uu.seUppsala universitets publikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
12 1 - 50 of 77
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Abdi, Amir
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Heinonen, Suvi
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Karinen, Tuomo
    Constraints on the geometry of the Suasselka post-glacial fault, northern Finland, based on reflection seismic imaging2015Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 649, s. 130-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unloading of the ice during the last glacial period in northern Fennoscandia is believed to have generated major faulting. These faults, often referred to as post-glacial faults, typically have clear surface exposures, but their geometry at depth is poorly known. In order to better understand the geometry at depth of the Suasselka post-glacial fault in Finland, three high resolution 2D reflection seismic profiles over the fault were reprocessed. Their total profile length is about 60 km and they were acquired as part of a major effort in Finland to map the uppermost crust in mining areas. The reprocessing led to significantly improved images that could be used to map the fault at depth. Two approximately N-S striking profiles and one E-W striking profile were reprocessed. The different azimuths and the crooked nature of the profiles allowed the fault geometry to be relatively well constrained. Clear reflections from the fault, dipping towards the SE, can be traced from the shallow subsurface down to about 3 km. The strike and dip of two sets of dipping reflections in the stacked data along with geometrical constraints and cross-dip analysis give a consistent dip of about 35-45 degrees towards the SE for the fault. The strike and dip vary from N55E with a dip of 35 degrees in the east to a strike of N48E with a dip of 45 degrees in the west. Existence of the two sets of reflections indicates that the fault surface is non-planar. Aside from allowing the geometry of the fault to be determined, the seismic data show a complex reflectivity pattern in the area and indications of both reverse and normal movement along fault planes with similar orientation to the Suasselka post-glacial fault. These images can be used as a basis for better characterizing the 3D geology of the area.

  • 2.
    Abdollahi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Univ Tehran, Inst Geophys, POB 14155-6466, Tehran, Iran.
    Ardestani, Vahid Ebrahimzadeh
    Univ Tehran, Inst Geophys, POB 14155-6466, Tehran, Iran.
    Zeyen, Hermann
    Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, CNRS, GEOPS, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Shomali, Zaher Hossein
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik. Univ Tehran, Inst Geophys, POB 14155-6466, Tehran, Iran.
    Crustal and upper mantle structures of Makran subduction zone, SE Iran by combined surface wave velocity analysis and gravity modeling2018Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 747, s. 191-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves is challenging, because it is non-linear and multimodal. In this study, we develop and test a new Rayleigh wave dispersion curve inversion scheme using the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) algorithm. Incorporating this optimization algorithm into the inverse procedure not only can effectively locate the promising areas in the solution space for a global minimum but also avoids its wandering near the global minimum in the final stage of search. In addition, our approach differs from others in the model parameterization: Instead of subdividing the model into a large number of thin layers, we invert for thickness, velocities and densities and their vertical gradients of four layers, sediments, upper-crust, lower-crust and upper mantle. The proposed inverse procedure is applied to non-linear inversion of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves for shear and compressional wave velocities. At first, to determine the efficiency and stability of the SCE method, two noise-free and two noisy synthetic data sets are inverted. Then real data for Makran region in SE Iran are inverted to examine the usage and robustness of the proposed approach on real surface wave data. In a second step, we applied 3D Gravity Modeling based on surface wave analysis results to obtain the density structure and thickness of each layer. The reason for using both types of data sets, is that gravity anomaly has a bad vertical resolution and surface wave group velocities are good for placing layer limits at depth, but they are not very sensitive to densities. Therefore, using gravity data increases the overall resolution of density distribution. In a final step, we used again the SCE method to invert the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves based on the gravity results. Gravity results like thicknesses and sediment densities have been used to constrain the limit of search space in the SCE method. Results show a high shear and compressional velocity under the Gulf of Oman which reduce to the North of the Makran region. The Moho depth of the Oman Gulf is about 18-28 km and it increases to 46-48 km under the Taftan-Bazman volcanic-arc. The density image shows an average crustal density with maximum values under the Gulf of Oman decreasing northward to the Makran.

  • 3. Alcalde, Juan
    et al.
    Marzan, Ignacio
    Saura, Eduard
    Marti, David
    Ayarza, Puy
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Perez-Estaun, Andres
    Carbonell, Ramon
    3D geological characterization of the Hontomin CO2 storage site, Spain: Multidisciplinary approach from seismic, well-log and regional data2014Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 627, s. 6-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The first Spanish Technological Development plant for CO2 storage is currently under development in Hontomin (Spain), in a fractured carbonate reservoir. The subsurface 3D geological structures of the Hontomin site were interpreted using well-log and 3D seismic reflection data. A shallow low velocity zone affects the wave propagation and decreases the coherency of the underlying seismic reflections, deteriorating the quality of the seismic data, and thus preventing a straightforward seismic interpretation. In order to provide a fully constrained model, a geologically supervised interpretation was carried out. In particular, a conceptual geological model was derived from an exhaustive well-logging analysis. This conceptual model was then improved throughout a detailed seismic facies analysis on selected seismic sections crossing the seismic wells and in consistency with the regional geology, leading to the interpretation of the entire 3D seismic volume. This procedure allowed characterizing nine main geological levels and four main fault sets. Thus, the stratigraphic sequence of the area and the geometries of the subsurface structures were defined. The resulting depth-converted 3D geological model allowed us to estimate a maximum CO2 storage capacity of 5.85 Mt. This work provides a 3D geological model of the Hontomin subsurface, which is a challenging case study of CO2 storage in a complex fractured carbonate reservoir. 

  • 4.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Henry, Bernard
    Jackson, Mike
    Werner, Tomasz
    Lagroix, France
    Methods and applications of magnetic anisotropy: A special issue in recognition of the career of Graham J. Borradaile2014Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 629, s. 1-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Hirt, Ann
    Herwegh, Marco
    Ebert, Andreas
    Walter, Jens
    Leiss, Bernd
    Burlini, Luigi
    Seismic anisotropy in the Morcles nappe shear zone: Implications for seismic imaging of crustal scale shear zones2013Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 603, s. 162-178Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructures and textures of calcite mylonites from the Morcles nappe large-scale shearzone in southwestern Switzerland develop principally as a function of 1) extrinsic physical parameters including temperature, stress, strain, strain rate and 2) intrinsic parameters, such as mineral composition. We collected rock samples at a single location from this shear zone, on which laboratory ultrasonic velocities, texture and microstructures were investigated and quantified. The samples had different concentration of secondary mineral phases (<5 up to 40 vol.%). Measured seismic P waveanisotropy ranges from 6.5% for polyphase mylonites (similar to 40 vol.%) to 18.4% in mylonites with <5 vol.% secondary phases. Texture strength of calcite is the main factor governing the seismic P wave anisotropy. Measured S wave splitting is generally highest in the foliation plane, but its origin is more difficult to explain solely by calcite texture. Additional texture measurements were made on calcite mylonites with low concentration of secondary phases (<= 10 vol.%) along the metamorphic gradient of the shear zone (15 km distance). A systematic increase in texture strength is observed moving from the frontal part of the shear zone (anchimetamorphism: 280 degrees C) to the higher temperature, basal part (greenschist facies: 350-400 degrees C). Calculated P wave velocities become increasingly anisotropic towards the high-strain part of the nappe, from an average of 5.8%in the frontal part to 13.2% in the root of the basal part. Secondary phases raise an additional complexity, and may act either to increase or decrease seismic anisotropy of shear zone mylonites. Inlight of our findings we reinterpret the origin of some seismically reflective layers in the Grone-Zweisimmen line in southwestern Switzerland (PNR20 Swiss National Research Program). We hypothesize that reflections originate in part from the lateral variation in textural and microstructural arrangement of calcite mylonites in shear zones. 

  • 6.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Hirt, Ann
    Schmidt, Volkmar
    Dietrich, Dorothee
    Magnetic fabrics of the Morcles nappe complex2009Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 466, s. 89-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Amini, Samar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Shomali, Z. Hossein
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Roberts, Roland G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Tomographic upper-mantle velocity structure beneath the Iranian Plateau2012Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 554-557, s. 42-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iranian plateau is one of the most structurally complex and tectonically inhomogeneous regions in the world. In this study, we analyze Pn arrival-times from regional seismicity in order to resolve lateral velocity variations within the uppermost-mantle under the Iranian Plateau. More than 48,000 Pn first arrival times selected from the EHB catalog were used with epicentral distances of 200 to 1600 km. We used regularized isotropic and anisotropic damped least-squares inversion to image lateral velocity variations in the upper mantle. Our velocity model, with high lateral resolution, shows positive anomalies in the Zagros mountain belt with a distinct transition approximately along the Main Zagros Thrust to the lower mantle velocity zone of Central Iran. Anomalously low velocities are observed predominantly beneath NW Iran and eastern Turkey, suggesting a zone of relatively weak mantle. Low velocity region under the Damavand volcano reveals the hot upper mantle beneath the central Alborz mountains.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Internal architecture of the Alnö alkaline and carbonatite complex (central Sweden) revealed using 3D models of gravity and magnetic data2018Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 740-741, s. 53-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Alnö Complex in central Sweden is one of the largest alkaline and carbonatite ring-shaped intrusions in the world. Presented here is the 3D models of ground gravity and aeromagnetic data that confirm some of the previous ideas about the 3D geometry of the complex but also suggest that the complex may continue laterally further to north than previously expected. The data show the complex as (i) a strong positive Bouguer anomaly, around 20 mGal, and (ii) a strong positive magnetic anomaly, exceeding 2000 nT. Magnetic structures are clearly discernible within the complex and surrounding area. Both gravity and magnetic inversion models suggest that dense (> 2850 kg/m(3)) and magnetic ( > 0.05 SI) rocks extend down to about 3.5-4 km depth. Previous studies have suggested a solidified magma reservoir at this approximate depth. The inversion models further suggest that two apparently separate regions within the complex are likely connected at depth, starting from 800 to 1000 m, implying a common source for the rocks observed in these two regions. Modelling of the aeromagnetic data indicates that a > 3 km wide ring-shaped magnetic high situated in the sea north of Alnö Island may be a part of the complex. This could link a smaller satellite intrusion in Soraker on mainland to the larger intrusion on Alnö Island. While the rim of the ring must consist of highly magnetic rocks to support the anomaly, the centre has relatively low magnetisation and is probably made up of low-magnetic wall-rocks or metasomatised wall-rocks down to about 2 km depth. Below this depth the 3D susceptibility model suggests higher magnetic susceptibility values. Worldwide alkaline and carbonatite complexes are the main resources for rare earth elements (REEs), and owing to the size of the Alnö Complex, it can be highly prospective for REEs at depth.

