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  • 1. Addor, Nans
    et al.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bias correction for hydrological impact studies: beyond the daily perspective2014In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 28, no 17, p. 4823-4828Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2. Ali, Genevieve
    et al.
    Tetzlaff, Doerthe
    McDonnell, Jeffrey J.
    Soulsby, Chris
    Carey, Sean
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    McGuire, Kevin
    Buttle, Jim
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shanley, Jamie
    Comparison of threshold hydrologic response across northern catchments2015In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 29, no 16, p. 3575-3591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nine mid-latitude to high-latitude headwater catchments - part of the Northern Watershed Ecosystem Response to Climate Change (North-Watch) programme - were used to analyze threshold response to rainfall and snowmelt-driven events and link the different responses to the catchment characteristics of the nine sites. The North-Watch data include daily time-series of various lengths of multiple variables such as air temperature, precipitation and discharge. Rainfall and meltwater inputs were differentiated using a degree-day snowmelt approach. Distinct hydrological events were identified, and precipitation-runoff response curves were visually assessed. Results showed that eight of nine catchments showed runoff initiation thresholds and effective precipitation input thresholds. For rainfall-triggered events, catchment hydroclimatic and physical characteristics (e.g. mean annual air temperature, median flow path distance to the stream, median sub-catchment area) were strong predictors of threshold strength. For snowmelt-driven events, however, thresholds and the factors controlling precipitation-runoff response were difficult to identify. The variability in catchments responses to snowmelt was not fully explained by runoff initiation thresholds and input magnitude thresholds. The quantification of input intensity thresholds (e.g. snow melting and permafrost thawing rates) is likely required for an adequate characterization of nonlinear spring runoff generation in such northern environments.

  • 3.
    Ameli, A. A.
    et al.
    Univ Western Ontario, Dept Biol, Biol & Geol Sci Bldg, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada.;Univ Saskatchewan, Global Inst Water Secur, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci Air Water & Landscape Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    McDonnell, J. J.
    Univ Saskatchewan, Global Inst Water Secur, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.;Univ Aberdeen, Sch Geosci, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    The exponential decline in saturated hydraulic conductivity with depth: a novel method for exploring its effect on water flow paths and transit time distribution2016In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 30, no 14, p. 2438-2450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strong vertical gradient in soil and subsoil saturated hydraulic conductivity is characteristic feature of the hydrology of catchments. Despite the potential importance of these strong gradients, they have proven difficult to model using robust physically based schemes. This has hampered the testing of hypotheses about the implications of such vertical gradients for subsurface flow paths, residence times and transit time distribution. Here we present a general semi-analytical solution for the simulation of 2D steady-state saturated-unsaturated flow in hillslopes with saturated hydraulic conductivity that declines exponentially with depth. The grid-free solution satisfies mass balance exactly over the entire saturated and unsaturated zones. The new method provides continuous solutions for head, flow and velocity in both saturated and unsaturated zones without any interpolation process as is common in discrete numerical schemes. This solution efficiently generates flow pathlines and transit time distributions in hillslopes with the assumption of depth-varying saturated hydraulic conductivity. The model outputs reveal the pronounced effect that changing the strength of the exponential decline in saturated hydraulic conductivity has on the flow pathlines, residence time and transit time distribution. This new steady-state model may be useful to others for posing hypotheses about how different depth functions for hydraulic conductivity influence catchment hydrological response.

  • 4.
    Amvrosiadi, Nino
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Seibert, Jan
    Grabs, Thomas
    Bishop, Kevin
    Water storage dynamics in a till hillslope: the foundation for modeling flows and turnover times2016In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 4-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Aronica, Giuseppe T.
    et al.
    Apel, Heiko
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Schumann, Guy J-P.
    HP - Special Issue on Flood Risk and Uncertainty2013In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 1291-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Beldring, Stein
    et al.
    Gottschalk, Lars
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Tallaksen, Lena M.
    Kinematic wave approximations to hillslope hydrological processes in tills2000In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 727-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been carried out within the framework of NOPEX - a NOrthern hemisphere climate Processes land surface EXperiment. Its purpose is to describe the spatial variability of groundwater levels and soil moisture content and their influence on runoff generation in small catchments in a landscape dominated by boreal forest and till soils, which is characteristic for the Nordic countries. Kinematic wave approximations have been used to describe saturated subsurface flow and saturation overland flow in hillslopes with a thin soil layer overlying a relatively impermeable bedrock. Simultaneous analyses of catchment runoff, groundwater-table depths and soil moisture in the unsaturated zone have been performed by including the kinematic wave descriptions in a precipitation-runoff model. The results have been compared with observed hydrographs and spatial patterns of groundwater levels and soil moisture content in two small experimental catchments. Results from this study indicate that is reasonable to apply the same parameter set when describing hydrological processes in computational elements with similar characteristics at a scale of about 1 km(2) in the NOPEX area. 

  • 7.
    Beven, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster, England..
    Advice to a young hydrologist2016In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 30, no 20, p. 3578-3582Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Beven, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    I believe in climate change but how precautionary do we need to be in planning for the future?2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1517-1520Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Beven, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    On doing better hydrological science2008In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 22, no 17, p. 3549-3553Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Beven, Keith
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.
    On undermining the science?2006In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 20, no 14, p. 3141-3146Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Beven, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Preferential flows and travel time distributions: defining adequate hypothesis tests for hydrological process models2010In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1537-1547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the second annual review issue of Hydrological Processes tries to put the collection of papers on preferential flows and travel time distributions into a more general context of testing models as hypotheses about how catchment systems function. It is suggested that, because of the possibilities of non-stationary and epistemic errors in both data and models, such tests could be carried out within a rejectionist limits-of-acceptability framework. The principles and difficulties of hypothesis testing within these particular research areas are discussed. An important point to take from this discussion is that the use of a formal testing framework, and the consequent rejection of models as hypotheses after allowing for uncertainties in the data, is the starting point for developing better theories and data sets. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 12.
    Beven, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    So how much of your error is epistemic? Lessons from Japan and Italy2013In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 1677-1680Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Beven, Keith
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Buytaert, Wouter
    Smith, Leonard A.
    On virtual observatories and modelled realities: (or why discharge must be treated as a virtual variable)2012In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 1905-1908Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Beven, Keith
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England.;Univ Lausanne, IDYST, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Davies, Jess
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England..
    Velocities, celerities and the basin of attraction in catchment response2015In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 29, no 25, p. 5214-5226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catchment systems are interestingly nonlinear, but their dynamics are constrained from being unduly chaotic by mass and energy balance requirements. There have been no attempts in hydrology that we know of that have tried to map both the flow and transport dynamics of a catchment in any form of phase space. In part, this is because of the high dimensionality of the space-time patterns of response; in part because there is sufficient uncertainty about the input and output fluxes estimated by measurement that this might be expected to obscure any attractor-like behaviour. In this study we explore the basin of the catchment attractor for the Multiple Interacting Pathway (MIPs) model that in previous papers has been shown to give good results for the small Gardsjon catchment in Sweden. MIPs is based on particle tracking techniques and gives results for both the flow responses and for the travel and residence time responses of water in the catchment. Here it is used to provide consistent values of fluxes, total storage, travel time distributions and residence time distributions for a long simulation period. The nature of those responses in storage and input dimensions is then investigated. The results suggest that the range of behaviours is hysteretic in interesting ways and constrained by the forcing inputs, with space filling of trajectories in the basin of attraction as should be expected of a forced dissipative system. The range of behaviours exhibited defines a space that the responses of any simpler emulator model will need to span.

