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  • 1. Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Comparison of a mass balance and an ecosystem model approach when evaluating the carbon cycling in a lake ecosystem2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 476-483Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Isacson, Maths
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Gavrilov, Dmitri V.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Backstrom, Mattias
    Degerman, Erik
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Kazakova-Apkarimova, Elena Yu.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Sadbom, Stefan
    Tornblom, Johan
    Learning About the History of Landscape Use for the Future: Consequences for Ecological and Social Systems in Swedish Bergslagen2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 146-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barriers and bridges to implement policies about sustainable development and sustainability commonly depend on the past development of social-ecological systems. Production of metals required integration of use of ore, streams for energy, and wood for bioenergy and construction, as well as of multiple societal actors. Focusing on the Swedish Bergslagen region as a case study we (1) describe the phases of natural resource use triggered by metallurgy, (2) the location and spatial extent of 22 definitions of Bergslagen divided into four zones as a proxy of cumulative pressure on landscapes, and (3) analyze the consequences for natural capital and society. We found clear gradients in industrial activity, stream alteration, and amount of natural forest from the core to the periphery of Bergslagen. Additionally, the legacy of top-down governance is linked to today's poorly diversified business sector and thus municipal vulnerability. Comparing the Bergslagen case study with other similar regions in Russia and Germany, we discuss the usefulness of multiple case studies.

  • 3. Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    Beven, Keith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Abrahamsson, Katarina
    Andersson, Lotta
    Johnson, K
    Rodhe, Johan
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    Nature as the “Natural” Goal for Water Management: A Conversation2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, p. 209-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals for water-quality and ecosystem integrity are often defined relative to “natural” reference conditions in many water-management systems, including the European Union Water Framework Directive. This paper examines the difficulties created for water management by using “natural” as the goal. These difficulties are articulated from different perspectives in an informal (fictional) conversation that takes place after a workshop on reference conditions in water-resources management. The difficulties include defining the natural state and modeling how a system might be progressed toward the natural, as well as the feasibility and desirability of restoring a natural state. The paper also considers the appropriateness for developing countries to adopt the use of natural as the goal for water management. We conclude that failure to critically examine the complexities of having “natural” as the goal will compromise the ability to manage the issues that arise in real basins by not making the ambiguities associated with this “natural” goal explicit. This is unfortunate both for the western world that has embraced this model of “natural as the goal” and for the developing world in so far as they are encouraged to adopt this model.

  • 4.
    Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Gebrehiwot, Solomon
    SLU Aquatic Sciences and Assessment.
    Taye, Ayale
    Awassa University, Ethiopia.
    Forest Cover and Stream Flow in a Headwater of the Blue Nile: Complementing Observational Data Analysis with Community Perception2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 284-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the relation of forest cover and stream flow on the 266 km2 Koga watershed in the headwaters of Blue Nile Basin using both observed hydrological data and community perception. The watershed went from 16% forest cover in 1957 to 1% by 1986. The hydrological record did not reveal changes in the flow regime between 1960 and 2002 despite the reduction in forest area. This agrees with the perception of the downstream community living near the gauging station. The upstream community, however, reported both decreases in low flows and increases in high flows shortly after the forest cover was reduced. The upstream deforestation effect appeared to have been buffered by a wetland lower in the watershed. This study concludes that community perception can be a complement to observational data for better understanding how forest cover influences the flow regime.

  • 5.
    Bokhorst, Stef
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res NINA, FRAM High North Res Ctr Climate & Environm, POB 6606, N-9296 Tromso, Norway.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Ecol Sci, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Pedersen, Stine Hojlund
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Biosci, Arctic Res Ctr, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark..
    Brucker, Ludovic
    NASA, GSFC, Cryospher Sci Lab, Code 615, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Space Res Assoc, Goddard Earth Sci Technol & Res Studies & Invest, Columbia, MD 21044 USA..
    Anisimov, Oleg
    State Hydrol Inst Roshydromet, 23 Second Line VO, St Petersburg 199053, Russia.;North East Fed Univ, Int Ctr Sci & Educ Best, Yakutsk, Russia..
    Bjerke, Jarle W.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res NINA, FRAM High North Res Ctr Climate & Environm, POB 6606, N-9296 Tromso, Norway..
    Brown, Ross D.
    Environm Canada Ouranos, Div Climate Res, 550 Sherbrooke St West,19th Floor, Montreal, PQ H3A 1B9, Canada..
    Ehrich, Dorothee
    Univ Tromso, Dept Arctic & Marine Biol, N-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Essery, Richard L. H.
    Univ Edinburgh, Sch GeoSci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Heilig, Achim
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Environm Phys, Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Ingvander, Susanne
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Johansson, Margareta
    Lund Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Ecosyst Sci, Solvegatan 12, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.;Royal Swedish Acad Sci, POB 50005, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjorg Svala
    Univ Ctr Svalbard, POB 156, N-9171 Longyearbyen, Norway.;Univ Iceland, Fac Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Inga, Niila
    Leavas Sami Commun, Box 53, S-98121 Kiruna, Sweden..
    Luojus, Kari
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Arctic Res, POB 503, Helsinki 00101, Finland..
    Macelloni, Giovanni
    CNR, IFAC CNR, Inst Appl Phys Nello Carrara, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI, Italy..
    Mariash, Heather
    Environm Canada, Natl Wildlife Res Ctr, 1125 Colonel By Dr, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Canada..
    McLennan, Donald
    CHARS, 360 Albert St,Suite 1710, Ottawa, ON K1R 7X7, Canada..
    Rosqvist, Gunhild Ninis
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Bergen, Dept Earth Sci, N-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Sato, Atsushi
    Natl Res Inst Earth Sci & Disaster Prevent, Snow & Ice Res Ctr, 187-16 Suyoshi, Nagaoka, Niigata 9400821, Japan..
    Savela, Hannele
    Univ Oulu, Thule Insitute, POB 7300, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Schneebeli, Martin
    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res SLF, Fluelastr 11, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland..
    Sokolov, Aleksandr
    Russian Acad Sci, Arctic Res Stn, Inst Plant & Anim Ecol, Ural Branch, Labytnangi 629400, Russia.;State Org Yamal Nenets Autonomous Dist, Sci Ctr Arctic Studies, Salekhard, Russia..
    Sokratov, Sergey A.
    Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Arctic Environm Lab, Fac Geog, Leninskie Gory 1, Moscow 119991, Russia..
    Terzago, Silvia
    Natl Res Council ISAC CNR, Inst Atmospher Sci & Climate, Corso Fiume 4, I-10133 Turin, Italy..
    Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun
    Norwegian Meteorol Inst, Div Model & Climate Anal, R&D Dept, Postboks 43, N-0313 Oslo, Norway..
    Williamson, Scott
    Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, CW 405,Biol Sci Bldg, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada..
    Qiu, Yubao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Remote Sensing & Digital Earth, Beijing 100094, Peoples R China.;Cold Reg Initiat, Grp Earth Observat, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Lund Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Ecosyst Sci, Solvegatan 12, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.;Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England.;Natl Res Tomsk Stated Univ, 36 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050, Russia..
    Changing Arctic snow cover: A review of recent developments and assessment of future needs for observations, modelling, and impacts2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 516-537Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow is a critically important and rapidly changing feature of the Arctic. However, snow-cover and snowpack conditions change through time pose challenges for measuring and prediction of snow. Plausible scenarios of how Arctic snow cover will respond to changing Arctic climate are important for impact assessments and adaptation strategies. Although much progress has been made in understanding and predicting snow-cover changes and their multiple consequences, many uncertainties remain. In this paper, we review advances in snow monitoring and modelling, and the impact of snow changes on ecosystems and society in Arctic regions. Interdisciplinary activities are required to resolve the current limitations on measuring and modelling snow characteristics through the cold season and at different spatial scales to assure human well-being, economic stability, and improve the ability to predict manage and adapt to natural hazards in the Arctic region.

