
    Hendricks, S.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Hernandez, Marieta
    Climate Ctr, Inst Meteorol, Havana, Cuba.
    Hernandez, Rafael
    Inst Nacl Meteorol & Hidrolog Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
    Hidalgo, Hugo G.
    Ho, Shu-peng
    Univ Corp Atmospheric Res, COSMIC Project Off, Boulder, CO USA.
    Hobbs, William R.
    Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems, Hobart, Australia.
    Huang, Boyin
    Huelsing, Hannah K.
    SUNY Albany, Albany, NY USA.
    Hurst, Dale F.
    Ialongo, I.
    Finnish Meteorolog Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ijampy, J. A.
    Nigerian Meteorol Agcy, Abuja, Nigeria.
    Inness, Antje
    European Ctr Medium Range, Reading, Berks, England.
    Isaksen, K.
    Norwegian Meteorolog Inst, Oslo, Norway.
    Ishii, Masayoshi
    Japan Meteorolog Agcy, Climat Res Dept, Meteorolog Res Inst, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Jevrejeva, Svetlana
    Jimenez, C.
    Estellus, Paris, France;PSL Res Univ, LERMA, Observatoire Paris, Paris, France.
    Xiangze, Jin
    John, Viju
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England;EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Johns, William E.
    Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
    Johnsen, B.
    Norwegian Radiat Protect Authority, Osteras, Norway.
    Johnson, Bryan
    NOAA OAR Earth System Res Lab, Global Monitoring Div, Boulder, CO USA;Univ Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO USA.
    Johnson, Gregory C.
    Johnson, Kenneth S.
    Monterey Bay Aquarium Res Inst, Moss Landing, CA USA.
    Jones, Philip D.
    Univ East Anglia, Climat Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, England.
    Jumaux, Guillaume
    Meteo France, Direct Interreg Ocean Indien, St Denis, Reunion, France.
    Kabidi, Khadija
    Direct Meteorolog Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
    Kaiser, J. W.
    Max Planck Inst Chem, Mainz, Germany.
    Kass, David
    California Inst Technol, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Kato, Seiji
    Kazemi, A.
    Islamic Republic Iran Meteorolog Org, Tehran, Iran.
    Kelem, G.
    Ethiopian Meteorolog Agcy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Keller, Linda M.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Atmospheric & Oceanic Sci, Madison, WI USA.
    Kelly, B. P.
    Ctr Blue Economy, Middlebury Inst Int Studies, Monterey, CA USA;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Fairbanks, AK USA;Study Environm Arctic Change SEARCH, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Kendon, Mike
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Kennedy, John
    Kerr, Kenneth
    Trinidad & Tobago Meteorol Serv, Piarco, Trinid & Tobago.
    Kholodov, A. L.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Khoshkam, Mahbobeh
    Islamic Republ Iran Meteorol Org, Tehran, Iran.
    Killick, Rachel
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Kim, Hyungjun
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Ind Sci, Tokyo 1138654, Japan.
    Kim, S. -J
    Kimberlain, Todd B.
    NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
    Klotzbach, Philip J.
    Colorado State Univ, Dept Atmospher Sci, Ft Collins, CO USA.
    Knaff, John A.
    NOAA NESDIS Ctr Satellite Applicat & Res, Ft Collins, CO USA.
    Kochtubajda, Bob
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Kohler, J.
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Tromso, Norway.
    Korhonen, Johanna
    Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Freshwater Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Korshunova, Natalia N.
    World Data Ctr, All Russian Res Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
    Kramarova, Natalya
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Kratz, D. P.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Kruger, Andries
    South African Weather Serv, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Kruk, Michael C.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Environm Informat, ERT Inc, Asheville, NC USA.
    Krumpen, T.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Lakatos, M.
    Hungarian Meteorol Serv, Climatol Div, Budapest, Hungary.
    Lakkala, K.
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Arctic Res Ctr, Sodankyla, Finland.
