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  • 1.
    Hartig, Terry
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Kaiser, Florian
    Strumse, Emil
    Psychological restoration in nature as a source of motivation for ecological behaviour2007In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People may behave in environmentally friendly ways because they gain psychologically from their experiences in natural environments. Psychological benefits of nature experience may also underlie concerns about personally harmful effects of environmental problems. Cross-sectional survey data from 1413 Norwegian adults were used to assess the relationship between use of natural environments for psychological restoration and ecological behaviour, as mediated by personal environmental concern. Mediation tests with hierarchical regression analyses provided evidence of partial mediation; the use of natural environments for restoration remained a significant predictor of ecological behaviour after the entry of environmental concern into the analysis. These associations held independently of age, gender, education, household income, size of community of upbringing, size of community of current residence and distance of current residence from an outdoor recreation area. Among sociodemographic variables, only gender had a significant association with the use of natural environments for restoration, suggesting that their use transcends several important social categories in Norway. In short, positive experiences in natural environments may promote ecological behaviour.

  • 2.
    Ronnback, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Ingwall, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    The return of ecosystem goods and services in replanted mangrove forests: perspectives from local communities in Kenya2007In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 313-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mangroves are severely threatened ecosystems, with loss rates exceeding those of rainforests and coral reefs, stressing the need for large-scale rehabilitation programmes. Not only are ecological evaluations of such planting efforts scarce, but studies of local stakeholders' perceptions and valuation of planted areas are also virtually non-existent. This paper assesses how resource users value natural versus planted mangroves and how they perceive plantation initiatives. Semi-structured interviews with 48 resource users from two Kenyan villages show marked mangrove dependence. Respondents identified 24 ecosystem goods, and ranked a variety of food items, traditional medicine, fuel and construction materials as very important resources. Natural mangroves (11.1 +/- 2.5) were rated more highly than plantations (4.8 +/- 2.7) in terms of the number and quality of products, except for mangrove poles. Nine ecosystem services were acknowledged, with significant differences between natural (5.2 +/- 1.1) and planted (4.1 +/- 1.6) mangroves. Most respondents (71%) were positive towards the plantations, and negative attitudes were entirely based on the perception of limited information given to the community prior to planting. Multivariate analyses show distinct patterns among user groups (based on gender, occupation and locality) with respect to recognized goods and services, knowledge of mangrove species and plantations, and attitudes towards threats, community management and existing plantations. Homogeneity of responses within defined user groups accounts for these patterns. Perspectives of local users were analysed in relation to information from interviews with six managers and researchers responsible for existing plantations, as well as scientific studies on the return of ecosystem functions in planted mangroves of the area. Findings are discussed in the context of ecological knowledge, learning within social groups, village setting and history, and primary economic activity. Communication of plantation goals may be fundamental to project success and sustainability, and community participation should take into account the heterogeneous nature of stakeholder groups, in terms of perceptions and valuations of ecosystem goods and services, to avoid conflicts in future plantation use.

  • 3.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Troell, Max
    Zetterström, Tove
    Babu, Dangeti E.
    Mangrove dependence and socio-economic concerns in shrimp hatcheries of Andhra Pradesh, India2003In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 30, p. 344-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many environmental and socio-economic concerns about the shrimp aquaculture industry. This study, based on interviews, direct observations and literature reviews, shows that the Indian hatchery industry is heavily dependent upon the continuous support of natural resources and ecosystem services generated by marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. The mangrove ecosystem support area (‘ecological footprint’) needed to supply the hatcheries with Penaeus monodon shrimp broodstock, and the aquaculture grow-out ponds with postlarvae, exem- plify the dependence on external ecosystems. Each hectare of mangrove in the Godavari River delta generated an annual fisheries catch of 0.8–1.5 P. monodon spawners (gravid females), valued at US$ 92–184. The entire Godavari mangrove delta had a partial gross economic value of US$ 3.0–6.0 million per year for the provision of shrimp spawners alone. The average hatchery, producing 75 million postlarvae annually, had an ecological footprint of 534 ha mangrove for the life-support input of shrimp spawners. The ecological footprint of intensive shrimp ponds was up to 11 times the pond area for postlarval input alone. The shrimp ponds in the State of Andhra Pradesh needed 35,000–138,000 ha of mangroves to satisfy the spawner requirement to hatcheries, and this implied a need to appropriate mangroves in other regions. Hatcheries were prepared to pay up to US$ 2000 for a single shrimp spawner, which also illustrated that the mangrove support areas regionally available were too small. Other concerns about the industry are the net loss of employment if hatcheries replace wild postlarvae collection, the extensive use of groundwater creating direct resource-use conflicts, bycatch problems in broodstock fisheries, and pollution by effluents. The risk of hatcheries introducing, ampli- fying and propagating disease affecting both cultured organisms and wild biota is another concern that can, and should, be addressed.

  • 4.
    Warren-Rhodes, Kimberly
    et al.
    The WorldFish Center-Solomon Islands.
    Schwarz, Anne-Maree
    The WorldFish Center-Solomon Islands.
    NG Boyle, Linda
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Alberta, Joelle
    The WorldFish Center-Solomon Islands.
    Suti Agaloa, Stephen
    National Resource Development Conservation, Solomon Islands.
    Warren, Regon
    The WorldFish Center-Solomon Islands.
    Bana, Andrew
    Western Province Government, Solomon Islands.
    Paul, Chris
    The WorldFish Center-Solomon Islands.
    Kodosiku, Ringo
    National Resource Development Conservation, Solomon Islands.
    Bosma, Wilko
    National Resource Development Conservation, Solomon Islands.
    Yee, Douglas
    Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology, Honiara, Solomon Islands.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Gotland University, SWEDESD, Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Duke, Norm
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Mangrove ecosystem services and the potential for carbon revenue programmes in the Solomon Island2011In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 38, p. 485-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mangroves are an imperilled biome whose protection and restoration through payments for ecosystem services (PES) can contribute to improved livelihoods, climate mitigation and adaptation. Interviews with resource users in three Solomon Islands villages suggest a strong reliance upon mangrove goods for subsistence and cash, particularly for firewood, food and building materials. Village-derived economic data indicates a minimum annual subsistence value from mangroves of US$ 345–1501 per household. Fish and nursery habitat and storm protection were widely recognized and highly valued mangrove ecosystem services. All villagers agreed that mangroves were under threat, with firewood overharvesting considered the primary cause. Multivariate analyses revealed village affiliation and religious denomination as the most important factors determining the use and importance of mangrove goods. These factors, together with gender, affected users’ awareness of ecosystem services. The importance placed on mangrove services did not differ significantly by village, religious denomination, gender, age, income, education or occupation. Mangrove ecosystem surveys are useful as tools for raising community awareness and input prior to design of PES systems. Land tenure and marine property rights, and how this complexity may both complicate and facilitate potential carbon credit programmes in the Pacific, are discussed.

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