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  • 1. Accinelli, Cesare
    et al.
    Saccà, Maria Ludovica
    Fick, Jerker
    Mencarelli, Mariangela
    Lindberg, Richard
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Dissipation and removal of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) in different aquatic environments2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, no 8, p. 891-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu) has received recent attention due to the potential use as a first-line defense against H5N1 and H1N1 influenza viruses. Research has shown that oseltamivir is not removed during conventional wastewater treatments, thus having the potential to enter surface water bodies. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the fate and the removal of oseltamivir in two surface water ecosystems of Japan and in a municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Northern Italy. Persistence of oseltamivir in surface water ranged from non-detectable degradation to a half-life of 53 d. After 40 d, <3% of radiolabeled oseltamivir evolved as (CO2)-C-14. The presence of sediments (5%) led to a significant increase of oseltamivir degradation and mineralization rates. A more intense mineralization was observed in samples of the wastewater treatment plant when applying a long incubation period (40 d). More precisely, 76% and 37% of the initial radioactivity applied as C-14-oseltamivir was recovered as (CO2)-C-14 from samples of the biological tank and effluent water, respectively. Two bacterial strains growing on oseltamivir as sole carbon source were isolated and used for its removal from synthetic medium and environmental samples, including surface water and wastewater. Inoculation of water and wastewater samples with the two oseltamivir-degrading strains showed that mineralization of oseltamivir was significantly higher in both inoculated water and wastewater, than in uninoculated controls. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR analysis showed that Tamiflu would not affect the microbial population of surface water and wastewater.

  • 2.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Box 7050, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gashaw, Habiba
    Univ Addis Ababa, Ethiopian Inst Water Resources, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Sjöholm, Margareta
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Box 7050, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis
    Univ Addis Ababa, Ethiopian Inst Water Resources, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Getahun, Abebe
    Univ Addis Ababa, Dept Zool Sci, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Hawassa Univ, Dept Biol, POB 5, Hawassa, Ethiopia..
    Derbe, Ermias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Hawassa Univ, Dept Biol, POB 5, Hawassa, Ethiopia..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Box 7050, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Åkerblom, Staffan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Box 7050, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Poly- and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in water, sediment and fish muscle tissue from Lake Tana, Ethiopia and implications for human exposure2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 165, p. 352-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lake Tana is Ethiopia's largest lake and there are plans to increase the harvest of fish from the lake. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in different compartments of the lake (water, sediment, and fish muscle tissue), and its implications for human exposure. The results showed higher PFAS concentrations in piscivorous fish species (Labeobarbus mega-stoma and Labeobarbus gorguari) than non-piscivorous species (Labeobarbus intermedius, Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus) and also spatial distribution similarities. The Sigma PFAS concentrations ranged from 0.073 to 5.6 ng L-1 (on average, 2.9 ng L-1) in surface water, 0.22-0.55 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) (on average, 0.30 ng g(-1) dw) in surface sediment, and non-detected to 5.8 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) (on average, 1.2 ng g(-1) ww) in all fish species. The relative risk (RR) indicates that the consumption of fish contaminated with perfiuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) will likely not cause any harmful effects for the Ethiopian fish eating population. However, mixture toxicity of the sum of PFASs, individual fish consumption patterns and increasing fish consumption are important factors to consider in future risk assessments.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Carin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Abrahamson, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Impact of humic substances on EROD activity in gill and liver of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 156-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humic substances (HS) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been found to influence physiological functions of aquatic organisms. In the present study, three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to HS of different origins to evaluate effects on the  7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity catalyzed by cytochrome   P4501A (CYP1A) in the liver and the gill. To that end, three-spined   sticklebacks were exposed for 48 h to different concentrations of synthetic humic acid (AHA), Nordic reservoir natural organic matter  (N.R.-NOM) and water from six lakes with different concentrations of   HS. EROD activity was significantly induced (3-6-fold) in the gills of   fish exposed to water from all lakes except the lake with the lowest   concentration of HS. All tested concentrations of AHA and N.R.-NOM   significantly induced gill EROD activity and the induction was   dose-dependent. AHA, but neither N.R.-NOM nor lake water, induced EROD activity in the liver. In addition, fish were exposed to the potent  CYP1A inducers benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and PCB126 in combination with AHA.   Presence of AHA had no significant effect on EROD induction by BaP or   PCB126. The components in HS responsible for EROD induction remain to be identified. Our finding that HS of both natural and synthetic origin induce EROD activity in the gill is of significance for the   interpretation of biomonitoring data on EROD activity as well as for the choice of suitable reference waters.

  • 4.
    Apler, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI).
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU).
    Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial originIn: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Apler, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 215, p. 470-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial emissions can impact aquatic environments and unregulated discharges from pulp and paper factories have resulted in deposits of cellulose fiber along the Swedish coast. These deposits are contaminated by metals, but due to their unique fibrous character the extent of sorption and dispersal of the metals is unclear. Fibrous sediments were sampled at two sites in the Ångermanälven river estuary, Sweden. The partitioning of metals between the sediment, pore water and bottom water was investigated and the degree of bioavailability was evaluated. The levels of metals in the sediment were high in fibrous or offshore samples, depending on the metal, whereas the levels of dissolved metals in pore water were low or below the limit of quantification. Partition coefficients (KD) showed that sorption to the sediment was stronger at one of the fibrous sites, possibly related to the type and size of organic matter. Undisturbed bottom water samples contained low levels of both dissolved and particle bound metals, but when comparing measured metal concentrations to threshold values of ecological status and ecotoxicological assessment criteria, both sediments and bottom water may be detrimental to living organisms. In-situ re-suspension experiments showed that the concentrations of particle bound metals increased whereas the dissolved concentrations decreased. The analyzed metals are probably retained by the solid phases of the fibrous sediment or adsorbed to particles in the water, reducing their bioavailability.