    Lanckmann, J. -P
    Lander, Mark A.
    Univ Guam, Mangilao, GU USA.
    Landschuetzer, Peter
    Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg, Germany.
    Landsea, Chris W.
    NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
    Lankhorst, Matthias
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    Lantz, Kathleen
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA;NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Lazzara, Matthew A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Space Sci & Engn Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Madison Area Tech Coll, Dept Phys Sci, Sch Arts & Sci, Madison, WI USA.
    Leuliette, Eric
    NOAA, NWS NCWCP Lab Satellite Altimetry, College Pk, MD USA.
    Lewis, Stephen R.
    Open Univ, Sch Phys Sci, Fac Sci Technol Engn & Math, Milton Keynes, Bucks, England.
    L'Heureux, Michelle
    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Lieser, Jan L.
    Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosyst Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Lin, I-I
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Liu, Hongxing
    Univ Cincinnati, Dept Geog, Cincinnati, OH 45221 USA.
    Liu, Yinghui
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Locarnini, Ricardo
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Loeb, Norman G.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Long, Craig S.
    NOAA NWS Natl Ctr Environm Predict, College Pk, MD USA.
    Loranty, M.
    Colgate Univ, Dept Geog, Hamilton, NY USA.
    Lorrey, Andrew M.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Loyola, Diego
    German Aerosp Ctr DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany.
    Lu, Mong-Ming
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan;Cent Weather Bur, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Lumpkin, Rick
    NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
    Luo, Jing-Jia
    Australian Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Luojus, K.
    Finnish Meteorolog Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lyman, John M.
    NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA;Univ Hawaii, Joint Inst Marine & Atmospher Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
    Macara, Gregor
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Macdonald, Alison M.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
    Macias-Fauria, M.
    Univ Oxford, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England.
    Malkova, G. V.
    Earth Cryosphere Inst, Tumen, Russia;Tyumen State Oil & Gas Univ, Tyumen, Russia.
    Manney, G.
    New Mexico Inst Mining & Technol, Socorro, NM USA;NorthWest Res Ass, Socorro, NM USA.
    Marchenko, S. S.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Marengo, Jose A.
    Ctr Nacl Monitoramento Alertas Desastres Nat, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil.
    Marra, John J.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Dept Hydrol & Water Management, Torun, Poland.
    Martens, B.
    Univ Ghent, Lab Hydrol & Water Management, Ghent, Belgium.
    Martinez-Gueingla, Rodney
    Ctr Int Invest Fenomeno El Nino, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    Massom, Robert A.
    Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia;Univ Tasmania, Australian Antarctic Div, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Mathis, Jeremy T.
    NOAA, OAR Arctic Res Program, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    May, Linda
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mayer, Michael
    Univ Vienna, Dept Meteorol & Geophys, Vienna, Austria.
    Mazloff, Matthew
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    McBride, Charlotte
    South African Weather Serv, Pretoria, South Africa.
    McCabe, M. F.
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol, Div Biol & Environm Sci & Engn, Water Desalinat & Reuse Ctr, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
    McCarthy, Gerard
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    McCarthy, M.
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    McDonagh, Elaine L.
    McGree, Simon
    Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    McVicar, Tim R.
    CSIRO Land & Water Flagship, Canberra, ACT, Australia;Australian Res Council, Ctr Excellence Climate Syst Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia;Australian Capital Territory, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Mears, Carl A.
    Remote Sensing Syst, Santa Rosa, CA USA.
    Meier, W.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Mekonnen, A.
    North Carolina A&T State Univ, Dept Energy & Environm Syst, Greensboro, NC USA.
    Menezes, V. V.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
    Mengistu Tsidu, G.
    Botswana Int Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Palapye, Botswana;Addis Ababa Univ, Dept Phys, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Univ Reading, Natl Ctr Earth Observat, Reading RG6 2AH, Berks, England.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Space Sci & Engn Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Meredith, Michael P.
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England.
