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  • 1. Andren, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Toxicity of inorganic aluminium at spring snowmelt-In-stream bioassays with brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 437, p. 422-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the acid load has decreased throughout Scandinavia, acidic soils still mobilise aluminium (Al) that is harmful to brown trout. We hypothesise that there are thresholds for Al toxicity and that the toxicity can be traced from the water content to gill accumulation and the consequential physiological effects. During snowmelt, yearlings were exposed to a gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Al-i) in humic streams to study the toxic effects and mortality. Gill Al and physiological blood analyses [haemoglobin (Hb), plasma chloride (P-Cl) and glucose (Glu)] were measured. As the water quality deteriorated, Al accumulated on the gills; Hb and Glu increased; P-Cl decreased, and mortality occurred. Moribund fish had significantly increased gill Al and Hb, suggesting that respiratory disturbances contributed to mortality. Decreased P-C and plasma availability indicated an ion regulatory disturbance and possibly circulatory collapse. Al-i should be less than 20 mu g/L, and pH higher than 5.0, to sustain healthy brown trout populations. These thresholds can be used to fine-tune lime dose, as both Al-i and pH levels have to be balanced to prevent harm in the recovering aquatic biota. Although Al is tightly linked to pH, local variation in Al availability in soil and bedrock affects the Al release and subsequent toxic Al-i episodes in some catchment areas.

  • 2.
    Bonarowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys Chem, PL-01224 Warsaw, Poland.
    Matus, Krzysztof
    Silesian Tech Univ, Inst Engn Mat & Biomat, PL-44100 Gliwice, Poland.
    Srebowata, Anna
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys Chem, PL-01224 Warsaw, Poland.
    Sá, Jacinto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys Chem, PL-01224 Warsaw, Poland.
    Application of silica-supported Ir and Ir-M (M=Pt, Pd, Au) catalysts for low-temperature hydrodechlorination of tetrachloromethane2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 644, p. 287-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, it is presented a catalytic system for gas-phase hydrodechlorination of tetrachloromethane at low temperature and atmospheric pressure, using iridium supported on silica as parent catalyst. Iridium electronic configuration is suitable to catalyse the hydrodechlorination reactions, however, it has been rarely used in this reaction to date. The catalytic abilities were significantly improved when a second transition metal was added. Catalysts' stability and selectivity to the desired products (i.e. C-1-C-4 hydrocarbons) improved compared to conventional activation in hydrogen when catalysts were activated shortly with microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation of catalysts favourably influences the homogeneity of the metallic active phase, both in terms of the size of metal crystals and the homogeneity of bimetallic systems. Addition of platinumto the 'parent' iridium catalyst improved its catalytic properties and decreased deactivation. Fresh and spent catalysts were comprehensively characterized using several techniques (BET, CO-chemisorption, XRD, XPS, electron microscopy and mass spectrometry) to determine structure-activity relationships and potential causes for catalyst deactivation. No significant changes in crystalline size or bimetallic phase composition were observed for spent catalysts (with the exception of Ir-Pd catalysts which underwent bulk carbide during the reaction).

  • 3.
    Brunner, Manuela Irene
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Grenoble Alpes, IGE, Grenoble INP, Grenoble, France..
    Sikorska, Anna E.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.;Warsaw Univ Life Sci SGGW, Dept Hydraul Engn, Warsaw, Poland..
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Bivariate analysis of floods in climate impact assessments2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, p. 1392-1403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate impact studies regarding floods usually focus on peak discharges and a bivariate assessment of peak discharges and hydrograph volumes is not commonly included. A joint consideration of peak discharges and hydrograph volumes, however, is crucial when assessing flood risks for current and future climate conditions. Here, we present a methodology to develop synthetic design hydrographs for future climate conditions that jointly consider peak discharges and hydrograph volumes. First, change factors are derived based on a regional climate model and are applied to observed precipitation and temperature time series. Second, the modified time series are fed into a calibrated hydrological model to simulate runoff time series for future conditions. Third, these time series are used to construct synthetic design hydrographs. The bivariate flood frequency analysis used in the construction of synthetic design hydrographs takes into account the dependence between peak discharges and hydrograph volumes, and represents the shape of the hydrograph. The latter is modeled using a probability density function while the dependence between the design variables peak discharge and hydrograph volume is modeled using a copula. We applied this approach to a set of eight mountainous catchments in Switzerland to construct catchment-specific and season-specific design hydrographs for a control and three scenario climates. Our work demonstrates that projected climate changes have an impact not only on peak discharges but also on hydrograph volumes and on hydrograph shapes both at an annual and at a seasonal scale. These changes are not necessarily proportional which implies that climate impact assessments on future floods should consider more flood characteristics than just flood peaks.

  • 4.
    Choudhury, Maidul I.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Environm Assessment, Box 7050, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Urrutia Cordero, Pablo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. HIFMB, Ammerlander Heerstr 231, D-26129 Oldenburg, Germany;Carl von Ossietzky Univ Oldenburg, Inst Chem & Biol Marine Environm ICBM, Schleusenstr 1, D-26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
    Zhang, Huan
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Hydrobiol, Wuhan 430072, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Ekvall, Mattias K.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden;Cty Adm Board Skane Environm & Climate, Sodergaten 5, S-20515 Malmo, Sweden.
    Medeiros, Leonardo Rafael
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden;Fed Inst Educ Sci & Technol Rio Grande do Norte I, BR-59508000 Mossoro, RN, Brazil.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Charophytes collapse beyond a critical warming and brownification threshold in shallow lake systems2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 661, p. 148-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Charophytes play a critical role for the functioning of shallow lake ecosystems. Although growth of charophytes can be limited by many factors, such as temperature, nutrients and light availability, our understanding about concomitant effects of climate warming and other large-scale environmental perturbations, e.g. increases in humic matter content ('brownification') is still limited. Here we conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment during 71 days with a common charophyte species, Chara vulgaris, along an increasing gradient of temperature and brownification. We hypothesized the growth of C. vulgaris to increase with temperature, but to level off along the combined temperature and brownification gradient when reaching a critical threshold for light limitation via brownification. We show that C. vulgaris increases the relative growth rate (RGR), main and total shoot elongation, as well as number of lateral shoots when temperature and brownification increased by +2 degrees C and + 100%, respectively above today's levels. However, the RGR, shoot elongation and number of lateral shoots declined at further increment of temperature and brownification. Macrophyte weight-length ratio decreased with increased temperature and brownification, indicating that C. vulgaris allocate more resources or energy for shoot elongation instead of biomass increase at warmer temperatures and higher brownification. Our study shows that C. vulgaris will initially benefit from warming and brownification but will then decline as a future scenario of increased warming and brownification reaches a certain threshold level, in case of our experiment at +4 degrees C and a 2-fold increase in brownification above today's levels. 

  • 5.
    Eklöf, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Swede.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Björn, Erik
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Buck, Moritz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Umea Univ, Dept Chem, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.; National Bioinformatics Infrastructure Sweden, Uppsala SE-75236, Sweden.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Osman, Omneya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kronberg, Rose Marie
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Bravo, Andrea Garcia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Formation of mercury methylation hotspots as a consequence of forestry operations2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613-614, p. 1069-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that boreal forest logging can increase the concentration and export of methylmercury (MeHg) in stream runoff. Here we test whether forestry operations create soil environments of high MeHg net formation associated with distinct microbial communities. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that Hg methylation hotspots are more prone to form after stump harvest than stem-only harvest, because of more severe soil compaction and soil disturbance. Concentrations of MeHg, percent MeHg of total Hg (THg), and bacterial community composition were determined at 200 soil sampling positions distributed across eight catchments. Each catchment was either stem-only harvested (n = 3), stem- and stump-harvested (n = 2) or left undisturbed (n = 3). In support of our hypothesis, higher MeHg to THg ratios was observed in one of the stump-harvested catchments. While the effects of natural variation could not be ruled out, we noted that most of the highest % MeHg was observed in water-filled cavities created by stump removal or driving damage. This catchment also featured the highest bacterial diversity and highest relative abundance of bacterial families known to include Hg methylators. We propose that water-logged and disturbed soil environments associated with stump harvest can favor methylating microorganisms, which also enhance MeHg formation.

  • 6.
    Farkas, Julia
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Peter, Hannes
    Univ Innsbruck, Inst Ecol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Ciesielski, Tomasz M.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Thomas, Kevin V.
    Norwegian Inst Water Res, N-0349 Oslo, Norway..
    Sommaruga, Ruben
    Univ Innsbruck, Inst Ecol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Salvenmoser, Willi
    Univ Innsbruck, Inst Zool, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Jenssen, Bjorn M.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Impact of TiO2 nanoparticles on freshwater bacteria from three Swedish lakes2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 535, p. 85-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the rapidly rising production and usage of nano-enabled products, aquatic environments are increasingly exposed to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), causing concerns about their potential negative effects. In this study we assessed the effects of uncoated titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)NPs) on the growth and activity of bacterial communities of three Swedish lakes featuring different chemical characteristics such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, pH and elemental composition. TiO2NP exposure concentrations were 15, 100, and 1000 mu g L-1, and experiments were performed in situ under three light regimes: darkness, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and ambient sunlight including UV radiation (UVR). The nanoparticles were most stable in lake water with high DOC and low chemical element concentrations. At the highest exposure concentration (1000 mu g L-1 TiO2NP) the bacterial abundance was significantly reduced in all lake waters. In the medium and high DOC lake waters, exposure concentrations of 100 mu g L-1 TiO2NP caused significant reductions in bacterial abundance. The cell-specific bacterial activity was significantly enhanced at high TiO2NP exposure concentrations, indicating the loss of nanoparticle-sensitive bacteria and a subsequent increased activity by tolerant ones. No UV-induced phototoxic effect of TiO2NP was found in this study. We conclude that in freshwater lakes with high DOC and low chemical element concentrations, uncoated TiO(2)NPs show an enhanced stability and can significantly reduce bacterial abundance at relatively low exposure concentrations.

