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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Sci Life Lab, Tomtebodavagen 23A, SE-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Parducci, Laura
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Unneberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Ågren, Rasmus
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Biol Engn, Sci Life Lab, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Schenk, Frederik
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rattray, Jayne E.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Calgary, Biol Sci, 2500 Univ Dr NW, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Han, Lu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Jilin Univ, Coll Life Sci, Ancient DNA Lab, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China..
    Muschitiello, Francesco
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, 61 Route 9NW, Palisades, NY USA..
    Pedersen, Mikkel W.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, England..
    Smittenberg, Rienk H.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Yamoah, Kweku Afrifa
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Slotte, Tanja
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Sci Life Lab, Tomtebodavagen 23A, SE-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Archaeal community changes in Lateglacial lake sediments: Evidence from ancient DNA2018In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 181, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lateglacial/early Holocene sediments from the ancient lake at Hasseldala Port, southern Sweden provide an important archive for the environmental and climatic shifts at the end of the last ice age and the transition into the present Interglacial. The existing multi-proxy data set highlights the complex interplay of physical and ecological changes in response to climatic shifts and lake status changes. Yet, it remains unclear how microorganisms, such as Archaea, which do not leave microscopic features in the sedimentary record, were affected by these climatic shifts. Here we present the metagenomic data set of Hasseldala Port with a special focus on the abundance and biodiversity of Archaea. This allows reconstructing for the first time the temporal succession of major Archaea groups between 13.9 and 10.8 ka BP by using ancient environmental DNA metagenomics and fossil archaeal cell membrane lipids. We then evaluate to which extent these findings reflect physical changes of the lake system, due to changes in lake-water summer temperature and seasonal lake-ice cover. We show that variations in archaeal composition and diversity were related to a variety of factors (e.g., changes in lake water temperature, duration of lake ice cover, rapid sediment infilling), which influenced bottom water conditions and the sediment-water interface. Methanogenic Archaea dominated during the Allerod and Younger Dryas pollen zones, when the ancient lake was likely stratified and anoxic for large parts of the year. The increase in archaeal diversity at the Younger Dryas/Holocene transition is explained by sediment infilling and formation of a mire/peatbog. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Bird, Anna
    et al.
    Millar, Ian
    Rodenburg, Tanja
    Stevens, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Department of Geography, Royal Holloway University of London.
    Rittner, Martin
    Vermeesch, Pieter
    Lu, Huayu
    A constant Chinese Loess Plateau dust source since the late Miocene2020In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 227, article id 106042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marks a major change in global climate and East Asian monsoon dynamic. However, the role of the global atmospheric dust-cycle over this time is unclear; in particular the degree to which changes in the dust cycle influenced climate change, were driven by climate change, and how these processes interacted. Chinese loess records past dust-cycle history and the influences of aridification and monsoon circulation over the last 40 Ma. Previous work on the Chinese Loess Plateau argue over whether changes in dust source occur at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary, or at 1.2 Ma, despite these intervals marking major shifts in monsoon dynamics. We present Sr, Nd and Hf isotope data from multiple sites and show that dust source largely remains unchanged across these boundaries. Shifts in geochemistry are due to changes in grain-size and weathering. While the transport pathway (river, deserts, direct aeolian) is unclear, these tracer isotopes show that dust was dominantly sourced from the Northern Tibetan Plateau, with some input from the local bedrock. This shows that a major established and constant dust source on the Tibetan Plateau has been active and unchanged since late Miocene, despite dramatically changing climate conditions. Changes in loess accumulation are a function of climate change in Tibetan Plateau source regions rather than effects from increased aridification over the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary.

  • 3. Blockley, Simon
    et al.
    Blaauw, Maarten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher
    van der Plicht, Johannes
    Building and testing age models for radiocarbon dates in Lateglacial and Early Holocene sediments2007In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 26, no 15-16, p. 1915-1926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing importance of understanding past abrupt climate variability at a regional and global scale has led to the realisation that independent chronologies of past environmental change need to be compared between various archives. This has in turn led to attempts at significant improvements in the required precision at which records can be dated. Radiocarbon dating is still the most prominent method for dating organic material from terrestrial and marine archives, and as such many of the recent developments in improving precision have been aimed at this technique. These include: (1) selection of the most suitable datable fractions within a record, (2) the development of better calibration curves, and (3) more precise age modelling techniques. While much attention has been focussed on the first two items, testing the possibilities of the relatively new age modelling approaches has not received much attention. Here, we test the potential for methods designed to significantly improve precision in radiocarbon-based age models, wiggle match dating and various forms of Bayesian analyses. We demonstrate that while all of the methods can perform very well, in some scenarios, caution must be taken when applying them. It appears that an integrated approach is required in real life dating situations where more than one model is applied, with strict error calculation, and with the integration of radiocarbon data with sedimentological analyses of site formation processes.