  • 6. Bostedt, Goran
    et al.
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Innala, Sophia
    Bishop, Kevin
    Department of Aquatic Science and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Acidification Remediation Alternatives: Exploring the Temporal Dimension with Cost Benefit Analysis2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 40-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification of soils and surface waters caused by acid deposition is still a major problem in southern Scandinavia, despite clear signs of recovery. Besides emission control, liming of lakes, streams, and wetlands is currently used to ameliorate acidification in Sweden. An alternative strategy is forest soil liming to restore the acidified upland soils from which much acidified runoff originates. This cost-benefit analysis compared these liming strategies with a special emphasis on the time perspective for expected benefits. Benefits transfer was used to estimate use values for sport ffishing and nonuse values in terms of existence values. The results show that large-scale forest soil liming is not socioeconomically profitable, while lake liming is, if it is done efficiently-in other words, if only acidified surface waters are treated. The beguiling logic of "solving'' an environmental problem at its source (soils), rather than continuing to treat the symptoms (surface waters), is thus misleading.

  • 7.
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    et al.
    Universitiy of Sheffield.
    Tweedie, Craig E.
    Department of Biology, The University of Texas at El Paso.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    Andrews, Christopher
    Bergstedt, Johan
    Butler, Malcolm G.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Cooley, Dorothy
    Dahlberg, Ulrika
    Danby, Ryan K.
    Daniëls, Fred J. A.
    de Molenaar, Johannes G.
    Dick, Jan
    Mortensen, Christian Ebbe
    Ebert-May, Diane
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Eriksson, Håkan
    Hedenås,, Henrik
    Henry, Greg. H. R.
    Hik, David S.
    Hobbie, John E.
    Jantze, Elin J.
    Jaspers, Cornelia
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Johansson, Margareta
    Johnson, David R.
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Jonasson, Christer
    Swedish Polar Research Secretariat.
    Kennedy, Catherine
    Kenney, Alice J.
    Keuper, Frida
    Koh, Saewan
    Krebs, Charles J.
    Lantuit, Hugues
    Lara, Mark J.
    Lin, David
    Lougheed, Vanessa L.
    Madsen, Jesper
    Matveyeva, Nadya
    McEwen, Daniel C.
    Myers-Smith, Isla H.
    Narozhniy, Yuriy K.
    Olsson, Håkan
    Pohjola, Veijo A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Price, Larry W.
    Rigét, Frank
    Rundqvist, Sara
    Sandström, Anneli
    Tamstorf, Mikkel
    Van Bogaert, Rik
    Villarreal, Sandra
    Webber, Patrick J.
    Zemtsov, Valeriy A.
    Multi-Decadal Changes in Tundra Environments and Ecosystems: Synthesis of the International Polar Year-Back to the Future Project (IPY-BTF)2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 705-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the responses of tundra systems to global change has global implications. Most tundra regions lack sustained environmental monitoring and one of the only ways to document multi-decadal change is to resample historic research sites. The International Polar Year (IPY) provided a unique opportunity for such research through the Back to the Future (BTF) project (IPY project#512). This article synthesizes the results from 13 papers within this Ambio Special Issue. Abiotic changes include glacial recession in the Altai Mountains, Russia; increased snow depth and hardness, permafrost warming, and increased growing season length in sub-arctic Sweden; drying of ponds in Greenland; increased nutrient availability in Alaskan tundra ponds, and warming at most locations studied. Biotic changes ranged from relatively minor plant community change at two sites in Greenland to moderate change in the Yukon, and to dramatic increases in shrub and tree density on Herschel Island, and in subarctic Sweden. The population of geese tripled at one site in northeast Greenland where biomass in non-grazed plots doubled. A model parameterized using results from a BTF study forecasts substantial declines in all snowbeds and increases in shrub tundra on Niwot Ridge, Colorado over the next century. In general, results support and provide improved capacities for validating experimental manipulation, remote sensing, and modeling studies.

