uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 49 of 49
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Agerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Bjorlenius, Berndt
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Fick, Jerker
    Gunnarsson, Lina
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Sumpter, John P.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Ruden, Christina
    Improving Environmental Risk Assessment of Human Pharmaceuticals2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 5336-5345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents 10 recommendations for improving the European Medicines Agency's guidance for environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceutical products. The recommendations are based on up-to-date, available science in combination with experiences from other chemical frameworks such as the REACH-legislation for industrial chemicals. The recommendations concern: expanding the scope of the current guideline; requirements to assess the risk for development of antibiotic resistance; jointly performed assessments; refinement of the test proposal; mixture toxicity assessments on active pharmaceutical ingredients with similar modes of action; use of all available ecotoxicity studies; mandatory reviews; increased transparency; inclusion of emission data from production; and a risk management option. We believe that implementation of our recommendations would strengthen the protection of the environment and be beneficial to society. Legislation and guidance documents need to be updated at regular intervals in order to incorporate new knowledge from the scientific community. This is particularly important for regulatory documents concerning pharmaceuticals in the environment since this is a research field that has been growing substantially in the last decades.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I.
    Waldebäck, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Markides, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Sediment Depth Attenuation of Biogenic Phosphorus Compounds Measured by 31P NMR2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 867-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being a major cause of eutrophication and subsequent loss of water quality, the turnover of phosphorus (P) in lake sediments is in need of deeper understanding. A major part of the flux of P to eutrophic lake sediments is organically bound or of biogenic origin. This P is incorporated in a poorly described mixture of autochthonous and allochthonous sediment and forms the primary storage of P available for recycling to the water column, thus regulating lake trophic status. To identify and quantify biogenic sediment P and assess its lability, we analyzed sediment cores from Lake Erken, Sweden, using traditional P fractionation, and in parallel, NaOH extracts were analyzed using 31P NMR. The surface sediments contain orthophosphates (ortho-P) and pyrophosphates (pyro-P), as well as phosphate mono- and diesters. The first group of compounds to disappear with increased sediment depth is pyrophosphate, followed by a steady decline of the different ester compounds. Estimated half-life times of these compound groups are about 10 yr for pyrophosphate and 2 decades for mono- and diesters. Probably, these compounds will be mineralized to ortho-P and is thus potentially available for recycling to the water column, supporting further growth of phytoplankton. In conclusion, 31P NMR is a useful tool to asses the bioavailability of certain P compound groups, and the combination with traditional fractionation techniques makes quantification possible.

  • 3. Basnakova, G
    et al.
    Spencer, A J
    Pålsgård, Eva
    Dept of Nuclear Physics, Oxford University, Oxford, England.
    Grime, G W
    Macaskie, L E
    Identification of Nickel Uranyl Phosphate Deposits on Citrobacter sp. Cells by Electron Microscopy with Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis and by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Analysis1998In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 760-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immobilized cells of a Citrobacter sp. can remove heavy metals from wastewaters by deposition ofmetals with enzymatically liberated phosphate. Nickel is not removed effectively by this technique, but Ni2+ can be intercalated into cell-bound, crystalline HUO2PO4 previously deposited enzymatically. This technique for efficient removal of Ni from solution has been generically termed microbially enhanced chemisorption of heavy metals(MECHM). The nickel uranyl phosphate deposits bound to Citrobactersp. cells immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (FAG) were analyzed using scanning transmission electronmicroscopy with electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) and proton-induced X-ray emissionanalysis(PIXE). Both methods gave the molar ratios of nickel, uranium, and phosphorus in the depositsas close to 1:2:2 in all analyzed parts of the sample. EPXMA proved that the deposits were localized onthe surface of cells inside FAG particles as well as those immobilized on the edge. Small deposits ofnickel uranyl phosphate were also found in FAG between the cells, indicating the possible involvementof extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the creation of intercellular deposits. These findings confirm the mechanism of MECHM and show that this mechanism operates throughout the immobilized cell matrix. The use of two independent methods of solid-state analysis in a common sample provides validation of both techniques for the spatial and quantitative analysis of biomass-bound elements.

  • 4. Beal, Samuel A.
    et al.
    Osterberg, Erich C.
    Zdanowicz, Christian M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fisher, David A.
    Ice Core Perspective on Mercury Pollution during the Past 600 Years2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 13, p. 7641-7647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past emissions of the toxic metal mercury (Fig) persist in the global environment yet these emissions remain poorly constrained by existing data. Ice cores are high-resolution archives of atmospheric deposition that may provide crucial insight into past atmospheric Hg levels during recent and historical time. Here we present a record of total Hg (Hg-T) in an ice core from the pristine summit plateau (5340 m asl) of Mount Logan, Yukon, Canada, representing atmospheric deposition from AD 1410 to 1998. The Colonial Period (similar to 1603-1850) and North American "Gold Rush" (1850-1900) represent minor fractions (8% and 14%, respectively) of total anthropogenic Hg deposition in the record, with the majority (78%) occurring during the 20th Century. A period of maximum HgT fluxes from 1940 to 1975 coincides with estimates of enhanced anthropogenic Hg emissions from commercial sources, as well as with industrial emissions of other toxic metals. Rapid declines in HgT fluxes following peaks during the Gold Rush and the mid-20th Century indicate that atmospheric Hg deposition responds quickly to reductions in emissions. Increasing HgT fluxes from 1993 until the youngest samples in 1998 may reflect the resurgence of Hg emissions from unregulated coal burning and small-scale gold mining.