  • 6.
    Beijer, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Albanova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Shaik, Siraz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology. IUF Leibniz Res Inst Environm Med, Hennekamp 50, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany..
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, KBC 6A Linnaeus Vag 6, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Removal of pharmaceuticals and unspecified contaminants in sewage treatment effluents by activated carbon filtration and ozonation: Evaluation using biomarker responses and chemical analysis2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, p. 342-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traces of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and other chemicals are demonstrated in effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they may affect quality of surface water and eventually drinking water. Treatment of effluents with granular activated carbon (GAC) or ozone to improve removal of APIs and other contaminants was evaluated at two Swedish STPs, Kappala and Uppsala (88 and 103 APIs analyzed). Biomarker responses in rainbow trout exposed to regular and additionally treated effluents were determined. GAC and ozone treatment removed 87-95% of the total concentrations of APIs detected. In Kappala, GAC removed 20 and ozonation (7 g O-3/m(3)) 21 of 24 APIs detected in regular effluent. In Uppsala, GAC removed 25 and ozonation (5.4 g O-3/m(3)) 15 of 25 APIs detected in effluent. GAC and ozonation also reduced biomarker responses caused by unidentified pollutants in STP effluent water. Elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in gills was observed in fish exposed to effluent in both STPs. Gene expression analysis carried out in Kappala showed increased concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A5 and CYP1C3) transcripts in gills and of CYP1As in liver of fish exposed to effluent. In fish exposed to GAC- or ozone-treated effluent water, gill EROD activity and expression of CYP1As and CYP1C3 in gills and liver were generally equal to or below levels in fish held in tap water. The joint application of chemical analysis and sensitive biomarkers proved useful for evaluating contaminant removal in STPs with new technologies.

  • 7.
    Beijer, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Gao, Kai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Jönsson, Maria E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Larsson, D. G. J.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Effluent from drug manufacturing affects cytochrome P450 1 regulation and function in fish2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 1149-1157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously reported very high concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the effluent from a treatment plant receiving wastewater from about 90 bulk drug manufacturers near Hyderabad, India. The main objective of the present study was to examine how high dilutions of this effluent affect mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family genes and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in exposed wildlife, using the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as a model. In gill filaments exposed to diluted effluent ex vivo, EROD activity was strongly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. In a subsequent in vivo study, groups of fish were exposed (24. h) to three concentrations of effluent, 0.8%, 1.6% or 3.2%. In this experiment, EROD in gills was induced 27-, 52- or 60-fold, respectively. Accordingly, CYP1A mRNA was markedly up-regulated in gill, liver and brain of fish exposed to all three effluent concentrations. Expression of mRNA for CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 was induced in gills at all concentrations while effects on these genes in liver and brain were weak or absent. The results of a time course study suggested that most CYP1-inducing substances in the effluent were readily metabolised or excreted, because the induced EROD activity and mRNA expression decreased when the fish were transferred to clean water. Considering that CYP1 enzymes play important roles in biotransformation of endogenous and foreign compounds, the observed dual effect of the effluent on CYP1 catalytic activity and mRNA expression suggests that multiple physiological functions could be affected in exposed wildlife.

  • 8.
    Bjermo, Helena
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Food Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Aune, Marie
    Swedish Natl Food Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Cantillana, Tatiana
    Swedish Natl Food Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Glynn, Anders
    Swedish Natl Food Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Ridefelt, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Swedish Natl Food Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Serum levels of brominated flame retardants (BFRs: PBDE, HBCD) and influence of dietary factors in a population-based study on Swedish adults2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 167, p. 485-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between serum concentrations of brominated flame retardants and personal characteristics, including diet, in adults participating in a population-based study in Sweden 2010-11. Moreover, observed concentrations were used in a health risk assessment, using published health-based reference values. Serum samples of 170 adult individuals of both sexes were analyzed for 10 PBDE congeners and HBCD by GC-MS. When including concentrations between LOD and LOQ, highest median serum concentration was observed for BDE-153 (1.2 ng/g serum lipid), followed by BDE-209 (0.95 ng/g lipid), BDE-47 (0.49 ng/g lipid) and BDE-100 (0.21 ng/g lipid). Median concentration of HBCD was 0.10 ng/g lipid. A few markedly elevated concentrations of BDE-209, HBCD (77-78 ng/g lipid) and BDE-47 (44 ng/g lipid) were observed. The only statistical significant findings were higher BDE-153 concentrations in men than in women, and positive associations between serum BDE-153 concentrations and consumption of fish (total), beef, mutton and poultry. PBDE concentrations were in accordance with concentrations reported in other European countries but generally lower than those found in North America. Median PBDE serum concentrations observed in adults from Sweden suggest sufficient health protection, when compared with published health-based reference values, although some outliers with high serum concentrations had lower safety margins.

  • 9.
    Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Norström, Sara H.
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Golovko, Oksana
    Univ South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, Fac Fisheries & Protect Waters, South Bohemian Res Ctr Aquaculture & Biodivers Hy, Zatisi 728-2, Vodnany 38925, Czech Republic..
    Grabic, Roman
    Univ South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, Fac Fisheries & Protect Waters, South Bohemian Res Ctr Aquaculture & Biodivers Hy, Zatisi 728-2, Vodnany 38925, Czech Republic..
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Koba, Olga
    Univ South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, Fac Fisheries & Protect Waters, South Bohemian Res Ctr Aquaculture & Biodivers Hy, Zatisi 728-2, Vodnany 38925, Czech Republic..
    Söderström Lindström, Hanna
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Occupat & Environm Med, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Removal of 30 active pharmaceutical ingredients in surface water under long-term artificial UV irradiation2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, p. 175-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the i) kinetics, and ii) proportion of photolysis of 30 relatively stable active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) during artificial UV irradiation for 28 d in ammonium acetate buffer, filtered and unfiltered river water. Buffer was included to control removal kinetics under stable pH conditions and without particulate matter. Dark controls were used to determine removal due to other processes than photolysis and calculate the proportion of photolysis of the total removal. The removal of each API in each matrix was determined using online solid phase extraction/liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE/LC-MS/MS). Most APIs transformed during the 28 d of UV irradiation and the dark controls showed that photolysis was the major removal process for the majority of the APIs studied. The half-lives ranged from 6 h (amitriptyline) in unfiltered river water to 884 h (37 d, carbamazepine) in buffer. In unfiltered river water, the proportion of APIs with short half-lives (<48 h) was much higher (29%) than in the other matrices (4%), probably due to additional organic carbon, which could have promoted indirect photolysis. Furthermore, two APIs, memantine and fluconazole, were stable in all three matrices, while alprazolam was stable in buffer and unfiltered river water and four additional APIs were stable in buffer. Considering the relatively long-term UV-exposure, this study enabled the investigation of environmentally relevant half-lives in natural waters. Many APIs showed high persistence, which is environmentally concerning and emphasizes the importance of further studies on their environmental fate and effects.