  • 15.
    Beven, Keith J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Binley, Andrew
    GLUE: 20 years on2014In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 28, no 24, p. 5897-5918Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the use of the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology in the 20 years since the paper by Beven and Binley in Hydrological Processes in (1992), which is now one of the most highly cited papers in hydrology. The original conception, the on-going controversy it has generated, the nature of different sources of uncertainty and the meaning of the GLUE prediction uncertainty bounds are discussed. The hydrological, rather than statistical, arguments about the nature of model and data errors and uncertainties that are the basis for GLUE are emphasized. The application of the Institute of Hydrology distributed model to the Gwy catchment at Plynlimon presented in the original paper is revisited, using a larger sample of models, a wider range of likelihood evaluations and new visualization techniques. It is concluded that there are good reasons to reject this model for that data set. This is a positive result in a research environment in that it requires improved models or data to be made available. In practice, there may be ethical issues of using outputs from models for which there is evidence for model rejection in decision making. Finally, some suggestions for what is needed in the next 20 years are provided.

  • 16.
    Beven, Keith
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Westerberg, Ida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    On red herrings and real herrings: disinformation and information in hydrological inference2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 1676-1680Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    A primer for hydrology: the beguiling simplicity of Water's journey from rain to stream at 30 Preface2015In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 29, no 16, p. 3443-3446Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water's journey from rain to stream by Harald Grip and Allan Rodhe (1985, in Swedish: Vattnets vag fran regn till back) was one of the first textbooks to present groundwater contributions as a major feature of runoff generation, with implications for water quality and management. Three decades later, we have the privilege of presenting a special issue of Hydrological Processes, Runoff Generation in a Nordic Light: 30Years with Water's Journey from Rain to Stream' that seeks to introduce the book to a larger audience and continue the journey of ideas that the authors set in motion with their book.

  • 18.
    Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Water storage in a till catchment. II: Implications of transmissivity feedback for flow paths and turnover times2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 25, p. 3950-3959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the flow paths and turnover times within a catchment characterized by the transmissivity feedback mechanism where there is a strong increase in the saturated hydraulic conductivity towards the soil surface and precipitation inputs saturate progressively more superficial layers of the soil profile. The analysis is facilitated by the correlation between catchment water storage and groundwater levels, which made it possible to model the daily spatial distribution of water storage, both vertically in different soil horizons and horizontally across a 6300-m2 till catchment. Soil properties and episodic precipitation input dynamics, combined with the influence of topographic features, concentrate flow in the horizontal, vertical, and temporal dimensions. Within the soil profile, there was a vertical concentration of lateral flow to superficial soil horizons (upper 30?cm of the soil), where much of the annual flow occurred during runoff episodes. Overland flow from a limited portion of the catchment can contribute to peak flows but is not a necessary condition for runoff episodes. The spatial concentration of flow, and the episodic nature of runoff events, resulted in a strong and spatially structured differentiation of local flow velocities within the catchment. There were large differences in the time spent by the laterally flowing water at different depths, with turnover times of lateral flow across a 1-m-wide soil pedon ranging from under 1?h at 10- to 20-cm depth to a month at 70- to 80-cm depth. In many regards, the hydrology of this catchment appears typical of the hydrology in till soils, which are widespread in Fenno-Scandia.