  • 9.
    Bastida, F
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Aller, J
    Puchkov, VN
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Oslianski, A
    A cross-section through the Zilair Nappe (southern Urals)1997Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 276, nr 1-4, s. 253-263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A structural transect in the Zilair-Kugarchi area involves the western part of the Suvanyak Complex, the Zilair Nappe and the eastern part of the foreland thrust and fold belt. This section has been analyzed using field, microstructural and seismic data. The cross-section shows the transition from the hinterland to the foreland in the footwall to the suture of the southern Urals. The rocks involved range from early Palaeozoic to Permian in age. A characteristic of the Zilair Nappe is the dominance of a succession of volcanic greywackes and mudrocks of Late Devonian age (Zilair Formation). The metamorphic grade decreases from east to west, from greenschist facies to diagenetic conditions. The structure of the cross-section mainly comprises west-directed thrusts and thrust-related folds with an associated cleavage. Fold vergence changes along the section depending on of the distance to the associated thrust and its geometry. The Zilair thrust which separates the Zilair Nappe from the foreland thrust and fold belt accommodated ca. 10 km displacement and the characteristics of the deformation are similar on both sides of it. The contact between the Zilair Nappe and Suvanyak Complex is a west-dipping normal fault that does not represent a major tectonic boundary.

  • 10.
    Bergman, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Palm, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    High-resolution reflection seismic imaging of the upper crust at Laxemar, southeastern Sweden2002Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 355, nr 1-4, s. 201-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A major cost in exploring the upper 1–2 km of crystalline crust with reflection seismics is the drilling required for explosive sources. By reducing the charge size to a minimum, shallow inexpensive shotholes can be drilled with handheld equipment. Here, we present results from a full-scale test using small charges for high-resolution seismic surveying over a nuclear waste disposal study site (not an actual site). Two 2–2.5-km-long crossing profiles were acquired in December 1999 with 10-m shot and geophone spacing in the Laxemar area, near Oskarshamn in southeastern Sweden. After standard processing, including dip moveout (DMO), several subhorizontal to moderately dipping reflections are imaged. Many of the dipping ones can be correlated to fracture zones observed in a ca. 1700-m-deep borehole where the profiles cross and/or to fracture zones mapped on the surface. The imaged fracture zones form a complex 3D pattern illustrating the necessity of having 3D control before interpreting seismic reflection data. Analyses of sonic and density logs from the borehole show that greenstones have significantly higher impedances than the more dominant granite found in the borehole (granite/greenstone reflection coefficient is +0.065). These greenstones may contribute to the reflectivity when associated with fracture zones. In some cases, where they are present as larger subhorizontal lenses, they may be the dominant source of reflectivity. A set of north-dipping (10°) reflectors at 3–3.5-km depth can be correlated to a similar set observed below the island of Ävrö about 3 km to the east.

  • 11. Brown, D.
    et al.
    Zhang, X.
    Palomeras, I.
    Simancas, F.
    Carbonell, R.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Salisbury, M.
    Petrophysical analysis of a mid-crustal reflector in the IBERSEIS profile, SW Spain2012Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 550, s. 35-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of strong crustal reflectors in vertical incidence reflection seismic data is generally attributed to either rock layering, deformation fabrics in shear zones, fluids, or igneous intrusions. The IBERSEIS normal incidence reflection and wide-angle seismic profiles in SW Spain imaged a large, high velocity, subhorizontal reflector in the middle crust (the IBERSEIS Reflective Body) whose origin has been attributed to a mafic intrusion. In order to test this hypothesis, in this paper we present laboratory measurements of Vp, Vs, and density from 17 samples of mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks, and metasediments that are thought to be equivalent to the proposed IBERSEIS Reflective Body. These measurements are then corrected to 400 degrees C at 600 MPa and used to calculate Poisson's ratio and to compare it, Vp, and Vs to values measured in situ by wide-angle data. Finally, normal incidence reflection coefficients are calculated to test if the measured lithologies could reproduce the reflectivity imaged in the vertical incidence reflection seismic data for the IBERSEIS Reflective Body. Our physical property measurements are very similar to those modeled from the wide-angle data, and our reflection coefficients are sufficiently high to cause strong mid-crustal reflectivity. Our data indicate, therefore, that previous interpretations of the IBERSEIS Reflective Body as a mafic sill are quite reasonable.

  • 12.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Tanner, David Colin
    Krumbholz, Michael
    Mode of emplacement of the Slaufrudalur Pluton, Southeast Iceland inferred from three-dimensional GPS mapping and model building2010Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 480, s. 232-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13. Carracedo, J. C.
    et al.
    Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.
    Gimeno, D.
    Guillou, H.
    Kluegel, A.
    Krastel, S.
    Paris, R.
    Perez-Torrado, F. J.
    Rodriguez-Badiola, E.
    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Walter, T. R.
    Wiesmaier, S.
    Comment on "The distribution of basaltic volcanism on Tenerife, Canary Islands: Implications on the origin and dynamics of the rift systems" by A. Geyer and J. Marti. Tectonophysics 483 (2010) 310-3262011Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 503, nr 3-4, s. 239-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Chemia, Z.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Schmeling, H.
    Institute of Earth Sciences, Section Geophysics J. W. Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Koyi, H.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany2009Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 473, nr 3-4, s. 446-456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gorleben diapir, which has been targeted for radioactive waste disposal, contains large blocks of anhydrite. Numerical models that   depict the geometrical configuration of the Gorleben diapir are used to understand internal structure of diapir caused by movement of the anhydrite blocks for various salt rheologies. It is shown that the   theology of the salt plays a significant role in how and at which rate   the anhydrite blocks sink within the diapir. The mobility of anhydrite   blocks depends on the effective viscosity of salt which has to be lower   than threshold value of around 10(18)-10(19) Pa s. Decreasing salt   viscosity allows the previously "stationary" anhydrite blocks to sink.   If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow   due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir.

  • 15.
    Cheraghi, Saeid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bellefleur, Gilles
    Crustal-scale reflection seismic investigations in the Bathurst Mining Camp, New Brunswick, Canada2011Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 506, nr 1-4, s. 55-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bathurst Mining Camp, northern New Brunswick, Canada contains the super giant Brunswick No. 12 massive sulphide deposit and the smaller, now abandoned, Brunswick No. 6 deposit. Discoveries of additional base metal deposits in the camp require a better understanding of geological structures at depth. To this end, reflection seismic data in the Brunswick No. 6 area were acquired along three 2D profiles in 1999, with a total length of about 30 km. We have recovered, processed and interpreted these seismic data in conjunction with petrophysical and geological data from the study area. The seismic data and the borehole geophysical data allow a better understanding of both the shallow and deep structures (to 9 km depth) in the area. The seismic data show steeply dipping structures of the Brunswick No. 6 area, many of which reach the surface and allow for correlation with the surface and borehole geological information. Finite-difference modeling of major geological formations constrained with borehole petrophysical measurements indicates good correlation between the observed seismic and the synthetic data. A sequence of seismically reflective and transparent zones indicates a thrust stack in the Brunswick No. 6 area. The contact between the reflective and transparent zones is a series of faults bringing the two units over each other. A reflective package is observed in all three profiles and correlates well with the Brunswick horizon, the key mineralized zone in the study area. The Brunswick horizon extends down to depth greater than 3 km, increasing the hope for discovery of deeper base metal deposits. Two other sets of reflections are also observed in all three profiles in the depth range of about 5-8 km. We interpret them as two sets of thrusted sheets, which could be an indication that the Brunswick belt extends down to a maximum depth of 8 km.