  • 10. Bogdanska, Jasna
    et al.
    Sundstrom, Maria
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Borg, Daniel
    Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr
    Bergman, Ake
    DePierre, Joseph
    Nobel, Stefan
    Tissue distribution of S-35-labelled perfluorobutanesulfonic acid in adult mice following dietary exposure for 1-5 days2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 98, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorobutanesulfonyl fluoride (PBSF) has been introduced as a replacement for its eight-carbon homolog perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF) in the manufacturing of fluorochemicals. Fluorochemicals derived from PBSF may give rise to perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) as a terminal degradation product. Although basic mammalian toxicokinetic data exist for PFBS, information on its tissue distribution has only been reported in one study focused on rat liver. Therefore, here we characterized the tissue distribution of PFBS in mice in the same manner as we earlier examined its eight-carbon homolog perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to allow direct comparisons. Following dietary exposure of adult male C57/BL6 mice for 1,3 or 5 d to 16 mg S-35-PFBS kg(-1) d(-1), both scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) revealed the presence of PFBS in all of the 20 different tissues examined, demonstrating its ability to leave the bloodstream and enter tissues. After 5 d of treatment the highest levels were detected in liver, gastrointestinal tract, blood, kidney, cartilage, whole bone, lungs and thyroid gland. WBA revealed relatively high levels of PFBS in male genital organs as well, with the exception of the testis. The tissue levels increased from 1 to 3 d of exposure but appeared thereafter to level-off in most cases. The estimated major body compartments were whole bone, liver, blood, skin and muscle. This exposure to PFBS resulted in 5-40-fold lower tissue levels than did similar exposure to PFOS, as well as in a different pattern of tissue distribution, including lower levels in liver and lungs relative to blood.

  • 11. Cantillana, T.
    et al.
    Lindström, V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Eriksson, L.
    Brandt, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Bergman, A.
    Interindividual differences in o,p'-DDD enantiomer kinetics examined in Göttingen minipigs2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five minipigs were given a single oral dose of a racemic mixture of o,p'-DDD (30 mg kg(-1)b.w., EF=0.49). Blood plasma and subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected for analysis, at different time-points over 180 d. At the end of the experiment also liver, kidney and brain tissue were collected. Low concentrations of o,p'-DDD still remained after 180 d in plasma (mean 0.5+/-0.3 ng g(-1)f.w.) and in adipose tissue (mean 40+/-40 ng g(-1)f.w.). The mean concentrations in liver and kidney were 500+/-300 pg g(-1)f.w. and 90+/-50 pg g(-1)f.w., respectively. The enantiomers of o,p'-DDD were isolated by HPLC and the absolute configuration of the enantiomers were determined by X-ray crystallography and polarimetry as R-(+)-o,p'-DDD and S-(-)-o,p'-DDD. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of o,p'-DDD were determined in plasma, adipose tissue and kidney using GC/ECD equipped with a chiral column. The EFs of o,p'-DDD in the individual minipigs showed large variability, ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 after 24h in plasma and from 0.2 to 0.7 after 90 d in adipose tissue. Hence in two of the minipigs, the S-(-)-o,p'-DDD enantiomer was dominating while the other enantiomer, R-(+)-o,p'-DDD was dominating in three minipigs. We propose that a yet not identified factor related to polymorphism, regulating the metabolism and/or elimination of the enantiomeric o,p'-DDD, is responsible for the differences in enantiomeric retention of the compound in the minipigs.

  • 12. Daneshvar, Atlasi
    et al.
    Aboulfadl, Khadija
    Viglino, Liza
    Broseus, Romain
    Sauve, Sebastien
    Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Prevost, Michele
    Evaluating pharmaceuticals and caffeine as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water sources of the Greater Montreal region2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We surveyed four different river systems in the Greater Montreal region, upstream and downstream of entry points of contamination, from April 2007 to January 2009. The studied compounds belong to three different groups: PPCPs (caffeine, carbamazepine, naproxen, gemfibrozil, and trimethoprim), hormones (progesterone, estrone, and estradiol), and triazine herbicides and their metabolites (atrazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, simazine, and cyanazine). In the system A. B, and C having low flow rate and high TOC, we observed the highest detection frequencies and mass flows of PPCPs compared to the other compounds, reflecting discharge of urban contaminations through WWTPs and CSOs. However, in River D, having high flow rate and low TOC, comparable frequency of detection of triazine and their by-products and PPCPs, reflecting cumulative loads of these compounds from the Great Lakes as well as persistency against natural attenuation processes. Considering large differences in the removal efficiencies of caffeine and carbamazepine, a high ratio of caffeine/carbamazepine might be an indicative of a greater proportion of raw sewage versus treated wastewater in surface waters. In addition, caffeine appeared to be a promising indicator of recent urban fecal contaminations, as shown by the significant correlation with FC (R-2 = 0.45), while carbamazepine is a good indicator of cumulative persistence compounds.

  • 13. Daneshvar, Atlasi
    et al.
    Svanfelt, Jesper
    Kronberg, Leif
    Prévost, Michele
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Seasonal variations in the occurrence and fate of basic and neutral pharmaceuticals in a Swedish river-lake system2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 301-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seasonal variations in the occurrence of carbamazepine, atenolol, metoprolol, sotalol, and acebutolol were studied at seven sites along River Fyris from December 2007 to December 2008. Samples were collected from the effluent of a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), at one upstream site, and five downstream sites of the WWTP). During one occasion in May 2008, water samples were collected at different locations and depths in the recipient lake. All analytes except of acebutolol were present in both the river and the lake at quantifiable amounts at all sampling occasions. Carbamazepine was found in similar concentrations (about 90 ng L-1) at all sampling sites and all studied depths (0.5-40 m) in the lake, indicating high environmental persistence of this compound. A clear seasonal pattern was observed for the natural attenuation of the beta-blockers in the river, with the highest attenuation occurring in summer and the lowest in winter. The loss of beta-blockers on a distance of 1320 m reached up to 75% during summer time but was insignificant during winter. The seasonal variations in the loss followed the seasonal variations in water temperature and chlorophyll a mass flow suggesting that biotransformation and adsorption are the main processes responsible for the loss of the studied pharmaceuticals in River Fyris downstream the WWTP.