  • 5.
    Beal, Samuel A.
    et al.
    US Army, Cold Reg Res & Engn Lab, Hanover, NH 03755 USA..
    Osterberg, Erich C.
    Dartmouth Coll, Dept Earth Sci, Hanover, NH 03755 USA..
    Zdanowicz, Christian M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fisher, David A.
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Earth Sci, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada..
    Response to Comment on "Ice Core Perspective on Mercury Pollution during the Past 600 Years"2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 1068-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Benner, S G
    et al.
    Blowes, D W
    Gould, W D
    Herbert, Roger B
    Ptacek, C J
    Geochemistry of a permeable reactive barrier for metals and acid mine drainage1999In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 33, no 16, p. 2793-2799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A permeable reactive barrier, designed to remove metals and generate alkalinity by promoting sulfate reduction and metal sulfide precipitation, was installed in August 1995 into an aquifer containing effluent from mine tailings. Passage of groundwater through the barrier results in striking improvement in water quality. Dramatic changes in concentrations of SO4 (decrease of 2000−3000 mg/L), Fe (decrease of 270−1300 mg/L), trace metals (e.g., Ni decreases 30 mg/L), and alkalinity (increase of 800−2700 mg/L) are observed. Populations of sulfate reducing bacteria are 10 000 times greater, and bacterial activity, as measured by dehydrogenase activity, is 10 times higher within the barrier compared to the up-gradient aquifer. Dissolved sulfide concentrations increase by 0.2−120 mg/L, and the isotope 34S is enriched relative to 32S in the dissolved phase SO42- within the barrier. Water chemistry, coupled with geochemical speciation modeling, indicates the pore water in the barrier becomes supersaturated with respect to amorphous Fe sulfide. Solid phase analysis of the reactive mixture indicates the accumulation of Fe monosulfide precipitates. Shifts in the saturation states of carbonate, sulfate, and sulfide minerals and most of the observed changes in water chemistry in the barrier and down-gradient aquifer can be attributed, either directly or indirectly, to bacterially mediated sulfate reduction.

  • 7.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Apler, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Vogel, Lisa
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU).
    Persistent organic pollutants in wood fiber contaminated sediments from the Baltic SeaIn: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Del Sontro, Tonya
    et al.
    McGinnis, Daniel F.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Ostrovsky, Ilia
    Wehrli, Bernhard
    Extreme methane emissions from a Swiss hydropower reservoir: contribution from bubbling sediments2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 2419-2425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane emission pathways and their importance were quantified during a yearlong survey of a temperate hydropower reservoir. Measurements using gas traps indicated very high ebullition rates, but due to the stochastic nature of ebullition a mass balance approach was crucial to deduce system-wide methane sources and losses. Methane diffusion from the sediment was generally low and seasonally stable and did not account for the high concentration of dissolved methane measured in the reservoir discharge. A strong positive correlation between water temperature and the observed dissolved methane concentration enabled us to quantify the dissolved methane addition from bubble dissolution using a system-wide mass balance. Finally, knowing the contribution due to bubble dissolution, we used a bubble model to estimate bubble emission directly to the atmosphere. Our results indicated that the total methane emission from Lake Wohlen was on average >150 mg CH4 m−2 d−1, which is the highest ever documented for a midlatitude reservoir. The substantial temperature-dependent methane emissions discovered in this 90-year-old reservoir indicate that temperate water bodies can be an important but overlooked methane source.

  • 9. Eklof, Karin
    et al.
    Kraus, Andrea
    Futter, Martyn
    Schelker, Jakob
    Meili, Markus
    Boyer, Elizabeth W.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala.
    Parsimonious Model for Simulating Total Mercury and Methylmercury in Boreal Streams Based on Riparian Flow Paths and Seasonality2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 13, p. 7851-7859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry has made it difficult to model surface water concentrations of both total Hg (THg) and especially methylmercury (MeHg), the species of Hg having the highest potential for bioaccumulation. To simulate THg and MeHg variation in low-order streams, we have adapted a conceptual modeling framework where a continuum of lateral flows through riparian soils determines streamflow concentrations. The model was applied to seven forest catchments located in two boreal regions in Sweden spanning a range of climatic, soil, and forest management conditions. Discharge, and simulated riparian soil water concentrations profiles, represented by two calibrated parameters, were able to explain much of the variability of THg and MeHg concentrations in the streams issuing from the catchments (Nash Sutcliffe (NS) up to 0.54 for THg and 0.58 for MeHg). Model performance for all catchments was improved (NS up to 0.76 for THg and 0.85 for MeHg) by adding two to four parameters to represent seasonality in riparian soil water THg and MeHg concentrations profiles. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that riparian flow-pathways and seasonality in riparian soil concentrations are the major controls on temporal variation of THg and MeHg concentrations in low-order streams.