  • 19. Carey, Sean K.
    et al.
    Tetzlaff, Doerthe
    Seibert, J.
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Soulsby, Chris
    Buttle, Jim
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    McDonnell, Jeff
    McGuire, Kevin
    Caissie, Daniel
    Shanley, Jamie
    Kennedy, Mike
    Devito, Kevin
    Pomeroy, John W.
    Inter-comparison of hydro-climatic regimes across northern catchments: synchronicity, resistance and resilience2010In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, no 24, p. 3591-3602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The higher mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are particularly sensitive to climate change as small differences in temperature determine frozen ground status, precipitation phase, and the magnitude and timing of snow accumulation and melt. An international inter-catchment comparison program, North-Watch, seeks to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of northern catchments to climate change by examining their hydrological and biogeochemical responses. The catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the United States (Sleepers River, Hubbard Brook and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). This briefing presents the initial stage of the North-Watch program, which focuses on how these catchments collect, store and release water and identify 'types' of hydro-climatic catchment response. At most sites, a 10-year data of daily precipitation, discharge and temperature were compiled and evaporation and storage were calculated. Inter-annual and seasonal patterns of hydrological processes were assessed via normalized fluxes and standard flow metrics. At the annual-scale, relations between temperature, precipitation and discharge were compared, highlighting the role of seasonality, wetness and snow/frozen ground. The seasonal pattern and synchronicity of fluxes at the monthly scale provided insight into system memory and the role of storage. We identified types of catchments that rapidly translate precipitation into runoff and others that more readily store water for delayed release. Synchronicity and variance of rainfall-runoff patterns were characterized by the coefficient of variation (cv) of monthly fluxes and correlation coefficients. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed clustering among like catchments in terms of functioning, largely controlled by two components that (i) reflect temperature and precipitation gradients and the correlation of monthly precipitation and discharge and (ii) the seasonality of precipitation and storage. By advancing the ecological concepts of resistance and resilience for catchment functioning, results provided a conceptual framework for understanding susceptibility to hydrological change across northern catchments. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 20. Chen, X.
    et al.
    Chen, Y.D.
    Xu, Chong-yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    A distributed monthly hydrological model for integrating spatial variations of basin topography and rainfall2007In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 242-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrological models at a monthly time-scale are important tools for hydrological analysis, such as in impact assessment of climate change and regional water resources planning. Traditionally, monthly models adopt a conceptual, lumped-parameter approach and cannot account for spatial variations of basin characteristics and climatic inputs. A large requirement for data often severely limits the utility of physically based, distributed-parameter models. Based on the variable-source-area concept, we considered basin topography and rainfall to be two major factors whose spatial variations play a dominant role in runoff generation and developed a monthly model that is able to account for their influences in the spatial and temporal dynamics of water balance. As a hybrid of the Xinanjiang model and TOPMODEL, the new model is constructed by innovatively making use of the highly acclaimed simulation techniques in the two existing models. A major contribution of this model development study is to adopt the technique of implicit representation of soil moisture characteristics in the Xinanjiang model and use the TOPMODEL concept to integrate terrain variations into runoff simulation. Specifically, the TOPMODEL topographic index ln(a/tan) is converted into an index of relative difficulty in runoff generation (IRDG) and then the cumulative frequency distribution of IRDG is used to substitute the parabolic curve, which represents the spatial variation of soil storage capacity in the Xinanjiang model. Digital elevation model data play a key role in the modelling procedures on a geographical information system platform, including basin segmentation, estimation of rainfall for each sub-basin and computation of terrain characteristics. Other monthly data for model calibration and validation are rainfall, pan evaporation and runoff. The new model has only three parameters to be estimated, i.e. watershed-average field capacity WM, pan coefficient and runoff generation coefficient . Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that runoff is least sensitive to WM and, therefore, it can be determined by a prior estimation based on the climate and soil properties of the study basin. The other two parameters can be determined using optimization methods. Model testing was carried out in a number of nested sub-basins of two watersheds (Yuanjiang River and Dongjiang River) in the humid region in central and southern China. Simulation results show that the model is capable of describing spatial and temporal variations of water balance components, including soil moisture content, evapotranspiration and runoff, over the watershed. With a minimal requirement for input data and parameterization, this terrain-based distributed model is a valuable contribution to the ever-advancing technology of hydrological modelling.

  • 21. Chen, Xi
    et al.
    Cheng, Qinbo
    Chen, Yongqin David
    Smettem, Keith
    Xu, Chong-Yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Simulating the integrated effects of topography and soil properties on runoff generation in hilly forested catchments, South China2010In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 714-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of runoff components associated with catchment topography and soil properties is critical for planning water resources utilization and evaluating hydrological changes due to artificially induced land surface manipulation. In this study, the modified TOPMODEL by Scanlon et al. (2000) was applied to simulate runoff-generating processes and to separate runoff components in two hilly forested catchments within the Dongjiang Basin of Southeast China. The modified TOPMODEL was improved by integrating an evapotranspiration package with the model algorithms. Influences of catchment topography and soil properties on runoff generation were analysed on the basis of explicit expression of catchment field capacity distribution derived from the topographic index and catchment average field capacity. Study results demonstrate that the model is capable of simulating hydrological processes and separate hydrological components in both hourly and daily time steps. Total runoff generation primarily depends on the effective storage capacity of unsaturated zone. A 50% decrease of the effective storage capacity from 0.22 to 0.11 m over the soil zone leads to a 6.6% increase in total runoff. Topography plays a dominant role in formation of runoff components. When the catchment mean slope increases by 87%, subsurface storm flow could increase by 50% whilst overland flow decreases by 7.5% and baseflow by 6.7%. Vertical changes of soil permeability influence runoff components as well. Decrease of the lower layer hydraulic transmissivity may result in 2-3% increase of overland flow and subsurface storm flow and 5% decrease of baseflow.

  • 22. Davies, Jessica A. C.
    et al.
    Beven, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hysteresis and scale in catchment storage, flow and transport2015In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 29, no 16, p. 3604-3615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The closure problem of representing hydrological boundary fluxes given the state of the system has been described as the scientific Holy Grail' of hydrology. This relationship between storage state and flux should be hysteretic and scale dependent because of the differences between velocities and celerities in a hydrological systemeffectively velocities are storage controlled, and celerities are controlled by storage deficits. To improve our understanding of the nature of these relationships a new hydrology model is used (the Multiple Interacting Pathways or MIPs model) to explore the influence of catchment scale on storage-flow-transport relationships, and their non-linearities. The MIPs model has been shown to produce acceptable simulations of both flow and tracer, i.e. of both celerities and velocities, at the Gardsjon catchment in Sweden. In this study the model is used to simulate scaled versions of the Gardsjon catchment to allow us for the first time to investigate the influence of scale on the non-linearities in storage-flow-transport relationships, and help us steer the quest for the scientific hydrological Holy Grail'. The simulations reveal the influence of scale on flow response in the nature of storage-discharge hysteresis and its links with antecedent storage; fractal-like systematic change of mean output travel times with scale; the effect of scale on input, output and storage residence time distributions; hysteric relations between storage and output travel times and links between storage and water table level hysteresis. (c) 2015 The Authors. Hydrological Processes published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 23. Davies, Jessica
    et al.
    Beven, Keith J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    A discrete particle representation of hillslope hydrology: hypothesis testing in reproducing a tracer experiment at Gardsjon, Sweden2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 23, p. 3602-3612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the long history of the continuum equation approach in hydrology, it is not a necessary approach to the formulation of a physically based representation of hillslope hydrology. The Multiple Interacting Pathways ( MIPs) model is a discrete realization that allows hillslope response and transport to be simultaneously explored in a way that reflects the potential occurrence of preferential flows and lengths of pathways. The MIPs model uses random particle tracking methods to represent the flow of water within the subsurface alongside velocity distributions that acknowledge preferential flows and transition probability matrices, which control flow pathways. An initial realization of this model is presented here in application to a tracer experiment carried out in Gardsjon, Sweden. The model is used as an exploratory tool, testing several hypotheses in relation to this experiment.