  • 14.
    Fedorova, Ganna
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden; Univ South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, Fac Fisheries & Protect Waters, South Bohemian Res Ctr Aquaculture & Biodivers Hy, Zatisi 728-2, Vodnany 38925, Czech Republic .
    Grabic, Roman
    Univ South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, Fac Fisheries & Protect Waters, South Bohemian Res Ctr Aquaculture & Biodivers Hy, Zatisi 728-2, Vodnany 38925, Czech Republic.
    Nyhlen, Jonas
    Ozone Tech Syst OTS AB, SE-12630 Hagersten, Sweden.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Fate of three anti-influenza drugs during ozonation of wastewater effluents - degradation and formation of transformation products.2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 150, p. 723-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-influenza drugs constitute a key component of pandemic preparedness plans against influenza. However, the occurrence of such drugs in water environments, the potential of resistance development in the natural hosts, and the risk for transmission of antiviral resistance to humans call for measures to increase removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, removal of three anti-influenza drugs; amantadine (AM), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) and zanamivir (ZA), and formation/removal of their transformation products during ozonation of wastewater effluents from two Swedish WWTPs in Uppsala and Stockholm were studied. The removal profile of target antivirals and formation/removal of their transformation products were studied by liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. 3.5 h of ozone exposure (total dose of ozone 5.95 g) led to complete removal of the three anti-influenza drugs with a degradation in the following order ZA > OC > AM. Two, five and one transformation products were identified and semi-quantified for AM, OC and ZA, respectively. Increasing and later decreasing transformation products concentration followed the decrease in concentration of target compounds. All transformation products detected, except one of AM in wastewater from Stockholm WWTP, were removed at the end of the experiment. The removal efficiency was higher for all studied compounds in wastewater from Uppsala WWTP, which had lower TOC and COD values, less phosphorus, and also higher pH in the water. Ozonation thus offers multiple benefits through its potential to degrade influenza antivirals, hence decrease the risk of environmental resistance development, in addition to degrading other pharmaceuticals and resistant microorganisms.

  • 15.
    Glynn, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Aune, Marie
    Nilsson, Ingrid
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Ankarberg, Emma Halldin
    Bignert, Anders
    Nordlander, Ingrid
    Declining levels of PCB, HCB and p,p'-DDE in adipose tissue from food producing bovines and swine in Sweden 1991-20042009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 74, no 11, p. 1457-1462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The official control programme for organochlorine (OC) contaminants in food producing animals in Sweden was used to study temporal and spatial trends of the polychlorinated biphenyl CB 153, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p,p'-DDE in adipose tissue from bovines and swine 1991-2004. Our results show that efforts to decrease OC contamination of animal feed and the environment have had a positive impact on the contamination of the animal production. OC concentrations declined significantly in almost all studied regions of Sweden. OC temporal trends were slower in bovines (6-8% per year) than in swine (10-12%). Power analyses showed that data from more than 10 years of sampling were needed for a detection of an annual OC level change of 5% in both species in the control programme, due to large within- and between-year variation in OC levels. CB 153 and p,p'-DDE levels were higher in southern than in northern Sweden. Levels decreased with age in milk cows, but not in young nulliparous cows (heifers) and bulls. Moreover, milk cows and bulls had significantly lower OC levels than heifers. Levels were not age-dependent among swine, but castrated male swine (barrows) had significantly lower OC levels than young female swine (gilts). Levels of the studied OCs are now in many cases below the LOQ of the analytical method used. Future time trend studies of these OCs thus depend on lowered LOQs in the control programme.

  • 16.
    Glynn, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Aune, Marie
    Nilsson, Ingrid
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Ankarberg, Emma Halldin
    Nordlander, Ingrid
    Bignert, Anders
    Reply to comments of Jose G. Dorea on "Declining levels of PCB, HCB and p,p '-DDE in adipose tissue from food producing bovines and swine in Sweden 1991-2004" by Glynn et al. [Chemosphere 74(11)(2009)1457-1462]2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 868-868Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Glynn, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Larsdotter, Maria
    Aune, Marie
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Bjerselius, Rickard
    Bergman, Åke
    Changes in serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB metabolites and pentachlorophenol during pregnancy2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 144-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied pregnancy-related changes in serum concentrations of five polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, CB 118, CB 138, CB 153, CB 156, CB 180), three hydroxylated PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB146, 4-OH-CB187), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Median serum lipid content increased 2-fold between early (weeks 9-13) and late pregnancy (weeks 35-36) (N = 10). whereas median PCB levels in serum lipids decreased 20-46%, suggesting a dilution of PCB concentrations in serum lipids. Nevertheless, strong positive intra-individual correlations (Spearman's r = 0.61-0.99) were seen for PCBs during the whole study period. Thus, if samples have been collected within the same relative narrow time window during pregnancy, PCB results from one single sampling occasion can be used in assessment of relative differences in body burdens during the whole pregnancy period. Concentrations of OH-PCBs in blood serum tended to decline as pregnancy progressed, although among some women the concentrations increased at the end of pregnancy. Positive intra-individual correlations (r = 0.66-0.99) between OH-PCB concentrations were observed during the first and second trimester, whereas correlations with third trimester concentrations were more diverging (r = -0.70-0.85). No decline in PCP concentrations was observed during pregnancy and no significant correlations were found between concentrations at different sampling periods. Our results suggest that for both OH-PCBs and PCP, sampling has to be more specifically timed depending on the time period during pregnancy that is of interest. The differences in patterns of intra- and inter-individual variability of the studied compounds may be due to a combination of factors, including lipid solubility, persistence of the compounds, distribution in blood, metabolic formation, and pregnancy-related changes in body composition and physiological processes.

  • 18. Hagmar, L.
    et al.
    Wallin, E.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jönsson, B.
    Bergman, Å.
    Rylander, L.
    Intra-individual variations and time trends 1991-2001 in human serum levels of PCB, DDE and hexachlorobenzene2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 64, no 9, p. 1507-1513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An important question is whether human serum levels of persistent organic pollutants has continued to decrease during the last decades. The aim of this study was to assess intra-individual variations over time of serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), considering the impact of a number of possible determinants.