  • 4.
    Czymzik, Markus
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Quaternary Sci, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Adolphi, Florian
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Quaternary Sci, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Muscheler, Raimund
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Quaternary Sci, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Mekhaldi, Florian
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Quaternary Sci, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Martin-Puertas, Celia
    GEZ German Res Ctr Geosci, Sect Climate Dynam & Landscape Evolut 5 2, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany..
    Aldahan, Ala
    United Arab Emirates Univ, Dept Geol, Al Ain 15551, U Arab Emirates..
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Brauer, Achim
    GEZ German Res Ctr Geosci, Sect Climate Dynam & Landscape Evolut 5 2, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany..
    A varved lake sediment record of the Be-10 solar activity proxy for the Lateglacial-Holocene transition2016In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 153, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar modulated variations in cosmogenic radionuclide production provide both information on past changes in the activity of the Sun and a global synchronization tool. However, to date the use of cosmogenic radionuclides for these applications is almost exclusively based on Be-10 records from ice cores and C-14 time-series from tree rings, all including archive-specific limitations. We present the first Be-10 record from annually laminated (varved) lake sediments for the Lateglacial-Holocene transition from Meerfelder Maar. We quantify environmental influences on the catchment and, consequently, Be-10 deposition using a new approach based on regression analyses between our Be-10 record and environmental proxy time-series from the same archive. Our analyses suggest that environmental influences contribute to up to 37% of the variability in our Be-10 record, but cannot be the main explanation for major Be-10 excursions. Corrected for these environmental influences, our Be-10 record is interpreted to dominantly reflect changes in solar modulated cosmogenic radionuclide production. The preservation of a solar production signal in Be-10 from varved lake sediments highlights the largely unexplored potential of these archives for solar activity reconstruction, as global synchronization tool and, thus, for more robust paleoclimate studies.

  • 5. de Boer, Erik J.
    et al.
    Hooghiemstra, Henry
    Florens, F. B. Vincent
    Baider, Claudia
    Engels, Stefan
    Dakos, Vasilis
    Blaauw, Maarten
    Bennett, Keith D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Rapid succession of plant associations on the small ocean island of Mauritius at the onset of the Holocene2013In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 68, p. 114-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The island of Mauritius offers the opportunity to study the poorly understood vegetation response to climate change on a small tropical oceanic island. A high-resolution pollen record from a 10 m long peat core from Kanaka Crater (560 m elevation, Mauritius, Indian Ocean) shows that vegetation shifted from a stable open wet forest Last Glacial state to a stable closed-stratified-tall-forest Holocene state. An ecological threshold was crossed at similar to 11.5 cal ka BP, propelling the forest ecosystem into an unstable period lasting similar to 4000 years. The shift between the two steady states involves a cascade of four abrupt (<150 years) forest transitions in which different tree species dominated the vegetation for a quasi-stable period of respectively similar to 1900, similar to 1100 and similar to 900 years. We interpret the first forest transition as climate-driven, reflecting the response of a small low topography oceanic island where significant spatial biome migration is impossible. The three subsequent forest transitions are not evidently linked to climate events, and are suggested to be driven by internal forest dynamics. The cascade of four consecutive events of species turnover occurred at a remarkably fast rate compared to changes during the preceding and following periods, and might therefore be considered as a composite tipping point in the ecosystem. We hypothesize that wet gallery forest, spatially and temporally stabilized by the drainage system, served as a long lasting reservoir of biodiversity and facilitated a rapid exchange of species with the montane forests to allow for a rapid cascade of plant associations.

  • 6. Feurdean, A
    et al.
    Perşoiu, A
    Tanţău, I
    Stevens, Thomas
    Centre for Quaternary Research, Department of Geography, Royal Holloway University of London, UK.
    Magyari, E.K.
    Onac, B.P.
    Markovic, S
    Andric, M
    Connor, S
    Fărcaş, S
    Gałka, M
    Gaudeny, T
    Hoek, W
    Kolaczek, P
    Kuneš, P
    Lamentowicz, M
    Marinova, E
    Michczyńska, D.J.
    Perşoiu, I
    Płóciennik, M
    Słowiński, M
    Stancikaite, M
    Sumegi, P
    Svensson, A
    Tămaş, T
    Timar, A
    Tonkov, S
    Tóth, M
    Veski, S
    Willis, K.J.
    Zernitskaya, V
    Climate variability and associated vegetation response throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) between 60 and 8 ka2014In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, p. 206-224Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Gallagher, S. J.
    et al.
    Univ Melbourne, Sch Earth Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia.
    Reuning, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Geol Inst, EMR Energy & Mineral Resources Grp, Wuellnerstr 2, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Himmler, T.
    Geol Survey Norway, Postal Box 6315 Torgarden, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Henderiks, Jorijntje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    De Vleeschouwer, D.
    Univ Bremen, MARUM Ctr Marine & Environm Sci, D-28334 Bremen, Germany;Univ Bremen, Dept Geosci, D-28334 Bremen, Germany.
    Groeneveld, J.
    Univ Bremen, MARUM Ctr Marine & Environm Sci, D-28334 Bremen, Germany;Univ Bremen, Dept Geosci, D-28334 Bremen, Germany.
    Lari, A. Rastegar
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Earth Sci, 35 Stirling Highway, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia.
    Fulthorpe, C. S.
    Univ Texas Austin, Inst Geophys, 10100 Burnet Rd R2200, Austin, TX 78758 USA.
    Bogus, K.
    Univ Exeter, Coll Engn Math & Phys Sci, Camborne Sch Mines, Penryn TR10 9FE, Cornwall, England.
    The enigma of rare Quaternary oolites in the Indian and Pacific Oceans: A result of global oceanographic physicochemical conditions or a sampling bias?2018In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 200, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine ooids are iconic indicators of shallow seawater carbonate saturation state, and their formation has traditionally been ascribed to physicochemical processes. The Indo-Pacific stands out as a region devoid of oolites, particularly during the Quaternary: the "ooid enigma". Here we present results from recent coring by the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP Expedition 356) off west Australia that shows that ooid horizons are common in Pleistocene strata up to 730,000 years old. Extensive "ooid factories" were created due to the presence of long-lived tidally influenced flat topped tropical platforms suitable for intermittent ooid accretion over hundreds to thousands of years during highstands and times of lower sea level. This work suggests marine ooids may actually be more common in Indo-Pacific than previously reported. Past global ocean alkalinity was elevated during Pleistocene glacial periods and continental climate was generally more arid in the Indo-Pacific region compared to interglacials and the Holocene. Therefore, increased aridity associated with higher alkalinity conditions during the glacials facilitated ooid precipitation on adjacent tropical carbonate platforms particularly offshore from arid Australia. This confluence of factors suggests that more "ooid factories" may be encountered by further coring Indo-Pacific regions with Pleistocene flat long-lived carbonate shelves. However, Indo-Pacific Quaternary ooid occurrences outside Australia are rare, suggesting that the Northwest Shelf may be a unique archive of this non-skeletal precipitate. Further investigations into the petrography and geochemistry of pre-Holocene ooid occurrences will provide insights into their origin and the relative role of biotic, physicochemical and other factors in their formation. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Giesecke, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Moving front or population expansion: How did Picea abies (L.) Karst. become frequent in central Sweden?2005In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 24, no 23-24, p. 2495-2509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Holocene increase in Picea abies around four central Swedish lakes was analysed using extended pollen counts over the sections comprising the tail of frequent, but discontinuous, occurrences and the beginning of the continuous curve. Simple landscape scenarios were simulated to test possible mechanisms of the spread and population expansion of P. abies in Scandinavia. Predicted patterns of pollen accumulation rates from the landscape scenarios were compared to patterns observed at the four sites to explore how the observed curves could have come about. Simulations of a moving front scenario indicate that pollen accumulation rates should rise faster than the exponential and logistic increase observed at the four sites. Exponential increase of pollen values at the sites is most likely due to locally increasing populations. However, the geography of expanding populations may influence the shape of the curve. Empirical and model results are discussed to gain new insights into the pattern and processes of the spread of P abies in central Sweden. Propagule pressure and self-fertilisation are considered as possible explanations of why small outpost populations that may have existed before the regional expansion of P. abies did not expand earlier.