  • 8.
    Carter, Neil
    et al.
    Boise State University.
    López-Bao, José Vicente
    Oviedo University.
    Bruskotter, Jeremy
    Ohio State University.
    Gore, Meredith
    U.S. Department of State.
    Chapron, Guillaume
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johnson, Arlyne
    Foundations of Success.
    Epstein, Yaffa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Shrestha, Mahendra 
    Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute.
    Frank, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ohrens, Omar
    University of Wisconsin.
    Treves, Adrian
    University of Wisconsin.
    A conceptual framework for understanding illegal killing of large carnivores2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 251-264Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing complexity and global nature of wildlife poaching threaten the survival of many species worldwide and are outpacing conservation efforts. Here, we reviewed proximal and distal factors, both social and ecological, driving illegal killing or poaching of large carnivores at sites where it can potentially occur. Through this review, we developed a conceptual social–ecological system framework that ties together many of the factors influencing large carnivore poaching. Unlike most conservation action models, an important attribute of our framework is the integration of multiple factors related to both human motivations and animal vulnerability into feedbacks. We apply our framework to two case studies, tigers in Laos and wolverines in northern Sweden, to demonstrate its utility in disentangling some of the complex features of carnivore poaching that may have hindered effective responses to the current poaching crisis. Our framework offers a common platform to help guide future research on wildlife poaching feedbacks, which has hitherto been lacking, in order to effectively inform policy making and enforcement.

  • 9.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Thin Film Solar Cells: Research in an Industrial Perspective2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no Suppl 2, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity generation by photovoltaic conversion of sunlight is a technology in strong growth. The thin film technology is taking market share from the dominant silicon wafer technology. In this article, the market for photovoltaics is reviewed, the concept of photovoltaic solar energy conversion is discussed and more details are given about the present technological limitations of thin film solar cell technology. Special emphasis is given for solar cells which employ Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)(4) as the sunlight-absorbing layer.

  • 10.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Livelihood Security, Vulnerability and Resilience: A Historical Analysis of Chibuene, Southern Mozambique2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 479-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable livelihood framework is used to analyse livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience in the village of Chibuene, Vilanculos, southern Mozambique from a historical and contemporary perspective. Interviews, assessments, archaeology, palaeoecology and written sources are used to address tangible and intangible aspects of livelihood security. The analysis shows that livelihood strategies for building resilience, diversification of resource use, social networks and trade, have long historical continuities. Vulnerability is contingent on historical processes as long-term socio-environmental insecurity and resultant biodiversity loss. These contingencies affect the social capacity to cope with vulnerability in the present. The study concludes that contingency and the extent and strength of social networks should be added as a factor in livelihood assessments. Furthermore, policies for mitigating vulnerability must build on the reality of environmental insecurity, and strengthen local structures that diversify and spread risk.

  • 11.
    Eklöf, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Box 7050, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Univ Orebro, Environm Sociol Sect, S-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Box 7050, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Managing Swedish forestry's impact on mercury in fish: Defining the impact and mitigation measures2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no Suppl. 2, p. S163-S174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inputs of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) to the environment have led to accumulation of Hg in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, contributing to fish Hg concentrations well above the European Union standards in large parts of Fennoscandia. Forestry operations have been reported to increase the concentrations and loads of Hg to surface waters by mobilizing Hg from the soil. This summary of available forestry effect studies reveals considerable variation in treatment effects on total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at different sites, varying from no effect up to manifold concentration increases, especially for the bioavailable MeHg fraction. Since Hg biomagnification depends on trophic structures, forestry impacts on nutrient flows will also influence the Hg in fish. From this, we conclude that recommendations for best management practices in Swedish forestry operations are appropriate from the perspective of mercury contamination. However, the complexity of defining effective policies needs to be recognized.

  • 12. Faulkner, H.
    et al.
    Parker, D.
    Green, C.
    Beven, Keith J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Developing a translational discourse to communicate uncertainty in flood risk between science and the practitioner2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 692-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The language and tools of risk and uncertainty estimation in flood risk management (FRM) are rarely optimized for the extant communication challenge. This paper develops the rationale for a pragmatic semiotics of risk communication between scientists developing flood models and forecasts and those professional groups who are the receptors for flood risk estimates and warnings in the UK. The current barriers to effective communication and the constraints involved in the formation of a communication language are explored, focusing on the role of the professional's agenda or “mission” in creating or reducing those constraints. The tools available for the development of this discourse, for both flood warnings in real time and generalized FRM communications, are outlined. It is argued that the contested ownership of the articulation of uncertainties embedded in flood risk communications could be reduced by the development of a formally structured translational discourse between science and professionals in FRM, through which process “codes of practice” for uncertainty estimation in different application areas can be developed. Ways in which this might take place in an institutional context are considered.

  • 13.
    Fredga, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Mäler, Karl-Göran
    Life Cycle Analyses and Resource Assessments2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no Suppl. 1, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prof. Ulgiati stresses that we should always use an ecosystem view when transforming energy from one form to another. Sustainable growth and development of both environmental and human-dominated systems require optimum use of available resources for maximum power output. We have to adapt to the laws of nature because nature has to take care of all the waste products we produce. The presentation addresses a much needed shift away from linear production and consumption pattern, toward reorganization of economies and lifestyle that takes complexity—of resources, of the environment and of the economy—into proper account. The best way to reach maximum yield from the different kinds of biomass is to use biorefineries. Biorefinery is defined as the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products like heat, power, fuels, chemicals, food, feed, and materials. However, biomass from agricultural land must be used for the production of food and not fuel. Prof. Voss focuses on the sustainability of energy supply chains and energy systems. Life cycle analyses (LCA) provides the conceptual framework for a comprehensive comparative evaluation of energy supply options with regard to their resource requirements as well as the health and environmental impact. Full scope LCA considers not only the emissions from plant operation, construction, and decommissioning but also the environmental burdens and resource requirements associated with the entire lifetime of all relevant upstream and downstream processes within the energy chain. This article describes the results of LCA analyses for state-of-the-art heating and electricity systems as well as of advanced future systems. Total costs are used as a measure for the overall resource consumption.

  • 14.
    Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SLU, P.O. Box 7050, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden .
    Taye, Ayele
    Department of Statistics and Mathematics, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 5, Awassa, Ethiopia .
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Forest Cover and Stream Flow in a Headwater of the Blue Nile: Complementing Observational Data Analysis with Community Perception2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 284-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the relation of forest cover and stream flow on the 266 km(2) Koga watershed in a headwater of Blue Nile Basin using both observed hydrological data and community perception. The watershed declined from 16% forest cover in 1957 to 1% by 1986. The hydrological record did not reveal changes in the flow regime between 1960 and 2002 despite the reduction in forest area. This agrees with the perception of the downstream community living near the gauging station. The upstream community, however, reported both decreases in low flows and increases in high flows shortly after the forest cover was reduced. The upstream deforestation effect appeared to have been buffered by a wetland lower in the watershed. This study concludes that community perception can be a complement to observational data for better understanding how forest cover influences the flow regime.