    Methods: Blood samples were drawn for the same 39 subjects in 1991 and 2001. Interviews were made at both occasions. Lipid adjusted serum concentrations of CB-153, p,p'-DDE and HCB were determined in both sets of blood samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The fatty acid composition of the serum lipids was analyzed by means of gas-liquid chromatography.

    Result: The CB-153 concentrations in serum had averagely decreased with 34% in between 1991 and 2001 (p < 0.001). Of individual determinants only increasing BMI was associated with decreasing CB-153 levels (beta = -1.0, 95% CI -1.8, -0.2, p = 0.01), explaining 13% of the variation. The average decrease of p,p'-DDE was 55%, and could only weakly be associated with a relative increase of BMI (beta = - 1.0, 95% CI-2.3, 0.2, p=0.09), explaining only 5% of the variation. The average decrease of HCB was 53%, and was associated only with high fish consumption in 1991, explaining 12% of the variation.

    Conclusions: The results support a continuing decrease in human body burdens of PCBs, DDE and HCB during the 1990s. The explanatory factors relative change of BMI and fish consumption explained only a minor part of the time-related variations in serum levels.

  • 19.
    Hellsing, Maja S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Box 7050, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Geol Survey Sweden, Villavagen 18, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hughes, Arwel V.
    Harwell Oxford, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England..
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Box 7050, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances to two types of minerals2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 159, p. 385-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was investigated for two model soil mineral surfaces, alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2), on molecular level using neutron scattering. The PFASs were selected (i.e. perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)) to examine the role of hydrophobic chain length and hydrophilic functional group on their sorption behaviour. All four PFASs were found to sorb to alumina surface (positively charged) forming a hydrated layer consisting of 50% PFASs. The PFAS solubility limit, which decrease with chain length, was found to strongly influence the sorption behaviour. The sorbed PFAS layer could easily be removed by gentle rinsing with water, indicating release upon rainfall in the environment. No sorption was observed for PFOA and PFOS at silica surface (negatively charged), showing electrostatic interaction being the driving force in the sorption process.

  • 20.
    Jingying, Xu
    et al.
    Waste Science and Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Kleja, Dan B.
    Biester, Harald
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Influence of particle size distribution, organic carbon, pH and chlorides on washing of mercury contaminated soil2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 109, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feasibility of soil washing to remediate Hg contaminated soil was studied. Dry sieving was performed to evaluate Hg distribution in soil particle size fractions. The influence of dissolved organic matter and chlo- rides on Hg dissolution was assessed by batch leaching tests. Mercury mobilization in the pH range of 3– 11 was studied by pH-static titration. Results showed infeasibility of physical separation via dry sieving, as the least contaminated fraction exceeded the Swedish generic guideline value for Hg in soils. Soluble Hg did not correlate with dissolved organic carbon in the water leachate. The highest Hg dissolution was achieved at pH 5 and 11, reaching up to 0.3% of the total Hg. The pH adjustment was therefore not suf- ficient for the Hg removal to acceptable levels. Chlorides did not facilitate Hg mobilization under acidic pH either. Mercury was firmly bound in the studied soil thus soil washing might be insufficient method to treat the studied soil. 

  • 21. Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Karlsson, O. Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Malmaeus, J. Mikael
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Wiberg, Karin
    Structure-related distribution of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB in a river-sea system2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 85-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water concentrations of PCDD/Fs, HCB, and non-ortho, mono-ortho, and non-dioxin-like PCBs were measured four times during 1 year in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea, to investigate background levels and distribution behaviour. Sampling sites included two rivers, an estuary, and the sea. Particulate and apparently dissolved concentrations were determined using active sampling (filters + PUFs), while freely dissolved concentrations were determined using passive sampling (POM-samplers). The distribution between particulate + colloidal and freely dissolved phases, in the form of TOC-normalized distribution ratios (K-roc), was found to be near or at equilibrium. The observed Kroc were not significantly different between sampling sites or seasons. For PCDD/Fs, the concentrations were significantly correlated to suspended particulate matter (SPM), while no correlation to organic carbon (TOC) was observed. In the estuary and the sea, PCB concentrations were correlated to TOC. The sorption of various congeners to SPM and TOC appeared to be related to both hydrophobicity and 3D-structure. The PCDD/F concentration in the sea decreased to one third in May, likely connected to the increased vertical flux of particles during the spring bloom.

  • 22.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Lind, Monica P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Influence of persistent organic pollutants on oxidative stress in population-based samples2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 114, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a large group of chemicals widely used and produced in various industrial applications. Many cell culture/animal studies have shown that POPs can induce oxidative stress. Since such data is lacking in humans, we conducted a large population-based study to analyze associations between POPs and oxidative stress markers. We measured following POPs; 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polybrominated diphenyl ether 47, and oxidative stress markers; homocysteine, reduced [GSH] and oxidized glutathione [GSSG], glutathione ratio [GSSG/GSH], total glutathione, oxidized low-density lipoprotein [ox-LDL], ox-LDL antibodies, conjugated dienes, baseline conjugated dienes of LDL, and total anti-oxidative capacity in plasma samples collected from 992 70-year old individuals (50% women) from the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. Linear regression analyses were performed to study the associations between oxidative stress markers and summary measures of POPs including the total toxic equivalence (TEQ), sums of PCBs and BC pesticides (main exposures) while adjusting for potential confounders. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, sum of PCBs showed strong associations with ox-LDL (beta = 0.94; P = 2.9 * 10(-6)). Further, sum of PCBs showed association with glutathione-related markers (GSSG: beta = 0.01; P = 6.0 *10(-7); GSSG/GSH: beta = 0.002; P = 9.7 * 10(-10)), although in reverse direction. Other summary measures did not show any significant association with these markers. In our study of elderly individuals from the general population, we show that plasma levels of POPs are associated with markers of increased oxidative stress thereby suggesting that even low dose background exposure to POPs may be involved in oxidative stress.