  • 9. Giesecke, Thomas
    et al.
    Bennett, Keith D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Birks, H. John B.
    Bjune, Anne E.
    Bozilova, Elisaveta
    Feurdean, Angelica
    Finsinger, Walter
    Froyd, Cynthia
    Pokorny, Petr
    Roesch, Manfred
    Seppa, Heikki
    Tonkov, Spasimir
    Valsecchi, Verushka
    Wolters, Steffen
    The pace of Holocene vegetation change: testing for synchronous developments2011In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 30, no 19-20, p. 2805-2814Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mid to high latitude forest ecosystems have undergone several major compositional changes during the Holocene. The temporal and spatial patterns of these vegetation changes hold potential information to their causes and triggers. Here we test the hypothesis that the timing of vegetation change was synchronous on a sub-continental scale, which implies a common trigger or a step-like change in climate parameters. Pollen diagrams from selected European regions were statistically divided into assemblage zones and the temporal pattern of the zone boundaries analysed. The results show that the temporal pattern of vegetation change was significantly different from random. Times of change cluster around 8.2, 4.8, 3.7, and 1.2 ka, while times of higher than average stability were found around 2.1 and 5.1 ka. Compositional changes linked to the expansion of Corylus avellana and Alnus glutinosa centre around 10.6 and 9.5 ka, respectively. A climatic trigger initiating these changes may have occurred 0.5 to 1 ka earlier, respectively. The synchronous expansion of C avellana and A. glutinosa exemplify that dispersal is not necessarily followed by population expansion. The partly synchronous, partly random expansion of A. glutinosa in adjacent European regions exemplifies that sudden synchronous population expansions are not species specific traits but vary regionally.

  • 10. Haberle, Simon
    et al.
    Bennett, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Postglacial formation and dynamics of North Patagonian Rainforest in the Chonos Archipelago, Southern Chile2004In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 23, no 23-24, p. 2433-2452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollen analysis of continuous sediment cores from two lakes in the northern Chonos Archipelago (44°S) in southern Chile shows a complete postglacial record of vegetation change. The fossil records indicate that deglaciation was complete in the northern Chonos by at least 13,600 14C yr BP. Ericaceous heath and grassland persisted for more than 600 years after deglaciation under the influence of dry/cold climates and frequent burning. Nothofagus-Pilgerodendron-Podocarpus forest, with modern analogues in the southern Chonos Archipelago, was established across the northern islands by 12,400 14C yr BP under increasingly warm and wet climates. There is no evidence for a return to cooler climates during the Younger Dryas chronozone. The rise of Tepualia stipularis and Weinmannia trichosperma as important forest components between 10,600 and 6000 14C yr BP may be associated with climates that were warmer than present. The collapse of Pilgerodendron communities during this time may have been triggered by a combination of factors related to disturbance frequency including tephra deposition events, fire and climate change. After 6000 14C yr BP Pilgerodendron recovers and Nothofagus-Pilgerodendron-Tepualia forest persists until the present. European logging and burning activity may have increased the susceptibility of North Patagonian Rainforest to invasion by introduced species and to future collapse of the long-lived Pilgerodendron communities.