  • 16.
    Cheraghi, Saeid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bellefleur, Gilles
    Geological Survey of Canada.
    Crustal-scale reflection seismic investigations in the Bathurst Mining Camp, New Brunswick, Canada2011Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 506, nr 1-4, s. 55-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17. Cherevatova, M.
    et al.
    Smirnov, M.
    Korja, T.
    Kaikkonen, P.
    Pedersen, Laust Börsting
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Hubert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Kamm, Jochen
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Kalscheuer, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Crustal structure beneath southern Norway imaged by magnetotellurics2014Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 628, s. 55-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use data from two magnetotelluric profiles, ToSca10 and ToSca'09, over the Scandinavian Mountains to study the crustal structure in southern Norway. The profiles cross the major tectonic structures of the Caledonian orogen as well as the western margin of the Precambrian Baltica. Dimensionality and strike analyses indicate generally 3-D behavior of the data. However, the majority of the used data distinguishes a preferable strike direction, which is supported by the geology of the region. Hence, we employ 2-D inversion and choose to invert the determinant of the impedance tensor to mitigate 3-D effects in the data on our 2-D models. Magnetotelluric data from both profiles are inverted using a damped least squares solution based on a singular value decomposition. We improved the solution by defining the inverse model covariance matrix through gradient or Laplacian smoothing operators. The two-dimensional inversion models of the ToSca'09 and ToSca'10 field data from southern Norway derived from the damped least squares scheme with the Laplacian inverse model covariance matrix are presented. Resistive rocks, extending to the surface, image the autochthonous Southwest Scandinavian Domain and the allochthonous Western Gneiss Region. Near-surface conductors, which are located between the resistive Caledonian nappes and Precambrian basement, delineate highly conductive shallow-sea sediments, so called alum shales. They exhibit a decollement along which the Caledonian nappes were overthrust. A deeper, upper to midcrustal conducting layer in the Southwest Scandinavian Domain may depict the remnants of closed ocean basins formed during the accretions and collisions of various Sveconorwegian terranes. In ToSca'10, the Caledonian nappes, the conducting alum shales and the deeper conductor are terminated in the west by the Faltungsgraben shear complex which represents a crustal scale boundary between the Western Gneiss Region in the west and the Southwest Scandinavian Domain in the east.  

  • 18. Cherevatova, M.
    et al.
    Smirnov, M. Yu.
    Jones, A. G.
    Pedersen, Laust Börsting
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Becken, M.
    Biolik, M.
    Ebbing, J.
    Gradmann, S.
    Gurk, M.
    Huebert, J.
    Junge, A.
    Kamm, Jochen
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Korja, T.
    Lahti, I.
    Lower, A.
    Nittinger, C.
    Savvaidis, A.
    Smirnov, M.
    Magnetotelluric array data analysis from north-west Fennoscandia2015Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 653, s. 1-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New magnetotelluric (MT) data in north-west Fennoscandia were acquired within the framework of the project "Magnetotellurics in the Scandes" (MaSca). The project focuses on the investigation of the crustal and upper mantle lithospheric structure in the transition zone from stable Precambrian cratonic interior to passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian orogen and the Scandinavian Mountains in western Fennoscandia. An array of 59 synchronous long period and 220 broad-band MT sites was occupied in the summers of 2011 to 2013. We estimated MT transfer functions in the period range from 0.003 to 10(5) s. The Q-function multi-site multi-frequency analysis and the phase tensor were used to estimate strike and dimensionality of MT data. Dimensionality and strike analyses indicate generally 2-D behaviour of the data with 3-D effects at some sites and period bands. In this paper we present 2-D inversion of the data, 3-D inversion models are shown in the parallel paper. We choose to invert the determinant of the impedance tensor to mitigate 3-D effects in the data on our 2-D models. Seven crustal-scale and four lithospheric-scale 2-D models are presented. The resistive regions are images of the Archaean and Proterozoic basement in the east and thin Caledonian nappes in the west. The middle and lower crust of the Svecofennian province is conductive. The southern end of the Kittila Greenstone Belt is seen in the models as a strong upper to middle crustal conductor. In the Caledonides, the highly conductive alum shales are observed along the Caledonian Thrust Front. The thickest lithosphere is in the Palaeoproterozioc Svecofennian Domain, not in the Archaean. The thickness of the lithosphere is around 200 km in the north and 300 km in the south-west.

  • 19. Cherevatova, M.
    et al.
    Smirnov, M. Yu.
    Korja, T.
    Pedersen, Laust Börsting
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Ebbing, J.
    Gradmann, S.
    Becken, M.
    Electrical conductivity structure of north-west Fennoscandia from three-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric data2015Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 653, s. 20-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New magnetotelluric (MT) data in north-west Fennoscandia were acquired within the framework of the project "Magnetotellurics in the Scandes" (MaSca). The project focuses on the investigation of the crustal and upper mantle lithospheric structure in the transition zone from stable Precambrian cratonic interior to passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian orogen and the Scandinavian Mountains in western Fennoscandia. An array of 59 simultaneous long period and 220 broad-band MT sites were occupied in the summers of 2011 to 2013. The 3-D inversion of the MaSca data was obtained using the ModEM 3-D code. The full impedance and tipper data were used for the inversion. The rocks of Archaean and Proterozoic basement towards east and the Caledonian nappes towards west are modelled as resistive structures. In the central and southern parts, the whole crust is resistive and reflects the Trans-Scandinavian Igneous Belt granitoids. The middle to lower crust of the Svecofennian province is conductive. An uppermost crustal conductor is revealed in the Skelleftea Ore District. The south end of the Kittila Greenstone Belt is seen in the models as a strong upper to middle crustal conductor. In the Caledonides, the highly conductive alum shales are observed along the Caledonian Thrust Front. A map of the crustal conductance for the north-west Fennoscandian Shield is presented.

  • 20. Corti, Giacomo
    et al.
    Ranalli, Giorgio
    Mulugeta, Genene
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala.
    Agostini, Andrea
    Sani, Federico
    Zugu, Alessandro
    Control of the rheological structure of the lithosphere on the inward migration of tectonic activity during continental rifting2010Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 490, nr 3-4, s. 165-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analogue models are used to analyse the parameters controlling the evolution of extensional deformation in continental rifts. Models are deformed in a centrifuge and simulate the continental lithosphere floating and extending above a low-viscosity asthenosphere. Model results reproduce the typical evolution of deformation during continental narrow rifting, with early activation of large boundary faults and basin subsidence, followed by their abandonment and localization of tectonic activity in internal faults near the centre of the rift. The experiments document the strong influence exerted by the thickness of both brittle and ductile crustal layers and syn-rift sediment accumulation on the evolution of deformation, namely on the amount of bulk extension preceding inward fault migration. Thin upper and/or lower crust and absent or low syn-rift sedimentation promote a rapid abandonment of boundary faults and a transition to in-rift fault development for low amounts of extension; conversely, thick upper and/or lower crust and high syn-rift sediment accumulation favour prolonged slip on boundary faults and delayed development of internal faulting. The experimental results suggest that the inward migration of faulting during extension of continental lithosphere results from the interplay between the ductile stresses acting at the base of the upper crust and the total resistance of this brittle layer.

  • 21.
    Cruciani, F.
    et al.
    Univ Perugia, Dept Phys & Geol, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Barchi, M. R.
    Univ Perugia, Dept Phys & Geol, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Porreca, M.
    Univ Perugia, Dept Phys & Geol, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Kinematic evolution of a regional-scale gravity-driven deepwater fold-and-thrust belt: The Lamu Basin case-history (East Africa)2017Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 712-713, s. 30-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The deepwater fold-and-thrust belts (DWFTBs) are geological structures recently explored thanks to advances in offshore seismic imaging by oil industry. In this study we present a kinematic analysis based on three balanced cross-sections of depth-converted, 2-D seismic profiles along the offshore Lamu Basin (East African passive margin). This margin is characterized by a regional-scale DWFTB (>450 km long), which is the product of gravity-driven contraction on the shelf that exhibits complex structural styles and differing amount of shortening along strike. Net shortening is up to 48 km in the northern wider part of the fold-and-thrust belt (approximate to 180 km), diminishing to <15 km toward the south, where the belt is markedly narrower (approximate to 50 km). The three balanced profiles show a shortening percentage around 20% (comparable with the maximum values documented in other gravity-driven DWFTBs), with a significant variability along dip: higher values are achieved in the outer (i.e. down-dip) portion of the system, dominated by basinward-verging, imbricate thrust sheets. Fold wavelength increases landward, where doubly-verging structures and symmetric detachment folds accommodate a lower amount of shortening. Similar to other cases, a linear and systematic relationship between sedimentary thickness and fold wavelength is observed. Reconstruction of the rate of shortening through time within a fold-and-thrust belt shows that after an early phase of slow activation (Late Cretaceous), >95% of net shortening was produced in <10 Myr (during Paleocene). During this acme phase, which followed a period of high sedimentation rate, thrusts were largely synchronous and the shortening rate reached a maximum value of 5 mm/yr. The kinematic evolution reconstructed in this study suggests that the structural evolution of gravity-driven fold-and-thrust belts differs from the accretionary wedges and the collisional fold-and-thrust belts, where thrusts propagate in-sequence and shortening is uniformly accommodated along dip.