  • 23.
    Lejonklou, Margareta H.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Christiansen, S.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Div Diet Dis Prevent & Toxicol, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg, Denmark..
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Shen, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Boberg, J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Div Diet Dis Prevent & Toxicol, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg, Denmark..
    Hass, U.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Div Diet Dis Prevent & Toxicol, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg, Denmark..
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Low-dose developmental exposure to bisphenol A alters the femoral bone geometry in wistar rats2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 164, p. 339-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical produced in large volumes for use in manufacturing of consumer products and industrial applications, and an endocrine disruptor known to affect several hormonal systems. Bone produces hormones and is additionally a sensitive hormone target tissue, and is thus potentially sensitive to low doses of endocrine disruptors such as BPA, especially during development. Methods: 110 pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged with 0; 25 mu g; 250 mu g; 5000 mu g or 50,000 mu g BPA/kg bodyweight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 until weaning at postnatal day 22. The three-month-old offspring were sacrificed and right femurs collected for length measurements, geometrical measurements by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), as well as for analyses of biomechanical properties using the three-point-bending method. Results: The femur was elongated in female offspring of dams exposed to 25 or 5000 mu g BPA/kg bw/day (1.8% and 2.1%, respectively), and increased cortical thickness (4.7%) was observed in male offspring of dams exposed to 25 mu g BPA/kg bw/day, compared to controls (p < 0.005). The biomechanical properties of the bone were not significantly altered. Conclusions: In utero and lactational exposure to the lowest BPA dose used in this study altered femoral geometry in both male and female offspring. This was observed at 25 mu g BPA/kg bw/day, a dose lower than the Human Equivalent Dose (HED) applied by EFSA to set a temporary TDI (609 mu g BPA/kg bw/day), and far lower than the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) (5000 mu g BPA/kg bw/day) on which the US FDA TDI is based.

  • 24.
    Lind, Monica P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lee, D. -H
    Jacobs, D. R.
    Salihovic, S.
    Bavel, B. V.
    Wolff, M. S.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants are related to retrospective assessment of life-time weight change2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 998-1004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been suggested to be linked to obesity. We have previously shown that less-chlorinated PCBs were positively related to fat mass, while highly-chlorinated PCBs were inversely related to obesity.Objective: The aim of the present evaluation is to investigate the relationship between retrospective assessed life-time change in body weight (20-70. years) with circulating POP levels measured at age 70. years.Methods: 1016 subjects aged 70. years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUSs) study. 16 PCBs and 3 OC pesticides were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS. Current body weight was measured and participants self-reported their weight at age 20.Results: The average estimated weight change over 50. years was 14.4. kg. Both the sum of OC pesticide concentrations (4.3. kg more weight gain in quintile 5 vs. quintile 1, p< 0.0001) and the sum of the less-chlorinated PCBs were positively related to the estimated weight change (3.7. kg more weight gain in quintile 2 vs. quintile 1, non-linear relationship p=0.0015). In contrast, the sum of concentrations of highly-chlorinated PCBs were inversely related to estimated weight change (8.4. kg less weight gain in quintile 5 vs. quintile 1, p< 0.0001).Conclusion: High levels of OC pesticides and the less-chlorinated PCBs at age 70 were associated with a pronounced estimated weight change over the previous 50. years. However, the opposite was seen for highly-chlorinated PCBs. Differences in mode of action, toxicokinetics, non-linear relationships and reverse causation might explain these discrepancies.

  • 25.
    Lind, Monica
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, Karolinska Institutet.
    Wejheden, Carolina
    Lundberg, Rebecca
    Alvarez-Lloret, Pedro
    Hermsen, Sanne A.
    Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro B.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Rannug, Agneta
    Short-term exposure to dioxin impairs bone tissue in male rats2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 75, no 5, p. 680-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic and sub-chronic studies in rats have previously shown that dioxin-like compounds impair the bone tissue homeostasis. In the present study, tibiae and serum were analyzed to study possible effects of short term dioxin exposure on rats. Two month old (ca. 200g) male rats were injected with 50microg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) kg(-1) bw and tibiae were excised 5d following the exposure. Bone composition, dimensions and strength were analyzed by pQCT and three-point bending test on tibiae. In addition, detailed bone composition was analyzed by optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Analysis of the serum bone biomarkers procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) and carboxyterminal cross linking teleopeptide (CTX) were also performed. pQCT-results showed alterations in the metaphysis, with a significant decrease in trabecular bone cross-sectional area (-19%, p<0.05) and a significant increase in total bone mineral density (+7%, p<0.05) in TCDD-exposed rats. Analyses of the bones by ICP-OES and FTIR showed that bones from exposed rats had a higher relative proportion of crystalline phosphate (+13% for a1080 and +11% for a1113, p<0.05) and lower acid phosphate content (-22% for a1145, p<0.05), resembling the composition of more mature bones. Serum analysis showed that the bone formation marker PINP was decreased (-37%, p<0.05) and that the bone resorption marker CTX was increased (+14%, p<0.05) indicating a net loss of bone tissue. In conclusion, 5d of exposure to TCDD was sufficient to negatively affect bone tissue in male rats.

  • 26.
    Lundgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    The flame-retardant BDE-99 dose-dependently affects viral replication in CVB3-infected mice2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 1434-1438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flame retardant component 2,2',4,4',5-penta-BDE (BDE-99) is found in the environment and in human tissues and fluids. In mice the common human coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection has been shown to change the tissue distribution of BDE-99. We now investigate how CVB3 infection in mice affects liver uptake of C-14 at two doses of radiolabelled BDE-99, and whether increased tissue levels are related to changed virus replication and gene expression of the proinflammatory chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Mice were infected on day 0, orally treated either with 200 mu g or 20 mg C-14-BDE-99/kg bw on day 1, and euthanised on day 3. Serum and liver levels of C-14-BDE-99, as well as virus levels and gene expressions of MCP-1 in the liver, were measured. In non-infected mice, there was a dose-dependent uptake of BDE-99 in both liver and serum, and in infected animals the liver BDE-99 levels was further increased. When comparing infected mice exposed to the two BDE-99 doses, the higher BDE dose resulted in increased virus amounts in the liver, and decreased infection-induced expression of MCP-1. Consequently, a high enough dose/tissue concentration of BDE-99 may result in a disturbed mobilisation of immune cells into infected tissues that could explain higher virus titres and a possibly altered clinical course of the disease. Moreover, the fact that CVB3 infection increased the BDE-99 levels in liver but not in serum may impair the risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in subclinical and clinically infected individuals, as serum levels is the common marker of exposure. 