  • 10. Eklof, Karin
    et al.
    Schelker, Jakob
    Sorensen, Rasmus
    Meili, Markus
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    von Bromssen, Claudia
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala.
    Impact of Forestry on Total and Methyl-Mercury in Surface Waters: Distinguishing Effects of Logging and Site Preparation2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 4690-4698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry operations can increase the export of mercury (both total and methyl) to surface waters. However, little is known about the relative contribution of different forestry practices. We address this question using a paired-catchment study that distinguishes the effects of site preparation from the antecedent logging. Runoff water from three catchments, two harvested and one untreated control, was sampled biweekly during one year prior to logging, two years after logging, and three years after site preparation. The logging alone did not significantly increase the concentrations of either total or methyl-mercury in runoff, but export increased by 50-70% in one of the harvested catchments as a consequence of increased runoff volume. The combined effects of logging and site preparation increased total and methyl-mercury concentrations by 30-50% relative to preharvest conditions in both treated catchments. The more pronounced concentration effect after site preparation compared to logging could be related to site preparation being conducted during summer. This caused more soil disturbance than logging, which was done during winter with snow covering the ground. The results suggest that the cumulative impact of forest harvest on catchment mercury outputs depends on when and how forestry operations are implemented.

  • 11.
    Englund, Edvard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Renberg, Ingmar
    Saarinen, Timo
    Modeling fallout of anthropogenic I-1292008In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, no 24, p. 9225-9230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the relatively well-recognized emission rates of the anthropogenic 128I, there is little knowledge about the temporal fallout patterns and magnitude of fluxes since the start of the atomic era at the early 1940s.We here present measurements of annual 129I concentrations in sediment archives from Sweden and Finland covering the period 1942-2006. The results revealed impression of 129I emissions from the nuclear reprocessing facility at Sellafield and La Hague and a clear Chernobyl fallout enhancement during 1986. In order to estimate relative contributions from the different sources, a numerical model approach was used taking into accountthe emission rates/ estimated fallout, transport pathways, and the sediment system. The model outcomes suggest a relatively dominating marine source of 129I to north Europe compared to direct gaseous releases. A transfer rate of 129I from sea to atmosphere is derived for pertinent sea areas (English Channel, Irish Sea, and North Sea), which is estimated at 0.04 to 0.21 y-1.

  • 12.
    Ericzon, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Jean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Andersson, Marit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Olin, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Determination and speciation of selenium in end products from a garbage incinerator1989In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 1524-1528Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Erlandsson, Martin
    et al.
    Folster, Jens
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Natural variability in lake pH on seasonal, interannual and decadal time scales: Implications for assessment of human impact2008In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, no 15, p. 5594-5599Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Gallagher, Donal
    et al.
    McGee, Edward
    Mitchell, Peter
    Alfimov, Vasily
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Materials Science.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Materials Science.
    A retrospective search for evidence of the 1957 Windscale fire in NE Ireland using 129I2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 2927-2935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accident at Windscale in October 1957 resulted in the release to the atmosphere of a large quantity of radioactivity. The presented work is a retrospective search for evidence of contamination from the accident in the northeastern region of Ireland. A lake yielding a high-resolution sedimentary record was identified near the northeast coast of Ireland. This site was used to reconstruct the history of radionuclide input to the region, based on the analysis of a set of cores extracted from the lake. A chronology for sediment accumulation within the lake was established using radioisotopic dating techniques (including 270Pb). High-resolution gamma and alpha spectrometry techniques were used to quantify concentrations of 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am, all of which were released during the accident. The primary radioactive component of the release was 131I (T1/2 = 8 days), but this short-lived isotope has long since decayed. However, 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 x 10(7) years) was also released during the accident, and in a known ratio to 131I. Recent advances in accelerator mass spectrometry now make it feasible to measure 129I at ultra-trace level and thereby retrospectively reconstruct 131I deposition. Clearly resolved concentration profiles for 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am in the lake cores reflect known historical fallout trends. The data suggest that any contamination from the Windscale fire that might have reached this catchment has been overwritten by input from the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. A time-series for 129I in lake sediment shows that concentrations in recent sediments are approximately 10 times greater than concentrations recorded in strata corresponding to the period of maximum fallout of other radionuclides from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons (1964). These recent increases in 129I are attributed to increased emissions from the nuclear industry. The study yields no evidence of any enhancement in radioisotope concentrations, over and above global fallout, in strata dated to 1957, and we conclude that contamination from the Windscale fire had negligible impact on the northeastern region of Ireland.

  • 15.
    Gascon Diez, Elena
    et al.
    Univ Geneva, Dept FA Forel Environm & Water Sci, Blvd Carl Vogt 66, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
    Loizeau, Jean-Luc
    Univ Geneva, Dept FA Forel Environm & Water Sci, Blvd Carl Vogt 66, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
    Cosio, Claudia
    Univ Geneva, Dept FA Forel Environm & Water Sci, Blvd Carl Vogt 66, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
    Bouchet, Sylvain
    Univ Pau & Pays Adour, Lab Chim Analyt Bioinorgan & Environm, Inst Sci Analyt & Physicochim Environm & Mat, CNRS,UMR 5254, Helioparc, F-64053 Pau, France.
    Adatte, Thierry
    Univ Lausanne, Inst Earth Sci ISTE, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Amouroux, David
    Univ Pau & Pays Adour, Lab Chim Analyt Bioinorgan & Environm, Inst Sci Analyt & Physicochim Environm & Mat, CNRS,UMR 5254, Helioparc, F-64053 Pau, France.
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Role of settling particles on mercury methylation in the oxic water 1 column of freshwater systems2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 21, p. 11672-11679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the methylation of inorganic divalent mercury (HgII) to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been attributed to the activity of anaerobic bacteria, the formation of MeHg in the oxic water column of marine ecosystems has puzzled scientists over the past years. Here we show for the first time that MeHg can be produced in particles sinking through oxygenated water column of lakes. Total mercury (THg) and MeHg concentrations were measured in settling particles and in surface sediments of the largest freshwater lake in Western Europe (Lake Geneva). Whilst THg concentration differences between sediments and settling particles were not significant, MeHg concentrations were up to ten-fold greater in settling particles. MeHg demethylation rate constants (kd) were of similar magnitude in both compartments. In contrast, Hg methylation rate constants (km) were one order of magnitude greater in settling particles. The net potential for MeHg formation, assessed by the ratio between the two rate constants (km kd-1), was therefore up to ten times higher in settling particles, denoting that in situ transformations likely contributed to the high MeHg concentrations found in settling particles. Hg methylation was inhibited ( 80 %) in settling particles amended with molybdate, demonstrating the prominent role of biological sulfate-reduction in the process.

  • 16.
    He, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Temporal variation of iodine isotopes in the North Sea2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 1419-1425Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Herbert, Roger B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Schippers, Axel
    Iron isotope fractionation by biogeochemical processes in mine tailings2008In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 1117-1122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron isotope ratios were determined for the pore water, the 1M HCl / 1M hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HAH) – extractable solid phase, and the total extractable solid phase from sulfidic mine tailings in Impoundment 1, Kristineberg mine, northern Sweden. Within the tailings, pyrite oxidation occurs in a distinct Fe – depleted oxidation zone, and the greatest number of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in the profile occur close to the boundary between oxidized and unoxidized tailings. Above the oxidation front in the oxidized tailings, a large iron isotope fractionation (‑1.3‰ to ‑2.4‰) is measured between the pore water and the HAH-extractable solid phase. This isotope fractionation is explained by aqueous Fe(II) –

    Fe(III) equilibrium, microbial Fe(II) oxidation, and Fe(III) oxyhydroxide precipitation. The data suggests that pyrite in the tailings is enriched in 56Fe relative to Fe-rich silicates in the same material, such that pyrite oxidation results in a decrease in the mean d56Fe value for the bulk tailings in the oxidized zone: a change in isotope composition that is not attributable to isotope fractionation. Iron isotope analyses yield valuable information on iron cycling in mine wastes, and have the potential for becoming a tool for the prediction and control of acid mine drainage.

  • 18. Hermanson, Mark H.
    et al.
    Isaksson, Elisabeth
    Forsström, Sanja
    Texeira, Camilla
    Muir, Derek C. G.
    Pohjola, Veijo A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    van de Wal, Roderik S. V.
    Deposition History of Brominated Flame Retardant Compounds in an Ice Core from Holtedahlfonna, Svalbard, Norway2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 19, p. 7405-7410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been found in Arctic wildlife, lake sediment, and air. To identify the atmospheric BFR deposition history on Svalbard, Norway, we analyzed 19 BFRs, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), and 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDE) in the upper 34 m of an ice core (representing 1953-2005) from Holtedahlfonna, the western-most ice sheet on Svalbard. All of the non-PBDE compounds were detected in nearly continuous profiles in the core. Seven PBDEs were not observed above background (28, 47, 66, 100, 99, 154, 153), while 4 were found in 1 or 2 of 6 segments (17, 85, 138, 183). BDEs-49, 71, 190, 209 had nearly continuous profiles but only BDE-209 in large amounts. The greatest inputs were HBCD and BDE-209, 910, and 320 pg cm(-2) yr(-1) from 1995-2005. DBDPE, BTBPE, and PBEB show nearly continuous input growth in recent core segments, but all were <6 pg cm(-2) yr(-1). Long-range atmospheric processes may have moved these particle-bound BFRs to the site, probably during the Arctic haze season. Average air mass trajectories over 10 years show >75% of atmospheric flow to Holtedahlfonna coming from Eurasia during haze periods (March and April).

  • 19.
    Hou, Xiaolin
    et al.
    Rise National Laboratory, NUK-202, Technical University of Denmark.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Neilsen, Sven
    Rise National Laboratory, NUK-202, Technical University of Denmark.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Nies, Hartmut
    Bundesamt fuer Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie.
    Hedfors, Jim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Speciation of I-129 and I-127 in seawater and implications for sources and transport pathways in the North Sea2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 17, p. 5993-5999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface seawater samples collected from the North Sea and English Channel were analyzed for total 129I and 127I, as well as for iodide and iodate. Relatively high 129I concentrations (2−3 × 1011 atoms/L) were observed in the northern part of the English Channel and in the southeastern North Sea. The atomic ratio of 129I/127I decreases from the eastern (1.0−1.9 × 10-6) to the western (4−6 × 10-8) parts of the North Sea and from the northeastern (1.5 × 10-6) to southwestern (1−5 × 10-8) parts of the English Channel. The ratios of iodide to iodate are 0.1−0.5 and 0.5−1.6 for 127I and 129I, respectively, in open seawaters, whereas these ratios range from 0.6 to 1.3 and 0.8 to 2.2, respectively, in coastal waters. The results suggest that (1) imprints of the La Hague facility dominates the 129I distribution in the surface water of the North Sea, (2) reduction of iodate to iodide is relatively fast during the transport to the European continental coast, (3) oxidation of newly produced 129I- to 129IO3- is insignificant during water exchange between the coastal area and open sea, (4) reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in the open sea seems to be a slow process.