  • 22.
    Dehghannejad, Mahdieh
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bauer, Tobias E.
    Division of Geosciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Weihed, Pär
    Division of Geosciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Crustal geometry of the central Skellefte district, northern Sweden – constraints from reflection seismic investigations2012Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 524, s. 87-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Palaeoproterozoic Skellefte mining district in Sweden is one of the most important mining districts in Europe. As a part of a 4D geologic modeling project, three new sub-parallel reflection seismic profiles, with a total length of about 95 km, were acquired in the central part of the district. Processed seismic data reveal a series of gentle- to steeply- dipping reflections and a series of diffraction packages. The majority of reflections that extend to the surface can be correlated with geological features either observed in the field or interpreted from the aeromagnetic map. A set of south-dipping reflections represent inferred syn-extensional listric extensional faults that were inverted during subsequent crustal-shortening. Cross-cutting northdipping reflections are correlated to late-compressional break-back faults. Flat-lying reflections in the central parts of the study area could represent lithological contacts within the Skellefte Group, or the contact between Skellefte Group rocks and their unknown basement. Flat-lying reflections occurring further north are inferred to originate from the top of the Jörn intrusive complex or an intrusive contact within it. So far unknown south- and north-dipping faults have been identified in the vicinity of the Maurliden deposit. Based on the seismic results, a preliminary 3D-model has been created in order to visualize the fault pattern and to provide a base for future 3D/4D modeling in the Skellefte district.

  • 23. Delcamp, A.
    et al.
    Petronis, M. S.
    Troll, Valentine
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Carracedo, J. C.
    de Vries, B. van Wyk
    Perez-Torrado, F. J.
    Vertical axis rotation of the upper portions of the north-east rift of Tenerife Island inferred from paleomagnetic data2010Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 492, nr 1-4, s. 40-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Paleomagnetic sampling sites were established in 82 dykes along an 8 km long section of the north-east rift-zone (NERZ) of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Of the 70 interpretable sites, 16 are of normal polarity and 54 of reversed polarity. Four normal polarity sites and fifteen reverse polarity sites were excluded from the grand mean calculation for statistical reasons. After inverting the reverse polarity sites through the origin, the in-situ grand mean yields a declination (D) = 023.8 degrees, an inclination (I) = 42.3 degrees, alpha(95) = 3.2 degrees, kappa = 39.0, N = 51 that is discordant to the expected late Miocene to Pleistocene field direction (D = 357.6 degrees, I = 38.8 degrees, alpha(95) = 4.7 degrees). This discordance can be explained as either a 26 degrees clockwise vertical axis rotation or a 28 degrees WNW-side-down-tilt about an average 009 degrees horizontal tilt axis. The sampled section is composed of numerous semi-vertical dykes cutting mainly lava flow units that are sub-horizontal and cross-cut by steeply dipping faults (70 degrees-90 degrees). Field evidence is therefore more compatible with a vertical-axis rotation rather than a horizontal axis tilt of the drilled units. We argue that this clockwise vertical-axis rotation is likely related to strike-slip movements that occurred along the edges of the collapse scars and accommodate the emplacement and growth of the underlying intrusive core and associated dykes. Six new Ar-40/Ar-39 age determinations constrain the main interval of dyke emplacement within the NERZ between 0.99 Ma and 0.56 Ma. The intrusive activity in the sampled section of the rift appears to have been almost continuous, with several intrusion pulses that are probably related to flank destabilisation event(s) during the mid Pleistocene. Our study thus demonstrates a long-lived, multi-faceted history that shaped the NERZ.

  • 24.
    Delcamp, Audray
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Trinity College, Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.
    Petronis, M. S.
    Environmental Geology Natural Resource Management Department, New Mexico Highlands University, Las Vegas, New Mexico, 87 701, USA.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Carracedo, Juan Carlos
    Estación Volcanológica de Canarias, IPNA-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), La Laguna, 38206, Tenerife, Spain.
    van Wyk de Vries, B.
    Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans CNRS-UMR 6524, Observatoire du Physique du Globe de Clermont Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Pérez-Torrado, Francisco José
    Departamento de Física-Geología, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Vertical axis rotation of the upper portions of the north-east rift of Tenerife Island inferred from paleomagnetic data2010Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 492, nr 1-4, s. 40-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Paleomagnetic sampling sites were established in 82 dykes along an 8 km long section of the north-east rift-zone (NERZ) of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Of the 70 interpretable sites, 16 are of normal polarity and 54 of reversed polarity. Four normal polarity sites and fifteen reverse polarity sites were excluded from the grand mean calculation for statistical reasons. After inverting the reverse polarity sites through the origin, the in-situ grand mean yields a declination (D) = 023.8°, an inclination (I) = 42.3°, α95 = 3.2°, ĸ = 39.0, N = 51 that is discordant to the expected late Miocene to Pleistocene field direction (D = 357.6°, I = 38.8°, α95 = 4.7°). This discordance can be explained as either a 26° clockwise vertical axis rotation or a 28° WNW-side-down-tilt about an average 009° horizontal tilt axis. The sampled section is composed of numerous semi-vertical dykes cutting mainly lava flow units that are sub-horizontal and cross-cut by steeply dipping faults (70°–90°). Field evidence is therefore more compatible with a vertical-axis rotation rather than a horizontal axis tilt of the drilled units. We argue that this clockwise vertical-axis rotation is likely related to strike-slip movements that occurred along the edges of the collapse scars and accommodate the emplacement and growth of the underlying intrusive core and associated dykes. Six new 40Ar/39Ar age determinations constrain the main interval of dyke emplacement within the NERZ between 0.99 Ma and 0.56 Ma. The intrusive activity in the sampled section of the rift appears to have been almost continuous, with several intrusion pulses that are probably related to flank destabilisation event(s) during the mid Pleistocene. Our study thus demonstrates a long-lived, multi-faceted history that shaped the NERZ.

  • 25. Dörr, N.
    et al.
    Lisker, F.
    Clift, P. D.
    Carter, A.
    Gee, David G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Tebenkov, A. M.
    Spiegel, C.
    Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic exhumation history of northern Svalbard and its regional significance: Constraints from apatite fission track analysis2012Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 514, s. 81-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The late Mesozoic-Cenozoic was a time of profound tectonic activity in the Arctic, with incipient spreading in the Arctic Ocean, Baffin Bay-Labrador Sea and North Atlantic, as well as the northward movement of the Greenland microplate leading to collision and deformation in Greenland, Arctic Canada and Svalbard (Eurekan Orogeny). It is, however, still unclear, how northern Svalbard, situated at the northwestern edge of the Barents Shelf, was affected by these processes. Furthermore, northern Svalbard has been proposed to have been a Cretaceous-Cenozoic sediment source to surrounding regions because it lacks a post-Devonian sedimentary cover. When erosion took place and how that related to the tectonic history of the Arctic, is yet unresolved. In order to reconstruct the erosion history of northern Svalbard, we constrained its thermal evolution using apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology. Our data reveal AFT ages between 62 +/- 5 and 214 +/- 10 Ma, recording late Mesozoic-early Paleogene exhumation. Our data show that northern Svalbard was emergent and experienced erosion from the Early Jurassic and presumably through the Cenozoic, although total exhumation was restricted to similar to 6 km. Pronounced exhumation took place during Jurassic-Cretaceous time, probably linked to the extensional tectonics during the opening of the Amerasian Basin (Arctic Ocean). In contrast, Cenozoic ocean basin formation and the Eurekan deformation did not cause significant erosion of northem Svalbard. Nonetheless, AFT data show that Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene fault-related exhumation affected some parts of northern Svalbard. Fault zones were reactivated due to the reorganization of Arctic landmasses during an early phase of the Eurekan deformation, which implies that this episode commenced similar to 20 m.y. earlier in Svalbard than previously understood.

  • 26.
    Eken, Tuna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Plomerová, Jaroslava
    Geophysical Institute, Czech Acad. Sci..
    Roberts, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Vecsey, Ludek
    Geophysical Institute, Czech Acad. Sci..
    Babuška, Vladislav
    Geophysical Institute, Czech Acad. Sci..
    Shomali, Hossein
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bodvarsson, Reynir
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Seismic anisotropy of the mantle lithosphere beneath the Swedish National Seismological Network (SNSN)2010Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 480, nr 1-4, s. 241-258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Body-wave analysis – shear-wave splitting and P-travel time residuals - detect anisotropic structure of the upper mantle beneath the Swedish part of Fennoscandia. Geographic variations of both the splitting measurements and the P-residual spheres map regions of different fabrics of the mantle lithosphere. The fabric of individual mantle domains is internally consistent, usually with sudden changes at their boundaries. Distinct back-azimuth dependence of SKS splitting excludes single-layer anisotropy models with horizontal symmetry axes for the whole region. Based upon joint inversion of body-wave anisotropic parameters we instead propose 3D self-consistent anisotropic models of well-defined mantle lithosphere domains with differently oriented fabrics approximated by hexagonal aggregates with plunging symmetry axes. The domain-like structure of the Precambrian mantle lithosphere, most probably retaining fossil fabric since the domains’ origin, supports the idea of the existence of an early form of plate tectonics during formation of continental cratons already in the Archean. Similarly to different geochemical and geological constraints, the 3D anisotropy modelling and mapping of fabrics of the lithosphere domains contribute to tracking plate tectonics regimes back in time.

  • 27.
    Eken, Tuna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Shomali, Zaher Hossein
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Roberts, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Hieronymus, Christoph F.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bödvarsson, Reynir
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    S and P velocity heterogeneities within the upper mantle below the Baltic Shield2008Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 462, nr 1-4, s. 109-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Upper mantle structure beneath the Baltic (Fennoscandian) Shield is investigated using non-linear tomographic inversion of relative arrival-time residuals. 52 selected teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 45 broadband stations of the Swedish National Seismological Network (SNSN) provide 1532 good quality S-wave relative arrival times. SV and SH arrival-time residuals were initially analyzed independently, providing two separate models. These reveal several consistent major features, many of which are also consistent with P-wave results. Lateral velocity variations of ± 3–4% are observed to depths of at least 470 km. The correlation between the SH and SV models is investigated and shows a pattern of minor but significant differences down to around 150–200 km depth, below which the models are essentially similar. Direct cell by cell comparison of the model velocities reveals a similar pattern, with velocity differences between the models of up to 4%. Numerical tests show that differences in the two S-wave models can only be partially attributed to noise and limited resolution, and some features are attributed to the effect of large scale anisotropy. One of the significant and sharp discrepancies between the S models coincides with a presumed boundary between Archean and Proterozic domains, suggesting different anisotropic characteristics in the two regions.