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    Univ Hawaii, Joint Inst Marine & Atmospher Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
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    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
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    Univ Ghent, Lab Hydrol & Water Management, Ghent, Belgium.
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    Earth Observing Data Ctr GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
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    Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL USA.
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    Meteorol Serv Suriname, Paramaribo, Surinam.
    Monselesan, Didier
    CSIRO Oceans & Atmos, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
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    NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
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    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Morice, Colin
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Morrow, Blair
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Mote, T.
    Univ Georgia, Dept Geog, Athens, GA 30602 USA.
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    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Muehle, Jens
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
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    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
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    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
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    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
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    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
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    Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, SOOS Int Project Off, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
    Newman, Paul A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
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    Ctr Int Invest Fenomeno El Nino, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
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    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res, Davos, Switzerland.
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    USGS, Alaska Sci Ctr, Anchorage, AK USA.
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    Univ East Anglia, Climatic Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, NY USA.
    Overland, J.
    NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA.
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    Natl Agcy Meteorol, Inst Meteorol & Hydrol, Hydrol & Environ Monitoring, Ulaanbaatar, Mongol Peo Rep.
    Parinussa, Robert M.
    VanderSat BV, Haarlem, Netherlands.
    Park, E-hyung
    Korea Meteorol Adm, Seoul, South Korea.
    Pasch, Richard J.
    NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
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    Natl Meteorol Serv Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
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    Ontario Ministry Environ & Climate Change, Dorset Environ Sci Ctr, Dorset, ON, Canada.
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    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Pellichero, V.
    Sorbonne Univ, LOCEAN IPSL, CNRS IRD MNHN, Paris, France.
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    Nichols Coll, Dudley, MA USA.
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    Univ Corp Atmospheric Res, COSMIC Project Off, Boulder, CO USA.
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    Univ New S Wales, Climate Change Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Perovich, D.
    Dartmouth Coll, Thayer Sch Eng, Hanover, NH USA;USACE, ERDC, Cold Reg Res & Engn Lab, Hanover, NH USA.
    Petropavlovskikh, Irina
    NOAA OAR Earth System Res Lab, Global Monitoring Div, Boulder, CO USA;Univ Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO USA.
    Pezza, Alexandre B.
    Greater Wellington Reg Council, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Phillips, C.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Atmospheric & Oceanic Sci, Madison, WI USA.
    Phillips, David
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Phoenix, G.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England.
    Pinty, Bernard
    European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Ispra, Italy.
    Pitts, Michael C.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Pons, M. R.
    Agencia Estatal Meteorol, Santander, Spain.
    Porter, Avalon O.
    Cayman Isl Natl Weather Serv, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands.
    Quintana, Juan
    Direcc Meteorol Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh
    Atmospher Sci & Meteorol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Rajeevan, Madhavan
    Minist Earth Sci, Earth System Sci Org, New Delhi, India.
    Rayner, Darren
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Raynolds, M. K.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arct Biol, Fairbanks, AK 99701 USA.
    Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.
    All Russian Res Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
    Read, Peter
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Reagan, James
    Univ Maryland, Earth Syst Sci Interdiscipl Ctr, College Pk, MD USA;NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Reid, Phillip
    CAWRC, Hobart, Tas, Australia;Australian Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Reimer, Christoph
    Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria;EODC, Vienna, Austria.
    Remy, Samuel
    CNRS UPMC, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Paris, France.
    Renwick, James A.
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Revadekar, Jayashree V.
    Indian Inst Trop Meteorol, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Richter-Menge, J.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Rimmer, Alon
    Israel Oceanog & Limnol Res, Yigal Allon Kinneret Limnol Lab, Migdal, Israel.
    Robinson, David A.
    Rutgers State Univ, Dept Geog, Piscataway, NJ 08855 USA.
    Rodell, Matthew
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Hydrol Sci Lab, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Rollenbeck, Ruetger
    Univ Marburg, Fac Geog, Lab Climatol Remote Sensing, Marburg, Germany.
