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  • 1.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jagerbrand, Annika K.
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molau, Ulf
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether shortterm responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 2.
    Heino, Jani
    et al.
    Nat Environm Ctr, Finnish Environm Inst, Biodivers, Paavo Havaksen Tie 3, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland.
    Bini, Luis Mauricio
    Univ Fed Goias, Dept Ecol, BR-74001970 Goiania, Go, Brazil.
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Unravelling the correlates of species richness and ecological uniqueness in a metacommunity of urban pond insects2017In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 73, p. 422-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    City ponds have the potential to harbour a rich biodiversity of aquatic insects despite being located in an urban landscape. However, our current knowledge on the correlates of pond biodiversity is limited and even less is known about the factors that influence the ecological uniqueness of urban ponds. The multiple environmental gradients, at different spatial scales, that may affect biodiversity and ecological uniqueness of urban ponds can thus be seen both as an opportunity and as a challenge for a study. In this study, we aimed to fill this gap by focusing on aquatic insect assemblages in 51 ponds in the Swedish city of Stockholm, using a metacommunity perspective. We found that species richness was primarily determined by the density of aquatic insects, water depth and proportion of buildings around the pond. The uniqueness of ponds was estimated as local contributions to beta diversity (LCBD), and it was primarily related to the proportion of arable land and industry around the ponds. With regard to the metacommunity we found two interesting patterns. First, there was a negative relationship between richness and LCBD. Second, biodiversity was spatially independent, suggesting that spatially-patterned dispersal did not structure species richness or LCBD. These last two patterns are important when considering conservation efforts of biodiversity in city ponds. We hence suggest that the conservation of insect biodiversity in urban pond should consider the surroundings of the ponds, and that high-richness ponds are not necessarily those that require most attention because they are not ecologically the most unique.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Bini, L. M.
    Univ Fed Goias, Dept Ecol, BR-74001970 Goiania, Go, Brazil.
    Coiffard, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Wester, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Heino, J.
    Finnish Environm Inst, Freshwater Ctr, Paavo Havaksen Tie 3, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland.
    Environmental variables drive differences in the beta diversity of dragonfly assemblages among urban stormwater ponds2019In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 106, article id 105529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater ponds are beneficial to urban landscapes because these man-made systems can reduce the negative effects of flooding in urban areas and restrain the distribution of pollutants. In addition, these systems are especially important to maintain the biodiversity of urban landscapes. Here, we sampled a set of 18 stormwater ponds in the city of Uppsala in Sweden to test the relationship between beta diversity of adult dragonflies and environmental factors (local and land use variables). We analysed the total beta diversity and its two components: replacement and richness difference. We recorded 31 species of Odonata, comprising 61% of the Odonata species in the province of Uppland in Sweden. By itself, this result indicates the importance of stormwater ponds in contributing to biodiversity in urban areas. The richness difference component of beta diversity was higher than the replacement component. Results from generalized dissimilarly models indicated that the richness difference component was mainly related with pond area and total vegetation cover (aquatic vegetation plus vegetation surrounding ponds). Focusing on different vegetation variables separately, models indicated that the beta diversity components were significantly correlated with percentage cover of floating algae scums, emergent aquatic macrophytes and tall shore vegetation. These results are consistent with what is known about the ecology of dragonflies, including the importance of aerial plant structures for perching, shelter from terrestrial and aquatic predators, and for providing oviposition sites. We also found that the stormwater ponds harboured a large part of the regional species pool. These systems are therefore important havens of biodiversity in urban landscapes. Our results also indicate that the management of different types of vegetation is key to maximize the potential of these systems in maintaining regional biodiversity.

  • 4.
    Langhamar, Olivia
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Dahlgren, Thomas Gunnar
    Department of Marine Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Uni Research, Bergen, Norway.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Effect of an offshore wind farm on the viviparous eelpout: Biometrics, brood development and population studies in Lillgrund, Sweden2017In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 84, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sufficient, clean and secure energy is the main driver for a worldwide growing welfare and economic development of a society. Environmental concerns on the expansion of offshore renewable energy and its impact on marine organisms need to be scientifically assessed for risks and consequences. In order to observe the effects of an operating wind farm on fish, we studied the rather stationary and benthic-living fish species viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparous) as model indicator organisms. We compared local populations of viviparous eelpout in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) with natural sites in the Öresund strait in Sweden. Eelpout studies on population dynamics, biometrics, reproductive success and fry development were conducted in 2011 and 2012. Condition index, histosomatic index, gonadosomatic index were measured additionally. Our findings showed that Lillgrund OWF neither had an impact on the condition index (CI), nor on brood development of female viviparous eelpout. Furthermore, populations size estimates in Lillgrund indicated that eelpout neither specifically aggregated in nor avoided the offshore wind farm, and no clear reef effect attracting eelpout to the foundations and scour protections of the OWF was observed. Our conclusion is that the operating wind farm did not have any potentially negative effects, since we did not observe any negative effects neither on the individual health of eelpout nor of the reproductive performance. We suggest that eelpout which may also be used as an indicator species for the environmental status of Lillgrund, as well as for other offshore wind farms and marine renewable energy installations, both in the Baltic and coastal waters in northern Europe.

  • 5.
    Lou, Yanjing
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Chinese Acad Sci, Northeast Inst Geog & Agroecol, Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Environm, 4888 Shengbeida Rd, Changchun 130102, Jilin, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Ying
    Chinese Acad Sci, Chongqing Inst Green & Intelligent Technol, 266 Fangzheng Ave, Chongqing 400714, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Zhanhui
    Northeast Normal Univ, Sch Environm, 2555 Jingyue St, Changchun 130117, Jilin, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Ming
    Chinese Acad Sci, Northeast Inst Geog & Agroecol, Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Environm, 4888 Shengbeida Rd, Changchun 130102, Jilin, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Xianguo
    Chinese Acad Sci, Northeast Inst Geog & Agroecol, Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Environm, 4888 Shengbeida Rd, Changchun 130102, Jilin, Peoples R China.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Testing unidimensional species distribution models to forecast and hindcast changes in marsh vegetation over 40 years2019In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 104, p. 341-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species distribution models (SDM) predicting changes in species occurrences and abundance are increasingly being used as a tool in biogeography and conservation biology. However, we have little information on their predictive performance. Here we used archive-recorded predictor and field-observational verifier data associated with water level to evaluate the performance of response curves over 40 years for marsh plant species in Northeast China. A consensus approach (AUC: area-under-curve) was used as the test measure for internal evaluation and external evaluation (forecast and hindcast). Our results demonstrated that there is no significant differences between internal and external evaluation, and they both showed reasonable accuracy (AUC=0.73, respectively). There was considerable variation across species and projection direction in model accuracy, and accuracy of model fitting in internal evaluation and restricting the environmental range of data in different time periods may impact the performance of model projection over time. The performance of generalized additive models (GAM) is similar with that of extended Huisman-Olff-Fresco models (eHOF). Cover model is a little better than presence/absence models in prediction over time. Our findings provide some guidelines for the use of SDM for predictions under environmental change.

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