  • 11. Håkansson, Lena
    et al.
    Briner, Jason
    Alexanderson, Helena
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    10Be ages from central east Greenland constrain the extent of the Greenland ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum2007In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 26, no 19-21, p. 2316-2321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional ice sheet reconstructions have suggested two distinctly different ice sheet regimes along the East Greenland continental margin during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM): ice to the shelf break south of Scoresby Sund and ice extending no further than to the inner shelf at and north of Scoresby Sund. We report new 10Be ages from erratic boulders perched at 250 m a.s.l. on the Kap Brewster peninsula at the mouth of Scoresby Sund. The average 10Be ages, calculated with an assumed maximum erosion rate of 1 cm/ka and no erosion (respectively, 17.3±2.3 ka and 15.1±1.7 ka) overlap with a period of increased sediment input to the Scoresby Sund fan (19–15 ka). The results presented here suggest that ice reached at least 250 m a.s.l. at the mouth of Scoresby Sund during the LGM and add to a growing body of evidence indicating that LGM ice extended onto the outer shelf in northeast Greenland.

  • 12.
    Izdebski, Adam
    et al.
    Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Institute of History.
    Holmgren, Karin
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Stocker, Sharon R
    University of Cincinnati, Department of Classics.
    Büntgen, Ulf
    Florenzano, Assunta
    Gogou, Alexandra
    Leroy, Suzanne A.G.
    Luterbacher, Jürg
    Martrat, Belen
    Masi, Alessia
    Mercuri, Anna Maria
    Montagna, Paolo
    Sadori, Laura
    Schneider, Adam
    Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine
    Triantaphyllou, Maria
    Xoplaki, Elena
    Realising consilience: How better communication between archaeologists, historians and natural scientists can transform the study of past climate change in the Mediterranean2016In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 136, p. 5-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the methodological and practical issues relevant to the ways in which natural scientists, historians and archaeologists may collaborate in the study of past climatic changes in the Mediterranean basin. We begin by discussing the methodologies of these three disciplines in the context of the consilience debate, that is, attempts to unify different research methodologies that address similar problems. We demonstrate that there are a number of similarities in the fundamental methodology between history, archaeology, and the natural sciences that deal with the past (“palaeoenvironmental sciences”), due to their common interest in studying societal and environmental phenomena that no longer exist. The three research traditions, for instance, employ specific narrative structures as a means of communicating research results. We thus present and compare the narratives characteristic of each discipline; in order to engage in fruitful interdisciplinary exchange, we must first understand how each deals with the societal impacts of climatic change. In the second part of the paper, we focus our discussion on the four major practical issues that hinder communication between the three disciplines. These include terminological misunderstandings, problems relevant to project design, divergences in publication cultures, and differing views on the impact of research. Among other recommendations, we suggest that scholars from the three disciplines should aim to create a joint publication culture, which should also appeal to a wider public, both inside and outside of academia.

  • 13. Kirchner, Nina
    et al.
    Ahlkrona, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Gowan, Evan J.
    Lötstedt, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Lea, James M.
    Noormets, Riko
    von Sydow, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Dowdeswell, Julian A.
    Benham, Toby
    Shallow ice approximation, second order shallow ice approximation, and full Stokes models: A discussion of their roles in palaeo-ice sheet modelling and development2016In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 135, p. 103-114Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Kremer, A.
    et al.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Stein, R.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Fahl, K.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Ji, Z.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Z.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wiers, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Matthiessen, J.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Forwick, M.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway..
    Lowemark, L.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    O'Regan, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Chen, J.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Changes in sea ice cover and ice sheet extent at the Yermak Plateau during the last 160 ka - Reconstructions from biomarker records2018In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 182, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Yermak Plateau is located north of Svalbard at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean, i.e. in an area highly sensitive to climate change. A multi proxy approach was carried out on Core PS92/039-2 to study glacial interglacial environmental changes at the northern Barents Sea margin during the last 160 ka. The main emphasis was on the reconstruction of sea ice cover, based on the sea ice proxy IP25 and the related phytoplankton - sea ice index PIP25. Sea ice was present most of the time but showed significant temporal variability decisively affected by movements of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet. For the first time, we prove the occurrence of seasonal sea ice at the eastern Yermak Plateau during glacial intervals, probably steered by a major northward advance of the ice sheet and the formation of a coastal polynya in front of it. Maximum accumulation of terrigenous organic carbon, IP25 and the phytoplankton biomarkers (brassicasterol, dinosterol, HBI III) can be correlated to distinct deglaciation events. More severe, but variable sea ice cover prevailed at the Yermak Plateau during interglacials. The general proximity to the sea ice margin is further indicated by biomarker (GDGT) - based sea surface temperatures below 2.5 degrees C.