  • 27.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Comments on "Levels of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in Baltic fish of different age and gender" by M. Pandelova, B. Henkelmann, O. Roots, M. Simm, L Jarv, E. Benfenati and K.-W. Schramm [Chemosphere 71(2) (2008) 369-378]2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 82, no 5, p. 786-786Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Bignert, Anders
    Tysklind, Mats
    Olsson, Mats
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Multivariate data analysis of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in Baltic Sea guillemot (Uria aalge) egg and muscle2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 1591-1599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) were determined in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggs from the island of Stora Karlsö in the Baltic Sea where 10 eggs/year were collected in the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The dominating contaminant in egg was p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) with a geometric mean (GM) concentration of 18 200 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The GM concentration in egg of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) of 140 ng/g lw, was significantly higher than that of polybrominated diphenyl ether (∑PBDE) of 77 ng/g lw.

    For the evaluation of the data multivariate data analysis techniques namely principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares regression (PLS), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA classification), and PLS discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were used. We investigated whether the eggs’ biological characteristics co-varied with egg concentrations of OCs and BFRs, and found e.g., significant negative correlations between egg weight and concentrations of HCB and p,p′-DDE. A PLS model with analyzed BFRs as the Y matrix and OCs as the X matrix could, with varying accuracy, calculate the concentrations of BFRs in the individual egg from their concentrations of OCs (e.g., R2Y of 0.89 for BDE47, and of 0.50 for HBCD).

    Lastly, we compared the contaminant concentrations in the eggs to those in previously analyzed pectoral muscles from adult guillemots from Stora Karlsö, from the year 2000. A PLS-DA model, showed that some of the contaminants (e.g., HBCD and CB28) had significantly higher concentrations in egg than in muscle, although 7 of the 14 contaminants showed no difference in concentrations between the two matrices.

  • 29. Persson, S.
    et al.
    Rotander, A.
    van Bavel, B.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Bäcklin, B. -M
    Magnusson, U.
    Influence of age, season, body condition and geographical area on concentrations of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 1664-1674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wild mink has gained acceptance as a sentinel species in environmental monitoring. However, only limited data are available in the literature on factors driving variability in concentrations of organic pollutants in this species. This study characterizes the differences in contaminant concentrations in subcutaneous fat of male mink from four different areas in Sweden and demonstrates how age, season and body condition influence concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (including methoxylated forms, MeO-PBDEs), as well as the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), chlordane and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The data were statistically treated using multiple regression and principal component analysis. The ∑PCB concentration and concentrations of PCB congeners 138, 156, 157, 180, 170/190, 189, 194, 206, 209 as well as PBDE 153/154 varied with age. Season had an influence on ∑PCB, PBDE 47 and PBDE 153/154 concentrations, as well as concentrations of most PCB congeners, with the exception of PCB 101, 110, 141 and 182/187. Lean mink had higher concentrations of most PCBs and PBDEs than mink with larger fat depots. The analyzed pesticides (DDE, oxychlordane, HCB) showed no systematic variation with season, age or body condition. The concentrations of MeO-PBDEs were generally low and 6MeO-PBDE 47 was the most commonly detected MeO-PBDE in mink from marine, brackish and freshwater areas. The results indicate that age, season and body condition are factors that may influence the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs, and it is thus recommended to take these factors into account when analyzing mink exposure data.

  • 30. Regier, N.
    et al.
    Larras, F.
    Bravo, Andrea Garcia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Ungureanu, V. -G
    Amouroux, D.
    Cosio, C.
    Mercury bioaccumulation in the aquatic plant Elodea nuttallii in the field and in microcosm: Accumulation in shoots from the water might involve copper transporters2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 595-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies suggest that macrophytes might participate in bioaccumulation and biomagnification of toxic mercury (Hg) in aquatic environment. Hg bioaccumulation and uptake mechanisms in macrophytes need therefore to be studied. Amongst several macrophytes collected in an Hg contaminated reservoir in Romania, Elodea nuttallii showed a high organic and inorganic Hg accumulation and was then further studied in the laboratory.Tolerance and accumulation of Hg of this plant was also high in the microcosm. Basipetal transport of inorganic Hg was predominant, whereas acropetal transport of methyl-Hg was observed with apparently negligible methylation or demethylation in planta. Hg concentrations were higher in roots&gt;leaves&gt;stems and in top&gt;middle&gt;bottom of shoots. In shoots, more than 60% Hg was found intracellularly where it is believed to be highly available to predators. Accumulation in shoots was highly reduced by cold, death and by competition with Cu+.Hg in E. nuttallii shoots seems to mainly originate from the water column, but methyl-Hg could also be remobilized from the sediments and might drive in part its entry in the food web. At the cellular level, uptake of Hg into the cell sap of shoots seems linked to the metabolism and to copper transporters. The present work highlights an important breakthrough in our understanding of Hg accumulation and biomagnifications: the remobilization of methyl-Hg from sediments to aquatic plants and differences in uptake mechanisms of inorganic and methyl-Hg in a macrophyte.

  • 31.
    Rehman, Humaira
    et al.
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Fac Biol Sci, Dept Anim Sci, Reprod Physiol Lab, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Jahan, Sanwat
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Fac Biol Sci, Dept Anim Sci, Reprod Physiol Lab, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Ullah, Imdad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Abbottabad Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Zool, Havalian, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
    Winberg, Svante
    Abbottabad Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Zool, Havalian, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
    Toxicological effects of furan on the reproductive system of male rats: An "in vitro" and "in vivo"-based endocrinological and spermatogonial study2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 230, p. 327-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Furan is a colorless toxic chemical produced in various food items during heat processing and in chemical industries. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that it induces oxidative stress and endocrine disruption; however, limited data are available regarding the effects of furan on the reproduction of mammals. In the present study, an in vitro experiment was designed to investigate the direct effects of furan exposure on oxidative stress and testosterone concentration in rat testicular tissue. Furan not only generated high oxidative stress but also decreased antioxidant enzyme activity in the testicular tissue. On the basis of in vitro study results, an in vivo sub-chronic exposure study was performed. Male rats were orally exposed to different concentrations of furan (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg(-1)). An increase (P < 0.05) of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of the lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL) in higher dose treatment groups of furan was observed, while total protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity were considerably decreased after furan exposure. Also, plasma and intratesticular testosterone concentrations were reduced in high-dose treatment groups. Sperm parameters such as sperm viability, sperm count, and sperm motility showed a decrease (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological findings revealed significant alterations in testis and epididymis tissues. These results confirm that furan can induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of male rats.

  • 32.
    Rönn, Monika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine.
    Bavel, Bert van
    Salihovic, Samira
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lind, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants associate in divergent ways to fat mass measured by DXA in humans2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 335-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Environmental contaminants have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity.

    OBJECTIVE:

    To explore relations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fat mass independently of body stature, using a cross-sectional design.

    METHODS:

    In the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), fat mass was determined in 70-year-old subjects (n=890) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The plasma levels of 21 POPs (including 16 PCB congeners, 3 OC pesticides, 1 BDE47, and 1 dioxin) were measured by high resolution chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS).

    RESULTS:

    Lipid-standardized plasma concentrations of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), the PCBs 74, 99, 105 and 118, and the pesticides HCB, TNK, and DDE were all positively related to fat mass (p=0.03-0.0001). Subjects in the fifth quintile for PCB 105 showed a mean fat mass that was 4.8kg more than subjects in the first quintile. On the other hand, the PCBs 156, 157, 169, 170, 180, 189, 194, 206, and 209 were negatively related to fat mass (p=0.0001). For PCB 194, subjects in the fifth quintile showed a mean fat mass that was 10.8kg less than subjects in the first quintile. Following adjustment for smoking, physical activity, education level, height, lean mass, and gender, these results remained significant (p=0.01-0.0001) except for the PCBs 74 and 99. For some PCBs, the associations vs. fat mass were more pronounced in women than in men.

    CONCLUSION:

    Plasma concentrations of some pesticides are positively related to fat mass, while divergent associations are seen for the PCBs. These results implicate a complex role of POPs in obesity.

  • 33.
    Rönn, Monika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden; Umea Univ, Ctr Heart, Umea, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Bisphenol A is related to circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin, but not to fat mass or fat distribution in humans2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 112, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Since bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce obesity in experimental studies, we explored the associations between BPA and fat mass, fat distribution and circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin in humans.

    METHODS: In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), fat mass and fat distribution were determined in 70-year-old men and women (n=890) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=287). Serum levels of BPA were analyzed using isotope liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometer (API4000LC-MS/MS). Hormone levels were analyzed with radioimmunoassays (RIA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Imaging was performed approximately two years following collection of other data.

    RESULTS: Serum concentrations of BPA were not related to adipose tissue measurements by DXA or MRI. BPA associated positively with adiponectin and leptin, but negatively with ghrelin, following adjustments for sex, height, fat mass, lean mass, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, energy intake, and educational levels (p<0.001, p=0.009, p<0.001, respectively). The relationship between BPA and ghrelin was stronger in women than in men.

    CONCLUSION: Although no relationships between BPA levels and measures of fat mass were seen, BPA associated strongly with the adipokines adiponectin and leptin and with the gut-hormone ghrelin suggesting that BPA may interfere with hormonal control of hunger and satiety.

  • 34. Saccà, Maria Ludovica
    et al.
    Accinelli, Cesare
    Fick, Jerker
    Lindberg, Richard
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Environmental fate of the antiviral drug Tamiflu in two aquatic ecosystems2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 28-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The antiviral drug Tamiflu (Oseltamivir Phosphate, OP), has been indicated by the World Health Organization as a first-line defense in case of an avian influenza pandemic. Recent studies have demonstrated that Oseltamivir Carboxylate (OC), the active metabolite of the prodrug OP, has the potential to be released into water bodies. The present laboratory study focused on basic processes governing the environmental fate of OC in surface water from two contrasting aquatic ecosystems of northern Italy, the River Po and the Venice lagoon. Results of this study confirmed the potential of OC to persist in surface water. However, addition of 5% of sediments resulted in rapid OC degradation. Estimated half-life of OC in water/sediment of the River Po was 15 days. After three weeks of incubation at 20 degrees C, more than 8% of (14)C-OC evolved as (14)CO(2) from water/sediment samples of the River Po and Venice lagoon. At the end of the 21-day incubation period, more than 65% of the (14)C-residues were recovered from the liquid phase of both Po and Venice water/sediment samples. OC was moderately retained onto coarse sediments from the two sites. In water/sediment samples of the River Po and Venice lagoon treated with (14)C-OC, more than 30% of the (14)C-residues remained water-extractable after three weeks of incubation. The low affinity of OC to sediments suggests that presence of sediments would not reduce its bioavailability to microbial degradation.

  • 35. Salihovic, Samira
    et al.
    Mattioli, Lisa
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lind, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    van Bavel, Bert
    A rapid method for screening of the Stockholm Convention POPs in small amounts of human plasma using SPE and HRGC/HRMS2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 7, p. 747-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rapid analytical screening method allowing simultaneous analysis of 23 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human plasma was developed. Sample preparation based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with additional clean-up using small multilayer silica gel columns. SPE was performed using a custom made polystyrene-divinylbenzene sorbent for the extraction of chlorinated and brominated POPs. Special efforts to reduce sample volume and improve speed and efficiency of the analytical procedure were made. Determination of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (BDE #47) in 0.5 mL human plasma was performed by using high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Recovery of POPs ranged between 46% and 110%, and reproducibility was below 25% relative standard deviation (RSD) for all target compounds, except for trans-nonachlor and OCDD, which were present only at low levels. Limits of detection (LOD) were for the PCBs between 0.8 and 117.7 pg mL(-1) plasma and for the OC pesticides between 5.9 and 89.1 pg mL(-1) plasma. The LOD for OCDD and BDE #47 were 1.4 pg mL(-1) plasma, and 9.2 pg mL(-1) plasma, respectively. The presented method was successfully applied to 1016 human plasma samples from an epidemiological study on cardiovascular disease.

  • 36. Strid, Anna
    et al.
    Smedje, Greta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundgren, Hakan
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Bergman, Ake
    Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 116, no SI, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group.

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