  • 7.
    Flink, P
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Centre for Image Analysis. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis.
    Lindell, T
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis.
    Östlund, C
    Statistical analysis of hyperspectral data from two Swedish lakes2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 268, no 1-3, p. 155-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CASI data has been collected from two lakes in Sweden. In this paper. some statistical properties of CASI spectral data have been discussed. Principal component analysis is used for assessing the dimensionality of the data and the principal components wer

  • 8. Forslund, Johanna
    et al.
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Vredin Johansson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Barregård, Lars
    Does remediation save lives? On the cost of cleaning up arsenic-contaminated sites in Sweden2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 16, p. 3085-3091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has only just begun remediation of its many contaminated sites, a process that will cost an estimatedSEK 60,000 million (USD 9100 million). Although the risk assessment method, carried out by the SwedishEPA, is driven by health effects, it does not consider actual exposure. Instead, the sites are assessed based ondivergence from guideline values. This paper uses an environmental medicine approach that takes exposureinto account to analyse how cancer risks on and near arsenic-contaminated sites are implicitly valued in theremediation process. The results show that the level of ambition is high. At 23 contaminated sites, the costper life saved varies from SEK 287 million to SEK 1,835,000 million, despite conservative calculations that infact probably underestimate the costs. It is concluded that if environmental health risks are to be reduced,there are probably other areas where economic resources can be used more cost-effectively.

  • 9.
    Funseth, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Påhlman, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Friman, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Effects of coxsackievirus B3 infection on the acute-phase protein metallothionein and on cytochrome P-4501A1 involved in the detoxification processes of TCDD in the mouse2002In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 284, no 1-3, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During acute infections, the synthesis of acute-phase proteins and other proteins participating in the host defence are stimulated in the liver and kidney. In previous studies of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection in mice, we found that cadmium (Cd) accumulates in the kidney, whereas 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) accumulates in the liver. To study if CB3 infection affects the synthesis of the Cd-binding protein metallothionein (MT) and the TCDD-binding/detoxifying cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) isozyme CYP1A1, the basal and TCDD-induced levels of serum MT and liver CYP1A1 isozyme were determined in healthy and CB3-infected A/J mice. Furthermore, because interferons affect CYP450 activity, the serum levels of the interferons alpha (IFN-alpha) and -beta (IFN-beta) were measured in CB3-infected mice and in mice treated with the interferon-inducer polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid (poly I/C). Virus or poly I/C was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) on day 0 and 500 ng TCDD/kg bodyweight on day 1. On day 4, CB3 infection had induced MT approximately 10-fold, regardless of TCDD treatment (P < 0.01 in infected mice and P < 0.001 in infected, TCDD-treated mice). TCDD alone induced a 10-fold increase in CYP1A1 activity (P < 0.001), whereas infection alone suppressed the normal CYP1A1 activity by 75% (P < 0.001). Infection also suppressed the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activity by approximately 30% (n.s.). Poly I/C suppressed CYP1A1 by 20-25% (n.s.) at both basal and TCDD-induced levels. Serum IFN-alpha and IFN-beta levels were undetectable in controls, in TCDD-treated and in the poly I/C-treated groups on day 4, probably because the short IFN peak is detectable only hours after injection. Conversely, on day 4 of the infection, IFN-alpha and IFN-beta were consistently raised in the TCDD-treated infected mice, whereas increased IFNs as a result of infection alone could be detected in only one individual. These results suggest that the normal host responses during acute infections down-regulate detoxifying processes in favour of acute-phase protein synthesis. This may explain the observed changed pattern of accumulation, excretion and toxicity of the environmental pollutants cadmium and TCDD during this common virus infection.

  • 10. Gamberg, Mary
    et al.
    Chételat, John
    Poulain, Alexandre
    Zdanowicz, Christian M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Zheng, Jiancheng
    Mercury in the Canadian Arctic Terrestrial Environment: An Update2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 509-510, p. 28-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twenty years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper provides the current state of knowledge on mercury (Hg) in theCanadian Arctic terrestrial environment. Snow, ice, and soils on land are key reservoirs for atmospheric deposition and can become sources of Hg through the melting of terrestrial ice and snow and via soil erosion. In the Canadian Arctic, new data have been collected for snow and ice that provide more information on the net accumulation and storage of Hg in the cryosphere. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) in terrestrial snow are highly variable but on average, relatively low (less than 5ng/L), and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in terrestrial snow are also generally low (less than 0.1 ng/L). On average, THg concentrations in snow on Canadian Arctic glaciers are muchlower than those reported on terrestrial lowlands or sea ice. Hg in snow may be affected by photochemical exchanges with the atmosphere mediated by marine aerosols and halogens, and by post-depositional redistribution within the snow pack. Regional accumulation rates of THg in Canadian Arctic glaciers varied little during the past century but show evidence of an increasing north-to-south gradient. Temporal trends of THg in glacier cores indicate an abrupt increase inthe early 1990s, possibly due to volcanic emissions, followed by more stable, but relatively elevated levels. Little information is available on Hg concentrations and processes in Arctic soils. Terrestrial Arctic wildlife typically have low levels of THg (less than μg/g dry weight) in their tissues, although caribou(Rangifer tarandus) can have higher Hg because they consume large amounts of lichen.THg concentrations in the Yukon’s Porcupine caribou herd vary among years but there has been no significant increase or decrease over the last two decades.

  • 11. Hansen, Violeta
    et al.
    Yi, Peng
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Roos, Per
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Iodide and iodate ((129)I and (127)I) in surface water of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 412, p. 296-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the common incorporation of iodine in the biological cycle and occurrence of huge contamination of the radioactive isotope (129)I in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat, there is no data on chemical speciation of iodine in these waters. We here present first time data on iodine isotopes (129)I and (127)I species as iodide and iodate in surface seawater samples collected from 16 locations in August 2006 and 19 locations in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat. After extensive separation methods, the isotopes concentrations were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique for the (129)I and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for (127)I. High concentrations of both isotopes species were found in the Skagerrak-Kattegat basins, whereas the values in the Baltic Proper are low for both species. The ratios of (129)I(-)/(129)IO(3)(-) and (127)I-/(127)IO(3)(-) significantly increase from south to central Baltic Sea, and iodide (both isotopes) appears as the predominant inorganic iodine species along the Baltic Sea. The results show insignificant change in (129)I and (127)I speciation and suggest that reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in Skagerrak and Kattegat may be a slow process. Additionally, the positive correlation between salinity and iodide and iodate (both isotopes) may reflect effective control of Skagerrak water mass on iodine distribution in surface water of the Baltic Sea.

  • 12. Helander, B.
    et al.
    Axelsson, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Borg, H.
    Holm, K.
    Bignert, A.
    Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 21, p. 5555-5563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (>6 microg/gd.w.) lead concentrations, indicating exposure to leaded ammunition, and 14% of the individuals had either liver or kidney lead concentrations diagnostic of lethal lead poisoning (>20 microg/gd.w.). Lead concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly correlated. In individuals with lead levels <6 microg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in kidney than in liver; in individuals with lead levels >20 microg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in liver. The lead isotope ratios indicate that the source of lead in individuals with lethal concentrations is different from that of individuals exhibiting background concentrations of lead (<6 microg/gd.w.) There were no significant sex or age differences in lead concentrations. A study from the Baltic reported in principle no biomagnification of lead, but background lead concentrations in WSE liver in this study were still four to >10 times higher than concentrations reported for Baltic fish from the same time period. In contrast to other biota there was no decrease in lead concentrations in WSE over the study period. The proportion of lead poisoned WSE remained unchanged over the study period, including two years after a partial ban of lead shot was enforced in 2002 for shallow wetlands. The use of lead in ammunition poses a threat to all raptors potentially feeding on shot game or offal. The removal of offal from shot game and alternatives to leaded ammunition needs to be implemented in order to prevent mortality from lead in raptors and scavengers.

  • 13.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Lindvall, Anders
    Foundation for Metal Biology, Öfre Slottsgatan 16A, S-753 12 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gahnberg, Lars
    Public Dental Health Service, County of Uppsala, Ulleråkersvägen 21, S-750 17 Uppsala, Sweden.
    High mercury emissions from dental clinics despite amalgam separators2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 362, no 1-3, p. 74-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) as amalgam has been used as a dental filling material for more than 150 years. Thereby, dentists and their patients have been directly exposed to Hg, and the public and the environment indirectly exposed via Hg emissions from incinerators and Hg in waste water from households and dental clinics. Due to the toxic properties of Hg and bioaccumulation in biota of Hg emitted via dental clinic waste water, amalgam separators were introduced in Sweden in the 1980s. Although these amalgam separators in the certification process are required to remove at least 95% of incoming Hg in a standardized laboratory test, their efficiency in practical use has not been properly investigated. Here we present actual Hg emissions via waste water from 12 dental clinics equipped with the same type of amalgam separator based on sedimentation. All waste water was collected for four consecutive working days, initially at ordinary operating conditions and a second time after a thorough revision and cleaning of the discharge system. The results indicate that mercury emissions from dental clinics can be reduced by an improved design of the discharge system, a sensible use of high pressure water cleaning, and regular maintenance, including replacement of amalgam separators and filters at certain intervals. The study also indicates that banning Hg in dentistry is the one long-term way to stop Hg emissions from dental amalgam.

  • 14.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Lindvall, Anders
    Uhrberg, Roland
    Gahnberg, Lars
    Lindh, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Enheten för metallbiologisk forskning.
    Mercury recovery in situ of four different dental amalgam separators2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 366, no 1, p. 320-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amalgam separators are used to physically remove dental amalgam from waste water in dental clinics. They are thereby supposed to reduce mercury (Hg) emissions to the municipal waste water system to acceptable levels. We here present results from a comparative study in situ of three amalgam separators available on the market, all with a claimed efficiency of 99% according to Danish and ISO protocols, and using sedimentation as the principle of separation. We also present corresponding data for an investigational prototype of an improved separator. The obtained efficiency of the three commercial separators is far below what is stated by the manufacturer and by authorities assumed to be the efficiency in clinical conditions. They reduced Hg emissions by 79 - 91%, leaving an average Hg content in outgoing waste water of 1.5 mg L(-1). However, the prototype separator participating in this study retained 99.9% of the waste water Hg emissions, leaving an average Hg content in outgoing waste water of 0.004 mg L(-1). Physical restrictions prohibit sedimentary type separators to recover the Hg fractions causing the largest damages in wastewater treatment plants. This fraction is not considered in the ISO protocol for testing amalgam separators, which therefore needs to be revised. Abolishing the use of dental amalgam and cleaning the tubing systems is the most efficient long-term solution to reduce Hg emissions from dental clinics. Until then, Hg emissions originating from placing, polishing or removing existing amalgam fillings, should be counteracted by the use of low-emission amalgam separators, already on the market or presently being developed for use alone or together with sedimentary type amalgam separators.