  • 28.
    Farzipour-Saein, Ali
    et al.
    Univ Isfahan, Fac Sci, Dept Geol, PO Code 81746-73441, Esfahan, Iran..
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Intermediate decollement activation in response to the basal friction variation and its effect on folding style in the Zagros fold-thrust belt, an analogue modeling approach2016Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 687, s. 56-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the role of various basal and intermediate decollement levels on structural style is well documented individually in many folded terrains, the interaction between basal and intermediate decollements is poorly constrained. This study uses results of two scaled sand-box models shortened from one end to study the variation in structural development in response to varying basal friction and its consequent interaction with intermediate decollement horizons. Two models with similar incompetent intermediate decollement, but with different basal friction (with and without a thick basal decollement), were prepared analogous for the eastern and the western parts of the Razak basement fault in the Fars Region of the eastern part of the Zagros fold thrust belt (ZFTB). Combined results of scaled models with geological observations are used to argue that the basal decollement friction characteristics govern propagation of deformation front. In addition, model results, analogues to north-south direction, show that deformation complexity and disharmonic folding exist in the section where the intermediate decollement has been activated in response to the shortening without the basal decollement (throughout the western part of the Razak basement fault where less thickness of the Hormuz series as the basal decollement has been documented compared to its eastern part). In other words, the complexity in deformation is less portrayed along sections where basal friction beneath the model decreases (e.g. the eastern part of the Razak basement fault). We argue here that, in addition to other parameters (not presented in this study) interaction of intermediate decollement levels with basal decollement friction characteristics could explain decoupling between structures within the sedimentary column of the Fars Region of the eastern part of the Zagros fold thrust belt.

  • 29.
    Frenje, L
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Scattering of seismic waves simulated by finite difference modelling in random media: application to the Gravberg-1 well, Sweden1998Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 293, nr 1-2, s. 61-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We generate surface and VSP synthetic seismograms using finite difference modelling of the elastic wave equation in self-similar media. The elastic model is determined by analyses of the sonic log from the deep Gravberg-1 borehole in central Sweden. The upper 1200 m is highly fractured and the velocities are best described by a log-normal distribution rather than a Gaussian distribution. Analyses of this interval after removing the deterministic trend and assuming a self-similar Gaussian distribution of the random component give a standard deviation of 370 m/s, a correlation distance of 45 m and a Hurst number of 0.18. These values and others from deeper levels are used to generate the 2-D elastic model and the synthetic seismograms are compared with real data. Synthetic surface seismic data show a poor qualitative match when compared to real data. Synthetic VSP data match the real VSP better qualitatively. In general, the synthetic data show considerably more scattering effects than the real data. Possible explanations for this discrepancy include: (1) intrinsic attenuation has been ignored; (2) a Gaussian distribution of the random component was assumed; or (3) the heterogeneities have a preferred orientation. The poor match implies that the method for extracting the 2-D or 3-D velocity variations in the uppermost crust from 1-D sonic log data need to be studied further.

  • 30.
    Fuchs, Lukas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Schmeling, Harro
    Goethe-University, Institute of Geoscience, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Numerical modeling of the effect of composite rheology on internal deformation in down-built diapirs.2015Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 646, s. 79-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-dimensional finite difference code (FDCON) is used to estimate the progressive deformation and the effect of a composite rheology, i.e., Newtonian combined with non-Newtonian, on finite deformation patterns within a down-built diapir. The geometry of the diapir is fixed using two rigid rectangular overburden units which sink into a source layer of a certain viscosity. We have analyzed the progressive deformation within the entire salt layer for a composite rheology and compared them to a standard model with Newtonian rheology (ηs = 1018 Pa s). The composite rheology models show a more complex deformation patterns in comparison to the standard model. Deformation is more localized within the source layer, leaving a broader less deformed zone within the middle of the source layer. In comparison to the standard model, ellipticity (R) of the strain ellipse is amplified by a factor of up to three in high deformation regions with a finite deformation f larger than two (f = log10(R)). Initially vertical and horizontal passive marker-lines within the salt layer, are folded during salt movement. Initially horizontally-oriented marker-lines in the source layer show upright folds within the middle of the stem. Within the source layer, initially vertical marker-lines form recumbent folds, which are refolded during their flow from the source layer into the stem. During their refolding, the hinge of the fold migrates outward towards the flank of the diapir. A temporal and spatial hinge migration is observed for sub-horizontal folds that originated in the source layer as they are refolded. We have also studied both the effect of curved versus sharp corners between the source layer and the stem on strain evolution within both the feeding source layer and the down-built diapir. Strain evolution and hinge migration are strongly influenced by the geometry of the corner between the source layer and the stem.

  • 31.
    Fuchs, Lukas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Schmeling, Harro
    Goethe-University, Institute of Geoscience, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Numerical modeling on progressive internal deformation indown-built diapirs2014Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 632, s. 111-122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-dimensional finite difference code (FDCON) is used to estimate the finite deformationwithin a down-builtdiapir. The geometry of the down-built diapir is fixed by using two rigid rectangular overburden unitswhich sinkinto a source layer of a constant viscosity. Thus, the model refers to diapirs consisting of a source layerfeeding a vertical stem, and not to other salt structures (e.g. salt sheets or pillows). With this setup westudy the progressive strain in three different deformation regimes within the “salt” material: (I) a squeezedchannel-flow deformation regime and (II) a corner-flow deformation regime within the source layer, and(III) a pure channel-flow deformation regime within the stem. We analyze the evolution of finite deformationin each regime individually, progressive strain for particles passing all three regimes, and total 2Dfinite deformationwithin the salt layer. Model results show that the material which enters the stem bears inherited strainaccumulated from the other two domains. Therefore, finite deformation in the stem differs from the expectedchannel-flow deformation, due to the deformation accumulated within the source layer. The stem displays ahigh deformation zone within its center and areas of decreasing progressive strain between its center and itsboundaries.High deformation zoneswithin the stemcould also be observedwithin natural diapirs (e.g. Klodowa,Polen). The location and structure of the high deformation zone (e.g. symmetric or asymmetric) could revealinformation about different rates of salt supplies from the source layer. Thus, deformation pattern could directlybe correlated to the evolution of the diapir.

  • 32.
    García Juanatey, María de los Angeles
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Hübert, Juliane
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Tryggvason, Ari
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Pedersen, Laust B.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bauer, Tobias E.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Dehghannejad, Mahdieh
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    2D and 3D MT in the central Skellefte Ore District, northern Sweden2019Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 764, s. 124-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New broadband magnetotelluric (MT) data have been acquired along two parallel profiles in the central part of the metallogenic Skellefte district in northern Sweden. The data were recorded as part of the Swedish 4D modelling of mineral belts project and cover an area with several economical and sub-economical deposits. The dimensionality and quality of the data were carefully analyzed and new error floors were systematically determined prior to inverse modelling in 2D and 3D. The algorithms used were EMILIA and WSINV3DMT. For the 2D inversion, only the determinant of the impedance tensor was used, while for the 3D inversion all elements were considered. The obtained models fit the inverted data, and image the main regional features. A detailed comparison reveals the superiority of the 3D model, both in model structures and data fit. After assessing the main features in the model, an interpretation is proposed and refined with the support of previous geophysical studies. The most interesting features are large and medium-sized conductors associated with crustal-scale shear zones and faults within the Skellefte Group rocks. These may be depicting a network of fossil pathways for hydrothermal fluid transport and as such, provide new insight into past processes in the area.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2021-04-13 15:31
  • 33. Gregersen, S.
    et al.
    Voss, P.
    Nielsen, L. V.
    Achauer, U.
    Busche, H.
    Rabbel, W.
    Shomali, Zaher Hossein
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Uniqueness of modeling results from teleseismic P-Wave tomography in Project Tor2010Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 481, nr 1-4, s. 99-107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within Project Tor. which is about Teleseismic Tomography across the Tomquist Zone in Germany-Denmark-Sweden, we have confirmed very significant deep lithosphere differences And modeling is substantiated via completely independent methods. In 1996-1997 our 130 seismographs constituted the largest seismic antenna ever in Europe. The Tor area was chosen along a well studied crustal profile of an earlier project, and the modeling efforts were concentrated on the deep lithosphere and asthenosphere differences to depths around 300 km The Tor data have been subjected to P-wave travel time tomography. surface wave and receiver function analysis as well as anisotropy and scattering measurements An important goal of the project was to make several independent inversions of the tomography data. and compare the results in an attempt to evaluate uniqueness, resolution and accuracy of these inversions. The comparisons of this paper involve more diversity in methods than any previous comparison. The geological outcome is a substantiation of earlier statements that, "The transition is interpreted to be sharp and steep in two places It goes all through the lithosphere at the northern rim of the Tornquist Zone near the border between Sweden and Denmark, and here the lithosphere difference is large to depths more than 200 km. The other lithosphere difference. of smaller scale, is found near the southern edge of the Ringkobing-Fyn High near the border between Denmark and Germany Also this transition is sharp and steep. and goes all through the lithosphere to depths around 120 km. These two sharp transitions divide the Tor region into 3 different lithosphere structures distinguishable in P-wave travel time tomography. surface wave dispersion. P- and S-wave anisotropy and partly in P-wave scattering" The mentioned broad-scale features are judged to be unambiguously determined, with well-described resolution and accuracy Unfortunately a detail like the slope of the subcrustal lithosphere transition right under the Tronquist Zone cannot be constrained even if this is where the resolution is best. and the curiosity largest.