  • 15.
    Githumbi, Esther
    et al.
    University of York.
    Courtney Mustaphi, Colin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. University of York.
    Jun, Kevin
    Durham University.
    Muiruri, Veronica
    Hong Kong Baptist University, China; National Museums of Kenya.
    Rucina, Stephen
    National Museums of Kenya.
    Marchant, Rob
    University of York.
    Late Holocene wetland transgression and 500 years of vegetation and fire variability in the semi-arid Amboseli landscape, southern Kenya2018In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The semi-arid Amboseli landscape, southern Kenya, is characterised by intermittent groundwater-fed wetlands that form sedimentary geoarchives recording past ecosystem changes. We present a 5000-year environmental history of a radiocarbon dated sediment core from Esambu Swamp adjacent to Amboseli National Park. Although radiocarbon dates suggest an unconformity or sedimentary gap that spans between 3800 and 500 cal year BP, the record provides a unique insight into the long-term ecosystem history and wetland processes, particularly the past 500 years. Climatic shifts, fire activity and recent anthropogenic activity drive changes in ecosystem composition. Prior to 3800 cal year BP the pollen data suggest semi-arid savanna ecosystem persisted near the wetland. The wetland transgressed at some time between 3800 and 500 cal year BP and it is difficult to constrain this timing further, and palustrine peaty sediments have accumulated since 400 cal year BP. Increased abundance of Afromontane forest taxa from adjacent highlands of Kilimanjaro and the Chyulu Hills and local arboreal taxa reflect changes in regional moisture budgets. Particularly transformative changes occurred in the last five centuries, associated with increased local biomass burning coeval with the arrival of Maa-speaking pastoralists and intensification of the ivory trade. Cereal crops occurred consistently from around 300 cal year BP, indicative of further anthropogenic activity. The study provides unique insight in Amboseli ecosystem history and the link between ecosystem drivers of change. Such long-term perspectives are crucial for future climate change and associated livelihood impacts, so that suitable responses to ensure sustainable management practices can be developed in an important conservation landscape.

  • 16. Grandin, Karl
    et al.
    Jagers, Peter
    Kullander, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Nuclear Energy2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, p. 26-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  • 17.
    Gullström, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Zoologiska institutionen.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Bandeira, Salomao O.
    Björk, Mats
    Kautsky, Nils
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Stockholms universitet, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Seagrass ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean2002In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 588-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrasses are marine angiosperms widely distributed in both tropical and temperate coastal waters creating one of the most productive aquatic ecosystems on earth. In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, with its 13 reported seagrass species, these ecosystems cover wide areas of near-shore soft bottoms through the 12 000 km coastline. Seagrass beds are found intertidally as well as subtidally, sometimes down to about 40 m, and do often occur in close connection to coral reefs and mangroves. Due to the high primary production and a complex habitat structure, seagrass beds support a variety of benthic, demersal and pelagic organisms. Many fish and shellfish species, including those of commercial interest, are attracted to seagrass habitats for foraging and shelter, especially during their juvenile life stages. Examples of abundant and widespread fish species associated to seagrass beds in the WIO belong to the families Apogonidae, Blenniidae, Centriscidae, Gerreidae, Gobiidae, Labridae, Lethrinidae Lutjanidae, Monacanthidae, Scaridae, Scorpaenidae, Siganidae, Syngnathidae and Teraponidae. Consequently, seagrass ecosystems in the WIO are valuable resources for fisheries at both local and regional scales. Still, seagrass research in the WIO is scarce compared to other regions and it is mainly focusing on botanic diversity and ecology. This article reviews the research status of seagrass beds in the WIO with particular emphasis on fish and fisheries. Most research on this topic has been conducted along the East African coast, i.e. in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and eastern South Africa, while less research was carried out in Somalia and the Island States of the WIO (Seychelles, Comoros, Reunion (France), Mauritius and Madagascar). Published papers on seagrass fish ecology in the region are few and mainly descriptive. Hence, there is a need of more scientific knowledge in the form of describing patterns and processes through both field and experimental work. Quantitative seagrass fish community studies in the WIO such as the case study presented in this paper are negligible, but necessitated for the perspective of fisheries management. It is also highlighted that the pressure on seagrass beds in the region is increasing due to growing coastal populations and human disturbance from e.g. pollution, eutrophication, sedimentation, fishing activities and collection of invertebrates, and its effect are little understood. Thus, there is a demand for more research that will generate information useful for sustainable management of seagrass ecosystems in the WIO.

  • 18.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Brief Overview of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no Suppl 2, p. 151-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are based on molecular and nanometer-scale components. Record cell efficiencies of 12%, promising stability data and means of energy-efficient production methods have been accomplished. As selling points for the DSC technology the prospect of low-cost investments and fabrication are key features. DSCs offer the possibilities to design solar cells with a large flexibility in shape, color, and transparency. The basic principles of the operation of DSC, the state-of-the-art as well as the potentials for future development are described.

  • 19. Hagg, Hanna Eriksson
    et al.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Wallstedt, Teresia
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Claremar, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Future Nutrient Load Scenarios for the Baltic Sea Due to Climate and Lifestyle Changes2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 337-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic model simulations of the future climate and projections of future lifestyles within the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB) were considered in this study to estimate potential trends in future nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads were estimated using a simple proxy based only on human population (to account for nutrient sources) and stream discharges (to account for nutrient transport). This population-discharge proxy provided a good estimate for nutrient loads across the seven sub-basins of the BSDB considered. All climate scenarios considered here produced increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea over the next 100 years. There was variation between the climate scenarios such that sub-basin and regional differences were seen in future nutrient runoff depending on the climate model and scenario considered. Regardless, the results of this study indicate that changes in lifestyle brought about through shifts in consumption and population potentially overshadow the climate effects on future nutrient runoff for the entire BSDB. Regionally, however, lifestyle changes appear relatively more important in the southern regions of the BSDB while climatic changes appear more important in the northern regions with regards to future increases in nutrient loads. From a whole-ecosystem management perspective of the BSDB, this implies that implementation of improved and targeted management practices can still bring about improved conditions in the Baltic Sea in the face of a warmer and wetter future climate.