  • 24. de Woul, Mattias
    et al.
    Hock, Regine
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Braun, Matthias
    Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn
    Jóhannesson, Tomas
    Firn layer impact on glacial runoff: a case study at Hofsjökull, Iceland2006In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 20, no 10, p. 2171-2185Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    et al.
    School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Road, Bristol BS8 1SS, U.
    SCHUMANN, G
    BATES, P
    Near real time satellite imagery to support and verify timely flood modelling2009In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 799-803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates the capability of coarse resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to support flood inundation models. A hydraulic model of a 98-km reach of the River Po (Northern Italy) was calibrated on the October 2000 high-magnitude flood event with extensive and high-quality field data. During the June 2008, low-magnitude flood event a SAR image was acquired and processed in near real time (NRT) in order to provide adequate data for quick verification and recalibration of the hydraulic model.

  • 26.
    Divine, Dmitri V.
    et al.
    Tromsö universitet.
    Sjolte, J
    Isaksson, E
    Meijer, H. A. J.
    van de Wal, R. S. W.
    Martma, T
    Pohjola, Veijo A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sturm, C
    Godtliebsen, F
    Modeling the regional climate and isotopic composition of Svalbard precipitation using REMOiso model: a comparison with available GNIP and ice core data2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 24, p. 3748-3759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulations of a regional (approx. 50 km resolution) circulation model REMOiso with embedded stable water isotope module covering the period 1958-2001 are compared with the two instrumental climate and four isotope series (d18O) from western Svalbard. We examine the data from ice cores drilled on Svalbard ice caps in 1997 (Lomonosovfonna, 1250 m asl) and 2005 (Holtedahlfonna, 1150 m asl) and the GNIP series from Ny-angstrom lesund and Isfjord Radio. The surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation data from Longyearbyen and Ny-angstrom lesund are used to assess the skill of the model in reproducing the local climate. The model successfully captures the climate variations on the daily to multidecadal times scales although it tends to systematically underestimate the winter SAT. Analysis suggests that REMOiso performs better at simulating isotope compositions of precipitation in the winter than summer. The simulated and measured Holtedahlfonna d18O series agree reasonably well, whereas no significant correlation has been observed between the modelled and measured Lomonosovfonna ice core isotopic series. It is shown that sporadic nature as well as variability in the amount inherent in precipitation process potentially limits the accuracy of the past SAT reconstruction from the ice core data. This effect in the study area is, however, diminished by the role of other factors controlling d18O in precipitation, most likely sea ice extent, which is directly related with the SAT anomalies.

  • 27.
    Fischer, Benjamin M. C.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Rinderer, Michael
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Schneider, Philipp
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Ewen, Tracy
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Contributing sources to baseflow in pre-alpine headwaters using spatial snapshot sampling2015In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 29, no 26, p. 5321-5336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mountainous headwaters consist of different landscape units including forests, meadows and wetlands. In these headwaters it is unclear which landscape units contribute what percentage to baseflow. In this study, we analysed spatiotemporal differences in baseflow isotope and hydrochemistry to identify catchment-scale runoff contribution. Three baseflow snapshot sampling campaigns were performed in the Swiss pre-alpine headwater catchment of the Zckentobel (4.25 km(2)) and six of its adjacent subcatchments. The spatial and temporal variability of delta H-2, Ca, DOC, AT, pH, SO4, Mg and H4SiO4 of streamflow, groundwater and spring water samples was analysed and related to catchment area and wetland percentage using bivariate and multivariate methods. Our study found that in the six subcatchments, with variable arrangements of landscape units, the inter-and intra catchment variability of isotopic and hydrochemical compositions was small and generally not significant. Stream samples were distinctly different from shallow groundwater. An upper spring zone located near the water divide above 1,400m and a larger wetland were identified by their distinct spatial isotopic and hydrochemical composition. The upstream wetland percentage was not correlated to the hydrochemical streamflow composition, suggesting that wetlands were less connected and act as passive features with a negligible contribution to baseflow runoff. The isotopic and hydrochemical composition of baseflow changed slightly from the upper spring zone towards the subcatchment outlets and corresponded to the signature of deep groundwater. Our results confirm the need and benefits of spatially distributed snapshot sampling to derive process understanding of heterogeneous headwaters during baseflow.

  • 28.
    Gong, Lebing
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Xu, Chong-Yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Global-scale river routing-an efficient time-delay algorithm based on HydroSHEDS high-resolution hydrography2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1114-1128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coupling of global hydrologic and atmospheric models is difficult because of the highly nonlinear hydrological processes to be integrated at large scales. Aggregation of high-resolution data into low-resolution spatial distribution functions is one way to preserve information and account for the nonlinearity. We used HydroSHEDS, presently the most highly resolved (3 '') global hydrography available, to provide accurate control on global river routing through a computationally efficient algorithm. The high resolution of HydroSHEDS allowed discrimination of river-channel pixels, and time-delay distributions were calculated for all such pixels. The distributions were aggregated into network-response functions (NRFs) for each low-resolution cell using an algorithm originally developed for the 1-km-resolution HYDRO1k hydrography. The large size of HydroSHEDS required a modification in algorithm to maintain computational efficiency. The new algorithm was tested with a high-quality local and a more uncertain global weather dataset to identify whether improved routing would provide a gain when weather data quality was limiting. The routing was coupled to the WASMOD-M runoff-generation model to evaluate discharge from the Dongjiang River and the Willamette River basins. The HydroSHEDS-based routing, compared with the HYDRO1k-based routing, provided a small gain in model efficiency, for local and global weather data and for both test basins. The HydroSHEDS-based routing, contrary to the HYDRO1k-based routing, provided physically realistic wave velocities. The most stable runoff-generation parameter values were achieved when HydroSHEDS was used to derive the NRFs. Routing was computed in two steps: first, a preparatory calculation which was a one-time effort and second, the routing during each simulation. The computational efficiency was four to five orders of magnitude better for the simulation step than that for the preparatory step.