  • 34. Gutscher, M.-A.
    et al.
    Klingelhoefer, F.
    Theunissen, T.
    Spakman, W.
    Berthet, Théo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Wang, T.K.
    Lee, C.-S.
    Thermal modeling of the SW Ryukyu forearc (Taiwan): Implications for the seismogenic zone and the age of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate (Huatung Basin)2016Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 692, nr Part B, s. 131-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Subduction mega-thrust earthquakes in the SW Ryukyu trench pose a seismic and tsunami hazard. One of the objectives of this study is to estimate the downdip width of the seismogenic zone using numerical modeling to determine the temperature distribution along the plate interface. However, this approach depends strongly on the thermal parameters of the subducting slab. While the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the central and eastern Ryukyu arc is of Eocene age (35–50 Ma), its age west of the Gagua Ridge is uncertain, with proposed ages ranging from Lower Cretaceous (140 Ma) to Upper Eocene (35 Ma). Since the sparse available heat flow data are insufficient to resolve this debate, both end-member hypotheses are tested as input parameters. We examined two transects at 122.5°E and 123.5°E on either side of the N-S trending, 4-km high, Gagua Ridge. The shallow forearc geometry is obtained from wide-angle seismic data. The deep slab geometry was obtained from hypocenter distribution and tomography. For an Eocene slab age, we obtain a 100 km and 110 km wide seismogenic zone (between the 150 °C and 350 °C isotherms) west and east of Gagua Ridge, respectively. This is in good agreement with the observed distribution of hypocenters. Using a Cretaceous slab west of Gagua Ridge predicts a deep seismogenic zone (25 km–60 km depth), inconsistent with observed thrust earthquakes. Tomographic images at 122.5°E and 123.5°E show a similar slab thickness of 70–80 km suggesting that the oceanic lithosphere has a young (Eocene) thermal age. The westernmost PSP (Huatung Basin) may have been thermally rejuvenated by mantle convection near the slab corner. The tectonic history since 6 Ma (transition from subduction to collision beneath Taiwan) may have also perturbed the thermal structure.

  • 35.
    Hedin, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Berthet, Théo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Buske, Stefan
    TU Bergakad Freiberg, Inst Geophys & Geoinformat, Freiberg, Germany.
    Simon, Helge
    TU Bergakad Freiberg, Inst Geophys & Geoinformat, Freiberg, Germany.
    Giese, Rüdiger
    Helmholtz Ctr Potsdam GFZ German Res Ctr Geosci, Sci Drilling, Potsdam, Germany.
    Krauss, Felix
    Helmholtz Ctr Potsdam GFZ German Res Ctr Geosci, Sci Drilling, Potsdam, Germany.
    Rosberg, Jan-Erik
    Lund Univ, Engn Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    Alm, Per-Gunnar
    Lund Univ, Engn Geol, Lund, Sweden.
    3D reflection seismic imaging at the 2.5 km deep COSC-1 scientific borehole, central Scandinavian Caledonides2016Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 689, s. 40-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2.5 km deep scientific COSC-1 borehole (ICDP 5054-1-A) was successfully drilled with nearly complete core recovery during spring and summer of 2014. Downhole and on-core measurements through the targeted Lower Seve Nappe provide a comprehensive data set. An observed gradual increase in strain below 1700 m, with mica schists and intermittent mylonites increasing in frequency and thickness, is here interpreted as the basal thrust zone of the Lower Seve Nappe. This high strain zone was not fully penetrated at the total drilled depth and is thus greater than 800 m in thickness.

    To allow extrapolation of the results from downhole logging, core analysis and other experiments into the surrounding rock and to link these with the regional tectonic setting and evolution, three post-drilling high-resolution seismic experiments were conducted in and around the borehole. One of these, the first 3D seismic reflection land survey to target the nappe structures of the Scandinavian Caledonides, is presented here. It provides new information on the 3D geometry of structures both within the drilled Lower Seve Nappe and underlying rocks down to at least 9 km.

    The observed reflectivity correlates well with results from the core analysis and downhole logging, despite challenges in processing. Reflections from the uppermost part of the Lower Seve Nappe have limited lateral extent and varying dips, possibly related to mafic lenses or boudins of variable character within felsic rock. Reflections occurring within the high strain zone, however, are laterally continuous over distances of a kilometer or more and dip 10–15° towards the southeast. Reflections from structures beneath the high strain unit and the COSC-1 borehole can be followed through most of the seismic volume down to at least 9 km and have dips of varying degree, mainly in the east–west thrust direction of the orogen.

  • 36.
    Hedin, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Gee, David G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Seismic imaging of the Scandinavian Caledonides to define ICDP drilling sites2012Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 554-557, s. 30-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A 36 kilometer long high resolution 2D seismic reflection profile was acquired in the summer of 2010 to be used in the planning of the COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) Deep Drilling Project. Two fully cored boreholes, each to c. 2.5 km depth, are planned for the Are-Morsil area of west-central Sweden in order to increase our understanding of orogenic processes and, in particular, the tectonic evolution of the Scandinavian Caledonides.

    Besides providing important sub-surface structural information in the vicinity of the potential drill sites, the seismic profile also provides detailed, high resolution images previously not available for the uppermost few kilometers in the region. The subsurface is highly reflective and very complex down to at least 9 km depth (the limit of decoded data) with clear reflections spanning the entire length of the profile.

    Correlation with previous regional reflection seismic and magnetotelluric surveys has been achieved by acquisition of a short (7 km) connecting profile. A clearly defined reflection, present in the new profile at depths between c. 2.5 km in the east and c. 4.5 km in the west and with an average westwards dip of c. 3.5 degrees, apparently defines the base of the Lower Allochthon. Closer to the Caledonian front, this sole thrust overlies the Cambrian alum shale formation, which rests unconformably on the autochthonous Precambrian crystalline basement. The latter is remarkable for its deep internal reflectivity which is probably related to mafic intrusions in a dominantly granitic host-rock: their deformation may be of both Caledonian and older (e.g. Sveconorwegian) age.

    The new high resolution seismic data provide the basis for locating the first borehole in the Seve Nappe Complex. They also demonstrate that the second hole, designed to penetrate the Caledonian basement, will have to be located further east than was originally planned.

  • 37.
    Holliger, K
    et al.
    Institute of Geophysics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Green, AG
    Institute of Geophysics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Stochastic analysis of sonic logs from the upper crystalline crust: Methodology1996Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 264, nr 1-4, s. 341-356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To relate local fluctuations observed in sonic logs to small-scale velocity fabric along boreholes, both filtering effects and noise introduced by the logging procedure must be taken into account. Sonic log velocities are represented as a time series consisting of a large-scale deterministic and a small-scale stochastic component. The deterministic trend, approximated by a low-order polynomial best-fit, contains information on the average velocity structure, whereas the small-scale stochastic variations consist of noise plus in situ velocity variations convolved with the logging system response. The velocity fluctuations of the sonic data considered here are zero-mean and have quasi-Gaussian probability density functions. Therefore, they are well characterised by their second statistical moment, i.e. their autocovariance function. Tests on synthetic data indicate that the autocovariance function corresponding to this data model may be used to extract information on the second-order statistics of the in situ velocity variations along the borehole and to constrain the level of white noise in sonic logs. Ignoring the presence of filtering effects and noise in sonic logs may result in seriously flawed estimates of the second-order statistics of the actual velocity structure. Assuming a von Kármán autocovariance function for the in situ velocity variations, this model provides a good match to the autocovariance functions of sonic log data from the Siljan Ring (Sweden) and Sudbury areas (Canada). Although differing significantly in their noise content, these two data sets yield similar results for the small-scale velocity structure, which is modelled as a bandlimited self-affine time series. For the Siljan Ring borehole we found a close relation between small-scale variations of the borehole diameter as determined from caliper logs and the level of uncorrelated noise present in the sonic log data.

  • 38.
    Hübert, Juliane
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Smirnov, Maxim
    Oulu University, Finland.
    Tryggvason, Ari
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Pedersen, Laust B.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    MT measurements in the western part of the Paleoproterozoic Skellefte Ore District, Northern Sweden: a contribution to an integrated geophysical study2009Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 475, nr 3-4, s. 493-502Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2D conductivity model of the Kristineberg area in the Skellefte Ore District, Northern Sweden, has been derived from new magnetotelluric measurements. This complements an intensive geophysical and geological study of the area, including reflection seismics, gravity and aeromagnetic data modeling as well as geological field observations. In a pilot study, 20 broadband MT stations were installed in May 2007 along a 20 km long north–south profile. Dimensionality analysis shows that a 2D interpretation of the data is justified, although the presumed geoelectric strike direction of N75°E is not consistent over the whole profile. The new conductivity model of the upper crust agrees well with the results from the seismic studies. Interpreting both independent data sets confirms the major features from the previous model, such as the thickness of the Revsund granites in the south, the existence of a structural basement with metasedimentary origin, and gives new insight into the nature of the volcanic rocks and their possible mineral content.