    Romanovsky, Vladimir E.
    Tyumen State Univ, Tyumen, Russia;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Ronchail, Josyane
    Univ Paris Diderot, Lab LOCEAN IPSL, Paris, France.
    Roquet, F.
    Stockholm Univ MISU, Dept Meteorol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosenlof, Karen H.
    NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Roth, Chris
    Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Rusak, James A.
    Ontario Ministry Environ & Climate Change, Dorset Environ Sci Ctr, Dorset, ON, Canada.
    Sallee, Jean-Bapiste
    Sorbonne Univ, LOCEAN IPSL, CNRS IRD MNHN, Paris, France;British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England.
    Sanchez-Lugo, Ahira
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Santee, Michelle L.
    NASA Jet Propuls Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Sarmiento, Jorge L.
    Princeton Univ, Atmospher & Ocean Sci Program, Princeton, NJ USA.
    Sawaengphokhai, P.
    Sci Syst & Appl Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Sayouri, Amal
    Direct Meteorolog Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
    Scambos, Ted A.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Natl Snow & Ice Data Ctr, Boulder, CO USA.
    Schemm, Jae
    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Schladow, S. Geoffrey
    Univ Calif Davis, Tahoe Environm Res Ctr, Davis, CA USA.
    Schmid, Claudia
    NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
    Schmid, Martin
    Swiss Federal Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Eawag, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
    Schoeneich, P.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Inst Geog Alpine, Grenoble, France.
    Schreck, Carl J., III
    N Carolina State Univ, Cooperat Inst Climate & Satellites, Asheville, NC USA.
    Schuur, Ted
    No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosystem Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA.
    Selkirk, H. B.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Univ Space Res Assoc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Send, Uwe
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    Sensoy, Serhat
    Turkish State Meteorol Serv, Ankara, Turkey.
    Sharp, M.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Earth & Atmospher Sci, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Shi, Lei
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.
    George Washington Univ, Dept Geog, Washington, DC 20052 USA.
    Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.
    Irkutsk State Univ, Inst Biol, Irkutsk 664003, Russia.
    Siegel, David A.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA USA.
    Signorini, Sergio R.
    Sci Applicat Int Corp, Beltsville, MD USA.
    Silov, Eugene
    Irkutsk State Univ, Inst Biol, Irkutsk 664003, Russia.
    Sima, Fatou
    Dept Water Resources, Div Meteorol, Banjul, Gambia.
    Simmons, Adrian J.
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Smeed, David A.
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Smeets, C. J. P. P.
    Univ Utrecht, Inst Marine & Atmospher Res Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Smith, Adam
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Smith, Sharon L.
    Nat Resources Canada, Geol Survey Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Soden, B.
    Univ Miami, Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
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    Meteorol Serv, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Srivastava, A. K.
    Indian Meteorol Dept, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
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    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Stammerjohn, Sharon
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO USA.
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    German Weather Serv DWD, Hohenpeissenberg, Germany.
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    Serv Meteorol Nacl, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
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    Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, Kingston, Jamaica.
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    Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, Kingston, Jamaica.
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    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Univ Space Res Assoc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
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    George Washington Univ, Dept Geog, Washington, DC 20052 USA.
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    Sci Syst & Appl Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
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    CSIR Southern Ocean Carbon & Climate Observ, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
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    NOAA NOS Ctr Operat Oceanog Products & Serv, Silver Spring, MD USA.
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    Grenada Airports Author, St Georges, Grenada.
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    Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, Kingston, Jamaica.
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    NASA Goddard Inst Space Studies, New York, NY USA;Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, Palisades, NY USA.
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    NOAA Natl Weather Serv, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Thompson, L.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Thompson, Philip R.
    Univ Hawaii, Joint Inst Marine & Atmospher Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
    Timmermans, M. -L
    Timofeev, Maxim A.
    Irkutsk State Univ, Inst Biol, Irkutsk 664003, Russia.