  • 29.
    Juston, John
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kauffeldt, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Quesada Montano, Beatriz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Beven, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Westerberg, Ida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Smiling in the rain: Seven reasons to be positive about uncertainty in hydrological modelling2013In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 1117-1122Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Karlsen, Reinert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Grabs, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Blomkvist, Peder
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Kevin, Bishop
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    The assumption of uniform specific discharge: unsafe at Any time?2016In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 0, no 21, p. 3978-3988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearby catchments in the same landscape are often assumed to have similar specific discharge (runoff per unit catchment area). Five years of streamflow from 14 nested catchments in a 68km(2) landscape was used to test this assumption, with the hypothesis that the spatial variability in specific discharge is smaller than the uncertainties in the measurement. The median spatial variability of specific discharge, defined as subcatchment deviation from the catchment outlet, was 33% at the daily scale. This declined to 24% at a monthly scale and 19% at an annual scale. These specific discharge differences are on the same order of magnitude as predicted for major land-use conversions or a century of climate change. Spatial variability remained when considering uncertainties in specific discharge, and systematic seasonal patterns in specific discharge variation further provide confidence that these differences are more than just errors in the analysis of catchment area, rainfall variability or gauging. Assuming similar specific discharge in nearby catchments can thus lead to spurious conclusions about the effects of disturbance on hydrological and biogeochemical processes.

  • 31. Kulasova, Alena
    et al.
    Blazkova, Sarka
    Beven, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rezacova, Daniela
    Cajthaml, Jiri
    Vegetation pattern as an indicator of saturated areas in a Czech headwater catchment2014In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 28, no 20, p. 5297-5308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To test whether models give a good description of hydrological processes, some spatial mapping of the characteristics of wetness in the catchment is needed. One way is the observation of dynamic saturated areas, which in many small catchments, will be strongly related to the generation of fast run-off. Areas that are frequently saturated are also often strongly related to vegetation types. In this contribution, we describe mapping based on the vegetation patterns in a small catchment at the foothills of the Jizera Mountains in the Czech Republic. A Monte Carlo method is used to compare the vegetation pattern with saturation mapping using a boot method, mapping based on piezometer levels, and with the pattern of a topographic index. In the Smrzovsky Brook catchment, the vegetation communities are well correlated with the topographic index.  

  • 32. Li, Z.
    et al.
    Shao, Q.
    Xu, Z.
    Xu, Chong-Yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Uncertainty issues of a conceptual water balance model for a semi-arid watershed in north-west of China2013In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 304-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrological models are useful tools for better understanding the hydrological processes and performing the hydrological prediction. However, the reliability of the prediction depends largely on its uncertainty range. This study mainly focuses on estimating model parameter uncertainty and quantifying the simulation uncertainties caused by sole model parameters and the co-effects of model parameters and model structure in a lumped conceptual water balance model called WASMOD (Water And Snow balance MODeling system). The validity of statistical hypotheses on residuals made in the model formation is tested as well, as it is the base of parameter estimation and simulation uncertainty evaluation. The bootstrap method is employed to examine the parameter uncertainty in the selected model. The Yingluoxia watershed at the upper reaches of the Heihe River basin in north-west of China is selected as the study area. Results show that all parameters in the model can be regarded as normally distributed based on their marginal distributions and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, although they appear slightly skewed for two parameters. Their uncertainty ranges are different from each other. The model residuals are tested to be independent, homoscedastic and normally distributed. Based on such valid hypotheses of model residuals, simulation uncertainties caused by co-effects of model parameters and model structure can be evaluated effectively. It is found that the 95% and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) of simulated discharge cover 42.7% and 52.4% of the observations when only parameter uncertainty is considered, indicating that parameter uncertainty has a great effect on simulation uncertainty but still cannot be used to explain all the simulation uncertainty in this study. The 95% and 99% CIs become wider, and the percentages of observations falling inside such CIs become larger when co-effects of parameters and model structure are considered, indicating that simultaneous consideration of both parameters and model structure uncertainties accounts sufficient contribution for model simulation uncertainty.

  • 33.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    et al.
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Seibert, J.
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mörth, Magnus
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tetzlaff, Doerthe
    School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland.
    Bishop, Kevin H.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Controls on snowmelt water mean transit times in northern boreal catchments2010In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1672-1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catchment-scale transit times for water are increasingly being recognized as an important control on geochemical processes. In this study, snowmelt water mean transit times (MTTs) were estimated for the 15 Krycklan research catchments in northern boreal Sweden. The snowmelt water MTTs were assumed to be representative of the catchment-scale hydrologic response during the spring thaw period and, as such, may be considered to be a component of the catchment's overall MTT. These snowmelt water MTTs were empirically related to catchment characteristics and landscape structure represented by using different indices of soil cover, topography and catchment similarity. Mire wetlands were shown to be significantly correlated to snowmelt MTTs for the studied catchments. In these wetlands, shallow ice layers form that have been shown to serve as impervious boundaries to vertical infiltration during snowmelt periods and, thus, alter the flow pathways of water in the landscape. Using a simple thought experiment, we could estimate the potential effect of thawing of ice layers on snowmelt hydrologic response using the empirical relationship between landscape structure (represented using a catchment-scale Pe number) and hydrologic response. The result of this thought experiment was that there could be a potential increase of 20-45% in catchment snowmelt water MTTs for the Krycklan experimental catchments. It is therefore possible that climatic changes present competing influences on the hydrologic response of northern boreal catchments that need to be considered. For example, MTTs may tend to decrease during some times of the year due to an acceleration in the hydrologic cycle, while they tend to increase MTTs during other times of the year due to shifts in hydrologic flow pathways. The balance between the competing influences on a catchment's MTT has consequences on climatic feedbacks as it could influence hydrological and biogeochemical cycles at the catchment scale for northern latitude boreal catchments. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 34. Masoero, Alessandro
    et al.
    Claps, Pierluigi
    Asselman, Nathalie E. M.
    Mosselman, Erik
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    Reconstruction and analysis of the Po River inundation of 19512013In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 1341-1348Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Mayotte, Jean-Marc
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala Univ, CNDS, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hölting, Lisanne
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Reduced removal of bacteriophage MS2 in during basin infiltration managed aquifer recharge as basin sand is exposed to infiltration water2017In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1690-1701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basin infiltration managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a commonly used method for storing and treating surface water to be used as drinking water. This study examined how the removal of bacteriophage MS2 was affected by the relative age of the sand used for basin infiltration MAR at 4 degrees C using batch experiments (static and agitated) and column experiments. The sand and the water used in all experiments were characteristic of that used at a basin infiltration MAR scheme in Uppsala, Sweden. Experimental data was fit with numerical models describing the fate and transport of virus in soilwater systems. The used sand that had been subjected to intermittent infiltration over a period of 8years had 15 times the amount of organic carbon than the new sand, which had yet to be used for infiltration. Results showed that attachment of MS2 to the new sand in batch experiments was relatively irreversible. Attachment to the used sand was reversible. Inactivation of MS2 was slowed when it was attached to the used sand. Results for the column experiments showed that the removal rate of MS2 was significantly lower in columns of used sand than in columns of new sand. Simulations indicated that MS2 would be entirely removed in the infiltration basins with new sand. Less than 3 log removals was estimated for basins with used sand. Reduced removal of MS2 by the used sand was deemed to be most likely due to organic coatings on the used sand. Results of this study give deeper insight into the mechanisms responsible for removing virus in infiltration basins and how those mechanisms will change as the sand in the basin is exposed to infiltration water.