  • 15. Large, DJ
    et al.
    Spiro, B
    Ferrat, M
    Shopland, M
    Kylander, M
    Gallagher, K
    Li, X
    Shen, C
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Zhang, G
    Darling, WG
    Weiss, D
    The influence of climate, hydrology and permafrost on Holocene peat accumulation at 3500 m on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau2009In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 28, no 27-28, p. 3303-3314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peatland of the eastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau lies at the convergence of the East Asian and Indian monsoon systems in eastern Asia. To understand the evolution of this peatland and its potential to provide new insights into the Holocene evolution of the East Asian monsoon a 6 m peat core was collected from the undisturbed central part of a peat deposit near Hongyuan. The age-depth profile was determined using 16 14C-AMS age dates, the peat analysed for a range of environmental variables including carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen concentration, bulk density, δ13C and the associated spring water analysed for hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. The age-depth profile of the recovered peat sequence covers the period from 9.6 to 0.3 kyr BP and is linear indicating that the conditions governing productivity and decay varied little over the Holocene. Using changes in carbon density, organic carbon content and its δ13C, cold dry periods of permafrost characterised by low density and impeded surface drainage were identified. The low δ18O and δD values of the spring water emanating around the peat deposit, down to −13.8 and −102‰ (VSMOW), respectively, with an inverse relationship between electrical conductivity and isotopic composition indicate precipitation under colder and drier conditions relative to the present day. In view of the current annual mean air temperature of 1 °C this suggests conditions in the past have been conducive to permafrost. Inferred periods of permafrost correspond to independently recognised cold periods in other Holocene records from across China at 8.6, 8.2–7.8, 5.6–4.2, 3.1 and 1.8–1.5 kyr BP. The transition to a cold dry climate appears to be more rapid than the subsequent recovery and cold dry periods at Hongyuan are of longer duration than equivalent cold dry periods over central and eastern China. Light–dark banding peat on a scale of 15–30 years from 9.6 to 5.5 kyr BP may indicate a strong influence of decadal oscillations possibly the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and a potential link between near simultaneous climatic changes in the northwest Pacific, ENSO, movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the East Asian Monsoon.

  • 16. Lougheed, Bryan C.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Björck, Svante
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Muscheler, Raimund
    A deglacial palaeomagnetic master curve for Fennoscandia Providing a dating template and supporting millennial-scale geomagnetic field patterns for the past 14 ka2014In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 106, p. 155-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconstructions of palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) in sediment cores can be compared to well-dated regional PSV master curves to infer deposition age. The existing PSV master curve for Fennoscandia, "Fennostack" (Snowball et al., 2007), is limited to the past 10 ka. In this study, we construct a deglacial (for the interval 14-11 ka) PSV master curve for Fennoscandia by including data from a number of existing studies in the region, updating geochronologies where necessary. We also produce new deglacial PSV data from Baltic Sea long-core sediments. By selecting three suitable sites, one in southern Sweden and two in northwest Russia, we produce, for the first time, a deglacial PSV master curve for Fennoscandia, which will provide a useful alternative dating tool for deglacial time intervals, especially considering that deglacial sediments are often unsuitable for C-14 dating. Additionally, we use the deglacial PSV master curve to assess current hypotheses regarding geomagnetic field changes. Time varying geomagnetic field models constrained by Holocene PSV data from around the globe have predicted the presence of latitudinal and longitudinal patterns in the position of the north geomagnetic pole (NGP). Specifically, a 1350 year cycle in NGP latitude has been noted, along with two preferred dominant mode longitudinal bands for NGP; in Europe and North America (Korte et al., 2011; Nilsson et al., 2011). Most PSV studies of sediment are, however, limited to the Holocene epoch. By combining our deglacial PSV master curve with 'Fennostack', we are able to assess general patterns in inclination for the past 14 ka, and compare these to a general prediction of regional inclination for the last 14 ka, based on an extrapolation of the latitudinal and longitudinal NGP periodicity noted by Nilsson et al. (2011). The model prediction suggests that the Fennoscandian PSV for the past 14 ka should reveal three recurring intervals of generally steeper inclination due to a dominant NGP longitudinal band in Europe. We find that the Fennoscandian PSV does indeed show these intervals of generally steeper inclination for the time periods expected, supporting the hypothesised periodic NGP variation, which may represent an inherent feature of the geodynamo. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 17. Markovic, Slobodan B.
    et al.
    Hambach, Ulrich
    Stevens, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Kukla, George J.
    Heller, Friedrich
    Mccoy, William D.
    Oches, Eric A.
    Buggle, Bjoern
    Zoeller, Ludwig
    The last million years recorded at the Stari Slankamen (Northern Serbia) loess-palaeosol sequence: revised chronostratigraphy and long-term environmental trends2011In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 30, no 9-10, p. 1142-1154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Norstrom, E.
    et al.
    Neumann, F. H.
    Scott, L.
    Smittenberg, R. H.
    Holmstrand, H.
    Lundqvist, S.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Sundqvist, H. S.
    Risberg, J.
    Bamford, M.
    Late Quaternary vegetation dynamics and hydro-climate in the Drakensberg, South Africa2014In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 105, p. 48-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-proxy study of a sediment sequence from Braamhoek wetland, covering the last c. 16,000 years, reveals a record of regional climate and vegetation dynamics in the Drakensberg region, South Africa, including signals from both the organic sediment fraction (fossil pollen, charcoal, n-alkane abundance, n-alkane delta C-13, TOC) and the inorganic fraction (mineral magnetic properties). The reconstruction, supported by a robust chronology, indicates two major periods of increased regional wetness during the late Pleistocene to early Holocene phase (c. 13,800-12,600 cal yr BP; c. 10,200-8500 cal yr BP) and one during the late Holocene (c. 2000 cal yr BP to present). Drier conditions are recorded during the Younger Dryas (c. 12,600-11,300 cal yr BP) and mid-Holocene (c. 7000-2000 cal yr BP). A major decline in fynbos vegetation during the early Holocene suggests a shift towards warmer temperatures and possibly towards less pronounced winter rains in eastern South Africa from c. 8500 cal yr BP. Comparison with records from interior of South Africa show relatively high inter-site variability, however, the Braamhoek moisture proxies do co-vary with the speleothem isotope records from Makapansgat, suggesting a similar hydro-climate evolution in eastern and interior parts of the summer rainfall region during the studied period. On multi-millennial time scales, an inverse hydro-climatological pattern is evident between these two South African records and reconstructions from tropical locations in southeast Africa. Such a rainfall dipole between eastern tropical and southern Africa, has previously been identified on shorter time scales, i.e. on inter-annual to millennial scales. The Braamhoek study suggests that a similar dipole pattern is acting also on a multi-millennial perspective. These long-term precipitation anomalies are tentatively coupled to teleconnections from multi-millennial changes in the dynamics of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). 