  • 15.
    Hytteborn, Julia K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Temnerud, Johan
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Alexander, Richard B.
    U.S. Geological Survey, USA.
    Boyer, Elisabeth W.
    Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, USA.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Mats
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Dahné, Joel
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Research Department, Sweden.
    Bishop, Kevin H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Patterns and predictability in the intra-annual organic carbon variability across the boreal and hemiboreal landscape2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 520, p. 260-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors affecting total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in 215 watercourses across Sweden were investigated using parameter parsimonious regression approaches to explain spatial and temporal variabilities of the TOC water quality responses. We systematically quantified the effects of discharge, seasonality, and long-term trend as factors controlling intra-annual (among year) and inter-annual (within year) variabilities of TOC by evaluating the spatial variability in model coefficients and catchment characteristics (e.g. land cover, retention time, soil type).

    Catchment area (0.18–47,000 km2) and land cover types (forests, agriculture and alpine terrain) are typical for the boreal and hemiboreal zones across Fennoscandia. Watercourses had at least 6 years of monthly water quality observations between 1990 and 2010. Statistically significant models (p < 0.05) describing variation of TOC in streamflow were identified in 209 of 215 watercourses with a mean Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index of 0.44. Increasing long-term trends were observed in 149 (70%) of the watercourses, and intra-annual variation in TOC far exceeded inter-annual variation. The average influences of the discharge and seasonality terms on intra-annual variations in daily TOC concentration were 1.4 and 1.3 mg l− 1 (13 and 12% of the mean annual TOC), respectively. The average increase in TOC was 0.17 mg l− 1 year− 1 (1.6% year− 1).

    Multivariate regression with over 90 different catchment characteristics explained 21% of the spatial variation in the linear trend coefficient, less than 20% of the variation in the discharge coefficient and 73% of the spatial variation in mean TOC. Specific discharge, water residence time, the variance of daily precipitation, and lake area, explained 45% of the spatial variation in the amplitude of the TOC seasonality.

    Because the main drivers of temporal variability in TOC are seasonality and discharge, first-order estimates of the influences of climatic variability and change on TOC concentration should be predictable if the studied catchments continue to respond similarly.

  • 16.
    Håkanson, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bryhn, Andreas C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hytteborn, Julia K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    On the issue of limiting nutrient and predictions of cyanobacteria in aquatic systems2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 379, no 1, p. 89-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at bridging the gap between freshwater and marine eutrophication studies by presenting (1) a cross-system analysis of the relationship between chlorophyll and the total nitrogen (TN) to total phosphorus (TP) ratio (2) a general model to predict concentrations of cyanobacteria from data on TP, the TN/TP ratio, salinity and temperature, and (3) a general trophic level classification for aquatic systems based on chlorophyll classes (for oligo-, meso-, eu- and hypertrophic systems). The data compiled in this study concerns more than 500 lakes and coastal areas covering a very wide domain in terms of nutrient concentrations and salinity. There was no simple relationship between the TN/TP ratio and empirical chlorophyll concentrations or concentrations of cyanobacteria. Variations in TP rather than TN generally seem to be more important to predict variations among systems in chlorophyll-a and cyanobacteria. Different “bioavailable” forms of the nutrients (DIN, DIP, phosphate, nitrate, etc.) have been shown to have very high coefficients of variation (CV), which means that many samples are needed to obtain reliable empirical data which are necessary in models aiming for high predictive power and practical usefulness.

  • 17.
    Håkanson, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Lindgren, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Test and application of a general process-based dynamic coastal mass-balance for contaminants using data for radionuclides in the Dnieper-Bug estuary2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 2, p. 899-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work a general, process-based mass-balance model for water contaminants for coastal areas at the ecosystem scale (CoastMab) is presented and for the first time tested for radionuclides. The model is dynamic, based on ordinary differential equations and gives monthly predictions. Connected to the core model there is also a sub-model for contaminant concentrations in fish. CoastMab calculates sedimentation, resuspension, diffusion, mixing, burial and retention of the given contaminant. The model contains both general algorithms, which apply to all contaminants, and substance-specific parts (such as algorithms for the particulate fraction, diffusion, biouptake and biological half-life). CoastMab and the sub-model for fish are simple to apply in practice since all driving variables may be readily accessed from maps or regular monitoring programs. The separation between the surface-water layer and the deep-water layer is not done as in most traditional models from water temperature data but from sedimentological criteria. Previous versions of the models for phoshorus and suspended particulate matter (in the Baltic Sea) have been validated and shown to predict well. This work presents modifications of the model and tests using two tracers, radiocesium and radiostrontium (from the Chernobyl fallout) in the Dnieper-Bug estuary (the Black Sea). Good correlations are shown between modeled and empirical data, except for the month directly after the fallout. We have, e.g., shown that: 1. The conditions in the sea outside the bay are important for the concentrations of the substances in water, sediments and fish within the bay, 2. We have demonstraed “biological”, “chemical” and “water” dilution, 3. That the water chemical conditions in the bay influence biouptake and concentrations in fish of the radionuclides and 4. That the feeding behaviour of the coastal fish is very important for the biouptake of the radionuclides.

  • 18.
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Frisk, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology.
    Mohamed, Nahla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gadhasson, Inga-Lill
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Friman, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Virus induces metal-binding proteins and changed trace element balance in the brain during the course of a common human infection (coxsackievirus B3) in mice2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 381, no 1-3, p. 88-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autopsy of the brain has shown a change in trace element balance in some virus-infected individuals, but it is not known whether this event was a result of the infection. In the present study coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) adapted to Balb/c mice was used to study whether infection induces gene expression of the metal-binding/transporting proteins metallothionein (MT1 and MT3) and divalent-metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and whether it changes the balance of trace elements in the brain. Virus and MT1, MT3, and DMT1 were quantitatively measured by RT-PCR on days 3, 6 and 9 of the infection. Trace elements (13) were measured in serum and the brain by ICP-MS. High numbers of virus were found in the brain on days 3 and 6, but virus counts were decreased and present only in 50% of the mice on day 9. Gene expression of MT1 tended to increase on all days, whereas that of MT3 only showed a minor and not significant increase on day 3. No clear effect was observed in the expression of DMT1. The increase of MT3 was correlated to the brain concentration of Cu. The Cu/Zn ratio in serum increased as a response to the infection. There was a similar decrease in Cd in serum and the brain. On day 6 of the infection, Hg increased in the brain (p<0.05) and was positively correlated to a concomitant decrease (p<0.05) in serum. Virus numbers in the brain were on day 6 positively correlated (p<0.05) to As concentrations. Enteroviral infections may therefore be an underlying factor regarding the changes in essential as well as potentially toxic trace elements in the brain.

  • 19.
    Jakariya, Md
    et al.
    Research and Evaluation Division, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC).
    Vahter, Marie
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Wahed, M. Abdul
    Hore, Samar Kumar
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Screening of arsenic in tubewell water with field test kits: evaluation of the method from public health perspective2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 379, no 2-3, p. 167-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an urgent need for Bangladesh to identify the arsenic (As) contaminated tubewells (TWs) in order to assess the health risks and initiate appropriate mitigation measures. This will involve testing water in millions of TWs and raising community awareness about the health problems related to chronic As exposure from drinking water. Field test kits offer the only practical tool within the time frame and financial resources available for screening and assessment of the As contaminated TWs as well as their monitoring than that of the laboratory measurement. A comparison of field test kit and laboratory measurements by AAS as "gold standard" for As in water of 12,532 TWs in Matlab Upazila in Bangladesh, indicates that the field kit correctly determined the status of 91% of the As levels compared to the Bangladesh Drinking Water Standard (BDWS) of 50 microg/L, and 87% of the WHO guideline value of 10 microg/L. Nevertheless, due to analytical and human errors during the determination of As by the field test kits, some misclassification of wells is inevitable. Cross-checking of the field test kit results, both by Field Supervisor and by the laboratory analyses reveal considerable discrepancies in the correct screening mainly at As concentration ranges of 10-24.9 microg/L and 50-99.9 microg/L, critical from a public health point of view. The uncertainties of misclassification of these two groups of TWs have severe public health implications due to As exposure from drinking water sources. This can be reduced through proper training of the field personnel, cross verification of the field test kit results with laboratory analyses and further development of the field test kits to determine As at low concentrations.

  • 20. Jayasinghe, Saroj
    et al.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    DDT and its metabolites could contribute to the aetiology of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) and more studies are a priority2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 649, p. 1638-1639Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Jayasinghe, Saroj
    et al.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    High serum levels of p,p'-DDE are associated with an accelerated decline in GFR during 10 years follow-up.2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 644, p. 371-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past 20 years, the global incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been increasing and organochlorine pesticides (such as DDT) is a suspected etiological factor. The present study examines the associations between low level background exposure to p,p'-DDE (1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene), the main DDT metabolite, and kidney function during a 10-year follow-up. Data was analysed from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (n = 1016, 50% women, all aged 70 years). Serum levels of p,p'-DDE was measured by gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) at baseline (i.e. age of 70 years). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using serum creatinine and cystatin C at 70, 75 and 80 years of age. A significant decline in GFR was seen during the 10-year follow-up (-24 ml/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.0001). A significant negative interaction was seen between baseline p,p'-DDE levels and change in GFR over time (p < 0.0001) following adjustment for sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, BMI, smoking and education level at age 70. Subjects with the lowest levels of p,p'-DDE levels at age 70 showed the lowest decline in GFR over 10 years, while subjects with the highest p,p'-DDE levels showed the greatest decline. Baseline levels of p,p'-DDE were related to an accelerated reduction in GFR over 10 years suggesting a nephrotoxic effect of DDT/p,p'-DDE. These findings support a potential role for DDT in the epidemic of CKD of unknown etiology (CKDu) in agricultural communities of Sri Lanka and Central America where DDT was previously used.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Jonsson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Forsman, Jonas K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Wörman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Retention of Conservative and Sorptive Solutes in Streams - Simultaneous Tracer Experiment2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 266, no 1-3, p. 229-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective transport velocity of solutes in rivers and streams is governed by transient storage in hyporheic zones in which the longitudinal advection velocity is small relative to the main stream flow velocity. Results from a simultaneous tracer experiment using a non-reactive (tritium, 3H2O) and a sorptive tracer [chromium, 51Cr(III)] have formed the basis of a more accurate interpretation of the retention characteristics of solutes in streams than previously has been possible. By using a simultaneous injection of these two tracers, it was possible to distinguish between their different behaviours. Based on estimations of fluxes, the retained mass of chromium in the storage zones along the 30-km-long study-reach was 76% after 150 h. Independent observations in the bed sediment indicated that the loss of chromium observed in the water was mainly a result of uptake into the bed sediment. To describe the transport in the stream, a model concept including solute sorption kinetics in the bed sediment was proposed. Evaluation of parameters in the model, indicated that the uptake of chromium in the bed sediment is controlled by sorption kinetics.