  • 20. Hou, Xiaolin
    et al.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Nielsen, Sven P.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Time series of I-129 and I-127 speciation in precipitation from Denmark2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 17, p. 6522-6528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental I-129 mainly released from reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) provides a unique atmospheric and   environmental tracer, This study deals with I-129 and I-127 speciation   in precipitation collected in Denmark during 2001-2006 that indicates   many new findings. The concentrations of total I-129 in precipitation   vary from 0.28 to 5.63 x 10(9) atoms I-129 L-1 with an average of (2.34   +/- 1.43) x 10(9) atoms I-129 L-1, and the annual deposition flux of   I-129 is (1.25 +/- 0.30) x 10(12) atoms m(-2). increased I-129 levels   in precipitation and I-129/I-127 ratio are attributed to the releases   of I-129 from the reprocessing plants at La Hague and Sellafield.   Iodide is the major specie of I-129, which accounts for 50-99% of tote   I-129. The concentrations of total I-129 vary from 0.78 to 2.70 mu g   iodine L-1 with an average of 1.63 +/- 0.47 mu g iodine L-1, and annual   deposition flux of 0.95 +/- 0.26 mg m(-2). Unlike I-129, iodate is the   major specie of I-127, which accounts for 43-93% of total I-127. The   I-129/I-127 atomic ratios for total iodine vary from 5.04 to 76.5 x   10(-8) with an average of (30.1 +/- 16.8) x 10(-8). These values are 10   times lower for iodate with an average of (2.95 +/- 3.13) x 10-8.   Seasonal variations of I-129/I-127 values and I-129 concentrations are   associated with highs in spring and lows in summer-autumn periods. Re-emission of I-129 from the surface water of the English Channel,   Irish Sea, North Sea, and Norwegian Sea, especially from the European   continental coast areas, is evidently the major source of I-129 in the   precipitation, while stable I-127 in the precipitation has multiple   sources, i.e., marine, as well as terrestrial emission. This work shows   that data on speciation of iodine isotopes can provide thorough indications about the sources and geochemical cycle despite the   complicated atmospheric chemistry of iodine.

  • 21.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Herbert, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Global emission and production of mercury during the pyrometallurgical extraction of nonferrous sulfide ores2008In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, no 15, p. 5971-5977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of the milling, smelting, and refining of sulfide ores to Hg emissions and to Hg byproduction is not adequately quantified in a global context. In this study, we estimate Hg emissions from the pyrometallurgical treatment of Cu, Pb, and Zn sulfide ores. We base our calculations on quantities processed and Hg content in Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrates, derived from unique global databases on smelter feed and production. In 2005, about 275 tons of Hg were emitted globally to the atmosphere from Cu, Pb, and Zn smelters.

    Nearly one-half was emitted from Zn smelters and the other half equally divided between Cu and Pb smelters. Most Hg was emitted in China, followed by the Russian Federation, India, and South Korea. Global emission factors were 5.81, 15.71, and 12.09 g of Hg ton-1 of metal for Cu, Pb, and Zn smelters, respectively. Calculations indicate thatHgabatementtechnologies applied to flue gases may have recovered 8.8 tons and 228 tons Hg from Pb and Zn smelters, respectively, most of which was probably sold as a byproduct. In conclusion, Hg emitted from processing copper, lead, and zinc ores has been largely underestimated in Hg emission inventories. Reducing these emissions may be one of the most economical measures to reduce global Hg emissions.

  • 22.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    The Anthropocene forces us to reconsider adaptationist models of human-environment interactions: Comment on “The New World of the Anthropocene”2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 16, p. 6007-6007Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Kocur, Chris
    et al.
    University of Western Ontario.
    Chowdhury, A
    University of Western Ontario.
    Sakulchaicharoen, N
    University of Western Ontario.
    Boparai, H
    University of Western Ontario.
    Weber, K
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Civil and Environmental Engineering, Western University, 1151 Richmond Rd. London, Ontario, N6A 5B8, Canada ‡ Civil Enginee.
    Krol, M
    Austrins, L
    Peace, C
    Sleep, B
    O'Carroll, Denis
    University of Western Ontario.
    Characterization of nZVI mobility in a field scale test2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 2862-2869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) particles were injected into a contaminated sandy subsurface area in Sarnia, Ontario. The nZVI was synthesized on site, creating a slurry of 1 g/L nanoparticles using the chemical precipitation method with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the reductant in the presence of 0.8% wt. sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) polymer to form a stable suspension. Individual nZVI particles formed during synthesis had a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) quantified particle size of 86.0 nm and dynamic light scattering (DLS) quantified hydrodynamic diameter for the CMC and nZVI of 624.8 nm. The nZVI was delivered to the subsurface via gravity injection. Peak normalized total Fe breakthrough of 71% was observed 1m from the injection well and remained above 50% for the 24 hour injection period. Samples collected from a monitoring well 1 m from the injection contained nanoparticles with TEM-measured particle diameter of 80.2 nm and hydrodynamic diameter of 562.9 nm. No morphological changes were discernible between the injected nanoparticles and nanoparticles recovered from the monitoring well. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm the elemental composition of the iron nanoparticles sampled from the downstream monitoring well, verifying the successful transport of nZVI particles. This study suggests that CMC stabilized nZVI can be transported at least 1 m to the contaminated source zone at significant Fe0 concentrations for reaction with target contaminants.

  • 24. Lavonen, Elin E.
    et al.
    Gonsior, Michael
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
    Kohler, Stephan J.
    Selective Chlorination of Natural Organic Matter: Identification of Previously Unknown Disinfection Byproducts2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 2264-2271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural organic matter (NOM) serve as precursors for disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water production making NOM removal essential in predisinfection treatment processes. We identified molecular formulas of chlorinated DBPs after chlorination and chloramination in four Swedish surface water treatment plants (WTPs) using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Chlorine-containing formulas were detected before and after disinfection and were therefore classified to identify DBPs. In total, 499 DBPs were detected, of which 230 have not been reported earlier. The byproducts had, as a group, significantly lower ratio of hydrogen to carbon (H/C) and significantly higher average carbon oxidation state (Cos), double bond equivalents per carbon (DBE/C) and ratio of oxygen to carbon (O/C) compared to Cl-containing components present before disinfection and CHO formulas in samples taken both before and after disinfection. Electrophilic substitution, the proposed most significant reaction pathway for chlorination of NOM, results in carbon oxidation and decreased H/C while O/C and DBE/C is left unchanged. Because the identified DBPs had significantly higher DBE/C and O/C than the CHO formulas we concluded that chlorination of NOM during disinfection is selective toward components with relatively high double bond equivalency and number of oxygen atoms per carbon. Furthermore, choice of disinfectant, dose, and predisinfection treatment at the different WTPs resulted in distinct patterns in the occurrence of DBP formulas.

  • 25.
    Levanoni, Oded
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mckie, Brendan G.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hartman, Goran
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Ecol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Eklof, Karin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ecke, Frauke
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, SE-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Impact of Beaver Pond Colonization History on Methylmercury Concentrations in Surface Water2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 21, p. 12679-12687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) in freshwater ecosystems are of major environmental concern in large parts of the northern hemisphere. Beaver ponds have been identified as a potentially important source of MeHg. The role of beavers might be especially pronounced in large parts of Europe, where beaver populations have expanded rapidly following near-extirpation. This study evaluates the role of the age and colonization history (encompassing patterns of use and reuse) of ponds constructed by the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber in regulating MeHg concentrations in Swedish streams. In 12 beaver systems located in three regions, we quantified MeHg concentrations together with other relevant parameters on five occasions per year in 2012-2013. Five were pioneer systems, inundated for the first time since beaver extirpation, and seven were recolonized, with dams reconstructed by newly recolonizing beavers. MeHg concentrations in pioneer but not in recolonized beaver systems were up to 3.5 fold higher downstream than upstream of the ponds, and varied between seasons and years. Our results show that pioneer inundation by beavers can increase MeHg concentrations in streams, but that this effect is negligible when dams are reconstructed on previously used ponds. We therefore expect that the recovery and expansion of beavers in the boreal system will only have a transitional effect on MeHg in the environment.

  • 26. Li, Yu-Feng
    et al.
    Dong, Zeqin
    Chen, Chunying
    Li, Bai
    Gao, Yuxi
    Qu, Liya
    Wang, Tianchen
    Fu, Xin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Zhao, Yuliang
    Chai, Zhifang
    Organic Selenium Supplementation Increases Mercury Excretion and Decreases Oxidative Damage in Long-Term Mercury-Exposed Residents from Wanshan, China2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 20, p. 11313-11318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a long history of extensive mercury mining and smelting activities, local residents in Wanshan, China, are suffering from elevated mercury exposure. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of oral supplementation with selenium-enriched yeast in these long-term mercury-exposed populations. One hundred and three volunteers from Wanshan area were recruited and 53 of them were supplemented with 100 mu g of organic selenium daily as selenium-enriched yeast while 50 of them were supplemented with the nonselenium-enriched yeast for 3 months. The effects of selenium supplementation on urinary mercury, selenium, and oxidative stress-related biomarkers including malondialdehyde and 8-ydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were assessed. This 3-month selenium supplementation trial indicated that organic selenium supplementation could increase mercury excretion and decrease urinary malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels in local residents.

  • 27.
    Linkhorst, Annika
    et al.
    Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Dittmar, Thorsten
    Research Group for Marine Geochemistry (ICBM-MPI Bridging Group), Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), University of Oldenburg, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany.
    Waska, Hannelore
    Research Group for Marine Geochemistry (ICBM-MPI Bridging Group), Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), University of Oldenburg, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany.
    Molecular Fractionation of Dissolved Organic Matter in a Shallow Subterranean Estuary: The Role of the Iron Curtain2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 1312-1320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron that precipitates under aerobic conditions in natural aquatic systems scavenges dissolved organic matter (DOM) from solution. Subterranean estuaries (STEs) are of major importance for land−ocean biogeochemical fluxes. Their specific redox boundaries, coined the “iron curtain” due to the abundance of precipitated iron(III) (oxy)hydroxides, are hot spots for the removal and redissolution of iron, associated nutrients, and DOM. We used ultra-high-resolution electro- spray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to molecularly characterize the iron- coagulating fractions of 32 groundwater and seawater DOM samples along a salinity gradient from a shallow STE on Spiekeroog Island, North Sea, Germany, and linked our findings to trace metal and nutrient concentrations. We found systematic iron coagulation of large (>450 Da), oxygen-rich, and highly aromatic DOM molecules of terrestrial origin. The extent of coagulation increased with growing terrestrial influence along the salinity gradient. Our study is the first to show that the iron curtain may be capable of retaining terrigenous DOM fractions in marine sediments. We hypothesize that the iron curtain serves as an inorganic modulator for the supply of DOM from groundwaters to the sea, and that the STE has the potential to act as a temporal storage or even sink for terrigenous aromatic DOM compounds.

  • 28. Lourenco, Tuanan C.
    et al.
    Coelho, Mariny F. C.
    Ramalho, Teodorico C.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Costa, Luciano T.
    Insights on the Solubility of CO2 in 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide from the Microscopic Point of View2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 13, p. 7421-7429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of greenhouse gases due to human activities have been well documented as well as the effects on global warming resulting from it. Efforts to reduce greenhouse gases at the source are crucial to curb climate change, but due to insignificant economic incentives to reduce usage of fossil fuels, not a lot of progress has been made by this route. This necessitates additional measures to reduce the occurrence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we used theoretical methods to study the solubility of carbon dioxide in ionic liquids (ILs) since sequestration of CO2 in ILs has been proposed as a possible technology for reducing the emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere. Ionic liquids form a class of solvents with melting temperatures below 100 degrees C and, due to very low vapor pressures, which are not volatile. We have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (C(2)mim) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N) and its mixtures with carbon dioxide in order to investigate the CO2 concentration effect on the CO2-cation and CO2-anion interactions. A systematic investigation of CO2 concentration effects on resulting equilibrium liquid structure, and the local environment of the ions is provided The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) was used to determine the interaction energy for CO2-cation and CO2-anion complexes from uncorrelated structures derived from MD simulations. A spatial distribution function analysis demonstrates the specific interactions between CO2 and the ionic liquid. Our findings indicate that the total volume of the system increases with the CO2 concentration, with a molar volume of CO2 of about 0.038 L/mol, corresponding to liquid CO2 under a pressure of 100 bar. In other words, the IL effectively pressurizes the CO2 inside its matrix. The thermodynamics of CO2 solvation in C2 min-Tf2N were computed using free energy techniques, and the solubility of CO2 is found to be higher in this IL (-3.7 +/- 1 kcal/mol) than in water (+0.2 kJ/mol), predominantly due to anion-CO2 interactions.

  • 29.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Bjerselius, Rickard
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Liu, Yang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Södervall, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Modeling Relationships between Baltic Sea Herring (Clupea harengus) Biology and Contaminant Concentrations Using Multivariate Data Analysis2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 23, p. 9018-9023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea herring (Clupea harengus) is a pelagic, zoo-planktivorous fish and young (2-5 years old) individuals of this species are sampled annually in the Swedish marine monitoring program. This study determined concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in dorsal muscle from herring (n = 60) of varying age (2-13 years), weight (25-200 g), and body length (16-29 cm) caught at three locations in the Swedish part of the Baltic Proper. In order to ensure that the fish biclogy was as varied as possible, though still similar from all sampling sites, the fish to be chemically analyzed were selected from a large number of fish with determined biology using Multivariate Design. In statistical evaluation of the data, univariate and multivariate data analysis techniques, e.g. principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares regression (PLS), and orthogonal PLS (OPLS), were used. The results showed that the fish are exposed to a cocktail of contaminants and levels are presented. Significant OPLS models were found for all biological variables versus concentrations of OCs and BFRs, showing that fish biology covaries with fish contaminant concentrations. Correlation coefficients were as high as 0.98 for e.g. beta HCH concentration (wet weight) versus the lipid content. Lastly, the DC concentrations in herring muscle were modeled against the BFR concentrations to determine whether concentrations of either could be used to predict the other. It was found that OPLS models allowed BFR concentrations to be predicted from OC concentrations with high, but varying, accuracy (R-2 Ys between 0.93 to 0.75). Thus, fish biology and contaminant concentrations are interwoven, and fish biological parameters can be used to calculate (predict) contaminant concentrations. It is also possible to predict the BFR concentrations in an individual fish from its concentrations of OCs with very high accuracy.