  • 20.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Overview: Capturing the Sun for Energy Production2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no Suppl 2, p. 103-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy has potential to provide a major part of our energy for our future, as heat, electricity, and fuels. Most solar technologies are still at the research and development stage, however. There is therefore a need for bold and enduring efforts in research, development and commercialization, including strategic legislative measures and infrastructure investments. This overview article serves as an introduction to the present Special Report, briefly outlining the potential, principles and possibilities as well as some of the challenges of solar energy conversion.

  • 21.
    Hammarström, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Kullander, Sven
    Preface: Special Report: Capturing the Sun2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no Suppl 2, p. 101-102Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22. Hedberg, Dick
    et al.
    Kullander, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Frank, Harry
    The World Needs a New Energy Paradigm2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During 19-20 October 2009, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences arranged the international symposium Energy 2050 in Stockholm. The symposium was held in association with the Swedish EU presidency in autumn 2009. Internationally renowned scientists assessed the energy issue in a broad perspective, with particular emphasis on the possibilities of a fossil-free future. The symposium focused on key topics emanating from the in-depth energy studies carried through by the Academys Energy Committee since 2005. The world community is facing a challenge of historic proportions to define a new energy paradigm based on fossil-energy substitutes. This article gives an overview of the current global energy situation (2007) and of the technologies which have the major potential for supplying energy up to year 2050 without jeopardizing the CO2 emission targets.

  • 23. Hedenås, Henrik
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt Å.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Headley, Alistair D.
    Jonasson, Christer
    Svensson, Brita M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Changes Versus Homeostasis in Alpine and Sub-Alpine Vegetation Over Three Decades in the Sub-Arctic2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no Suppl 3, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant species distributions are expected to shift and diversity is expected to decline as a result of global climate change, particularly in the Arctic where climate warming is amplified. We have recorded the changes in richness and abundance of vascular plants at Abisko, sub-Arctic Sweden, by re-sampling five studies consisting of seven datasets; one in the mountain birch forest and six at open sites. The oldest study was initiated in 1977-1979 and the latest in 1992. Total species number increased at all sites except for the birch forest site where richness decreased. We found no general pattern in how composition of vascular plants has changed over time. Three species, Calamagrostis lapponica, Carex vaginata and Salix reticulata, showed an overall increase in cover/frequency, while two Equisetum taxa decreased. Instead, we showed that the magnitude and direction of changes in species richness and composition differ among sites.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pohjola, Veijo A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Jonasson, Christer
    Swedish Polar Research.
    Callaghan, Terry
    Universities of Sheffield.
    Multi-Decadal Changes in Snow Characteristics in Sub-Arctic Sweden2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 566-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A unique long term, 49-year record (divided into three time periods 1961–1976, 1977–1992, and 1993–2009) of snow profile stratigraphy from the Swedish sub Arctic, was analyzed with a focus on changes in snow characteristics. The data set contained grain size, snow layer hardness, grain compactness, and snow layer dryness, observed every second week during the winter season. The results showed an increase in very hard snow layers, with harder snow in early winter and more moist snow during spring. There was a striking increase in the number of observations with very hard snow at ground level over time. More than twice as many occasions with hard snow at ground level were observed between 1993 and 2009 compared to previous years, which may have a significant effect on plants and animals. The changes in snow characteristics are most likely a result of the increasing temperatures during the start and the end of the snow season.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Kersti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Liljequist, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Ohlander, Lars
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Agriculture as Provider of Both Food and Fuel2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 91-99Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A database of global agricultural primary production has been constructed and used to estimate its energy content. The portion of crops available for food and biofuel after postharvest losses was evaluated. The basic conditions for agriculture and plant growth were studied, to ensure sustainable scenarios regarding use of residues. The available energy contents for the world and EU27 was found to be 7,200-9,300 and 430 TWh, respectively, to be compared with food requirements of 7,100 and 530 TWh. Clearly, very little, or nothing, remains for biofuel from agricultural primary crops. However, by using residues and bioorganic waste, it was found that biofuel production could theoretically replace one-fourth of the global consumption of fossil fuels for transport. The expansion potential for global agriculture is limited by availability of land, water, and energy. A future decrease in supply of fossil energy and ongoing land degradation will thus cause difficulties for increased biofuel production from agriculture.

  • 26.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Phillips, Michael
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Troell, Max
    Eco-certification of Farmed Seafood: Will it Make a Difference?2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 659-674Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-certification is widely considered a tool for reducing environmental impacts of aquaculture, but what are the likely environmental outcomes for the world's fastest growing animal-food production sector? This article analyzes a number of eco-certification schemes based on species choice, anticipated share of the global seafood market, size of eligible producers, and targeted environmental impacts. The potential of eco-certification to reduce the negative environmental impacts of aquaculture at scale presently appears uncertain as: (a) certification schemes currently focus on species predominantly consumed in the EU and US, with limited coverage of Asian markets; (b) the share of certified products in the market as currently projected is too low; (c) there is an inequitable and non-uniform applicability of certification across the sector; (d) mechanisms or incentives for improvement among the worst performers are lacking; and (e) there is incomplete coverage of environmental impacts, with biophysical sustainability and ecosystem perspectives generally lacking.

  • 27.
    Karlsson, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Parker, Charles
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköpings universitet.
    The Legitimacy of Leadership in International Climate Change Negotiations2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership is an essential ingredient in reaching international agreements and overcoming the collective action problems associated with responding to climate change. In this study we aim at answering two questions that are crucial for understanding the legitimacy of leadership in international climate change negotiations. Based on responses of three consecutive surveys distributed at COPs 14-16 we seek first to chart which actors are actually recognized as leaders by climate change negotiation participants. Secondly, we aim to explain what motivates COP participants to support different actors as leaders. Both these questions are indeed crucial for understanding the role, importance, and legitimacy of leadership in the international climate change regime. Our results show that the leadership landscape in this issue area is fragmented, with no one clear-cut leader, and strongly suggest that it is imperative for any actor seeking recognition as climate change leader to be perceived as being devoted to promoting the common good.

