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  • 1.
    Barker, Abigail
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Holm, Paul M.
    Peate, David W.
    Baker, Joel A.
    A 5 million year record of compositional variations in mantle sources to magmatism on Santiago, southern Cape Verde archipelago2010In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 160, no 1, 133-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-precision Pb isotope data and Sr–Nd–Hf isotope data are presented together with major and trace element data for samples spanning the 4.6 Ma history of volcanism at Santiago, in the southern Cape Verde islands. Pb isotope data confirm the positive Δ8/4 signature of the southern islands indicating that the north–south compositional heterogeneity in the Cape Verde archipelago has persisted for at least 4.6 Ma. The Santiago volcanics show distinct compositional differences between the old, intermediate and young volcanics, and suggest greater involvement of an enriched mantle (EM1)-like source over time. Isotopic variations in the Santiago volcanics indicate convergence towards a homogeneous EM1-like end-member and distinct temporal variations in the FOZO-like end-member. Santiago and Santo Antão (a northern island, Holm et al. 2006), show a simultaneous decrease in 208Pb/204Pb of the high 206Pb/204Pb FOZO-like source with time. Such systematic archipelago-wide variations in the FOZO-like component suggest that this component is more likely to be present as a coherent package of recycled ocean crust rather than as multiple small heterogeneities dispersed in the upwelling mantle. The temporal variations in 208Pb/204Pb reflect minor lateral variations in Th/U of this recycled ocean crust package entering the melting zone beneath the islands. The location of the EM1-like component is more equivocal. A shallow lithospheric location is possible, but this would require a coincidence between spatial compositional variations in the lithosphere (EM1 is spatially restricted to the southern islands) and flow lines in the upwelling mantle revealed by seismic anisotropy. Therefore, we favour a deeper asthenospheric mantle source for the EM1-like source.

  • 2.
    Barker, Abigail
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Holm, Paul Martin
    Unniversity of Copenhagen.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    The role of eclogite in the mantle heterogeneity at Cape Verde2014In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 168, no 3, 1052- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cape Verde hotspot, like many other Ocean Island Basalt provinces, demonstrates isotopic heterogeneity on a 100–200 km scale. The heterogeneity is represented by the appearance of an EM1-like component at several of the southern islands and with a HIMU-like component present throughout the archipelago. Where the EM1-like component is absent, a local DMM-like component replaces the EM1-like component. Various source lithologies, including peridotite, pyroxenite and eclogite have been suggested to contribute to generation of these heterogeneities; however, attempts to quantify such contributions have been limited. We apply the minor elements in olivine approach (Sobolev et al. in Nature 434:590–597, 2005; Science, doi:10.1126/science.1138113,2007), to determine and quantify the contributions of peridotite, pyroxenite and eclogite melts to the mantle heterogeneity observed at Cape Verde. Cores of olivine phenocrysts of the Cape Verde volcanics have low Mn/FeO and low Ni*FeO/MgO that deviate from the negative trend of the global array. The global array is defined by mixing between peridotite and pyroxenite, whereas the Cape Verde volcanics indicate contribution of an additional eclogite source. Eclogite melts escape reaction with peridotite either by efficient extraction in an area of poor mantle flow or by reaction of eclogite melts with peridotite, whereby an abundance of eclogite can seal off the melt from further reaction. Temporal trends of decreasing Mn/FeO indicate that the supply of eclogite melts is increasing. Modelling suggests the local DMM-like end-member is formed from a relatively peridotite-rich melt, while the EM1-like end-member has a closer affinity to a mixed peridotite–pyroxenite–eclogite melt. Notably the HIMU-like component ranges from pyroxenite–peridotite-rich melt to one with up to 77 % eclogite melt as a function of time, implying that sealing of melt pathways is becoming more effective.