  • 39.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Bliznetsov, M
    Pevzner, L
    Hismatulin, T
    Rybalka, A
    Glushkov, A
    Seismic imaging of reflectors in the SG4 borehole, Middle Urals, Russia1997Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 276, nr 1-4, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The upper crust in the Middle Urals is known to be highly reflective. However, it is not clear whether the observed reflections originate from lithological boundaries or from fault zones. The SG4 borehole located in the Tagil Synform of the Middle Urals, drilled to 5354 m as of August 1995, presents one opportunity to study the source of this reflectivity. The hole has penetrated several different lithologies as well as numerous tectonic or fracture zones. The upper 5070 m consist of island arc rocks which have presumably been thrust on top of basalts. To allow correlations between available surface seismic studies and the borehole observations vertical and offset seismic profile data were acquired in the borehole over the interval 520 m to 3940 m. Two shot points were used, a near offset one at 135 m from the wellhead and a far offset one at 1845 m from the wellhead. After processing, the borehole seismic data show numerous reflecting horizons. Many reflections correlate with major fracture zones, while others have no clear correlation with fracture zones nor lithological contrasts. The interval between approximately 4450 m and 5100 m, which is imaged below the bottom of the survey, shows a layered reflective pattern that correlates with the lower part of a flysch unit which ends at 5070 m. The basalts below appear to be relatively transparent. A prominent east-dipping reflector on a W-E CDP line about 700 m north of the wellhead is not clearly imaged on the borehole seismic. However, in a pilot hole which deviates a few hundred metres in the northerly direction from the main hole, a marked low-velocity zone is observed at the corresponding depth for this reflector, indicating its source to be from a fault zone. That the fault zone is not clearly observed on the borehole seismic data is attributed to 3D effects.

  • 40.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Knapp, JH
    Kashubin, S
    Bliznetsov, M
    Crustal evolution of the Middle Urals based on seismic reflection and refraction data1996Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 264, nr 1-4, s. 21-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of seismic refraction and deep reflection data from the Middle Urals of central Russia provides important new constraints on the structure of the Uralian crust. Re-analysis of the GRANIT refraction profile and comparison with coincident reflection data from the ESRU profile shows a high-velocity (7.6-7.8 km/s) root zone from c. 45 to 55 km with low reflectivity beneath the Urals. We interpret this interval as crustal material, consistent with previous Russian interpretations of this velocity anomaly. Above this crustal root, one of the principle features imaged on the ESRU profile is a thick zone (3-4 s TWT) of relatively strong reflectivity which may characterize the lower crust of the East European platform, but is considerably shallower to the east at 8-12 s TWT (25-37 km) than in the west at 10-14 s TWT (31-43 km). Reprocessing of 20 s records from the R-17 Profile in the West Siberian basin, ~315 km northeast of the ESRU profile, reveals a similar pronounced lower-crustal reflectivity between 11-14 s TWT (34-43 km), in the hinterland of the Middle Urals. This lower-crustal reflection fabric may represent a feature developed during collisional orogenesis, or a younger property imparted through post-orogenic extension. Future deep reflection profiling will be critical to address the continuity, and accordihgly, the tectonic significance of this lower-crustal reflectivity in the Urals.

  • 41.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Stephenson, RA
    Klushin, S
    Reappraisal of deep seismic reflection Profile VIII across the Pripyat Trough1996Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 268, nr 1-4, s. 99-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two, deep (24 s), multi-channel seismic reflection profiles, each >200 km in length, were shot across the Pripyat Trough, a Late Devonian rift basin in Belarus, in the 1980s by the Polessian Geophysical Expedition of the former Soviet Union. Additional post-stack processing and migration on one of these, Profile VIII, has been applied at Uppsala University and allows a re-evaluation of the crustal structure of the Pripyat Trough with particular focus on the deeper parts. Previous interpretations showed numerous steeply dipping faults extending from the surface to depths of 30–40 km and sometimes penetrating into the mantle, which was defined to be located at the top of a reflective zone beginning at about 10 s TWT. This reflective zone, recorded to depths of 16 s TWT, was interpreted as a mixture of crustal and mantle rocks. Based on the original stacked section and the further processing the reflective zone is reinterpreted to be reflective lower crust, not upper mantle, and the Moho is identified to be at 45–50 km (about 15 s TWT). The major basin bounding faults appear to be listric at depth and sole into the top of the reflective lower crust rather than be truncated by it. The newly interpreted crustal structure is consistent with a model of continental rifting involving brittle failure in a thick upper crustal layer and ductile shear in the lowermost crust with some degree of detachment between crust and mantle within the lower crustal ductile layer.

  • 42.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Sturkell, E.
    Ebbestad, Jan Ove R.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheten för musik och museer, Evolutionsmuseet.
    Lehnert, O.
    Högström, A. E. S.
    Meinhold, G.
    A new interpretation of the sedimentary cover in the western Siljan Ring area, central Sweden, based on seismic data2012Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 580, s. 88-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new reflection seismic profiles over the Paleozoic successions of the western part of the Siljan Ring impact structure show a contrasting seismic signature. The more southerly c. 10. km long Mora profile reveals a highly disturbed structure, with only a few kilometers of relatively horizontally layered structures observed. However, interpretations of refracted arrivals in the data, that can be correlated to reflections, indicate the Silurian clastic rocks to be about 200. m thick in the central part of the profile. Weak reflections from about 600. m depth suggest a 400. m thick Ordovician limestone sequence to be present. Cores from the area show a mainly shale lithology for the Silurian and only a thin sequence of Ordovician strata, suggesting a rapid thickening of the Ordovician towards the north. On the more northern c. 12. km Orsa profile clear reflections from the Paleozoic successions are seen along the entire profile, except on the southernmost few kilometers. Based on interpretations of refracted arrivals, the Silurian succession appears to be considerably thinner here, and possibly absent at some locations. The Ordovician is also interpreted to be thinner in this area, with a maximum thickness of about 200-300. m along most of the profile. A deeper reflection from about 2. km within the crystalline basement may represent a dolerite sill. The lack of clear basement reflections on the Mora profile can be attributed to near-surface conditions and the acquisition geometry. The seismic data and recent coring in the area suggest the presence of a deeper paleo-basin towards the southwest with significantly more shales being deposited and the Paleozoic successions being severely disturbed. The shallow coring and seismic data will help form the basis for locating future boreholes for deeper drilling to study impact processes and the Paleozoic evolution of central Sweden.

  • 43.
    Juhojuntti, Niklas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Seismic lower crustal reflectivity and signal penetration in the Siljan Ring area, Central Sweden1998Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 288, nr 1-4, s. 17-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the period between 1984 and 1990. several rellection seismic profiles, ~ ith a total length of-~ It)() kin, ~,ere shot in the area of the Siljan impact structure. Central Sweden. The aim was to study the F'roterozoic cD'stalline crust, prior to the drilling of a deep well. Parts of this data have been re-processed, addressing questions concerning signal penetration and lower crustal/upper mantle rellectivity, as strong lower crustal retlectivity is often absent on land data from the Baltic Shield. Earlier processing showed clear reflectors at upper crustal levels, some of which have been attributed to dolerites. through tile use of horehole .... ' ,, Ioeem e. At lower crustal levels, the picture was less clear with only diffuse bands of rellectors. We have tried to improve the image of the deeper parts, mainly by using standard processing techniques lor correcting static shills and for spectral balancing. The standard stacked sections show, as before, strong reflectors in the upper crust and some discontinuous events at lower crustal levels, primarily in the time window between I 1 and 14 s TWT. From this v,'e place the base of the crust at 13-14 s TWT (43-47 km at 6.6-6.7 km/sl in this area. There are strong lateral ~ariations in this apparent retlectivity. These variations could, in part, be caused by differences in charge sizes. The depth of signal penetration, estimated through prestack amplitude decay, was not fully sufficient for the smallest charges ~,-. l0 kg). This is supported by coincident stacked sections, where data collected with smaller charges contain less coherent events at Iox~er crustal levels. Some variations in apparent reflectivity are not related to the charge size. The efle'cts of lateral variations m signal penetration have been studied, for 10-kg charges, by calculating amplitudes at fixed-offset channels for different shot positions. Although there are some variations in these amplitudes, we argue that this is not the only explanation l~ar satiations in apparent deep retlectivity and that the lower crustal rellectivit~, is ~eaker below the "l'ransscandmavian Granite Porph~r', Belt than below the Southern Svecofennian Province. From earlier studies, the meteor impact that has ~ccurred in this area is interpreted not to have affected the lower on.st.