  • 28.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Jonsson, Per
    Lindgren, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    Stehn, Anders
    Indications of recovery from hypoxia in the inner Stockholm archipelago2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 486-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved benthic conditions compared to the 1990s were found during benthic investigations, including sediment and benthic macrofauna in the inner Stockholm archipelago during 2008. In the 1990s, these areas were dominated by black and laminated surface sediments and very sparse fauna. A clear relationship was found when comparing sediment status with the benthic macrofauna. Reduced surface sediment and impoverished macroinvertebrate community was only found at one sampling station representing an enclosed part of the inner archipelago, whereas the other seven stations, with depths ranging from 20 to 50 m, had oxidized   surface sediments and considerable biomasses of benthic macrofauna   (6-65 g m(-2)) dominated by the invading polychaete Marenzelleria neglecta. An extrapolation of the results shows that, within the investigated area, the coverage of reduced surface sediments had decreased from approximately 17% in the late 1990s to 4% in 2008.

  • 29. Kotilainen, Aarno T.
    et al.
    Arppe, Laura
    Dobosz, Slawomir
    Jansen, Eystein
    Kabel, Karoline
    Karhu, Juha
    Kotilainen, Mia M.
    Kuijpers, Antoon
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Moros, Matthias
    Neumann, Thomas
    Porsche, Christian
    Poulsen, Niels
    Rasmussen, Peter
    Ribeiro, Sofia
    Risebrobakken, Bjorg
    Ryabchuk, Daria
    Schimanke, Semjon
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Spiridonov, Mikhail
    Virtasalo, Joonas J.
    Weckstrom, Kaarina
    Witkowski, Andrzej
    Zhamoida, Vladimir
    Echoes from the Past: A Healthy Baltic Sea Requires More Effort2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 60-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change.

  • 30.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    et al.
    SLU, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Kuglerova, Lenka
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Forest & Conservat Sci, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada..
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Futter, Martyn
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Genet & Plant Physiol, Umea Plant Sci Ctr, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    SLU, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Egnell, Gustaf
    SLU, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Agren, Anneli M.
    SLU, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    The role of biogeochemical hotspots, landscape heterogeneity, and hydrological connectivity for minimizing forestry effects on water quality2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no Suppl. 2, p. S152-S162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protecting water quality in forested regions is increasingly important as pressures from land-use, long-range transport of air pollutants, and climate change intensify. Maintaining forest industry without jeopardizing sustainability of surface water quality therefore requires new tools and approaches. Here, we show how forest management can be optimized by incorporating landscape sensitivity and hydrological connectivity into a framework that promotes the protection of water quality. We discuss how this approach can be operationalized into a hydromapping tool to support forestry operations that minimize water quality impacts. We specifically focus on how hydromapping can be used to support three fundamental aspects of land management planning including how to (i) locate areas where different forestry practices can be conducted with minimal water quality impact; (ii) guide the off-road driving of forestry machines to minimize soil damage; and (iii) optimize the design of riparian buffer zones. While this work has a boreal perspective, these concepts and approaches have broad-scale applicability.

  • 31.
    Lind, Monica
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergman, Anders
    Olsson, Mats
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Bone mineral density in male Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)2003In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 385-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone mineral density (mg cm(-3)) was studied in male Baltic grey seals (4-23 years of age) by noninvasive computed tomography (pQCT). The material was grouped according to year of collection. Group A: 1850-1955, a period before the main introduction of organochlorines (OCs); Group B: 1965-1985, a period with very high OC contamination; and Group C: 1986-1997, a period with decreasing concentrations of OCs. The reproducibility of the measurements was good with a Coefficient of Variation (CV) ranging from 0.1% to 2.1%. Trabecular bone mineral density of the radius was significantly higher in specimens collected 1986-1997 than in those collected 1965-1985 (p < 0.05). Cortical bone mineral density of the mandible was significantly lower in specimens collected 1986-1997 compared with those collected 1850-1955 (p < 0.05). These results indicate different responses over time in trabecular and cortical bone. During the period of very high OC contamination (1965-1985), trabecular bone density was lowest, whereas cortical bone density was lowest in specimens collected 1985-1997, representing a period of fairly low OC contamination. The mechanisms behind these effects are not known. However, it can be assumed that OCs are involved. Information about residue levels of OCs in the studied individuals is lacking and, therefore, it was not possible to evaluate the impact of OCs in this respect.

  • 32.
    Lindblad, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Lindberg, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Oliveira, Paulo
    Stensjö, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Heidorn, Thorsten
    Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no Suppl 2, p. 163-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H-2 production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e. g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted.

  • 33.
    Lindh, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Enheten för metallbiologisk forskning.
    Metal biology: aspects of beneficial effects2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 107-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Molau, U
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Alatalo, Juha
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Responses of subarctic-alpine plant communities to simulated environmental change: Biodiversity of bryophytes, lichens, and vascular plants1998In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 322-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The predicted changes in climate over the next 50 years are expected to be most pronounced in arctic and subarctic regions. In the present study, we examine the responses of a subarctic-alpine rich meadow and poor heath community to factorial manipulations of temperature and nutrient treatments. Specifically, we address response to the treatments in terms of biodiversity and relative cover of the bryophyte, lichen and vascular plant communities. We point out that the responses differ among mosses, lichens, vascular plants, and communities, and this will probably cause shifts in the dominance of both bottom layer and canopy layer species. It is important to note that the decrease in cover and species number of the bottom layer mainly occurred due to a decline in mosses; in contrast, lichen cover increased in all treatments in both communities. Climate change may thus cause a shift in the bottom layer from being dominated by mosses, to become dominated by lichens.

  • 35.
    Nilsson, Annika K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Bohman, Brita
    Stockholm Univ, Fac Law, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Legal prerequisites for ecosystem-based management in the Baltic Sea area: The example of eutrophication2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. S370-S380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of law in the management of the Baltic Sea, with focus on eutrophication. It aims to identify legal instruments or structures realizing an ecosystem approach. This also includes a discussion of the prerequisites of law as contributor to ecosystem-based management (EBM), as well as evaluation of current legal instruments. While ecosystem approach to environmental management is central to contemporary environmental management policy, it is still unclear what such an approach entails in concrete legal terms. The scope of the analysis stretches from international and EU legal regimes, to implementation and regulation within the national legal systems. A conclusion is that the management structures need further development to properly realize EBM, for example, through concretization of management measures, and clarification of duties and responsibilities for their realization.