  • 36. McDonnell, J. J.
    et al.
    McGuire, K.
    Aggarwal, P.
    Beven, Keith
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, UK.
    Biondi, D.
    Destouni, G.
    Dunn, S.
    James, A.
    Kirchner, J.
    Kraft, P.
    Lyon, S.
    Maloszewski, P.
    Newman, B.
    Pfister, L.
    Rinaldo, A.
    Rodhe, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Seibert, J.
    Solomon, K.
    Soulsby, C.
    Stewart, M.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Tobin, C.
    Troch, P.
    Weiler, M.
    Western, A.
    Worman, A.
    Wrede, S.
    How old is streamwater?: Open questions in catchment transit time conceptualization, modelling and analysis2010In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1745-1754Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    McNamara, James P.
    et al.
    Boise State University, Geosciences, 1910 University Dr. Boise, Idaho 83725, USA.
    Tetzlaff, Doerthe
    Northern Rivers Institute School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK .
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Soulsby, Chris
    Northern Rivers Institute School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.
    Seyfried, Mark
    USDA-Agricultural Research Service Northwest Watershed Research Center Boise, ID 83712, USA.
    Peters, Norman E.
    USGS Georgia Water Science Center Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Aulenbach, Brent T.
    USGS Georgia Water Science Center Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Hooper, Richard
    Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science Inc. (CUAHSI) Medford, USA.
    Storage as a Metric of Catchment Comparison2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 21, p. 3364-3371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume of water stored within a catchment, and its partitioning among groundwater, soil moisture, snowpack, vegetation, and surface water are the variables that ultimately characterize the state of the hydrologic system. Accordingly, storage may provide useful metrics for catchment comparison. Unfortunately, measuring and predicting the amount of water present in a catchment is seldom done; tracking the dynamics of these stores is even rarer. Storage moderates fluxes and exerts critical controls on a wide range of hydrologic and biologic functions of a catchment. While understanding runoff generation and other processes by which catchments release water will always be central to hydrologic science, it is equally essential to understand how catchments retain water. We have initiated a catchment comparison exercise to begin assessing the value of viewing catchments from the storage perspective. The exercise is based on existing data from five watersheds, no common experimental design, and no integrated modelling efforts. Rather, storage was estimated independently for each site. This briefing presents some initial results of the exercise, poses questions about the definitions and importance of storage and the storage perspective, and suggests future directions for ongoing activities. Copyright. (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 38.
    Metcalfe, Peter
    et al.
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England..
    Beven, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England.
    Hankin, Barry
    JBA Consulting, Warrington WA1 1NN, Cheshire, Uruguay..
    Lamb, Rob
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England.;JBA Trust, Skipton BD23 3AE, N Yorkshire, England..
    A modelling framework for evaluation of the hydrological impacts of nature-based approaches to flood risk management, with application to in-channel interventions across a 29-km(2) scale catchment in the United Kingdom2017In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1734-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-based approaches to flood risk management are increasing in popularity. Evidence for the effectiveness at the catchment scale of such spatially distributed upstream measures is inconclusive. However, it also remains an open question whether, under certain conditions, the individual impacts of a collection of flood mitigation interventions could combine to produce a detrimental effect on runoff response. A modelling framework is presented for evaluation of the impacts of hillslope and in-channel natural flood management interventions. It couples an existing semidistributed hydrological model with a new, spatially explicit, hydraulic channel network routing model. The model is applied to assess a potential flood mitigation scheme in an agricultural catchment in North Yorkshire, United Kingdom, comprising various configurations of a single variety of in-channel feature. The hydrological model is used to generate subsurface and surface fluxes for a flood event in 2012. The network routing model is then applied to evaluate the response to the addition of up to 59 features. Additional channel and floodplain storage of approximately 70,000m(3) is seen with a reduction of around 11% in peak discharge. Although this might be sufficient to reduce flooding in moderate events, it is inadequate to prevent flooding in the double-peaked storm of the magnitude that caused damage within the catchment in 2012. Some strategies using features specific to this catchment are suggested in order to improve the attenuation that could be achieved by applying a nature-based approach.

  • 39. Nathanson, Marcus
    et al.
    Kean, Jason W.
    Grabs, Thomas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Modelling rating curves using remotely sensed LiDAR data2012In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 1427-1434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate stream discharge measurements are important for many hydrological studies. In remote locations, however, it is often difficult to obtain stream flow information because of the difficulty in making the discharge measurements necessary to define stage-discharge relationships (rating curves). This study investigates the feasibility of defining rating curves by using a fluid mechanics-based model constrained with topographic data from an airborne LiDAR scanning. The study was carried out for an 8m-wide channel in the boreal landscape of northern Sweden. LiDAR data were used to define channel geometry above a low flow water surface along the 90-m surveyed reach. The channel topography below the water surface was estimated using the simple assumption of a flat streambed. The roughness for the modelled reach was back calculated from a single measurment of discharge. The topographic and roughness information was then used to model a rating curve. To isolate the potential influence of the flat bed assumption, a hybrid model rating curve was developed on the basis of data combined from the LiDAR scan and a detailed ground survey. Whereas this hybrid model rating curve was in agreement with the direct measurements of discharge, the LiDAR model rating curve was equally in agreement with the medium and high flow measurements based on confidence intervals calculated from the direct measurements. The discrepancy between the LiDAR model rating curve and the low flow measurements was likely due to reduced roughness associated with unresolved submerged bed topography. Scanning during periods of low flow can help minimize this deficiency. These results suggest that combined ground surveys and LiDAR scans or multifrequency LiDAR scans that see below the water surface (bathymetric LiDAR) could be useful in generating data needed to run such a fluid mechanics-based model. This opens a realm of possibility to remotely sense and monitor stream flows in channels in remote locations.