  • 23.
    Jonsson, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Wörman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Effect of Sorption Kinetics on the Transport of Solutes in Streams2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 266, no 1-3, p. 239-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide an appropriate description of the transport of a reactive substance in a stream, it is important to include a kinetic description of sorption in a transport model. In this study, first-order sorption kinetics was taken into account in both the transient storage zone and the stream water, and analytical expressions for relative error in statistical moments of the residence time PDF, resulting from disregarding sorption kinetics, were derived. The sorption rate coefficient in the water was found to influence the error in the expected value, and the error was found to approach infinity as the travel distance or sorption rate coefficient approaches zero. The sorption rate coefficient in the storage zone influences only higher-order moments. For sufficiently long distances, the error in the variance was found to be more pronounced when sorption kinetics in the storage zone was disregarded, than when sorption kinetics in the stream water was disregarded. Parameter values from a tracer experiment with 51Cr revealed that the relative error in the variance could be more than 100%, if sorption kinetics in the storage zone is disregarded.

  • 24.
    Jose Farre, Maria
    et al.
    Univ Girona, Catalan Inst Water Res, ICRA, H2O Bldg,Sci & Technol Pk, Girona 17003, Spain.
    Jaen-Gil, Adrian
    Univ Girona, Catalan Inst Water Res, ICRA, H2O Bldg,Sci & Technol Pk, Girona 17003, Spain.
    Hawkes, Jeffrey A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Petrovic, Mira
    Univ Girona, Catalan Inst Water Res, ICRA, H2O Bldg,Sci & Technol Pk, Girona 17003, Spain;Catalan Inst Res & Adv Studies, ICREA, Barcelona 08010, Spain.
    Catalan, Nuria
    Univ Girona, Catalan Inst Water Res, ICRA, H2O Bldg,Sci & Technol Pk, Girona 17003, Spain.
    Orbitrap molecular fingerprint of dissolved organic matter in natural waters and its relationship with NDMA formation potential2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 670, p. 1019-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a disinfection byproduct that has been classified as probable human carcinogen by the US Environmental Protection Agency. According to the published literature, natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) can be a source of NDMA precursors in drinking water. New advances in chemical characterization of DOM with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) are allowing researchers to understand these ultra-complex mixtures. The objective of this study is to investigate analytical methodologies based on HRMS to explore NDMA formation from natural waters. To this aim, different waters from drinking water reservoirs in Spain containing NDMA precursors (quantified by means of NDMA formation potential) in concentrations between 17 and 60 ng/L have been studied. The workflow includes DOM solid-phase extraction and Orbitrap analysis with and without chromatographic separation. Here, we show that the molecular composition of DOM across the studied drinking water reservoirs is correlated with the NDMA formation potential. In particular, we found that NDMA formation potential is associated with compounds with high hydrogen saturation (H/C >= 1.5), corresponding also to reservoirs with higher background nutrient concentrations and wastewater indicators. Further chromatographic fractionation did not allow better definition of these possible precursors as they were present in different fractions of the chromatogram, suggesting that they were isomerically complex. 

  • 25.
    Kothawala, Dolly N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    von Wachenfeldt, Eddie
    Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Koehler, Birgit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Selective loss and preservation of lake water dissolved organic matter fluorescenceduring long-term dark incubations2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 433, p. 238-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biogeochemical processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in inland waters is inherently related to its molecular structure and ecological function. Controlled bioassays are a valuable tool to analyze these relationships, but are seldom conducted and compared at temporal scales that typically prevail in natural inland waters. Here we incubated water from six boreal lakes in the dark and examined changes to the initial fluorescence and absorbance after 3.5 years. We identified five fluorescence components with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis (CC, CM, CA, CX and CT) and found a consistent change in the relative intensity of two dominant PARAFAC components (increase in CA:CC, corresponding to Peak A:Peak C), commonly found in lake water, that represent terrestrially-derived DOM. Surprisingly, we only found minor changes to specific absorbance (SUVA), and did not find any changes to other spectral indexes including the fluorescence index, humification index and freshness index. By incorporating lakes spanning a wide range of initial total organic carbon concentrations (3.7 to 32.5 mg L− 1), water residence times, and spectral characteristics (e.g. SUVA 1.13 to 3.77 L·mg C− 1·m− 1), we found that the relative intensities of two humic-like peaks were the most revealing of changes to DOM structure during dark incubations. We also verified that inner filter effects were adequately corrected within the concentration range of incubated samples. Thus, the processing of DOM under dark conditions, including microbial decomposition and flocculation, may have a greater influence on the humic-like peaks, particularly CC (Peak C), with negligible changes to more commonly used spectral indexes.

     

  • 26. Lehto, Jukka
    et al.
    Raty, Tero
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Paatero, Jussi
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Flinkman, Juha
    Kankaanpaa, Harri
    Speciation of I-129 in sea, lake and rain waters2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 419, p. 60-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of the very long-lived fission product I-129 and stable iodine (I-127) in the Baltic Sea and lake and rain waters from Finland, were measured as well as their occurrence as iodide (I-) and iodate (IO3-). The highest concentrations of both I-127 and I-129 occurred in sea water, on average 11.1 +/- 4.3 mu g/l and 3.9 +/- 4.1 x 10(-9) at/l. In rain and lake waters the concentration of I-129 was more or less identical and almost one order of magnitude lower than in sea water. Based on these observations, and data from the literature, it is assumed that the source of I-129 in lakes is precipitation and the major source in the Baltic Sea is the inflow of sea water from the North Sea through the Danish Straits. The concentration of I-129 in the Baltic Sea has increased by a factor of six during ten years from 1999. In all studied water types the main chemical form of both iodine isotopes was iodide; in sea and lake waters by 92-96% and in rain water by 75-88%. Compared to I-127 the fraction of iodide was slightly higher in case of I-129 in all waters.

  • 27.
    Lim, Fang-Lee
    et al.
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Environm & Occupat Hlth, Upm Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia..
    Hashim, Zailina
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Environm & Occupat Hlth, Upm Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia..
    Said, Salmiah Md
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Community Hlth, Upm Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia..
    Than, Leslie Thian-Lung
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Med Microbiol & Parasitol, Upm Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia..
    Hashim, Jamal Hisham
    UKM Med Ctr, UNU IIGH, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia.;Natl Univ Malaysia, UKM, Dept Community Hlth, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia..
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sick building syndrome (SBS) among office workers in a Malaysian university - Associations with atopy, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the office environment2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 536, p. 353-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are few studies on sick building syndrome (SBS) including clinical measurements for atopy and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Our aim was to study associations between SBS symptoms, selected personal factors, office characteristics and indoor office exposures among office workers from a university in Malaysia. Health data were collected by a questionnaire (n = 695), skin prick test (SPT) (n = 463) and FeNO test (n = 460). Office settled dust was vacuumed and analyzed for endotoxin, (1,3)-beta-glucan and house dust mites (HDM) allergens group 1 namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1). Office indoor temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured by a direct reading instrument. Associations were studied by two-levelsmultiple logistic regression with mutual adjustment and stratified analysis. The prevalence of weekly dermal, mucosal and general symptoms was 11.9%, 16.0% and 23.0% respectively. A combination of SPT positivity (allergy to HDM or cat) and high FeNO level (>= 25 ppb) was associated with dermal (p = 0.002), mucosal (p <0.001) and general symptoms (p = 0.05). Der f1 level in dust was associated with dermal (p < 0.001), mucosal (p < 0.001) and general (p = 0.02) symptoms. Among those with allergy to D. farinae, associations were found between Der f 1 levels in dust and dermal (p = 0.003), mucosal (p = 0.001) and general symptoms (p = 0.007). Office-related symptoms were associated with Der f 1 levels in dust (p = 0.02), low relative air humidity (p = 0.04) and high office temperature (p = 0.05). In conclusion, a combination of allergy to cat or HDM and high FeNO is a risk factor for SBS symptoms. Der f 1 allergen in dust can be a risk factor for SBS in the office environment, particularly among those sensitized to Der f 1 allergen.