  • 3.
    Barker, Abigail K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Ellam, R.M.
    Hansteen, T.H.
    Haris, C.
    Stillman, C.J.
    Andersson, A.
    Magmatic evolution of the Cadamosto Seamount, Cape Verde: Beyond the spatial extent of EM12012In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 163, no 6, 949-965 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cadamosto Seamount is an unusual volcanic centre from Cape Verde, characterised by dominantly evolved volcanics, in contrast to the typically mafic volcanic centres at Cape Verde that exhibit only minor volumes of evolved volcanics. The magmatic evolution of Cadamosto Seamount is investigated to quantify the role of magma-crust interaction and thus provide a perspective on evolved end-member volcanism of Cape Verde. The preservation of mantle source signatures by Nd-Pb isotopes despite extensive magmatic differentiation provides new insights into the spatial distribution of mantle heterogeneity in the Cape Verde archipelago. Magmatic differentiation from nephelinite to phonolite involves fractional crystallisation of clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite, biotite and feldspathoids, with extensive feldspathoid accumulation being recorded in some evolved samples. Clinopyroxene crystallisation pressures of 0.38-0.17 GPa for the nephelinites constrain this extensive fractional crystallisation to the oceanic lithosphere, where no crustal assimilants or rafts of subcontinental lithospheric mantle are available. In turn, magma-crust interaction has influenced the Sr, O and S isotopes of the groundmass and late crystallising feldspathoids, which formed at shallow crustal depths reflecting the availability of oceanic sediments and anhydrite precipitated in the ocean crust. The Nd-Pb isotopes have not been affected by these processes of magma-crust interaction and hence preserve the mantle source signature. The Cadamosto Seamount samples have high Pb-206/Pb-204 (> 19.5), high epsilon Nd (+6 to +7) and negative Delta 8/4Pb, showing affinity with the northern Cape Verde islands as opposed to the adjacent southern islands. Hence, the Cadamosto Seamount in the west is located spatially beyond the EM1-like component found further east. This heterogeneity is not encountered in the oceanic lithosphere beneath the Cadamosto Seamount despite greater extents of fractional crystallisation at oceanic lithospheric depths than the islands of Fogo and Santiago. Our data provide new evidence for the complex geometry of the chemically zoned Cape Verde mantle source.

  • 4.
    Barker, Abigail
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Univ Las Palmas, GEOVOL, La Palmas Gran Canaria 35017, Spain.
    Carracedo, Juan Carlos
    Univ Las Palmas, GEOVOL, La Palmas Gran Canaria 35017, Spain.
    Nicholls, Peter A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    The magma plumbing system for the 1971 Teneguía eruption on La Palma, Canary Islands2015In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 170, no 5-6, 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1971 Teneguía eruption is the most recent volcanic event of the Cumbre Vieja rift zone on La Palma. The eruption produced basanite lavas that host xenoliths, which we investigate to provide insight into the processes of differentiation, assimilation and magma storage beneath La Palma. We compare our results to the older volcanomagmatic systems of the island with the aim to reconstruct the temporal development of the magma plumbing system beneath La Palma.

    The 1971 lavas are clinopyroxene-olivine-phyric basanites that contain augite, sodic-augite and Aluminium augite. Kaersutite cumulate xenoliths host olivine, clinopyroxene including sodic-diopside, and calcic-amphibole, whereas an analysed leucogabbro xenolith hosts plagioclase, sodic-augite-diopside, calcic-amphibole and hauyne. Mineral and mineral-melt thermobarometry indicate that clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the 1971 Teneguía lavas crystallised at 20 to 45 km depth, coinciding with clinopyroxene and calcic-amphibole crystallisation in the kaersutite cumulate xenoliths at 25 to 45 km and clinopyroxene, calcic-amphibole and plagioclase crystallisation in the leucogabbro xenolith at 30 to 50 km.