  • 19.
    Ruskeeniemi, Timo
    et al.
    Geol Survey Finland, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Engstrom, Jon
    Geol Survey Finland, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Lehtimaki, Jukka
    Geol Survey Finland, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Vanhala, Heikki
    Geol Survey Finland, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Korhonen, Kimmo
    Geol Survey Finland, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Kontula, Anne
    Posiva Oy, FI-27160 Eurajoki, Finland.
    Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson
    Swedish Nucl Fuel & Waste Management Co, Box 3091, SE-16903 Solna, Sweden.
    Naslund, Jens-Ove
    Swedish Nucl Fuel & Waste Management Co, Box 3091, SE-16903 Solna, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Subglacial permafrost evidencing re-advance of the Greenland Ice Sheet over frozen ground2018In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 199, p. 174-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) covers an area of 1.7 million km(2). It has been an important source of climate information and the air temperature history of Greenland is well known. However, the thermal history and temperature conditions of the Greenland bedrock are poorly known. There are only few records on the temperature of the proglacial bedrock and no records on bedrock temperature underneath the ice sheet. The Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) recently investigated hydrological, hydrogeological and geochemical processes in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland. Because permafrost has a major hydrological impact in Arctic regions, the cryogenic structure of the bedrock was an important research topic. From previous studies it was already known that Kangerlussuaq is located within the zone of continuous permafrost. Temperature profiling in a new research borehole, extending horizontally 30 m underneath the ice sheet, revealed that permafrost is 350 m deep at the ice margin. This result raised the question how far the permafrost extends under the ice sheet? In order to investigate the thermal properties, we made a series of electromagnetic (EM) soundings at the ice margin area - on proglacial area and on the ice sheet - and detected, that subglacial permafrost extends at least 2 km from the ice margin to inland. We also observed a patchy unfrozen sediment layer between the ice and the frozen bedrock. Possible existence of subglacial sediments and their role in ice dynamics has been debated in many recent papers. Our successful campaign shows that geophysics can be used for bedrock investigations through thick ice, which is known to be challenging for electromagnetic methods. Our results provide the first direct evidence supporting the proposed Holocene ice re-advance over frozen ground, and contribute to the discussion on the rapid climate changes in past, to the future of the ice sheet under warming climate and hydrogeology at the ice margin.

  • 20. Schwalb, Antje
    et al.
    Dean, Walter
    Güde, Hans
    Hanisch, Sabine
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Wessels, Martin
    Benthic ostracode ∂13C as sensor for early Holocene establishment of modern circulation patterns in Central Europe2013In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 66, no SI, p. 112-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shells from adult specimen of the benthic ostracodes Limnocytherina sanctipatricii and Leucocythere mirabilis selected from a 8.7 m long piston core provide continuous stable oxygen and carbon records for the past approximately 16 ka. Oxygen isotopes from both species show identical values and track the general North Atlantic and European temperature history since deglaciation in great detail. Values of ostracode δ18O values suggest that about 16 cal ka the average annual air temperatures were about 11 °C colder than today. Carbon isotopic values from both species of ostracodes are similar during the Lateglacial and early Holocene, and show an overall decrease from −4‰ to −7‰ that is probably related to an increase in photosynthetic productivity in the water column, as suggested by an increase in organic carbon, delivering 13C-depleted organic matter to the bottom waters (carbon pump). About 9 cal ka only L. mirabilis δ13C values decreased about −2.5‰ within 300 years. Higher δ13C variability and ecological evidence suggests that L. mirabilis represents a summer signal, whereas L. sanctipatricii displays a more subdued annual average. After about 7 cal ka another −1.5% decrease for both species, accompanied by an increase in magnetic susceptibility, a decrease in carbonate content, and more positive bulk carbonate isotope values followed, suggesting higher detrital-clastic input into the lake. In order to provide a possible mechanism explaining the negative L. mirabilis δ13C-values, sediment pore water profiles of O2 and CH4 in short cores collected from sites distal to proximal to the Alpine Rhine River delta, were inspected. Sediments in cores from more proximal sites to the Rhine delta become anoxic at shallower sediment depth due to the decay of high allochthonous organic carbon input to the sediment, which greatly increases concentrations of methane in pore waters closer to the Rhine inflow. When methane is oxidized close to the sediment–water-interface, 13C-depleted carbon is added to pore water DIC that is then available for incorporation into ostracode shells. This mechanism suggests that about 9 cal ka the oxygen supply to the bottom waters, especially in summer, decreased. This stimulated methanogenesis close to the sediment–water-interface, and provided δ13C-depleted carbon to benthic dwellers. Independent evidence for methanogenesis is provided by the increase in concentration of tetrahymanol after about 9 cal ka coincident with the decrease in δ13C of L. mirabilis. We suggest that about 9 cal ka the northward retreat of the Northern Hemisphere Ice Sheets, and consequently the polar front, left the alpine region affected by a more oceanic climate, characterized by warmer winters as they occur today especially during the positive North Atlantic Oscillation Index phase. More frequently incomplete mixing of the water column may have shifted the decay of organic matter faster to anaerobic conditions in surficial sediments especially during summer. By about 7 cal ka the North Atlantic region had probably warmed sufficiently to increase precipitation in Central Europe and consequently detrital-clastic runoff to Lake Constance.