  • 28.
    Lin, Zhijin
    et al.
    Fudan Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth, Key Lab Publ Hlth Safety,Minist Educ, Shanghai 200032, Peoples R China..
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wang, Tingting
    Xinjiang Med Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Maternal Child & Adolescent Hlth, Urumqi 830011, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Xin
    Shanxi Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Taiyuan 030006, Peoples R China..
    Shi, Jingjin
    Fudan Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth, Key Lab Publ Hlth Safety,Minist Educ, Shanghai 200032, Peoples R China..
    Kan, Haidong
    Fudan Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth, Key Lab Publ Hlth Safety,Minist Educ, Shanghai 200032, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Zhuohui
    Fudan Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth, Key Lab Publ Hlth Safety,Minist Educ, Shanghai 200032, Peoples R China..
    The first 2-year home environment in relation to the new onset and remission of asthmatic and allergic symptoms in 4246 preschool children2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 553, p. 204-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The home environment can influence childhood allergies and respiratory health but there is little information on associations between early life exposure at home and new onset. and remission of the asthmatic or allergic symptoms in preschool children. A questionnaire survey was performed in a random cluster sample of 4246 preschool children in Urumqi, China. Information on the home environment (perceptions of odors and indicators of pollution sources) and children's health (wheeze, rhinitis and eczema) was collected for the first 2 years of life and the last year (before answering the questionnaire) from one of the parents or another guardian of the child. Associations between the home environment the first 2 years of life and new onset and remission of childhood symptoms were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. Home environment factors reported for the first 2 years of life were consistently positively associated with new onset of symptoms and negatively associated with remission of symptoms. Visible mold (OR 1.46,95% Cl 1.12-1.90), moldy odor (OR 2.15, 95% Cl 1.45-3.18), air dryness (OR 1.31, 95% Cl 1.08-1.59), stuffy odor (OR 1.25, 95% Cl 1.01-1.54) and parental smoking (OR 1.36, 95% Cl 1.13-1.65) were associated with new onset of symptoms. These factors were negatively associated with the remission of symptoms. In conclusion, mold contamination at home (moldy odor/visible mold), poor indoor air quality (stuffy odor, air dryness) and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the first 2 years of life can increase the incidence of asthmatic and allergic symptoms and decrease the remission from these symptoms in preschool children. 

  • 29.
    Lind, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Hermsen, Sanne A B
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Kyle, Carol E
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Rhind, Stewart M
    Exposure to pastures fertilised with sewage sludge disrupts bone tissue homeostasis in sheep2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 7, p. 2200-2208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The femurs of male and female sheep (Ovis aries), aged 18 months, bred on pastures fertilized twice annually with sewage sludge (2.25 tonnes dry matter/ha; Treated; T)) or on pastures treated with inorganic fertilizer (Control; C) were studied, using peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) and the three-point bending test. Males were maintained on the respective treatments from conception to weaning and then maintained on control pastures while the females were maintained on the respective treatments until slaughter. T rams exhibited increased total bone mineral density (BMD) at the metaphyseal part of femur (+10.5%, p<0.01) compared with C rams but had a reduced total cross sectional area (CSA, -11.5%, p<0.001), trabecular CSA (-17.1%, p<0.01) and periosteal circumference (-5.7%, p<0.001). In the mid-diaphyseal part, T rams had an increased total BMD (+13.8%, p<0.0001) and stiffness (+6.4%, p<0.01) but reduced total CSA (-12.1%, p<0.0001) and marrow cavity (-25.8%, p<0.0001), relative to C rams. In ewes although pQCT analysis of neither the metaphyseal nor the mid-diaphyseal part of the female femur bones showed any significant differences with treatment, the biomechanical method revealed a reduction in load at failure (-17.3%, p<0.01) and stiffness (-10.7%, p<0.05) amongst T ewes. It is concluded that exposure to pollutants present in sewage sludge can perturb bone tissue homeostasis in sheep, but particularly in males.

  • 30.
    Lind, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olsén, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Circulating levels of metals are related to carotid atherosclerosis in elderly2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 1, no 416, p. 80-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if blood levels of trace and/or heavy metals are related to atherosclerosis in a cross-sectional study in elderly. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects, all aged 70), the prevalence of carotid artery plaques was recorded by ultrasound. The numbers of carotid arteries with plaques (0, 1 or 2) were recorded. Also the thickness (IMT) and gray scale (IM-GSM) of the intima-media complex were measured together with plaque echogenicity. Eleven heavy metals and trace elements were analyzed in whole blood, using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. Nickel levels were related to the number of carotid arteries with plaques in an inverted U-shaped manner after multiple adjustment for gender, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, smoking, antihypertensive treatment and statin use (p=0.026). IM-GSM and plaque echogenicity were both inversely related to chromium in a linear fashion, and to aluminum in an inverted U-shaped manner (both p<0.0001 for IM-GSM). The relationships between metals and IMT were modest. Circulating levels of some metals, like nickel, aluminum and chromium, were related to atherosclerotic plaques or the echogenicity of the IM-GSM and overt plaques independently of cardiovascular risk factors, including lipids.

  • 31.
    Lind, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Öberg, Denise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Kyle, Carol E.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Rhind, Stewart M.
    Pregnant ewes exposed to multiple endocrine disrupting pollutants through sewage sludge-fertilized pasture show an anti-estrogenic effect in their trabecular bone2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 11, p. 2340-2346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pregnant ewes were maintained on pastures fertilized, twice yearly, with either sewage sludge (2.25tonnes dry matter/ha; Treated; T) or inorganic fertilizer containing equivalent amounts of nitrogen (Control; C), to determine effects on maternal and fetal bone structures, density and mechanical properties of exposure to environmental concentrations of multiple endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and heavy metal pollutants. The ewes were maintained on the respective pastures from the age of about 8months until they were 4-6years of age and they were slaughtered at 110d gestation. Metaphyseal parts of adult ewe femurs exhibited a significantly reduced mean, total cross sectional area (CSA, -4%; p<0.05), lower trabecular bone mineral content (BMC, mg/mm; -18%; p<0.05), trabecular bone mineral density (BMD, mg/cm(3), -8.0%; p<0.05) and trabecular CSA, mm(2), -11.1%; p<0.05) in T compared with C animals. Femurs of T ewes were stronger than those of C ewes but this may reflect greater body weights. At the mid-diaphyseal part of the fetal bones, there was a reduction in endosteal circumference (-6.7%, p<0.05) and marrow cavity area (-13.8%, p<0.05) in the female T fetuses compared with female C fetuses. In the male fetuses the mid-diaphyseal part total bone mineral content was higher (+3.0%, p<0.05) in T than in C animals. No treatment difference in biomechanical bending was detected in the fetuses. It is concluded that ewes grazing pasture fertilized with sewage sludge exhibited an anti-estrogenic effect on their trabecular bone in the form of reduced mineral content and density, despite increased body weight. It is suggested that human exposure to low levels of multiple EDCs may have implications for bone structure and human health.

  • 32.
    Lou, Yanjing
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Chinese Acad Sci, Northeast Inst Geog & Agroecol, Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Environm, 4888 Shengbeida Rd, Changchun 130102, Jilin, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Chuanyu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Northeast Inst Geog & Agroecol, Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Environm, 4888 Shengbeida Rd, Changchun 130102, Jilin, Peoples R China..
    Pan, Yanwen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Northeast Inst Geog & Agroecol, Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Environm, 4888 Shengbeida Rd, Changchun 130102, Jilin, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, 19 Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Xue, Zhenshan
    Chinese Acad Sci, Northeast Inst Geog & Agroecol, Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Environm, 4888 Shengbeida Rd, Changchun 130102, Jilin, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Ying
    Chinese Acad Sci, Northeast Inst Geog & Agroecol, Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Environm, 4888 Shengbeida Rd, Changchun 130102, Jilin, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, 19 Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Tang, Zhanhui
    Northeast Normal Univ, Sch Environm, 2555 Jingyue St, Changchun 130117, Jilin, Peoples R China..
    Jiang, Ming
    Chinese Acad Sci, Northeast Inst Geog & Agroecol, Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Environm, 4888 Shengbeida Rd, Changchun 130102, Jilin, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Xianguo
    Chinese Acad Sci, Northeast Inst Geog & Agroecol, Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Environm, 4888 Shengbeida Rd, Changchun 130102, Jilin, Peoples R China..
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Niche modelling of marsh plants based on occurrence and abundance data2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, p. 198-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The information of species' response (optimum or critical limits along environmental gradients) is a key to understanding ecological questions and to design management plans. A large number of plots (762) from 70 transects of 13 wetland sites in Northeast China were sampled along flooding gradient from marsh to wet meadow. Species response (abundance and occurrence) to flooding were modelled with Generalized Additive Models for 21 dominant plant species. We found that 20 of 21 species showed a significant response to flooding for the occurrence and abundance models, and four types of response were found: monotonically increasing, monotonically decreasing, skewed unimodal and symmetric unimodal. The species with monotonically increasing response have the deepest flooding optimum and widest niche width, followed by those with unimodal curve, and the monotonically decreasing ones have the smallest values. The optima and niche width (whether based on occurrence or abundance models) both significantly correlated with the frequency, but not with mean abundance. Abundance models outperformed occurrence models based on goodness of fit. The abundance models predicted a rather sharp shift from dominance of helophytes (Carex pseudo-curaica and C. lasiocarpa) to wet meadow species (Calamagrostis angustifolia and Carex appendiculata) if water levels drop from about 10 cm above soil surface to below the surface. The defined optima and niche width based on the abundance models can be applied to better instruct restoration management. Given the time required to collect abundance data, an efficient strategy could be to monitor occurrence in many plots and abundance in a subset of these.

  • 33.
    Lu, Chan
    et al.
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Deng, Qihong
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Li, Yuguo
    Univ Hong Kong, Dept Mech Engn, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Sundell, Jan
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Outdoor air pollution, meteorological conditions and indoor factors in dwellings in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS) among adults in China2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 560-561, p. 186-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor environment is associated with the sick building syndrome (SBS), but little is known about the contribution of outdoor air pollution and meteorological conditions to SBS. We studied associations between outdoor air pollution, meteorological parameters and selected indoor exposure and building characteristics at home and weekly SBS symptoms in a standardized questionnaire study among 3485 randomly selected adults in China. Outdoor factors included particulate matters with diameter <10 mu m (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), outdoor temperature (T), relative air humidity (RH), and wind speed (WS) during last three months. Multiple logistic regression was applied calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Asthma or allergic rhinitis (atopy) was associated with all types of SBS symptoms except fatigue. Indoor factors played a major role in SBS symptoms. Mold/dampness on the floor/ceiling was associated with fatigue OR = 1.60 (1.11-2.30) and headache OR = 1.80 (1.07-3.04). Moldy odor was associated with fatigue OR = 1.59 (1.07-2.37) and dermal symptoms OR = 1.91 (1.21-3.02). Window pane condensation in winter was associated with fatigue OR = 1.73 (1.30-2.31) and throat symptoms OR = 1.53 (1.01-2.31). Damp bed clothing was related with throat symptom OR = 1.62 (1.09-2.40). Home redecoration was associated with fatigue OR = 1.49 (1.07-2.06). Frequent window opening was associated with less nose symptoms OR = 0.54 (0.36-0.82) and mechanical ventilation in the bathroom reduced dermal symptoms OR = 0.66 (0.44-0.99). Females were more susceptible to redecoration and window pane condensation than men. No associations with SBS were observed for outdoor air pollutants or meteorological parameters in the final models combining indoor and outdoor factors, although SO2, T, and RH were associated with some SBS symptoms (fatigue, eyes and nose symptoms) in the separate outdoor models. In conclusion, indoor mold/dampness, air pollution from redecoration and poorer ventilation conditions in dwellings can be risk factors for SBS symptoms in an adult Chinese population, especially among females.