    Combined mineral chemistry and thermobarometry suggest that the magmas had already crystallised, differentiated and formed multiple crystal populations in the oceanic lithospheric mantle. Notably, the magmas that supplied the 1949 and 1971 events appear to have crystallised deeper than the earlier Cumbre Vieja magmas, which suggests progressive underplating beneath the Cumbre Vieja rift zone. In addition, the lavas and xenoliths of the 1971 event crystallised at a common depth, indicating a reused plumbing system and progressive recycling of Ocean Island plutonic complexes during subsequent magmatic activity. 

  • 5.
    Blythe, Lara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology. School of Physical and Geographical Science, Keele University, Keele, UK.
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Freda, C
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy.
    Jolis, Ester Muños
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Masotta, M
    Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Misiti, V.
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy.
    Taddeucci, J.
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy.
    CO2 bubble generation and migration during magma–carbonate interaction2015In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 169, no 4, 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted quantitative textural analysis of vesicles in high temperature and pressure carbonate assimilation experiments (1200 °C, 0.5 GPa) to investigate CO2 generation and subsequent bubble migration from carbonate into magma. We employed Mt. Merapi (Indonesia) and Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) compositions as magmatic starting materials and present three experimental series using (1) a dry basaltic-andesite, (2) a hydrous basaltic-andesite (2 wt% H2O), and (3) a hydrous shoshonite (2 wt% H2O). The duration of the experiments was varied from 0 to 300 s, and carbonate assimilation produced a CO2-rich fluid and CaO-enriched melts in all cases. The rate of carbonate assimilation, however, changed as a function of melt viscosity, which affected the 2D vesicle number, vesicle volume, and vesicle size distribution within each experiment. Relatively low-viscosity melts (i.e. Vesuvius experiments) facilitated efficient removal of bubbles from the reaction site. This allowed carbonate assimilation to continue unhindered and large volumes of CO2 to be liberated, a scenario thought to fuel sustained CO2-driven eruptions at the surface. Conversely, at higher viscosity (i.e. Merapi experiments), bubble migration became progressively inhibited and bubble concentration at the reaction site caused localised volatile over-pressure that can eventually trigger short-lived explosive outbursts. Melt viscosity therefore exerts a fundamental control on carbonate assimilation rates and, by consequence, the style of CO2-fuelled eruptions.

  • 6.
    Blythe, Lara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Freda, C.
    Jolis, Ester Muños
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Masotta, M.
    Misiti, V.
    Taddeucci, J.
    Troll, V.R.
    Time-monitored vesiculation processes in magma-carbonate interaction experiments2014In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Chadwick, J.P.
    et al.
    Department of Petrology, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Waight, T.E.
    Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van der Zwan, F.M.
    Department of Petrology, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Schwarzkopf, L.M.
    GeoDocCon, Unterpferdt 8, 95176 Konradsreuth, Germany.
    Petrology and geochemistry of igneous inclusions in recent Merapi deposits: a window into the sub-volcanic plumbing system2013In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 165, no 2, 259-282 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent basaltic-andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant and varied igneous inclusions suggesting a complex sub-volcanic magmatic system for Merapi volcano. In order to better understand the processes occurring beneath Merapi, we have studied this suite of inclusions by petrography, geochemistry and geobarometric calculations. The inclusions may be classified into four main suites: (1) highly crystalline basaltic-andesite inclusions, (2) co-magmatic enclaves, (3) plutonic crystalline inclusions and (4) amphibole megacrysts. Highly crystalline basaltic-andesite inclusions and co-magmatic enclaves typically display liquid–liquid relationships with their host rocks, indicating mixing and mingling of distinct magmas. Co-magmatic enclaves are basaltic in composition and occasionally display chilled margins, whereas highly crystalline basaltic-andesite inclusions usually lack chilling. Plutonic inclusions have variable grain sizes and occasionally possess crystal layering with a spectrum of compositions spanning from gabbro to diorite. Plagioclase, pyroxene and amphibole are the dominant phases present in both the inclusions and the host lavas. Mineral compositions of the inclusions largely overlap with compositions of minerals in recent and historic basaltic-andesites and the enclaves they contain, indicating a cognate or ‘antelithic’ nature for most of the plutonic inclusions. Many of the plutonic inclusions plot together with the host basaltic-andesites along fractional crystallisation trends from parental basalt to andesite compositions. Results for mineral geobarometry on the inclusions suggest a crystallisation history for the plutonic inclusions and the recent and historic Merapi magmas that spans the full depth of the crust, indicating a multi-chamber magma system with high amounts of semi-molten crystalline mush. There, crystallisation, crystal accumulation, magma mixing and mafic recharge take place. Comparison of the barometric results with whole rock Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope data for the inclusions suggests input of crustal material as magma ascends from depth, with a significant late addition of sedimentary material from the uppermost crust. The type of multi-chamber plumbing system envisaged contains large portions of crystal mush and provides ample opportunity to recycle the magmatic crystalline roots as well as interact with the surrounding host lithologies.

  • 8.
    Dahrén, Börje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Andersson, Ulf B.
    Chadwick, Jane P.
    Gardner, Mairi F.
    Jaxybulatov, Kairly
    Koulakov, Ivan
    Magma plumbing beneath Anak Krakatau volcano, Indonesia: evidence for multiple magma storage regions2012In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 163, no 4, 631-651 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding magma plumbing is essential for predicting the behaviour of explosive volcanoes. We investigate magma plumbing at the highly active Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), situated on the rim of the 1883 Krakatau caldera by employing a suite of thermobarometric models. These include clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry, clinopyroxene composition barometry and olivine-melt thermometry. Petrological studies have previously identified shallow magma storage in the region of 2–8 km beneath Krakatau, while existing seismic evidence points towards mid- to deep-crustal storage zone(s), at 9 and 22 km, respectively. Our results show that clinopyroxene in Anak Krakatau lavas crystallized at a depth of 7–12 km, while plagioclase records both shallow crustal (3–7 km) and sub-Moho (23–28 km) levels of crystallization. These magma storage regions coincide with well-constrained major lithological boundaries in the crust, implying that magma ascent and storage at Anak Krakatau is strongly controlled by crustal properties. A tandem seismic tomography survey independently identified a separate upper crustal (<7 km) and a lower to mid-crustal magma storage region (>7 km). Both petrological and seismic methods are sensitive in detecting magma bodies in the crust, but suffer from various limitations. Combined geophysical and petrological surveys, in turn, offer increased potential for a comprehensive characterization of magma plumbing at active volcanic complexes.

  • 9.
    Högdahl, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Majka, Jaroslaw
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Sjöström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Persson Nilsson, Katarina
    Geol Survey Sweden, S-75328 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Claesson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Lab Isotope Geol, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Konecny, Patrik
    Geol Survey Slovak Republ, Bratislava 81704, Slovakia.
    Reactive monazite and robust zircon growth in diatexitesand leucogranites from a hot, slowly cooled orogen: implicationsfor the Palaeoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the central Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden2012In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 163, no 1, 167-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monazite in melt-producing, poly-metamorphic terranes can grow, dissolve or reprecipitate at different stages during orogenic evolution particularly in hot, slowly cooling orogens such as the Svecofennian. Owing to the high heat flow in such orogens, small variations in pressure, temperature or deformation intensity may promote a mineral reaction. Monazite in diatexites and leucogranites from two Svecofennian domains yields older, coeval and younger U–Pb SIMS and EMP ages than zircon from the same rock. As zircon precipitated during the melt-bearing stage, its U–Pb ages reflect the timing of peak metamorphism, which is associated with partial melting and leucogranite formation. In one of the domains, the Granite and Diatexite Belt, zircon ages range between 1.87 and 1.86 Ga, whereas monazite yields two distinct double peaks at 1.87–1.86 and 1.82–1.80 Ga. The younger double peak is related to monazite growth or reprecipitation during subsolidus conditions associated with deformation along late-orogenic shear zones. Magmatic monazite in leucogranite records systematic variations in composition and age during growth that can be directly linked to Th/U ratios and preferential growth sites of zircon, reflecting the transition from melt to melt crystallisation of the magma. In the adjacent Ljusdal Domain, peak metamorphism in amphibolite facies occurred at 1.83–1.82 Ga as given by both zircon and monazite chronology. Pre-partial melting, 1.85 Ga contact metamorphic monazite is preserved, in spite of the high-grade overprint. By combining structural analysis, petrography and monazite and zircon geochronology, a metamorphic terrane boundary has been identified. It is concluded that the boundary formed by crustal shortening accommodated by major thrusting.