  • 40.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Water transit times and flow paths from two line injections of 3H and 36Cl in a microcatchment at Gårdsjön, Sweden1999In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 1557-1575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate groundwater transit times and flow paths in shallow till soil, within an acidification study at Gardsjon, Sweden, two line injections of Cl-36 and H-3 Were made in groundwater during 1992. The first injection in January, when the two tracers were injected at the same depth, gave tracer transit times from injection line to outlet of some hours due to a runoff event on the first day. The subsequent recession period left a considerable amount of tracer in the unsaturated zone, which had transit times that ranged from weeks to months. Tracer recovery at the outlet was 78% for H-3 and 47% for Cl-36. Cl retention was indicated. The second injection in November, when H-3 was injected at 30 cm depth and 36C1 at 60 cm depth, gave recoveries of 96% for H-3 and 83% for Cl-36. Apart from an advective flow-dependent tracer transport, very fast tracer pulses occurred. The velocities for those pulses were of the order of tens of metres per hour. Highest tracer concentrations were observed in the superficial soil layers, which suggest that these layers were the dominant flow paths. 

  • 41. Page, T.
    et al.
    Beven, Keith J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Freer, J.
    Neal, C.
    Modelling the chloride signal at Plynlimon, Wales, using a modified dynamic TOPMODEL incorporating conservative chemical mixing (with uncertainty)2007In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 292-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of a modified version of dynamic TOPMODEL for two subcatchments at Plynlimon, Wales is described. Conservative chemical mixing within mobile and immobile stores has been added to the hydrological model in an attempt to simulate observed stream chloride concentrations. The model was not fully able to simulate the observed behaviour, in particular the short- to medium-term dynamics. One of the primary problems highlighted by the study was the representation of dry deposition and cloud-droplet-deposited chloride, which formed a significant part of the long-term chloride mass budget. Equifinality of parameter sets inhibited the ability to determine the effective catchment mixing volumes and coefficients or the most likely partition between occult mass inputs and chloride mass inputs determined by catchment immobile-store antecedent conditions. Some success was achieved, in as much as some aspects of the dynamic behaviour of the signal were satisfactorily simulated, although spectral analysis showed that the model could not fully reproduce the 1/f power spectra of observed stream chloride concentrations with its implications of a wide distribution of residence times for water in the catchment.

  • 42.
    Pappenberger, Florian
    et al.
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Catchment and Aquatic Processes Group, Lancaster University, UK.
    Harvey, Hamish
    School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, University Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Beven, Keith
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Catchment and Aquatic Processes Group, Lancaster University, UK.
    Hall, Jim
    School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, University Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Meadowcroft, Ian
    Environmental Policy—Risk & Forecasting, Environment Agency, UK.
    Decision tree for choosing an uncertainty analysis methodology: a wiki experiment2006In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 20, no 17, p. 3793-3798Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Quesada Montano, Beatriz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Ctr Nat Disaster Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Westerberg, Ida K.
    Ctr Nat Disaster Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fuentes–Andino, Diana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Ctr Nat Disaster Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hidalgo, Hugo G.
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica..
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Ctr Nat Disaster Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Can climate variability information constrain a hydrological model for an ungauged Costa Rican catchment?2018In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 830-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term hydrological data are key to understanding catchment behaviour and for decision making within water management and planning. Given the lack of observed data in many regions worldwide, such as Central America, hydrological models are an alternative for reproducing historical streamflow series. Additional types of informationto locally observed dischargecan be used to constrain model parameter uncertainty for ungauged catchments. Given the strong influence that climatic large-scale processes exert on streamflow variability in the Central American region, we explored the use of climate variability knowledge as process constraints to constrain the simulated discharge uncertainty for a Costa Rican catchment, assumed to be ungauged. To reduce model uncertainty, we first rejected parameter relationships that disagreed with our understanding of the system. Then, based on this reduced parameter space, we applied the climate-based process constraints at long-term, inter-annual, and intra-annual timescales. In the first step, we reduced the initial number of parameters by 52%, and then, we further reduced the number of parameters by 3% with the climate constraints. Finally, we compared the climate-based constraints with a constraint based on global maps of low-flow statistics. This latter constraint proved to be more restrictive than those based on climate variability (further reducing the number of parameters by 66% compared with 3%). Even so, the climate-based constraints rejected inconsistent model simulations that were not rejected by the low-flow statistics constraint. When taken all together, the constraints produced constrained simulation uncertainty bands, and the median simulated discharge followed the observed time series to a similar level as an optimized model. All the constraints were found useful in constraining model uncertainty for anassumed to beungauged basin. This shows that our method is promising for modelling long-term flow data for ungauged catchments on the Pacific side of Central America and that similar methods can be developed for ungauged basins in other regions where climate variability exerts a strong control on streamflow variability.

  • 44.
    Quesada-Montano, Beatriz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Westerberg, Ida K.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitute.
    Fuentes–Andino, Diana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Centre for Natural Disaster Science (CNDS).
    Hidalgo, Hugo G.
    Centre for Geophysical Research, University of Costa Rica.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Can climate variability information constrain a hydrologicalmodel for an ungauged Costa Rican catchment?In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Rinderer, Michael
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.;Duke Univ, Nicholas Sch Environm, Dept Earth & Ocean Sci, 9 Circuit Dr, Durham, NC 27708 USA..
    van Meerveld, Ilja
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Staehli, Manfred
    Swiss Fed Res Inst WSL, Zurcherstr 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Is groundwater response timing in a pre-alpine catchment controlled more by topography or by rainfall?2016In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1036-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater levels in steep headwater catchments typically respond quickly to rainfall, but the timing of the response may vary spatially across the catchment. In this study, we investigated the topographic controls and the effects of rainfall and antecedent conditions on the groundwater response timing for 51 groundwater monitoring sites in a 20-ha pre-alpine catchment with low permeability soils. The median time to rise and median duration of recession for the 133 rainfall events were highly correlated to the topographic characteristics of the site and its upslope contributing area. The median time to rise depended more on the topographic characteristics than on the rainfall characteristics or antecedent soil wetness conditions. The median time to rise decreased with Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) for sites with TWI<6 and was almost constant for sites with a higher TWI. The slope of this relation was a function of rainfall intensity. The rainfall threshold for groundwater initiation was also a function of TWI and allowed extrapolation of point measurements to the catchment scale. The median lag time between the rainfall centroid and the groundwater peak was 75min. The groundwater level peaked before peak streamflow at the catchment outlet for half of the groundwater monitoring sites, but only by 15 to 25min. The stronger correlations between topographic indices and groundwater response timing in this study compared to previous studies suggest that surface topography affects the groundwater response timing in catchments with low permeability soils more than in catchments with more transmissive soils.