  • 44.
    Juhojuntti, Niklas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Dyrelius, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Crustal reflectivity underneath the Central Scandinavian Caledonides2001Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 334, nr 3-4, s. 191-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied data from a ∼160 km long explosive/vibroseis reflection seismic profile, part of the Central Caledonian Transect, acquired in the Central Scandinavian Caledonides between 1988 and 1992. Extended correlation has been used to increase the record length to 20 s for the vibroseis component. The reflectivity, interpreted as primarily due to dolerities, is strong at depths <15 km in the Precambrian basement, throughout the profile. These Precambrian rocks are largely covered by thin sedimentary thrust sheets, transported during the Caledonian orogeny to their present locations. Aeromagnetic surveying shows a large positive anomaly in this area, suggesting that the dolerites are located in a homogeneous, highly magnetized, Rätan type granite, a granite belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt. In the middle/lower crust, weak east-dipping reflectivity is observed. To the east, partly in the Svecofennian Domain, a ∼60 km segment of sub-horizontal reflectivity at 14–15 s suggests a flat reflection Moho at a depth of ∼50 km. Underneath the central part of the profile, coinciding with the location of the TIB granite, the reflection Moho appears to shallow to ∼45 km, or to be less reflective, while further west it appears to again deepen to ∼50 km. Estimates of signal penetration depth, together with studies of fold variations, indicate that these variations in reflection Moho topography and deep reflectivity are real. We propose that much of the deep reflectivity was erased during emplacement of the TIB granite at 1.85–1.65 Ga. Extension at ∼1.0 Ga led to the thinning of the crust and allowed dolerities to intrude the granitic upper/middle crust. Later Caledonian compression sheared this granite–dolerite system.

  • 45.
    Jónsdóttir, Kristin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Lindman, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Roberts, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Lund, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Bödvarsson, Reynir
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Modelling fundamental waiting time distributions for earthquake sequences2006Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 424, nr 3-4, s. 195-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of waiting times between time-neighbouring events for a time series obeying the Omori law is examined theoretically and numerically with the aim of understanding the characteristics of these distributions, how these characteristics change (e.g. scale) with the parameters of the Omori series, and thus how empirical waiting time data may be correctly interpreted. It is found that the waiting time distribution, for a single Omori aftershock sequence, consists in general of two power law segments followed by a rapid decay at larger waiting times. The analyses are illustrated using real data from the SIL network on Iceland. This data often shows characteristics predominantly consistent with the Omori law, but there are significant exceptions. We conclude that waiting time distributions and related statistical analysis has meaningful potential for the analysis of earthquake data sets, as a step towards developing physical models of the earthquake process.

  • 46.
    Kashubin, Artem
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Mapping of crustal scale tectonic boundaries in the Ossa-Morena Zone using reprocessed IBERSEIS reflection seismic data2010Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 489, nr 1-4, s. 139-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The IBERSEIS deep seismic reflection profile imaged crustal scale structures in the SW Iberian Variscan belt, crossing the South Portuguese Zone, the Ossa-Morena Zone and the Central Iberian Zone in Spain. Two subsets of the profile, corresponding to the South Portuguese Zone–Ossa-Morena Zone and the Ossa-Morena Zone–Central Iberian Zone tectonic contacts, have been reprocessed with the aim of investigating the influence of cross-dip and to better image steeply dipping features. Alternative strategies for binning midpoints into common depth point (CDP) bins using different azimuths were examined for synthetic data. We show that the choice of the CDP-processing line and the bin azimuth orientation has a significant impact on the normal moveout and dip-moveout velocities and is crucial to optimizing the quality of the stacked seismic image along the crooked profile. Multi-azimuth binning, normal moveout/dip-moveout, and migration velocity analysis on synthetic and real data show the presence of clear sub-vertical upper crustal structures near the South Portuguese Zone–Ossa-Morena Zone suture, the Aroche fault. This sub-vertical reflectivity that was not imaged earlier, projects into a location in the lower crust with low reflectivity.

  • 47.
    Kashubin, Artem S.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Tryggvason, Ari
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Rybalka, A. V.
    Kashubina, T. V.
    Shkred, I. G.
    The Krasnouralsky profile in the Middle Urals, Russia: a tomographic approach to vintage DSS data2009Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 472, nr 1-4, s. 249-263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Middle Urals region has been widely studied with geophysical methods over the past decades. An integrated program is in progress to summarize this knowledge, including modern reprocessing of controlled-source seismic data. This work is devoted to the Krasnouralsky DSS profile. We applied modern tomography inversion algorithms in 2D and 2.5D on first break traveltime picks from an archive catalogue. A number of initial models and various smoothing constraints were used to investigate the influence of starting models on the final model. Robustness and uncertainty of the recovered models were estimated with hypothesis testing and checkerboard tests. The recovered velocity structure shows a thicker crust below the contact of the West Uralian Zone and the Central Uralian Zone and below the Tagil–Magnitogorsk Zone. Deep high velocity anomalies on both sides of this zone are interpreted as crustal thinning or alteration of the crust by intrusions of mantle material. Our results suggest that it is worthwhile reinterpreting DSS traveltime data with modern inversion techniques.

  • 48.
    Koyi, Hemin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi. Berggrundsgeologi.
    Talbot, Christopher J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Tørudbakken, B.O.
    Saga Petroleum, Sandviken, Norway.
    Salt diapirs of the southwest Nordkapp Basin: analogue modelling1993Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 228, nr 3-4, s. 167-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The geometry and evolution of the salt diapirs in the southwestern segment of the Nordkapp Basin (SW NKB) were interpreted on reflection seismic data. Reflection seismic profiles were used to build a dynamically scaled model analogue to study salt tectonics of the basin. The model was prepared using lengths, densities, and sedimentary histories obtained from seismic and well data. Model results suggest that the salt structures in the SW NKB were influenced by basement faults that horizontally stretched and faulted their overburden and induced salt flow by differential loading. Model diapirs rose only where the overburden was faulted.          The salt structures are aligned in two NE-SW rows that parallel the major basement faults that outline the basin. Carboniferous salt in the SW NKB formed conformable pillows in the Early Triassic (Scythian), which became diapiric during the late Early and Middle Triassic. The salt diapirs spread to form asymmetric broad overhangs at superficial levels during slow sedimentation in Late Triassic and/or Jurassic. Diapir overhangs were later reactivated because of burial by Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments. Basement faults were mapped by comparing thickness of the sediments and/or level of the reflectors on either side of the diapirs that had relatively narrow overhangs. Depth conversion and restoration of velocity pull-up of reflectors beneath salt diapirs suggest that the salt diapirs of the SW NKB have broad overhangs above narrow stems.

  • 49. Langinen, A.E.
    et al.
    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina N.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Gee, David G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Zamansky, Yu.Ya.
    Correlations between the Lomonosov Ridge, Marvin Spur and adjacent basins of the Arctic Ocean based on seismic data2009Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 472, nr 1-4, s. 309-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seismic profiles across the Lomonosov Ridge, Marvin Spur and adjacent basins, acquired near the North Pole by the drifting ice-station NP-28, provide a reflection image of the upper parts of the Ridge that is readily correlatable with those acquired by the Alfred Wegner Institute closer to the Siberian margin. A prominent flat-lying composite reflection package is seen in most parts of the Ridge at a few hundred meters below the sea bottom. Underlying reflections are variable in intensity and also in dip. The base of this reflection package is often accompanied by a sharp increase in P-velocity and defines a major angular discontinuity, referred to here as the Lomonosov Unconformity. The Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) cored the first c. 430 m section on the Lomonosov Ridge near the North Pole, in 2004 defining the deeper water character of the Neogene and the shallower water Paleogene sediments. These boreholes penetrated the composite reflection package towards the base of the hole and identified sediments (our Unit III) of late Paleocene and early Eocene age. Campanian beds at the very base of the hole were thought to be representative of the units below the Lomonosov Unconformity, but the P-velocity data suggest that this is unlikely. Correlation of the lithologies along the top of the Lomonosov Ridge and to the Marvin Spur indicates that the Marvin Spur is a sliver of continental crust closely related to, and rifted off the Ridge. This narrow (50 km wide) linear basement high can be followed into, beneath and across the Makarov Basin, supporting the interpretation that this Basin is partly resting on thinned continental crust. In the Makarov Basin, the Paleogene succession is much thicker than on the Ridge. Thus, the condensed, shallow water succession (with hiati) was deposited on the Ridge during rapid Eocene to Miocene subsidence of the Basin. In the Amundsen Basin, adjacent to the Lomonosov Ridge, the sedimentary successions thicken towards the Canadian margin and the reflections on the Ridge are not readily identifiable. The approximate ages of the sedimentary units are inferred from their relationships to the linear magnetic anomalies in the Basin. Lomonosov acoustic basement dips gently into the Basin over a distance of about 100 km and the linear negative anomaly, previously thought to be chron 25, is probably related to a rift-related mafic intrusive complex.

  • 50.
    Lindman, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Lund, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Roberts, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Jónsdóttir, Kristin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Physics of the Omori law: Inferences from interevent time distributions and pore pressure diffusion modeling2006Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 424, nr 3-4, s. 209-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical laws and statistics of earthquakes are valuable as a basis for a better understanding of the earthquake cycle. In this paper we focus on the postseismic phase and the physics of aftershock sequences. Using interevent time distributions for a catalogue of Icelandic seismicity, we infer that the parameter C2 in the Omori law, often considered to represent incomplete detection of aftershocks, is at least in part related to the physics of the earthquake process. We investigate the role of postseismic pore pressure diffusion after two Icelandic earthquakes on the rate of aftershocks and what we can infer about the physical meaning of C2 from the diffusion process. Using the Mohr Coulomb failure criterion we obtain a rate of triggered points in our diffusion model that agrees with the modified Omori law, with a value of C2 that is consistent with data. Our pore pressure diffusion model suggests that C2 is related to the process of reducing high pore pressure gradients existing across a fault zone at short times after a main shock.

12 1 - 50 of 77
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf