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  • 1.
    Kaden, Rene
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin, Klinisk bakteriologi. National Veterinary Institute of Sweden, Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics.
    Menger-Krug, Eve
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Emmerich, Katja
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Petrick, Kerstin
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Krolla-Sidenstein, Peter
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Application of the Dynamic Cultivation System for Microorganisms – a new way to culture the unculturables2014Ingår i: Clays and clay minerals, ISSN 0009-8604, E-ISSN 1552-8367, Vol. 62, nr 3-4, s. 203-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, ~1% of all bacteria that occur in environmental ecosystems such as soil, sedimentary rocks, and groundwater have been described. Comprehensive explanation of ecological interactions on a microscale level is thus almost impossible. The Dynamic Cultivation System (DCS) was developed in order to detect more microbial taxa than with common cultivation approaches, as well as previously undescribed bacterial species. The DCS is a quick and easy in situ method for the cultivation of numerous bacterial taxa in support of the description of microbial colonized ecosystems. To investigate the bacterial populations within a clay-maturation process after mining the raw material, the DCS was used to increase the microbial biomass for further molecular analysis. Two different methods were applied to extract the bacteria from the DCS and these were compared in terms of efficiency at detection of large numbers of different taxa and in terms of applicability to the detection of previously undescribed species in raw clays. A collection of different undescribed species was detected with sequencing. While direct picking of bacterial colonies leads to the detection of different genera, species mainly of the genus Arthobacter were proved in the phosphate-buffered saline-suspended biomass. Thus, a combination of the approaches mentioned above is recommended to increase the number of detectable species. The DCS will help to describe better the microbial content of ecosystems, especially soils that contain charged particles.

  • 2.
    Martin-Martin, Juan Diego
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Gomez-Gras, D.
    Sanfeliu, T.
    Thiry, M.
    Ruiz-Cruz, M. D.
    Franco, F.
    Extensive dickitization of the Permo-Triassic fluvial sandstones from the eastern Iberian Range, Spain2007Ingår i: Clays and clay minerals, ISSN 0009-8604, E-ISSN 1552-8367, Vol. 55, nr 5, s. 481-490Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagenetic kaolin minerals are very common in the Permo-Triassic succession from the SE Iberian Range, Spain. The morphology and crystal structure of kaolin minerals has been examined in four size fractions (< 1 mu m, < 2 mu m, < 6.3 mu m and < 20 mu m) of sandstone samples by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. Experimental data reveal that dickite is the dominant kaolin-type mineral in the entire range of size fractions, whereas small amounts of kaolinite coexists with dickite in all size fractions. Dickite appears typically as booklets of pseudo-hexagonal plates with blocky habit. The increase in size fraction is concomitant with the increase in the amount of dickite and the progressive improvement of its structural order. The extensive dickitization is attributed to the high paleogeothermal gradient recorded in the studied area and the increase in H+, presumably resulting from the flux of organic acids derived from the underlying Carboniferous rocks and/or the late Permian succession. These conditions are more likely to be associated with the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage of the eastern Iberian Basin. Lately, during the maximum burial depth, the fine crystalline kaolin minerals were slightly illitized. Given the very small feldspar content in the studied sequence, the results reflect the important contribution of mica alteration to the early diagenetic formation of kaolinite as well as the late conversion to dickite.

  • 3.
    Petrick, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Diedel, Ralf
    Peuker, Miriam
    Dieterle, Matthias
    Kuch, Paul
    Kaden, Rene
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Krolla-Sidenstein, Peter
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Schuhmann, Reiner
    Emmerich, Katja
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Character and amount of I–S mixed-layer minerals and physical–chemical parameters of two ceramic clays from Westerwald, Germany: Implications for processing properties2011Ingår i: Clays and clay minerals, ISSN 0009-8604, E-ISSN 1552-8367, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 58-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial assessment of ceramic clays commonly consists of the determination of just two parameters, the particle-size distribution and the chemical composition; other parameters may also be important, however. The aim of the present study was to show that a careful determination of the mineralogical phase content provides valuable additional information on the processing behavior of ceramic clays. Two ceramic clays (W1 and W2) from the Westerwald area, Germany, were evaluated as being the same with respect to industrial screening criteria, but showed different processing properties. In order to elucidate the different behaviors, both clays were investigated comprehensively using a multi-method approach combining physical-chemical and mineralogical methods. Different aggregation characteristics for the two clays were revealed by determining the grain-size distribution with and without Na-pyrophosphate as a dispersant. In addition, W1 showed a greater electrical conductivity and soluble-salt concentration which promoted dispersion behavior. The phase content was identified both for bulk materials and for several grain-size fractions by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analysis. The quantitative phase content was crosschecked with the chemical composition by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Additional information was gathered by thermal analysis, cation exchange capacity (CEC) measurements, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and optical microscopy. While bulk samples of W1 and W2 showed nearly the same mineralogical and chemical compositions, investigation of the clay-size fractions (0.6-2 gm, <0.6 gm) revealed differences in the composition of the 2:1 layer silicates.

    The percentages of smectite in the mixed-layer I-S, as well as the amount of kaolinite, discrete illite, and smectite were determined by one-dimensional XRD profile fitting (ODPF). Best-fitting results for W1 were achieved for a physical mixture of an illite-rich I-S mixed-layer mineral (R3 I(0.9)-S) with discrete smectite, whereas W2 was characterized by a greater proportion of smectite in the mixed-layer (R1 I(0.8)-S), without discrete smectite. Based on the different structural features of the swellable clays, a qualitative delamination model for the 2:1 layer silicates during processing of the clays was derived.

    The model provides a further approach, aside from aggregation characteristics, to help understand the clay-processing behavior, which was found to be different for the two ceramic clays investigated.

  • 4. Zazzi, Åsa
    et al.
    Hirsch, Tomas K.
    Kaikikonen, Andrei
    Grins, Jekabs
    Annersten, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Edén, Mattias
    Structural investigations of natural and synthetic chlorite minerals by X-ray diffraction, mössbauer spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance2006Ingår i: Clays and clay minerals, ISSN 0009-8604, E-ISSN 1552-8367, Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 252-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The structures of one synthetic and two natural chlorites of the chlinochlore type were explored using X-ray diffraction, magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Rietveld refinements indicated that all structures are of the trioctahedral ordered IIb polytype. Mössbauer spectra provided the ratio IIFe/IIIFe but gave no evidence for the presence of IIIFe in the brucite-like sheet. We also report unit-cell parameters, Mössbauer isomeric shifts, 29Si NMR chemical shifts as well as27 Al isotropic shifts and quadrupolar coupling parameters. Very broad 29Si NMR peaks from the natural samples prevented us from obtaining accurate information on the Si-Al ordering in the tetrahedral sheets; the limitations of 29Si NMR as applied to natural chlorites are discussed. High-resolution 3QMAS NMR resolved the 27Al signal of the M4 octahedral site in the brucite-like sheet from the other three Al signals of crystallographically inequivalent octahedral positions.

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