    Tirnanes, Joaquin A.
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Lab Syst, Technol Res Inst, Santiago De Compostela, Spain.
    Tobin, Skie
    Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Trachte, Katja
    Philipps Univ, Lab Climatol & Remote Sensing, Marburg, Germany.
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    Australian Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
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    Caribbean Inst Meteorol & Hydrol, Bridgetown, Barbados.
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    Univ Colorado Boulder, Aerospace Engn Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
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    Johns Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD USA.
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    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
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    Univ Utrecht, Inst Marine & Atmospher Res Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
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    VanderSat BV, Haarlem, Netherlands.
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    Royal Netherlands Meteorol Inst KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands.
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    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Earth & Life Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
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    Univ Lisbon, Inst Geog & Ordenamento Territorio, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal.
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    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada.
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    Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria.
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    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Reg Climate Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
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    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arct Biol, Fairbanks, AK 99701 USA.
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    South China Sea Inst Oceanol, State Key Lab Trop Oceanog, Guangzhou, Peoples R China.
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    SUNY Albany, Albany, NY USA.
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    Louisiana State Univ, Dept Geog & Anthropol, Baton Rouge, LA USA.
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    Univ Washington, Joint Inst Study Atmosphere & Ocean, Seattle, WA USA.
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    Ohio State Univ, Byrd Polar & Climate Res Ctr, Columbus, OH USA.
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    NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
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    Univ Calif Davis, Tahoe Environm Res Ctr, Davis, CA USA.
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Univ Bremen, Bremen, Germany..
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    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
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    Whitewood, Robert
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada.
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    CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
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    CSIRO Oceans & Atmos, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
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    Sci Syst & Appl Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
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    NOAA Climate Predict Ctr, INNOVIM, College Pk, MD USA.
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    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
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    St Lucia Meteorol Serv, St Lucia, Qld, Australia.
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    CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
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    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Fairbanks, AK USA.
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    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
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    Princeton Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Princeton, NJ 08536 USA.
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    Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading RG6 2AH, Berks, England.
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    Univ Bristol, Sch Geog Sci, Bristol BS8 1TH, Avon, England.
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    NOAA NWS Natl Ctr Environm Predict, College Pk, MD USA.
    Yim, So-Young
    Korea Meteorol Adm, Seoul, South Korea.
    Yin, Xungang
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Environm Informat, ERT Inc, Asheville, NC USA.
    Yu, Lisan
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
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    Ctr Int Invest Fenomeno El Nino, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
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    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Zhang, Peiqun
    Beijing Climate Ctr, Beijing, Peoples R China.
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    Univ Illinois, Urbana, IL USA.
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    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA;Morgan State Univ, Goddard Earth Sci Technol & Res, Baltimore, MD USA.
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    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    State of the Climate in 20162017In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 98, no 8, p. S1-S280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 +/- 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 +/- 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Nino events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Nina evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Nino conditions early in the year and a long-term upward trend, Earth's surface observed record warmth for a third consecutive year, albeit by a much slimmer margin than by which that record was set in 2015. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower troposphere temperature was record high according to all datasets analyzed, while the lower stratospheric temperature was record low according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Mexico and India, reported record high annual temperatures while many others observed near-record highs. A week-long heat wave at the end of April over the northern and eastern Indian peninsula, with temperatures surpassing 44 degrees C, contributed to a water crisis for 330 million people and to 300 fatalities. In the Arctic the 2016 land surface temperature was 2.0 degrees C above the 1981-2010 average, breaking the previous record of 2007, 2011, and 2015 by 0.8 degrees C, representing a 3.5 degrees C increase since the record began in 1900. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 24 March, the sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, tying with 2015 at 7.2% below the 1981-2010 average. The September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value on record, 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. Arctic sea ice cover remains relatively young and thin, making it vulnerable to continued extensive melt. The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the capacity to contribute similar to 7 m to sea level rise, reached a record low value. The onset of its surface melt was the second earliest, after 2012, in the 37-year satellite record. Sea surface temperature was record high at the global scale, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by about 0.01 degrees C. The global sea surface temperature trend for the 21st century-to-date of +0.162 degrees C decade(-1) is much higher than the longer term 1950-2016 trend of +0.100 degrees C decade(-1). Global annual mean sea level also reached a new record high, marking the sixth consecutive year of increase. Global annual ocean heat content saw a slight drop compared to the record high in 2015. Alpine glacier retreat continued around the globe, and preliminary data indicate that 2016 is the 37th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, snow cover for each month from February to June was among its four least extensive in the 47-year satellite record. Continuing a pattern below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska and at the Canadian observatory on northernmost Ellesmere Island. In the Antarctic, record low monthly surface pressures were broken at many stations, with the southern annular mode setting record high index values in March and June. Monthly high surface pressure records for August and November were set at several stations. During this period, record low daily and monthly sea ice extents were observed, with the November mean sea ice extent more than 5 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 average. These record low sea ice values contrast sharply with the record high values observed during 2012-14. Over the region, springtime Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion was less severe relative to the 1991-2006 average, but ozone levels were still low compared to pre-1990 levels. Closer to the equator, 93 named tropical storms were observed during 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82, but fewer than the 101 storms recorded in 2015. Three basins-the North Atlantic, and eastern and western North Pacific-experienced above-normal activity in 2016. The Australian basin recorded its least active season since the beginning of the satellite era in 1970. Overall, four tropical cyclones reached the Saffir-Simpson category 5 intensity level. The strong El Nino at the beginning of the year that transitioned to a weak La Nina contributed to enhanced precipitation variability around the world. Wet conditions were observed throughout the year across southern South America, causing repeated heavy flooding in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Wetter-than-usual conditions were also observed for eastern Europe and central Asia, alleviating the drought conditions of 2014 and 2015 in southern Russia. In the United States, California had its first wetter-than-average year since 2012, after being plagued by drought for several years. Even so, the area covered by drought in 2016 at the global scale was among the largest in the post-1950 record. For each month, at least 12% of land surfaces experienced severe drought conditions or worse, the longest such stretch in the record. In northeastern Brazil, drought conditions were observed for the fifth consecutive year, making this the longest drought on record in the region. Dry conditions were also observed in western Bolivia and Peru; it was Bolivia's worst drought in the past 25 years. In May, with abnormally warm and dry conditions already prevailing over western Canada for about a year, the human-induced Fort McMurray wildfire burned nearly 590000 hectares and became the costliest disaster in Canadian history, with $3 billion (U.S. dollars) in insured losses.

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    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    INTRODUCTION: Lake surface temperature in State of the Climate in 20182019In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 100, no 9, p. S1-+Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
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    STATE OF THE CLIMATE IN 20172018In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 99, no 8, p. S1-S310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4. Brooks, Ian
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    Yelland, Margaret
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  • 5.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    The Story of the Hovmöller Diagram: An (Almost) Eyewitness Account2017In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 949-957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hovmöller diagram or the trough–ridge diagram, a simple longitude–time diagram, was designed in 1948 by Ernest Hovmöller (1912–2008) to help understand certain features in the dynamics of the atmosphere, in particular the “downstream development” phenomenon. Originally depicting the 500-hPa geopotential, today many other parameters are used, and Hovmöller diagrams have during the last 25 years found a rapidly increasing use in a wide range of atmospheric research.

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    Schladow, S. G.
    Schmid, M.
    Shimaraeva, S. V.
    Silow, E.
    Timofeev, M. A.
    Verburg, P.
    Watanabe, S.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lake surface temperature [in €"State of the Climate in 2016"€]2017In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 98, no 8, p. S13-S14Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 7. Woolway, R.I
    et al.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lake surface temperatures2016In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 97, no 8, p. S17-S18Article in journal (Refereed)
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