  • 10.
    Jeffery, Adam J.
    et al.
    School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, UK.
    Gertisser, Ralf
    School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, UK.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Jolis, Ester M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Dahrén, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Harris, Chris
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Tindle, Andrew G.
    CEPSAR (Centre for Earth, Planetary, Space and Astronomy Research), The Open University, UK.
    Preece, Katie
    University of East Anglia.
    O'Driscoll, Brain
    Humaida, Hanik
    Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi, Indonesia.
    Chadwick, Jane P.
    Science Gallery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin.
    The pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 2007–2008 dome-forming eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, Indonesia2013In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 166, no 1, 275-308 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kelut volcano, East Java, is an active volcanic complex hosting a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia’s most destructive lahars. In November 2007, an effusive eruption lasting approximately 7 months led to the formation of a 260-m-high and 400-m-wide lava dome that displaced most of the crater lake. The 2007–2008 Kelut dome comprises crystal-rich basaltic andesite with a texturally complex crystal cargo of strongly zoned and in part resorbed plagioclase (An47–94), orthopyroxene (En64–72, Fs24–32, Wo2–4), clinopyroxene (En40–48, Fs14–19, Wo34–46), Ti-magnetite (Usp16–34) and trace amounts of apatite, as well as ubiquitous glomerocrysts of varying magmatic mineral assemblages. In addition, the notable occurrence of magmatic and crustal xenoliths (meta-basalts, amphibole-bearing cumulates, and skarn-type calc-silicates and meta-volcaniclastic rocks) is a distinct feature of the dome. New petrographical, whole rock major and trace element data, mineral chemistry as well as oxygen isotope data for both whole rocks and minerals indicate a complex regime of magma-mixing, decompression-driven resorption, degassing and crystallisation and crustal assimilation within the Kelut plumbing system prior to extrusion of the dome. Detailed investigation of plagioclase textures alongside crystal size distribution analyses provide evidence for magma mixing as a major pre-eruptive process that blends multiple crystal cargoes together. Distinct magma storage zones are postulated, with a deeper zone at lower crustal levels or near the crust-mantle boundary (>15 km depth), a second zone at mid-crustal levels (~10 km depth) and several magma storage zones distributed throughout the uppermost crust (<10 km depth). Plagioclase-melt and amphibole hygrometry indicate magmatic H2O contents ranging from ~8.1 to 8.6 wt.% in the lower crustal system to ~1.5 to 3.3 wt.% in the mid to upper crust. Pyroxene and plagioclase δ18O values range from 5.4 to 6.7 ‰, and 6.5 to 7.6 ‰, respectively. A single whole rock analysis of the 2007–2008 dome lava gave a δ18O value of 7.6 ‰, whereas meta-basaltic and calc-silicate xenoliths are characterised by δ18O values of 6.2 and 10.3 ‰, respectively. Magmatic δ18O values calculated from individual pyroxene and plagioclase analyses range from 5.7 to 7.0 ‰, and 6.2 to 7.4 ‰, respectively. This range in O-isotopic compositions is explained by crystallisation of pyroxenes in the lower to mid-crust, where crustal contamination is either absent or masked by assimilation of material having similar δ18O values to the ascending melts. This population is mixed with isotopically distinct plagioclase and pyroxenes that crystallised from a more contaminated magma in the upper crustal system. Binary bulk mixing models suggest that shallow-level, recycled volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks together with calc-silicates and/or limestones are the most likely contaminants of the 2007–2008 Kelut magma, with the volcaniclastic sediments being dominant.