  • 21. Stevens, T.
    et al.
    Carter, A.
    Watson, T. P.
    Vermeesch, P.
    Ando, S.
    Bird, A. F.
    Lu, H.
    Garzanti, E.
    Cottam, M. A.
    Sevastjanova, I.
    Genetic linkage between the Yellow River, the Mu Us desert and the Chinese Loess Plateau2013In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 78, p. 355-368Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Stevens, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Adamiec, Grzegorz
    Bird, Anna F.
    Lu, Huayu
    An abrupt shift in dust source on the Chinese Loess Plateau revealed through high sampling resolution OSL dating2013In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 82, p. 121-132Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Stevens, Thomas
    et al.
    Centre for Quaternary Research, Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK.
    Markovic, Slobodan B.
    Zech, Michael
    Hambach, Ulrich
    Suemegi, Pal
    Dust deposition and climate in the Carpathian Basin over an independently dated last glacial-interglacial cycle2011In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 30, no 5-6, p. 662-681Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    van der Plas, Geert W.
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    De Cort, Gijs
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium;Royal Museum Cent Africa, Dept Earth Sci, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium.
    Petek-Sargeant, Nik
    British Museum, Dept Africa Oceania & Amer, Great Russell St, London WC1B 3DG, England.
    Wuytack, Tabitha
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Colombaroli, Daniele
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium;Royal Holloway Univ London, Ctr Quaternary Res, Dept Geog, Egham TW20 0EX, Surrey, England.
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ Cambridge, Dept Archaeol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3DZ, England.
    Verschuren, Dirk
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Distinct phases of natural landscape dynamics and intensifying human activity in the central Kenya Rift Valley during the past 1300 years2019In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 218, p. 91-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socio-ecological stresses currently affecting the semi-arid regions of equatorial East Africa are driving environmental changes that need to be placed in a proper context of long-term human-climate-landscape interaction. Here we present a detailed reconstruction of past human influences on the landscape of the central Kenya Rift Valley, against the backdrop of natural climate-driven ecosystem dynamics over the past 1300 years. Proxy records of vegetation dynamics (pollen), animal husbandry (fungal spores), biomass burning (charcoal) and soil mobilization (clastic mineral influx) extracted from the continuous depositional archive of Lake Bogoria reveal six distinct phases of human activity. From ca 700 to 1430 CE, strong primary response of savanna woodland ecotonal vegetation to climatic moisture-balance variation suggests that anthropogenic influence on regional ecosystem dynamics was limited. The first unambiguous ecological signature of human activities involves a mid-15th century reduction of woodland/forest trees followed by the appearance of cereal pollen, both evidence for mixed farming. From the mid-17th century, animal husbandry became a significant ecological factor and reached near-modern levels by the mid-19th century, after severe early-19th century drought had substantially changed human-landscape interaction. A short-lived peak in biomass burning and evidence for soil mobilization in low-lying areas of the Bogoria catchment likely reflects the known 19th-century establishment of irrigation agriculture, while renewed expansion of forest and woodland trees reflect the return of a wetter climate and abandonment of other farmland. Since the mid-20th century, the principal signature of human activity within the Lake Bogoria catchment is the unprecedented increase in clastic sediment flux, reflecting widespread soil erosion associated with rapidly intensifying land use. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25. Vandergoes, MJ
    et al.
    Dieffenbacher-Krall, AC
    Newnham, RM
    Denton, GH
    Blaauw, Maarten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Cooling and changing seasonality in the Southern Alps, New Zealand during the Antarctic Cold Reversal2008In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 27, no 5-6, p. 589-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensively 14C AMS dated pollen and chironomid record from Boundary Stream Tarn provides the first chironomid-derived temperature reconstruction to quantify temperature change during Lateglacial times (17,500–10,000 cal yr BP) in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. The records indicate a ca 1000-year disruption to the Lateglacial warming trend and an overall cooling consistent with the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR). The main interval of chironomid-inferred summer temperature depression (2–3 °C) lasted about 700 years during the ACR. Following this cooling event, both proxies indicate a warming step to temperatures slightly cooler than present during the Younger Dryas chronozone (12,900–11,500 cal yr BP). These results highlight a direct linkage between Antarctica and mid-latitude terrestrial climate systems and the largely asynchronous nature of the interhemispheric climate system during the last glacial transition. The greater magnitude of temperature changes shown by the chironomid record is attributed to the response of the proxies to differences in seasonal climate with chironomids reflecting summer temperature and vegetation more strongly controlled by duration of winter or by minimum temperatures. These differences imply stronger seasonality at times during the Lateglacial, which may explain some of the variability between other paleoclimate records from New Zealand and have wider implications for understanding differences between proxy records for abrupt climate change.