  • 34.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Estimating costs and potentials of different methods to reduce the Swedish phosphorus load from agriculture to surface water2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 3, p. 473-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews 17 measures to reduce phosphorus leakage from Swedish agriculture to surface waters. Our aim is to evaluate the possible contribution from agriculture to achieve environmental goals including the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Using a regional approach integrating the variability in field specific characteristics, typical costs and national potential for the included measures may be estimated without identifying, e.g., suitable individual fields for implementation. The result may be helpful to select suitable measures but may also in fluence the design of environmental targets before they are determined. We find that the cheapest measures are reduced phosphorus content in animal food and fertilizer application supervision in pig farms, both measures with annual potentials of around 50t each, and costs of  €7to€11 kg−1yr−1. The total potential of the listed measures is an annual phosphorus reduction to surface waters of 242t. If the most expensive measures are excluded (>€1000 kg−1yr−1) and including retention in lakes the phosphorus transport to the sea could be reduced by 165tyr−1. This amount can be compared with the Swedish commitment in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) to reduce input to the Baltic Proper by 290tyr−1.

  • 35. Millett, J.
    et al.
    Foot, G. W.
    Svensson, Brita M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 512, p. 631-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific.

  • 36.
    Nijp, Jelmer J.
    et al.
    Wageningen Univ, Plant Ecol & Nat Conservat Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands.;Wageningen Univ, Soil Phys & Land Management Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands.;Wageningen Univ, Soil Geog & Landscape Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Metselaar, Maas
    Wageningen Univ, Soil Phys & Land Management Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Limpens, Juul
    Wageningen Univ, Plant Ecol & Nat Conservat Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Teutschbein, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Peichl, Matthias
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, Umea, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, Umea, Sweden..
    Berendse, Frank
    Wageningen Univ, Plant Ecol & Nat Conservat Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.
    Wageningen Univ, Soil Phys & Land Management Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands.;Monash Univ, Sch Chem, Melbourne, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Including hydrological self-regulating processes in peatland models: effects on peatmoss drought projections2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 580, p. 1389-1400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water content of the topsoil is one of the key factors controlling biogeochemical processes, greenhouse gas emissions and biosphere - atmosphere interactions in many ecosystems, particularly in northern peatlands. In these wetland ecosystems, the water content of the photosynthetic active peatmoss layer is crucial for ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration, and is sensitive to future shifts in rainfall and drought characteristics. Current peatland models differ in the degree in which hydrological feedbacks are included, but how this affects peatmoss drought projections is unknown. The aim of this paper was to systematically test whether the level of hydrological detail in models could bias projections of water content and drought stress for peatmoss in northern peatlands using downscaled projections for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in the current (1991-2020) and future climate (2061-2090). We considered four model variants that either include or exclude moss (rain)water storage and peat volume change, as these are two central processes in the hydrological self-regulation of peatmoss carpets. Model performance was validated using field data of a peatland in northern Sweden. Including moss water storage as well as peat volume change resulted in a significant improvement of model performance, despite the extra parameters added. The best performance was achieved if both processes were included. Including moss water storage and peat volume change consistently reduced projected peatmoss drought frequency with >50%, relative to the model excluding both proces'ses. Projected peatmoss drought frequency in the growing season was 17% smaller under future climate than current climate, but was unaffected by including the hydrological self-regulating processes. Our results suggest that ignoring these two fine-scale processes important in hydrological self-regulation of northern peatlands will have large consequences for projected climate change impact on ecosystem processes related to topsoil water content, such as greenhouse gas emissions. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Norback, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hashim, Jamal Hisham
    United Nations Univ Int Inst Global Hlth, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia.;Natl Univ Malaysia, Dept Community Hlth, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia..
    Hashim, Zailina
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Environm & Occupat Hlth, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia..
    Cai, Gui-Hong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sooria, Vinoshini
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Community Hlth, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia..
    Ismail, Syazwan Aizat
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Community Hlth, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.;Minist Hlth Malaysia, Allied Hlth Sci Coll Sg Buloh, Environm Hlth, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor, Malaysia..
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Respiratory symptoms and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) among students in Penang, Malaysia in relation to signs of dampness at school and fungal DNA in school dust2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 577, p. 148-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few health studies exist on dampness and mould in schools in the tropics. We studied associations between fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), respiratory symptoms and airway infections among students and dampness and fungal DNA in schools in Malaysia. A total of 368 randomly selected students from 32 classrooms in 8 secondary schools in Penang, Malaysia, participated (58% participation rate). Information on current respiratory symptoms and the home environment was collected by a standardised questionnaire. FeNO was measured by NIOX MINO (50 ml/min). The classrooms were inspected and dust was collected by vacuuming on special filters and was analysed for five fungal DNA sequences by quantitative PCR. Linear mixed models and 3-level multiple logistic regression (school, classroom, student) were applied adjusting for demographic data and the home environment. Totally 10.3% reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 15.1% current wheeze, 12.4% current asthma, 37.3% daytime breathlessness, 10.2% nocturnal breathlessness, 38.9% airway infections and 15.5% had pollen or furry pet allergy. The geometric mean of FeNO was 19.9 ppb and 45% had elevated FeNO (>20 ppb). Boys had higher levels of FeNO. Chinese had less daytime breathlessness than Malay (OR = 030: p < 0.001). Indoor carbon dioxide levels were low (380-720 ppm). Dampness "was observed in 18% of the classrooms and was associated with respiratory infections (OR = 3.70; 95% CI 1.14-12.1) and FeNO (p = 0.04), Aspergillus versicolor DNA was detected in 67% of the classrooms. Higher numbers of Aspergillus versicolor DNA in classroom dust were associated with wheeze (p = 0.006), current asthma (p = 0.002), respiratory infections (p = 0.005) and elevated FeNO levels (p = 0.02). In conclusion, respiratory symptoms were common among the students and the high FeNO levels indicate ongoing airway inflammation. Building dampness and the mould Aspergillus versicolor in schools in Malaysia can be risk factors for impaired respiratory health among the students.

  • 38.
    Norbäck, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hashim, Jamal Hisham
    United Nations Univ, Int Inst Global Hlth, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia.;Natl Univ Malaysia, Dept Community Hlth, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia..
    Hashim, Zailina
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Environm & Occupat Hlth, Serdang 43400, Selagor, Malaysia..
    Ali, Faridah
    Johor State Hlth Dept, Johor Baharu, Malaysia..
    Volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with rhinitis, ocular, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 592, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studied associations between volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon dioxide(CO2) in schools in Malaysia and rhinitis, ocular, nasal and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue among students. Pupils from eight randomly selected junior high schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia (N = 462), participated (96%). VOC, formaldehyde and NO2 were measured by diffusion sampling (one week) and VOC also by pumped air sampling during class. Associations were calculated bymulti-level logistic regression adjusting for personal factors, the home environment and microbial compounds in the school dust. The prevalence of weekly rhinitis, ocular, throat and dermal symptoms were 18.8%, 11.6%, 15.6%, and 11.1%, respectively. Totally 20.6% had weekly headache and 22.1% fatigue. Indoor CO2 were low(range 380-690 ppm). Indoor median NO2 and formaldehyde concentrations over one week were 23 mu g/m(3) and 2.0 mu g/m(3), respectively. Median indoor concentration of toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and limonene over one week were 12.3, 1.6, 78.4 and 3.4 mu g/m(3), respectively. For benzaldehyde, the mean indoor concentration was 2.0 mu g/m(3) (median < 1 mu g/m(3)). Median indoor levels during class of benzene and cyclohexane were 4.6 and 3.7 mu g/m(3), respectively. NO2 was associated with ocular symptoms (p < 0.001) and fatigue (p = 0.01). Formaldehyde was associated with ocular (p = 0.004), throat symptoms (p = 0.006) and fatigue (p = 0.001). Xylene was associated with fatigue (p < 0.001) and benzaldehyde was associatedwith headache (p = 0.03). In conclusion, xylene, benzaldehyde, formaldehyde and NO2 in schools can be risk factors for ocular and throat symptoms and fatigue among students in Malaysia. The indoor and outdoor levels of benzene were often higher than the EU standard of 5 mu g/m(3).

  • 39.
    Norbäck, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hashim, Jamal Hisham
    United Nations Univ, Int Inst Global Hlth, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.;Natl Univ Malaysia, Dept Community Hlth, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Markowicz, Pawel
    Lund Univ, Div Med Microbiol, Dept Lab Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Cai, Gui-Hong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hashim, Zailina
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Dept Environm & Occupat Hlth, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia..
    Ali, Faridah
    Johor State Hlth Dept, Primary Care Unit, Johor Baharu, Malaysia..
    Larsson, Lennart
    Lund Univ, Div Med Microbiol, Dept Lab Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Endotoxin, ergosterol, muramic acid and fungal DNA in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) in junior high school students2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 545, p. 95-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studied associations between ocular symptoms, rhinitis, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue in students by ethnicity and in relation to exposure to chemical microbial markers and fungal DNA in vacuumed dust in schools in Malaysia. A total of 462 students from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated (96% response rate). Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of five types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18 3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol and five sequences of fungal DNA. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 11.9% reported weekly ocular symptoms, 18.8% rhinitis, 15.6% throat and 11.1% dermal symptoms, 20.6% headache and 22.1% tiredness. Totally 21.1% reported pollen or furry pet allergy (atopy) and 22.0% parental asthma or allergy. Chinese students had less headache than Malay and Indian had less rhinitis and less tiredness than Malay. Parental asthma/allergy was a risk factor for ocular (odds ratio = 3.79) and rhinitis symptoms (OR = 3.48). Atopy was a risk factor for throat symptoms (OR = 2.66), headache (OR = 2.13) and tiredness (OR = 2.02). There were positive associations between amount of fine dust in the dust samples and ocular symptoms (p < 0.001) and rhinitis (p = 0.006). There were positive associations between C14 3-OH and rhinitis (p < 0.001) and between C18 3-OH and dermal symptoms (p = 0.007). There were negative (protective) associations between levels of total endotoxin (LPS) (p = 0.004) and levels of ergosterol (p = 0.03) and rhinitis and between C12 3-OH and throat symptoms (p = 0.004). In conclusion, the amount of fine dust in the classroom was associated with rhinitis and other SBS symptoms and improved cleaning of the schools is important. Endotoxin in the school dust seems to be mainly protective for rhinitis and throat symptoms but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. The ethnic differences in symptoms among the students deserve further attention.

