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  • 1. Ciesielczuk, J.
    et al.
    Kruszewski, L.
    Majka, Jaroslaw
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Comparative mineralogical study of thermally-altered coal-dump waste, natural rocks and the products of laboratory heating experiments2015In: International Journal of Coal Geology, ISSN 0166-5162, E-ISSN 1872-7840, Vol. 139, no SI, 114-141 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on rocks formed due to pyrometamorphism of waste in burning coal-mine dumps (BCMD) mainly in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin has enabled identification of a large number of different mineral species. These species are usually well-known minerals, e.g., olivines, plagioclases and clinopyroxenes. However, their crystal chemistry is often unique. Mineralogical- and chemical similarities between the BCMD and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. To better understand the crystallization processes of the minerals occurring in the BCMD, three types of heating experiments were performed. For these, ten protolith (thermally-unchanged) dump samples, mostly shales and carbonate rocks, were heated alone and mixed together and with a CaF2 flux. Quantitative chemical analyses of the synthesized mixtures have shown that they are mineralogically similar to the rocks found in the BCMD. They are also similar in terms of their crystal chemistry, e.g., synthesized clinopyroxenes are rich in diopside and esseneite components and may capture phosphorus, plagioclase is rich in anorthite and contains iron and magnesium, and wüstite exists as a solid solution with periclase and is doped with calcium and other elements. Highly variable amounts of indialite–ferroindialite were formed in some samples due to solid-phase transformations or melt crystallization, depending on the experimental conditions and the protolith used.

  • 2.
    Höök, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Historical trends in American coal production and a possible future outlook2009In: International Journal of Coal Geology, ISSN 0166-5162, E-ISSN 1872-7840, Vol. 78, no 3, 201-216 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United States has a vast supply of coal, with almost 30% of world reserves and more than 1600 Gt (short) as remaining coal resources. The US is also the world’s second largest coal producer after China and annually produces more than twice as much coal as India, the third largest producer.

    The reserves are concentrated in a few states, giving them a major influence on future production. Historically many states have also shown a dramatic reduction in recoverable coal volumes and this has been closely investigated. Current recoverable estimates may also be too high, especially if further restrictions are imposed. The average calorific value of US coals has decreased from 29.2 MJ/kg in 1950 to 23.6 MJ/kg in 2007 as U.S. production moved to subbituminous western coals. This has also been examined in more detail.

    This study also uses established analysis methods from oil and gas production forecasting, such as Hubbert linearization and logistic curves, to create some possible future outlooks for U.S. coal production. In one case, the production stabilizes at 1400 Mt annually and remains there until the end of the century, provided that Montana dramatically increases coal output. The second case, which ignores mining restrictions, forecasts a maximum production of 2500 Mt annually by the end of the century.

  • 3.
    Mohr, Steve
    et al.
    The University of Newcastle, School of Engineering.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Mudd, Gavin
    University of New South Wales, Institute of Environmental Studies.
    Evans, Geoffrey
    The University of Newcastle, School of Engineering.
    Projection of long-term paths for Australian coal production: comparisons of four models2011In: International Journal of Coal Geology, ISSN 0166-5162, E-ISSN 1872-7840, Vol. 86, no 4, 329-341 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coal exports are an important source of revenue for Australia and for this reason Australian coal production and resources have been examined in detail and two recoverable resource estimates determined namely Standard and High. The Standard case calculated the likely recoverable coal resources in Australia to be 317 Gt, whereas the High scenario determined the maximal amount of recoverable coal resources at 367 Gt. Different modelling approaches (Logistic, Gompertz, Static and Dynamic supply and demand models) were used to project fossil fuel production and the projections of the relative approaches were compared. Good agreement was found between the Logistic, Static and Dynamic supply and demand models with production peaking in 2119 +/- 6 at between 1.9 and 3.3 Gt/y. Contrasting these projections the Gompertz curves peak in 2084 +/- 5 at 1-1.1 Gt/y. It was argued that the Logistic, Static and Dynamic models are more likely to produce accurate projections than the Gompertz curve. The production forecast is based on existing technology and constraints and a qualitative discussion is presented on possible influences on future production, namely: export capacity, climate change, overburden management, environmental and social impacts and export market issues.

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