  • 36. Omstedt, Anders
    et al.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Pempkowiak, Janusz
    Perttila, Matti
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Schneider, Bernd
    Smith, Benjamin
    Biogeochemical Control of the Coupled CO2–O2 System of the Baltic Sea: A Review of the Results of Baltic-C2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past, present, and possible future changes in the Baltic Sea acid–base and oxygen balances were studied using different numerical experiments and a catchment–sea model system in several scenarios including business as usual, medium scenario, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan. New CO2 partial pressure data provided guidance for improving the marine biogeochemical model. Continuous CO2 and nutrient measurements with high temporal resolution helped disentangle the biogeochemical processes. These data and modeling indicate that traditional understandings of the nutrient availability–organic matter production relationship do not necessarily apply to the Baltic Sea. Modeling indicates that increased nutrient loads will not inhibit future Baltic Sea acidification; instead, increased mineralization and biological production will amplify the seasonal surface pH cycle. The direction and magnitude of future pH changes are mainly controlled by atmospheric CO2 concentration. Apart from decreasing pH, we project a decreasing calcium carbonate saturation state and increasing hypoxic area.

  • 37. Prowse, Terry
    et al.
    Alfredsen, Knut
    Beltaos, Spyros
    Bonsal, Barrie
    Duguay, Claude
    Korhola, Atte
    McNamara, Jim
    Pienitz, Reinhard
    Vincent, Warwick F.
    Vuglinsky, Valery
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Past and Future Changes in Arctic Lake and River Ice2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no Suppl 1, p. 53-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paleolimnological evidence from some Arctic lakes suggests that longer ice-free seasons have been experienced since the beginning of the nineteenth century. It has been inferred from some additional records that many Arctic lakes may have crossed an important ecological threshold as a result of recent warming. In the instrumental record, long-term trends exhibit increasingly later freeze-ups and earlier break-ups, closely corresponding to increasing air temperature trends, but with greater sensitivity at the more temperate latitudes. Broad spatial patterns in these trends are also related to major atmospheric circulation patterns. Future projections of lake ice indicate increasingly later freeze-ups and earlier break-ups, decreasing ice thickness, and changes in cover composition, particularly white-ice. For rivers, projected future decreases in south to north air-temperature gradients suggest that the severity of ice-jam flooding may be reduced but this could be mitigated by changes in the magnitude of spring snowmelt.

  • 38. Prowse, Terry
    et al.
    Alfredsen, Knut
    Beltaos, Spyros
    Bonsal, Barrie
    Duguay, Claude
    Korhola, Atte
    McNamara, Jim
    Vincent, Warwick F.
    Vuglinsky, Valery
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Arctic Freshwater Ice and Its Climatic Role2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no Suppl 1, p. 46-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater ice dominates the Arctic terrestrial environment and significantly impacts bio-physical and socio-economic systems. Unlike other major cryospheric components that either blanket large expanses (e.g., snow, permafrost, sea ice) or are concentrated in specific locations, lake and river ice are interwoven into the terrestrial landscape through major flow and storage networks. For instance, the headwaters of large ice-covered rivers extend well beyond the Arctic while many northern lakes owe their genesis to broader cryospheric changes. The effects of freshwater ice on climate mostly occur at the local/regional scale, with the degree of influence dependent on the magnitude, timing, location, and duration of ice cover, and the size of the water body. Freshwater-ice formation, growth, decay, and break-up are influenced by climatic variables that control surface heat fluxes, but these differ markedly between lakes and rivers. Despite the importance of freshwater ice, there has been a recent reduction in observational recordings.

  • 39. Prowse, Terry
    et al.
    Alfredsen, Knut
    Beltaos, Spyros
    Bonsal, Barrie R.
    Bowden, William B.
    Duguay, Claude R.
    Korhola, Atte
    McNamara, Jim
    Vincent, Warwick F.
    Vuglinsky, Valery
    Anthony, Katey M. Walter
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Effects of Changes in Arctic Lake and River Ice2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no Suppl 1, p. 63-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic changes to freshwater ice in the Arctic are projected to produce a variety of effects on hydrologic, ecological, and socio-economic systems. Key hydrologic impacts include changes to low flows, lake evaporation regimes and water levels, and river-ice break-up severity and timing. The latter are of particular concern because of their effect on river geomorphology, vegetation, sediment and nutrient fluxes, and sustainment of riparian aquatic habitats. Changes in ice phenology will affect a wide range of related biological aspects of seasonality. Some changes are likely to be gradual, but others could be more abrupt as systems cross critical ecological thresholds. Transportation and hydroelectric production are two of the socio-economic sectors most vulnerable to change in freshwater-ice regimes. Ice roads will require expensive on-land replacements while hydroelectric operations will both benefit and be challenged. The ability to undertake some traditional harvesting methods will also be affected.

  • 40.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Bryceson, Ian
    Kautsky, Nils
    Coastal Aquaculture Development in Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean: Prospects and Problems for Food Security and Local Economies2002In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 31, no 7/8, p. 537-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the experience and status of coastal aquaculture of seaweeds, mollusks, fish and crustaceans in eastern Africa and the islands of the western Indian Ocean. In many respects, coastal aquaculture is still in its infancy in the region, and there is a pressing need to formulate development strategies aimed at improving the income and assuring the availability of affordable protein to coastal communities. This paper also draws from positive and negative experiences in other parts of the world. The requirements of feed and fry, and the conversion of mangroves are used to illustrate how some aquaculture activities constitute a net loss to global seafood production. The paper presents both general and specific sustainability guidelines based on the acknowledgement of aquaculture as an ecological process. It is concluded that without clear recognition of its dependence on natural ecosystems, the aquaculture industry is unlikely to develop to its full potential in the region.