  • 40.
    Norbäck, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Shanxi Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Xin
    Shanxi Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Fan, Qiannan
    Shanxi Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Zefei
    Shanxi Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yinping
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Li, Baizhan
    Chongqing Univ, Key Lab Three Gorges Reservoir Reg Ecoenvironm, Chongqing, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Zhuohui
    Fudan Univ, Dept Environm Hlth, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Chen
    Univ Shanghai Sci & Technol, Sch Environm & Architecture, Dept Bldg Environm & Energy Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Deng, Qihong
    Cent S Univ, XiangYa Sch Publ Hlth, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China;Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Chan
    Cent S Univ, XiangYa Sch Publ Hlth, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China;Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Qian, Hua
    Southeast Univ, Sch Energy & Environm, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Xu
    Cent China Normal Univ, Coll Life Sci, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Yuexia
    Tianjin Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Tianjin, Peoples R China.
    Sundell, Jan
    Tianjin Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Tianjin, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Juan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Home environment and health: Domestic risk factors for rhinitis, throat symptoms and non-respiratory symptoms among adults across China2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 681, p. 320-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies exist from China on associations between home environment and adult health. We studied associations between home environment factors (other than dampness and mould) and rhinitis, throat and dermal symptoms and headache and fatigue among young parents in six cities across China (N = 36,541). They were recruited as parents from day care centers selected randomly and answered a questionnaire on medical symptoms and the home environment. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by multilevel logistic regression adjusting for gender, atopy, smoking, home size and dampness/mould. Overall, 4.8% had skin symptoms 3.1% rhinitis, 2.8% eye, 4.1% throat symptoms, 3.0% headache and 13.9% had fatigue (all as weekly symptoms). Redecoration was associated with rhinitis, eye and skin symptoms, headache and fatigue. New furniture was associated with eye, throat and skin symptoms and fatigue. Gas cooking was associated with eye and throat symptoms, headache and fatigue. Biomass cooking was associated with eye and throat symptoms and headache. Burning incense was associated with eye, throat and skin symptoms, headache and fatigue. Presence of cockroaches and mosquitos or flies was associated with all six symptoms. Rats or mice were associated with eye and dermal symptoms. Cat keeping was associated with eye symptoms while dog keepers had less fatigue. Living near major roads was associated with rhinitis, eye, throat and skin symptoms and fatigue. Daily cleaning, a mechanical ventilation system in the kitchen or in the bathroom, living in older buildings and living in less urbanized areas were protective factors. In conclusion, urbanization, traffic exhaust, indoor emissions from redecoration and new furniture, gas cooking and air pollution from burning incense and biomass may cause dermal and mucosal symptoms, headache and fatigue among adults in China. Indoor animals (cats, mice/rats, cockroaches) were other risk factors. Daily cleaning, mechanical ventilation and living in older buildings can be protective. 

  • 41.
    Odongo, Vincent
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Wageningen Univ & Res, Water Resources Management Grp, POB 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    van Oel, Pieter Richard
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Water Resources Management Grp, POB 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    van der Tol, Christiaan
    Univ Twente, Fac Geoinformat Sci & Earth Observat, Dept Water Resources, POB 217, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Su, Zhongbo
    Univ Twente, Fac Geoinformat Sci & Earth Observat, Dept Water Resources, POB 217, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Impact of land use and land cover transitions and climate on evapotranspiration in the Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 682, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lake Naivasha Basin in Kenya has experienced significant land use cover changes (LUCC) that has been hypothesized to have altered the hydrological regime in recent decades. While it is generally recognized that LUCC will impact evapotranspiration (ET), the precise nature of such impact is not very well understood. This paper describes how land use conversions among grassland and croplands have influenced ET in the Lake Naivasha Basin for the period 2003 to 2012. MODIS data products were used in combination with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data sets to model ET using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS). The results indicate that conversions from grassland to cropland accounted for increases in ET of up to 12% while conversion from cropland back to grasslands (abandonment) reduced ET by similar to 4%.This suggests that recently cultivated agricultural lands could increase local water demands, while abandonment of the farms could decrease the water loss and eventually increase the water availability. Also, recovery of ET following reconversion from cropland to grassland might be impeded due to delayed recovery of soil properties since parts of the catchment are continuously being transformed with no ample time given for soil recovery. The annual ET over the 10 years shows an estimated decline from 724 mm to 650 mm (10%). This decline is largely explained by a reduction in net radiation, an increase in actual vapour pressure whose net effect also led to decrease in the surface-air temperature difference. These findings suggest that in order to better understand LUCC effects on water resources of Lake Naivasha, it is important to take into account the effect of LUCC and climate because large scale changes of vegetation type from grassland to cropland substantially will increase evapotranspiration with implications on the water balance.

  • 42.
    Psaltopoulos, Demetrios
    et al.
    Univ Patras, Dept Econ, Univ Campus, Rion 26504, Greece..
    Wade, Andrew J.
    Univ Reading, Dept Geog & Environm Sci, Reading RG6 6DW, Berks, England..
    Skuras, Dimitris
    Univ Patras, Dept Econ, Univ Campus, Rion 26504, Greece..
    Kernan, Martin
    CBEC Ecoengn UK Ltd, Green House,Beechwood Pk North, Inverness IV2 3BL, Scotland..
    Tyllianakis, Emmanouil
    Univ Patras, Dept Econ, Univ Campus, Rion 26504, Greece..
    Erlandsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    False positive and false negative errors in the design and implementation of agri-environmental policies: A case study on water quality and agricultural nutrients2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 575, p. 1087-1099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing and implementing agri-environmental policies to reduce nutrient loss, action programmes may falsely address areas where the nutrient issue from agricultural activity is not currently important and is not likely to become so in the future (a false positive), or may fail to address areas where the agricultural nutrient issue is currently important or may likely become so in the future (a false negative). Based on a case study of the Louros watershed in Greece, this work identifies database and modelling sources of false positives and negatives and proposes a decision making process aimed at minimizing the possibility of committing such errors. The baseline is well simulated and shows that the Louro's watershed falls behind a Good Environmental Status, at least marginally. Simulated mitigation measures show that the river's status can be upgraded to "Good", at least as concerns nitrates and ammonium. Simulated climate change does not seem to exert an important positive or negative effect. Land use changes forecasting considerably less cultivated area have a significant effect on Total Phosphorous but not on nitrates or ammonium concentrations. The non-linearity between nutrient disposition (inputs) and nutrient concentration in downstream water bodies (output) and the many factors that affect the nutrient disposition-transportation-concentration chain, highlights the importance of simulating the effects of mitigation actions and of future climate and land use changes before adopting and establishing agri-environmental measures.

  • 43.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    et al.
    Lulea Univ Technol, Div Geosci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.;ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Lab Grp, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea, Sweden..
    Paulukat, Cora
    ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Lab Grp, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea, Sweden..
    Ponter, Simon
    ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Lab Grp, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea, Sweden..
    Engström, Emma
    Lulea Univ Technol, Div Geosci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.;ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Lab Grp, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea, Sweden..
    Baxter, Douglas C.
    ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Lab Grp, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea, Sweden..
    Sörlin, Dieke
    ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Lab Grp, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea, Sweden..
    Pallavicini, Nicola
    Lulea Univ Technol, Div Geosci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.;ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Lab Grp, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea, Sweden..
    Rodushkina, Katerina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Application of double-focusing sector field ICP-MS for determination of ultratrace constituents in samples characterized by complex composition of the matrix2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 622-623, p. 203-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of double focusing, sector fieldmass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for determination of analytes, including technology critical elements (TCE), at ultra-trace levels in environmental and clinical matrices was critically evaluated. Different configurations of the ICP-SFMS introduction system as well as various sample preparations, pre-concentration andmatrix separation methods were employed and compared. Factors affecting detection capabilities and accuracy of data produced (instrumental sensitivity, contamination risks, purity of reagents, spectral interferences, matrix effects, analyte recovery and losses) were discussed. Optimized matrixspecific methods were applied to a range of reference and control materials (riverine, brackish and seawaters; whole blood, serumand urine) as well as tap water and snow samples collected in the area of Lulea city, northern Sweden; brackish and seawater from the Laptev Sea; venous blood samples with a special emphasis on determination of Au, Ag, Ir, Os, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sb and Te. Even though these low abundant elements are relatively under-documented, the results produced were compared with published data, where available.

  • 44.
    Sahlberg, Bo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Gunnbjörnsdottir, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Soon, A.
    Jõgi, Rain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gislason, T.
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Airborne molds and bacteria, microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), plasticizers and formaldehyde in dwellings in three North European cities in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS)2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 444, p. 433-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are few studies on associations between airborne microbial exposure, formaldehyde, plasticizers in dwellings and the symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS). As a follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II), indoor measurements were performed in homes in three North European cities. The aim was to examine whether volatile organic compounds of possible microbial origin (MVOCs), and airborne levels of bacteria, molds, formaldehyde, and two plasticizers in dwellings were associated with the prevalence of SBS, and to study associations between MVOCs and reports on dampness and mold.The study included homes from three centers included in ECRHS II. A total of 159 adults (57% females) participated (19% from Reykjavik, 40% from Uppsala, and 41% from Tartu). A random sample and additional homes with a history of dampness were included. Exposure measurements were performed in the 159 homes of the participants. MVOCs were analyzed by GCMS with selective ion monitoring (SIM). Symptoms were reported in a standardized questionnaire. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression.In total 30.8% reported any SBS (20% mucosal, 10% general, and 8% dermal symptoms) and 41% of the homes had a history of dampness and molds There were positive associations between any SBS and levels of 2-pentanol (P=0.002), 2-hexanone (P=0.0002), 2-pentylfuran (P=0.009), 1-octen-3-ol (P=0.002), formaldehyde (P=0.05), and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (Texanol) (P=0.05). 1-octen-3-ol (P=0.009) and 3-methylfuran (P=0.002) were associated with mucosal symptoms. In dwellings with dampness and molds, the levels of total bacteria (P=0.02), total mold (P=0.04), viable mold (P=0.02), 3-methylfuran (P=0.008) and ethyl-isobutyrate (P=0.02) were higher.In conclusion, some MVOCs like 1-octen-3-ol, formaldehyde and the plasticizer Texanol, may be a risk factor for sick building syndrome. Moreover, concentrations of airborne molds, bacteria and some other MVOCs were slightly higher in homes with reported dampness and mold.