  • 11.
    Jolis, Ester Muñoz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Freda, C.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Deegan, Frances M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Blythe, Lara S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    McLeod, C. L.
    Davidson, J. P.
    Experimental simulation of magma-carbonate interaction beneath Mt. Vesuvius, Italy2013In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 166, no 5, 1335-1353 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We simulated the process of magma-carbonate interaction beneath Mt. Vesuvius in short duration piston-cylinder experiments under controlled magmatic conditions (from 0 to 300 s at 0.5 GPa and 1,200 A degrees C), using a Vesuvius shoshonite composition and upper crustal limestone and dolostone as starting materials. Backscattered electron images and chemical analysis (major and trace elements and Sr isotopes) of sequential experimental products allow us to identify the textural and chemical evolution of carbonated products during the assimilation process. We demonstrate that melt-carbonate interaction can be extremely fast (minutes), and results in dynamic contamination of the host melt with respect to Ca, Mg and Sr-87/Sr-86, coupled with intense CO2 vesiculation at the melt-carbonate interface. Binary mixing between carbonate and uncontaminated melt cannot explain the geochemical variations of the experimental charges in full and convection and diffusion likely also operated in the charges. Physical mixing and mingling driven by exsolving volatiles seems to be a key process to promote melt homogenisation. Our results reinforce hypotheses that magma-carbonate interaction is a relevant and ongoing process at Mt. Vesuvius and one that may operate not only on a geological, but on a human timescale.

  • 12.
    Muir, Duncan D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Blundy, Jon D.
    Hutchinson, Michael C.
    Rust, Alison C.
    Petrological imaging of an active pluton beneath Cerro Uturuncu, Bolivia2014In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 167, no 3, 980- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uturuncu is a dormant volcano in the Altiplano of SW Bolivia. A present day similar to 70 km diameter interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) anomaly roughly centred on Uturuncu's edifice is believed to be a result of magma intrusion into an active crustal pluton. Past activity at the volcano, spanning 0.89 to 0.27 Ma, is exclusively effusive and almost all lavas and domes are dacitic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, biotite, ilmenite and Ti-magnetite plus or minus quartz, and microlites of plagioclase and orthopyroxene set in rhyolitic groundmass glass. Plagioclasehosted melt inclusions (MI) are rhyolitic with major element compositions that are similar to groundmass glasses. H2O concentrations plotted versus incompatible elements for individual samples describe a trend typical of near-isobaric, volatile-saturated crystallisation. At 870 degrees C, the average magma temperature calculated from Fe-Ti oxides, the average H2O of 3.2 +/- 0.7 wt% and CO2 typically <160 ppm equate to MI trapping pressures of 50-120 MPa, approximately 2-4.5 km below surface. Such shallow storage precludes the role of dacite magma emplacement into preeruptive storage regions as being the cause of the observed InSAR anomaly. Storage pressures, whole-rock (WR) chemistry and phase assemblage are remarkably consistent across the eruptive history of the volcano, although magmatic temperatures calculated from Fe-Ti oxide geothermometry, zircon saturation thermometry using MI and orthopyroxenemelt thermometry range from 760 to 925 degrees C at NNO +/- 1 log. This large temperature range is similar to that of saturation temperatures of observed phases in experimental data on Uturuncu dacites. The variation in calculated temperatures is attributed to piecemeal construction of the active pluton by successive inputs of new magma into a growing volume of plutonic mush. Fluctuating temperatures within the mush can account for sieve-textured cores and complex zoning in plagioclase phenocrysts, resorption of quartz and biotite phenocrysts and apatite microlites. That Fe-Ti oxide temperatures vary by similar to 50-100 degrees C in a single thin section indicates that magmas were not homogenised effectively prior to eruption. Phenocryst contents do not correlate with calculated magmatic temperatures, consistent with crystal entrainment from the mush during magma ascent and eruption. Microlites grew during ascent from the magma storage region. Variability in the proportion of microlites is attributed to differing ascent and effusion rates with faster rates in general for lavas >0.5 Ma compared to those <0.5 Ma. High microlite contents of domes indicate that effusion rates were probably slowest in dome-forming eruptions. Linear trends in WR major and trace element chemistries, highly variable, bimodal mineral compositions, and the presence of mafic enclaves in lavas demonstrate that intrusion of more mafic magmas into the evolving, shallow plutonic mush also occurred further amplifying local temperature fluctuations. Crystallisation and resorption of accessory phases, particularly ilmenite and apatite, can be detected in MI and groundmass glass trace element covariation trends, which are oblique to WRs. Marked variability of Ba, Sr and La in MI can be attributed to temperature-controlled, localised crystallisation of plagioclase, orthopyroxene and biotite within the evolving mush.