  • 26.
    Weiberg, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Unkel, Ingmar
    Kouli, Katerina
    Holmgren, Karin
    Avramidis, Pavlos
    Bonnier, Anton
    Dibble, Flint
    Finné, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden; Navarino Environm Observ, Costa Navarino 24001, Messinia, Greece .
    Izdebski, Adam
    Katrantsiotis, Christos
    Stocker, Sharon R.
    Andwinge, Maria
    Baika, Kalliope
    Boyd, Meighan
    Heymann, Christian
    The socio-environmental history of the Peloponnese during the Holocene: Towards an integrated understanding of the past2016In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 136, p. 40-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Published archaeological, palaeoenvironmental, and palaeoclimatic data from the Peloponnese in Greece are compiled, discussed and evaluated in order to analyse the interactions between humans and the environment over the last 9000 years. Our study indicates that the number of human settlements found scattered over the peninsula have quadrupled from the prehistoric to historical periods and that this evolution occurred over periods of climate change and seismo–tectonic activity. We show that societal development occurs both during periods of harsh as well as favourable climatic conditions. At some times, some settlements develop while others decline. Well-known climate events such as the 4.2 ka and 3.2 ka events are recognizable in some of the palaeoclimatic records and a regional decline in the number and sizes of settlements occurs roughly at the same time, but their precise chronological fit with the archaeological record remains uncertain. Local socio-political processes were probably always the key drivers behind the diverse strategies that human societies took in times of changing climate. The study thus reveals considerable chronological parallels between societal development and palaeoenvironmental records, but also demonstrates the ambiguities in these correspondences and, in doing so, highlights some of the challenges that will face future interdisciplinary projects. We suggest that there can be no general association made between societal expansion phases and periods of advantageous climate. We also propose that the relevance of climatic and environmental regionality, as well as any potential impacts of seismo-tectonics on societal development, need to be part of the interpretative frameworks.

  • 27. Workman, Claire
    et al.
    Dalen, Love
    Vartanyan, Sergey
    Shapiro, Beth
    Kosintsev, Pavel
    Sher, Andrei
    Götherström, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Barnes, Ian
    Population-level genotyping of coat colour polymorphism in woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius)2011In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 30, no 17-18, p. 2304-2308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns in the spatial or temporal distribution of genotypes may be indicative of natural selection. Previous work on the woolly mammoth melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) gene identified three polymorphic positions that suggest Pleistocene populations may have harboured both light- and dark-haired mammoths (Rompler et al., 2006, 313: 62). Here, we extend this work and present the first population-level analysis of a functional gene in an extinct species. We genotyped the Mc1r gene in 47 woolly mammoth samples excavated from sites across the central portion of the woolly mammoths' former range to examine the extent of variation of this polymorphism through time and across space. Only one individual was found to be heterozygous, indicating that the frequency of the 'light' mutant allele was very low. We conclude that light-coloured woolly mammoths would have been very rare, and may even have been non-existent if the 'light' mutant allele was strongly selected against in its homozygotic form. With the increasing availability of large-scale sequencing technologies, population-level datasets capable of identifying local adaptation will become increasingly attainable.

  • 28.
    Yi, Peng
    et al.
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China;Joint Int Res Lab Global Change & Water Cycle, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Zhongbo
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China;Joint Int Res Lab Global Change & Water Cycle, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Peng
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China;Joint Int Res Lab Global Change & Water Cycle, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Aldahan, Ala
    United Arab Emirates Univ, Dept Geol, Al Ain 17551, U Arab Emirates.
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Loess & Quaternary Geol, Inst Earth Environm, Xian AMS Ctr,Shaanxi Key Lab AMS Technol & Applic, Xian 710061, Shaanxi, Peoples R China;Tech Univ Denmark, Ctr Nucl Technol, Riso Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
    Fan, Yukun
    Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Loess & Quaternary Geol, Inst Earth Environm, Xian AMS Ctr,Shaanxi Key Lab AMS Technol & Applic, Xian 710061, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Li
    Desert Res Inst, Div Hydrol Sci, Las Vegas, NV 89119 USA.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Muscheler, Raimund
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol Quaternary Sci, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Zhou, Weijian
    Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Loess & Quaternary Geol, Inst Earth Environm, Xian AMS Ctr,Shaanxi Key Lab AMS Technol & Applic, Xian 710061, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
    Sudicky, Edward
    Univ Waterloo, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.
    Schwartz, Frank
    Ohio State Univ, Sch Earth Sci, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Murad, Ahmed
    United Arab Emirates Univ, Dept Geol, Al Ain 17551, U Arab Emirates.
    Late Holocene pathway of Asian Summer Monsoons imprinted in soils and societal implications2019In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 215, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Asian Summer Monsoons (ASM) represent the main source of precipitation in China and East Asia with about one third of the world population and a region of widespread civilizations. Identifying the temporal and spatial patterns (pathways) of these monsoonal events during the Late Holocene to today has been a matter of debate amongst the scientific community. Here we show that the distribution patterns of the cosmogenic isotope Be-10 and oceanic I-127 in the topsoil across China exhibit imprints of the main ASM pathways. Our results indicate the monsoon pathway pattern persisted for several millennia or more and suggest a strong bond between Be-10 and water vapor transport patterns. Our data also reveal a(127)I distribution pattern controlled by the ASM pathways, rather than proximity to the sea or bedrock weathering. The persistent pathway of the ASM during the late Holocene, together with higher than average global soil iodine concentration, may have further strengthened the development of civilizations in this region of the world through reduction of iodine deficiency related diseases. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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