  • 45.
    Sobek, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Borgå, Katrine
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Norway.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Polder, Anuschka
    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Norway.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet.
    A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 13, p. 2753-2760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77°N - 82°N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54°N - 62°N) food web were compared. Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton, fish, seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF). The BAFArctic : BAF Temperate ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-13.8) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal. The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAFArctic : BAFTemperate) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2.0. We thus conclude that ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms and systems to arctic conditions do at most marginally affect bioaccumulation. Lower seawater temperature lead to a marked thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared with the Baltic Sea. This implies that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions, e.g. by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic.

  • 46.
    Sundin, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Jutfelt, Fredrik
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Thorlacius, Magnus
    Marine & Freshwater Res Inst, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Behavioural alterations induced by the anxiolytic pollutant oxazepam are reversible after depuration in a freshwater fish2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 665, p. 390-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic pharmaceutical pollutants have been detected in nature across the globe, and recent work has shown negative effects of pharmaceuticals on the health and welfare of many animals. However, whether alterations can be reversed has been poorly investigated, although such studies are essential to assess the effects of high-peak exposure events in waterways where pharmaceutical concentrations are usually low. In this study, we investigated the effects of two concentrations (environmentally relevant 1 mu g L-1 and high 100 mu g L-1) of oxazepam, an anxiolytic commonly detected in aquatic environments, and whether behavioural alterations are reversible after depuration. Specifically, we measured daytime and night-time swimming activity and daytime behaviours related to boldness (foraging, sheltering and routine swimming activity) using the freshwater burbot (Lota lota). We found that both swimming activity and boldness were affected by oxazepam. Fish exposed to the higher level had a higher burst swimming duration (i.e., fast swimming bouts), both in the daytime and night-time trials. Further, fish exposed to the lower oxazepam level spent less time sheltering than control-and high-level exposed fish, but there was no difference between the control and high oxazepam treatments. For routine swimming activity, quantified in the boldness trials, and for latency to forage, there were no treatment effects. When retesting the fish after depuration, the detected behavioural alterations were no longer present. Since the magnitude of these effects were not consistent across endpoints, our study suggests that oxazepam might not be a great concern for this particular, stress tolerant, species, highlighting the importance of evaluating species-specific effects of pharmaceuticals. The observation that the effects we did find were reversible after depuration is encouraging, and indicates that rapid restoration of behaviours after removal from oxazepam contamination is possible.

  • 47.
    Svanberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Mateo, Rafael
    Hillström, Lars
    Green, Andy J.
    Taggart, Mark A.
    Raab, Andrea
    Meharg, Andy A.
    Lead isotopes and lead shot ingestion in the globally threatened marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) and white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala)2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 370, no 2-3, p. 416-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb) and concentrations in the livers and bones of marbled teal and white-headed duck found dead or moribund were determined in order to establish the main lead source in these waterfowl species. Lead concentrations in bone (dry weight) and liver (wet weight) were found to be very high in many of the white-headed ducks (bone: geometric mean=88.9 ppm, maximum=419 ppm; liver: geometric mean=16.8 ppm, maximum=57.0 ppm). Some of the marbled teal had high lead levels in the bones but liver lead levels were all low (bone: geometric mean=6.13 ppm, maximum=112 ppm; liver: geometric mean=0.581 ppm, maximum=4.77 ppm). Ingested lead shot were found in 71% of the white-headed duck and 20% of the marbled teal. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in livers and bones of white-headed ducks and marbled teals showed no significant differences compared to the ratios obtained from lead shot. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in bones of marbled teal ducklings with the highest lead concentrations tended to resemble the ratios of lead shot, which supports our hypothesis that the lead was derived from the hens. We also found that the lead ratios of lead shot and lead ratios described for soils in the area overlapped, but also that the isotopic ratio (206)Pb/(207)Pb in lead shot used in Spain has a narrow range compared with those used in North America. The principal source of lead in many of these birds was, however, most likely lead shot, as supported by the similar isotopic ratios, high lead concentrations in tissues and evidence of ingested shot.

  • 48.
    Tuomola, Leena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Terese, Niklasson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Silva, Edinaldo de Castro
    Hylander, Lars D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Fish mercury development in relation to abiotic characteristics and carbon sources in a six-year-old, Brazilian reservoir2008In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 390, no 1, p. 177-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time series on fish mercury (Hg) development are rare for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics. In the central-western part of Brazil, a hydroelectric reservoir, called Lago Manso, was completed in 1999 after that background levels of fish Hg concentrations had been determined. The development for the first 3 years was studied in 2002. The objective of the present study was to determine development of fish Hg concentrations for a second threeyear period after flooding. The bioaccumulation factor and certain abiotic and biotic factors, possibly affecting the availability and accumulation of Hg, were also examined. The results show that Hg levels in fish from Lago Manso have increased more than five times compared to the background levels observed before construction of the reservoir. At the same time, dissolved organic carbon has increased while dissolved oxygen has decreased indicating enhanced bioavailability of Hg. In the reservoir, Salminus brasiliensis had in average a Hg content of 1.1 μg g−1 f.w., Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum 1.2, Serrasalmus marginatus/spilopleura 0.9, and Brycon hilarii 0.6 μg g−1 f.w. The average fish Hg contents were higher downstream, except for B. hilarii. In the reservoir, the average Hg content of each species was in 2005 always over the consumption limit (0.55 μg total Hg g−1 f.w.) recommended by WHO. Therefore, the people living around Lago Manso should be informed of the health effects of Hg, and fish consumption recommendations should be carried out. The accumulation of Hg varies widely between species as shown by the bioaccumulation factor which ranges between 5.08 and 5.59 log units. The observed variation is explained by differences in diet and trophic position with piscivorous fish exhibiting the highest mean Hg concentration, followed by carnivorous and omnivorous species. Carbon isotope analyses imply that trophic position is not the only cause of the observed differences in Hg levels between omnivorous B. hilarii, having a diet partly based on C4 plants, and carnivorous S. marginatus as well as piscivorous S. brasiliensis, whose carbon sources are depleted in 13C. The fact that the species have different carbon sources indicates that they belong to different food chains.

  • 49. Valinia, S.
    et al.
    Hansen, H. -P
    Futter, M. N.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sriskandarajah, N.
    Folster, J.
    Problems with the reconciliation of good ecological status and public participation in the Water Framework Directive2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 433, p. 482-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is an ambitious piece of legislation focused on achieving good ecological status as defined by deviations from reference conditions. Achieving good ecological status depends on collaboration between stakeholders, scientists and the public. However, public participation is restricted to consultations about implementing measures to achieve good ecological status, not in the goal setting. There are multiple, competing interpretations of good ecological status. This study addresses two of the pillars of the WFD, good ecological status and public participation. We argue that these two pillars are currently at odds when defining reference conditions for surface waters, and it is unclear how they can work together in practice. We also contend that there is an intention in the WFD to integrate these two pillars, but there is no legal support for their connection. In a case study of a small boreal lake in Sweden, we show that local people possess a great deal of historical knowledge, which they use to conceptualize reference conditions. Their conceptualizations are compared with fish and water chemistry monitoring by the regulatory authority as well as paleolimnological reconstructions of water quality dating back to the beginning of the 20th century. The knowledge that the local people have corresponds to the historical data available for the lake, particularly with water clarity. We highlight the subjective nature of the concept of 'undisturbed state' to show that it varies depending on values, knowledge and perceptions of lay-people, scientists and relevant authorities. The subjectivity of the concept of undisturbed state promises to be a way of linking the two pillars of the WFD. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 50.
    Vione, Davide
    et al.
    Univ Torino, Dept Chem, Via Pietro Giuria 5, I-10125 Turin, Italy;Univ Torino, NatRisk Interdept Ctr, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, I-10095 Grugliasco, TO, Italy.
    Koehler, Birgit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Modelled phototransformation kinetics of the antibiotic sulfadiazine in organic matter-rich lakes2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 645, p. 1465-1473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xenobiotic compounds are commonly detected in inland waters. Sunlight-induced photochemical reactions contribute to xenobiotic degradation, but the role of different photoreactions on large geographic scales remains poorly understood. Here, we used a combination of photochemical modelling and large-scale field data from 1020 lakes across Sweden to elucidate the photodegradation kinetics of the commonly used antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in organic matter-rich lakes. SDZ occurs in two forms, namely acidic HSDZ (pK(a) = 6.5) and basic/deprotonated SDZ . Both species are oxidised fast by the photogenerated triplet states of natural organic matter ((NOM)-N-3*). However, they also undergo efficient back reactions because the partially oxidised HSDZ (and SDZ(-) to a larger extent) can be reduced back to the initial compounds by the phenolic moieties contained in NOM. Typical lakes in Sweden are rich in NOM and have low pH, with the consequence that SDZ photochemistry would be dominated by HSDZ. Our simulation results showed that SDZ photodegradation kinetics in Swedish lakes would become significantly slower with increasing water depth and pH, while it depended little on latitude, which affects irradiance, or on organic matter content. As a consequence, SDZ would be particularly persistent in lakewater in some densely populated areas with relatively deep and high-pH lakes such as, most notably, the Stockholm region. Here the surface waters could be more heavily contaminated by pharmaceuticals compared to the scarcely populated regions in the centre-north of the country, where lakewater could otherwise promote an efficient photodegradation of SDZ.

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