  • 46.
    Rodhe, Allan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Groundwater dynamics in a till hillslope: flow directions, gradients and delay2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 1899-1909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of groundwater dynamics is important for the understanding of hydrological controls on chemical processes along the water flow pathways. To increase our knowledge of groundwater dynamics in areas with shallow groundwater, the groundwater dynamics along a hillslope were studied in a boreal catchment in Southern Sweden. The forested hillslope had a 1- to 2-m deep layer of sandy till above bedrock. The groundwater flow direction and slope were calculated under the assumption that the flow followed the slope of the groundwater table, which was computed for different triangles, each defined by three groundwater wells. The flow direction showed considerable variations over time, with a maximum variation of 75 degrees. During periods of high groundwater levels the flow was almost perpendicular to the stream, but as the groundwater level fell, the flow direction became gradually more parallel to the stream, directed in the downstream direction. These findings are of importance for the interpretation of results from hillslope transects, where the flow direction usually is assumed to be invariable and always in the direction of the hillslope. The variations in the groundwater flow direction may also cause an apparent dispersion for groundwater-based transport. In contrast to findings in several other studies, the groundwater level was most responsive to rainfall and snowmelt in the upper part of the hillslope, while the lower parts of the slope reached their highest groundwater level up to 40 h after the upper parts. This can be explained by the topography with a wetter hollow area in the upper part.

  • 47. Schuler, T. V.
    et al.
    Crochet, P.
    Hock, Regine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Landscape Dynamics.
    Jackson, M.
    Barstad, I.
    Jóhannesson, T.
    Distribution of snow accumulation on the Svartisen ice cap, Norway, assessed by a model of orographic precipitation2008In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 22, no 19, p. 3998-4008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply a linear model of orographic precipitation (LT model) to estimate snow accumulation on the western Svartisen ice cap (220 km2) in northern Norway. This model combines 3D airflow dynamics with simple parameterizations of cloud physics. The model is forced by large-scale atmospheric input variables taken from the ECMWF Re-analysis (ERA-40) of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF), and the model parameters are kept constant for the entire simulation period, after optimization. The domain covers a 120 × 125 km area surrounding the ice cap. The model is run using a 1-km resolution digital elevation model, and 6-h time steps over the period from 1958 to 2002. Precipitation data from surrounding meteorological stations and winter glacier mass balance measurements on several glaciers within the region are used to evaluate the model results. Precipitation obtained from the LT model agrees well with observations from precipitation gauges and there is also fair agreement between model results and specific winter mass balance observations on the ice cap if these are corrected for winter rain. The LT model reproduces well the spatial pattern of winter accumulation across the ice cap as well as the area-averaged winter mass balances of several other glaciers in the region. This indicates that it is a useful tool in providing high-resolution, deterministic estimates of precipitation in complex terrain as required for distributed hydrological and/or glacier mass balance modelling of unmeasured areas

  • 48. Seibert, J.
    et al.
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Simulating interactions between saturated and unsaturated storage in a conceptual runoff model2003In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 379-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for modelling the fluxes of chemical constituents at the catchment scale. Conceptual runoff models provide a basis for such modelling tasks provided that they capture the essential hydrological processes. However, most conceptual models do not fully address interactions between unsaturated and saturated storage. This can lead to unrealistic simulations for watersheds with shallow groundwater, where a large part of the soil volume can contribute to both the unsaturated and the saturated storage, depending on groundwater levels. Adding a small amount of water to the saturated storage will cause a significant amount of water stored in the unsaturated zone to change its status to ‘saturated’. The maximum volume of the unsaturated storage also decreases with rising groundwater levels, i.e. increasing saturated storage. In this study, a new model concept was proposed in which special emphasis was put on the interaction between saturated and unsaturated storage. The total storage was divided into two compartments, representing saturated and unsaturated storage, with a boundary moving up and down in response to the water budget of the compartments. Groundwater dynamics show a distinct pattern along the hillslope studied. Groundwater levels in an area close to the stream had dynamics similar to runoff, whereas levels further upslope responded to rainfall with a delay. To represent these differences in the model, the hillslope was subdivided into a riparian and an upslope reservoir. The performance of the new model was compared with that of simpler model variants without spatial differentiation and with or without the new formulation allowing for interactions between unsaturated and saturated storage. The new model approach provided the best results for simulating both runoff and groundwater dynamics. The subdivision of the hillslope accounted for most of the performance increase. To test the model structure further, 18O concentrations in the stream were simulated and compared with measured values.

  • 49.
    Seibert, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Water storage in a till catchment. I: Distributed modelling and relationship to runoff2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 25, p. 3937-3949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although water storage is an important variable to understand the hydrological functioning of a catchment, it is challenging to estimate the total water storage in a catchment. Catchment water storage can be estimated on the basis of water balance, but this approach is prone to errors in the different water balance terms. Here, an approach is presented to estimate the daily dynamics of catchment-wide soil water and groundwater storage on the basis of groundwater-level observations, soil properties and an assumption of hydrological equilibrium above the water table. This approach was applied to a 6300-m2 till catchment in Southwest Sweden. The predicted mean catchment water storage between April 1991 and June 1992 was 210mm and ranged from 190 to 260mm. The estimated water storage followed runoff rates closely especially during recession periods. On average, 79% of the water storage was held in the unsaturated zone, and the remaining 21% was groundwater, but this proportion varied strongly with runoff and total storage. During dry conditions, unsaturated storage accounted for at maximum 95% of the water storage; during wet conditions, this number dropped to 40%.

  • 50.
    Seibert, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    van Meerveld, H. J. (Ilja)
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Hydrological change modeling: Challenges and opportunities2016In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 30, no 26, p. 4966-4971Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 70
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