  • 41. Seitzinger, Sybil P.
    et al.
    Svedin, Uno
    Crumley, Carole L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Steffen, Will
    Abdullah, Saiful Arif
    Alfsen, Christine
    Broadgate, Wendy J.
    Biermann, Frank
    Bondre, Ninad R.
    Dearing, John A.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Dhakal, Shobhakar
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Farahbakhshazad, Neda
    Gaffney, Owen
    Haberl, Helmut
    Lavorel, Sandra
    Mbow, Cheikh
    McMichael, Anthony J.
    deMorais, Joao M. F.
    Olsson, Per
    Pinho, Patricia Fernanda
    Seto, Karen C.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Smith, Mark Stafford
    Sugar, Lorraine
    Planetary Stewardship in an Urbanizing World: Beyond City Limits2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 787-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are rapidly increasing in importance as a major factor shaping the Earth system, and therefore, must take corresponding responsibility. With currently over half the world's population, cities are supported by resources originating from primarily rural regions often located around the world far distant from the urban loci of use. The sustainability of a city can no longer be considered in isolation from the sustainability of human and natural resources it uses from proximal or distant regions, or the combined resource use and impacts of cities globally. The world's multiple and complex environmental and social challenges require interconnected solutions and coordinated governance approaches to planetary stewardship. We suggest that a key component of planetary stewardship is a global system of cities that develop sustainable processes and policies in concert with its non-urban areas. The potential for cities to cooperate as a system and with rural connectivity could increase their capacity to effect change and foster stewardship at the planetary scale and also increase their resource security.

  • 42.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Söderbäck, Björn
    Karlsson, Sara
    Andersson, Eva
    Brunberg, Anna-Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    A carbon budget of a small humic lake: An example of the importance of lakes for organic matter cycling in boreal catchments2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 469-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes play an important role in the cycling of organic matter in the boreal landscape, due to the frequently high extent of bacterial respiration and the efficient burial of organic carbon in sediments. Based on a mass balance approach, we calculated a carbon budget for a small humic Swedish lake in the vicinity of a potential final repository for radioactive waste in Sweden, in order to assess its potential impact on the environmental fate of radionuclides associated with organic matter. We found that the lake is a net heterotrophic ecosystem, subsidized by organic carbon inputs from the catchment and from emergent macrophyte production. The largest sink of organic carbon is respiration by aquatic bacteria and subsequent emission of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Although the annual burial of organic carbon in the sediment is a comparatively small sink, it results in the build-up of the largest carbon pool in the lake. Hence, lakes may simultaneously disperse and accumulate organic-associated radionuclides leaking from a final repository.

  • 43.
    Styring, Stenbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Solar Fuels: Vision and Concepts2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no Suppl 2, p. 156-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to allow an exchange from fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and 'endless' resources that are available everywhere. The new research area on solar fuels, which are made from solar energy and water, aims to meet this demand. The paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The present research strategies, involving direct, semi-direct and indirect approaches to produce solar fuels, are overviewed.

  • 44.
    Temnerud, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hytteborn, Julia K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Köhler, Stephan J.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Evaluating common drivers for color, iron and organic carbon in Swedish watercourses2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no SI, p. 30-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent browning (increase in color) of surface waters across much of the northern hemisphere has important implications for light climate, ecosystem functioning, and drinking water treatability. Using log-linear regressions and long-term (6-21 years) data from 112 Swedish watercourses, we identified temporal and spatial patterns in browning-related parameters [iron, absorbance, and total organic carbon (TOC)]. Flow variability and lakes in the catchment were major influences on all parameters. Co-variation between seasonal, discharge-related, and trend effects on iron, TOC, and absorbance were dependent on pH, landscape position, catchment size, latitude, and dominant land cover. Large agriculture-dominated catchments had significantly larger trends in iron, TOC, and water color than small forest catchments. Our results suggest that while similarities exist, no single mechanism can explain the observed browning but show that multiple mechanisms related to land cover, climate, and acidification history are responsible for the ongoing browning of surface waters.

  • 45. Winterdahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Temnerud, Johan
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Moldan, Filip
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Riparian Zone Influence on Stream Water Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations at the Swedish Integrated Monitoring Sites2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 920-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-term variability in stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations is controlled by hydrology, climate and atmospheric deposition. Using the Riparian flow-concentration Integration Model (RIM), we evaluated factors controlling stream water DOC in the Swedish Integrated Monitoring (IM) catchments by separating out hydrological effects on stream DOC dynamics. Model residuals were correlated with climate and deposition-related drivers. DOC was most strongly correlated to water flow in the northern catchment (Gammtratten). The southern Aneboda and Kindla catchments had pronounced seasonal DOC signals, which correlated weakly to flow. DOC concentrations at GAyenrdsjon increased, potentially in response to declining acid deposition. Soil temperature correlated strongly with model residuals at all sites. Incorporating soil temperature in RIM improved model performance substantially (20-62% lower median absolute error). According to the simulations, the RIM conceptualization of riparian processes explains between 36% (Kindla) and 61% (Aneboda) of the DOC dynamics at the IM sites.

  • 46. Yom-Tov, Yoram
    et al.
    Roos, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Mortensen, Peter
    Wiig, Øystein
    Yom-Tov, Shlomith
    Heggberget, Thrine M
    Recent changes in body size of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in Sweden.2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 496-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied geographical and temporal body size trends among 169 adult museum specimens of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) collected in Sweden between 1962 and 2008, whose sex, year of collection, and locality were known. Skull size and body mass increased significantly in relation to the year of collection, and skull size (but not body mass) was significantly and negatively related to latitude, contrasting Bergmann's rule and the trend found for Norwegian otters. Latitudinal differences in body size between the two countries may be due to differences in food availability. The temporal increase in body size among Swedish otters resembled that observed for Norway otters, though Swedish otters are smaller with respect to their Norwegian counterparts. Latitude and year represent a combination of environmental factors, including ambient temperature in the year of collection as well as the number of days of ice coverage. We replaced the above factors with mean annual temperature or the number of days of ice coverage, and found that each of these factors explains a similar proportion of the variation in body size as did latitude and year. We hypothesize that this temporal increase in body size is related to a combination of factors, including reduced energy expenditure resulting from increasing ambient temperature, and increased food availability from longer ice-free periods.

1 - 46 of 46
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