  • 13.
    Peters, Stefan T. M.
    et al.
    Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum Georg August Univ t, Abt Isotopengeol, Goldschmidtstr 1, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Aard Levenswetenschappen, Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Weis, Franz A.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Geosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dallai, Luigi
    CNR, Ist Geosci & Georisorse, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa, Italy..
    Chadwick, Jane P.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Aard Levenswetenschappen, Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Trin Coll Dublin, Sci Gallery, Pearse St, Dublin, Ireland..
    Schulz, Bernhard
    TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Inst Mineral, Brennhausgasse 14, D-09599 Freiberg, Saxony, Germany..
    Amphibole megacrysts as a probe into the deep plumbing system of Merapi volcano, Central Java, Indonesia2017In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 172, no 4, 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amphibole has been discussed to potentially represent an important phase during early chemical evolution of arc magmas, but is not commonly observed in eruptive arc rocks. Here, we present an in-depth study of metastable calcic amphibole megacrysts in basaltic andesites of Merapi volcano, Indonesia. Radiogenic Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the amphibole megacrysts overlap with the host rock range, indicating that they represent antecrysts to the host magmas rather than xenocrysts. Amphibolebased barometry suggests that the megacrysts crystallised at pressures of >500 MPa, i.e., in the mid-to lower crust beneath Merapi. Rare-earth element concentrations, in turn, require the absence of magmatic garnet in the Merapi feeding system and, therefore, place an uppermost limit for the pressure of amphibole crystallisation at ca. 800 MPa. The host magmas of the megacrysts seem to have fractionated significant amounts of amphibole and/or clinopyroxene, because of their low Dy/Yb ratios relative to the estimated compositions of the parent magmas to the megacrysts. The megacrysts' parent magmas at depth may thus have evolved by amphibole fractionation, in line with apparently coupled variations of trace element ratios in the megacrysts, such as e.g., decreasing Zr/Hf with Dy/Yb. Moreover, the Th/U ratios of the amphibole megacrysts decrease with increasing Dy/Yb and are lower than Th/U ratios in the basaltic andesite host rocks. Uranium in the megacrysts' parent magmas, therefore, may have occurred predominantly in the tetravalent state, suggesting that magmatic fO(2) in the Merapi plumbing system increased from below the FMQ buffer in the mid-to-lower crust to 0.6-2.2 log units above it in the near surface environment. In addition, some of the amphibole megacrysts experienced dehydrogenation (H-2 loss) and/or dehydration (H2O loss), as recorded by their variable H2O contents and D/H and Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios, and the release of these volatile species into the shallow plumbing system may facilitate Merapi's often erratic eruptive behaviour.

  • 14. van der Zwan, Froukje M.
    et al.
    Chadwick, Jane P.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Textural history of recent basaltic-andesites and plutonic inclusions from Merapi volcano2013In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 166, no 1, 43-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mt. Merapi in Central Java is one of the most active stratovolcanoes on Earth and is underlain by a multistage plumbing system. Crystal size distribution analyses (CSD) were carried out on recent Merapi basaltic-andesites and co-eruptive magmatic and plutonic inclusions to characterise the crystallisation processes that operate during storage and ascent and to obtain information on respective time scales. The basaltic-andesites exhibit log-linear, kinked-upwards CSD curves for plagioclase and clinopyroxene that can be separated into two main textural populations. Large plagioclase phenocrysts (a parts per thousand yen1.6 mm) make up one population, but correspond to crystals with variable geochemical composition and reflect a period of crystal growth at deep to mid-crustal levels. This population was subsequently influenced by crystal accumulation and the onset of crustal assimilation, including the incorporation of high-Ca skarn-derived xenocrysts. Textural re-equilibration is required for these crystals to form a single population in CSD. A second episode of crystal growth at shallower levels is represented by chemically homogenous plagioclase crystals < 1.6 mm in size. Crustal assimilation is indicated by, for example, oxygen isotopes and based on the CSD data, crystallisation combined with contamination is likely semi-continuous in these upper crustal storage chambers. The CSD data observed in the basaltic-andesite samples are remarkably consistent and require a large-volume steady state magmatic system beneath Merapi in which late textural equilibration plays a significant role. Plagioclase CSDs of co-eruptive magmatic and plutonic inclusions may contain a third crystal population (< 1 mm) not found in the lavas. This third population has probably formed from enhanced degassing of portions of basaltic-andesite magma at shallow crustal levels which resulted in increased crystallinity and basaltic-andesite mush inclusions. A suite of coarse plutonic inclusions is also present that reflects crystallisation and accumulation of crystals in the deep Merapi plumbing system, as deduced from CSD patterns and mineral assemblages.

  • 15.
    Wiesmaier, Sebastian
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Trinity College Dublin, 2 College Green, Dublin 2, Ireland.
    Deegan, Frances M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Troll, Valentin R
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Carracedo, Juan Carlos
    Estación Volcanológica de Canarias, IPNA-CSIC, Av. Astrofísica Francisco Sanchez 3, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
    Chadwick, Jane P
    Department of Petrology (FALW), Vrjie Universiteit, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Chew, David M
    Department of Geology, Trinity College Dublin, 2 College Green, Dublin 2, Ireland.
    Magma mixing in the 1100 AD Montaña Reventada composite lava flow, Tenerife, Canary Islands: Interaction between rift zone and central volcano plumbing systems2011In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 162, no 3, 651-669 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zoned eruption deposits commonly show a lower felsic and an upper mafic member, thought to reflect eruption from large, stratified magma chambers. In contrast, the Montaña Reventada composite flow (Tenerife) consists of a lower basanite and a much thicker upper phonolite. A sharp interface separates basanite and phonolite, and chilled margins at this contact indicate the basanite was still hot upon emplacement of the phonolite, i.e. the two magmas erupted in quick succession. Four types of mafic to intermediate inclusions are found in the phonolite. Inclusion textures comprise foamy quenched ones, others with chilled margins and yet others that are physically mingled, reflecting progressive mixing with a decreasing temperature contrast between the end-members. Analysis of basanite, phonolite and inclusions for majors, traces and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes show the inclusions to be derived from binary mixing of basanite and phonolite end-members in ratios of 2:1 to 4:1. Although, basanite and phonolite magmas were in direct contact, contrasting 206Pb/204Pb ratios show that they are genetically distinct (19.7193(21)–19.7418(31) vs. 19.7671(18)–19.7807(23), respectively). We argue that the Montaña Reventada basanite and phonolite first met just prior to eruption and had limited interaction time only. Montaña Reventada erupted from the transition zone between two plumbing systems, the phonolitic Teide-Pico Viejo complex and the basanitic Northwest rift zone. A rift zone basanite dyke most likely intersected the previously emplaced phonolite magma chamber. This led to eruption of geochemically and texturally unaffected basanite, with the inclusion-rich phonolite subsequently following into the established conduit.

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