  • 30.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Johansson, Anna-Karin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Olsson, Mats
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Multivariate Data Analyses of Chlorinated and Brominated Contaminants and Biological Characteristics in Adult Guillemot (Uria aalge) from the Baltic Sea2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 22, p. 8630-8637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult guillemot (Uria aalge) birds, 10 females and 10 males, drowned in trawl nets near Stora Karlsö in the Baltic Sea, were collected in 2000. Several of the animals' biological characteristics were recorded. The birds' pectoral muscles were individually analyzed for their concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The dominating contaminant was p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) with a geometric mean concentration of 12 900 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The concentration of ΣPBDE (80 ng/g lw) was similar to that of HBCD (65 ng/g lw). The total concentration of all OCs was approximately 150 times higher than that of all BFRs. For the statistical evaluation of the data, we used multivariate analysis techniques such as principal components analysis, partial least-squares (PLS) regression, and PLS discriminant analyses. No differences between the two sexes were found, either in contaminant concentrations or in biological characteristics. We found that some biological characteristics covaried with the concentrations of several OCs and BFRs, e.g., a negative correlation between liver weight and concentration of contaminants. The concentrations of most OCs but not of BFRs showed a decrease with increasing lipid content. Further, a PLS model with OCs as X and BFRs as Y showed that the contaminants formed two groups, each with distinctive correlation patterns. The PLS model could be used to predictwith varying accuracy the concentration of BFRs in the individual muscles from their concentration of OCs.

  • 31. Marcé, Rafael
    et al.
    George, Glen
    Buscarinu, Paola
    Deidda, Melania
    Dunalska, Julita
    de Eyto, Elvira
    Flaim, Giovanna
    Grossart, Hans-Peter
    Istvanovics, Vera
    Lenhardt, Mirjana
    Moreno-Ostos, Enrique
    Obrador, Biel
    Ostrovsky, Ilia
    Pierson, Don
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Potužák, Jan
    Poikane, Sandra
    Rinke, Karsten
    Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara
    Staehr, Peter A.
    Šumberová, Kateřina
    Waajen, Guido
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Weathers, Kathleen C.
    Zion, Mark
    Ibelings, Bas W.
    Jennings, Eleanor
    Automatic High Frequency Monitoring for Improved Lake and Reservoir Management2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 20, p. 10780-10794Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent technological developments have increased the number of variables being monitored in lakes and reservoirs using automatic high frequency monitoring (AHFM). However, design of AHFM systems and posterior data handling and interpretation are currently being developed on a site-by-site and issue-by-issue basis with minimal standardization of protocols or knowledge sharing. As a result, many deployments become short-lived or underutilized, and many new scientific developments that are potentially useful for water management and environmental legislation remain underexplored. This Critical Review bridges scientific uses of AHFM with their applications by providing an overview of the current AHFM capabilities, together with examples of successful applications. We review the use of AHFM for maximizing the provision of ecosystem services supplied by lakes and reservoirs (consumptive and non consumptive uses, food production, and recreation), and for reporting lake status in the EU Water Framework Directive. We also highlight critical issues to enhance the application of AHFM, and suggest the establishment of appropriate networks to facilitate knowledge sharing and technological transfer between potential users. Finally, we give advice on how modern sensor technology can successfully be applied on a larger scale to the management of lakes and reservoirs and maximize the ecosystem services they provide.

  • 32. Morthorst, Jane Ebsen
    et al.
    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna
    Korsgaard, Bodil
    Bjerregaard, Poul
    17β-estradiol causes abnormal development in embryos of the viviparous eelpout2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 24, p. 14668-14676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated frequencies of malformations among the offspring of Baltic eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) have been observed in aquatic environments receiving high anthropogenic input suggesting that manmade chemicals could be the causative agent. However, causal links between exposure to chemicals and abnormal development have never been confirmed in laboratory experiments. The purpose of this study was to investigate if exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2) causes abnormal development in larvae of the viviparous eelpout. Wild female eelpout were collected immediately after fertilization and exposed to E2 concentrations ranging from 5.7 to 133 ng L-1 for six weeks in a flow through test system. The experiment shows that E2 concentrations of 53.6 and 133 ng L-1 cause severe abnormal development among eelpout embryos. Reduced amount of ovarian fluid and increased weight of the ovarian sac indicate disturbance of ovarian function. Female plasma concentrations of E2 and vitellogenin increase in a monotonic concentration-response relationship with significant induction in the low concentration range. Our findings support the plausibility that the abnormal development among eelpout embryos encountered in monitoring programs may actually be caused by exposure to chemicals in the environment.

  • 33.
    Mostovaya, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Hawkes, Jeffrey A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Koehler, Birgit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Dittmar, Thorsten
    University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Emergence of the Reactivity Continuum of Organic Matter from Kinetics of a Multitude of Individual Molecular Constituents2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 20, p. 11571-11579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reactivity continuum (RC) model is a powerful statistical approach for describing the apparent kinetics of bulk organic matter (OM) decomposition. Here, we used ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry data to evaluate the main premise of the RC model, namely that there is a continuous spectrum of reactivity within bulk OM, where each individual reactive type undergoes exponential decay. We performed a 120 day OM decomposition experiment on lake water, with an untreated control and a treatment preexposed to UV light, and described the loss of bulk dissolved organic carbon with RC modeling. The behavior of individual molecular formulas was described by fitting the single exponential model to the change in peak intensities over time. The range of the empirically derived apparent exponential decay coefficients (kexp) was indeed continuous. The character of the corresponding distribution, however, differed from the conceptual expectations, due to the effects of intrinsic averaging, overlaps in formula-specific loss and formation rates, and the limitation of the RC model to include apparently accumulating compounds in the analysis. Despite these limitations, both the RC model-simulated and empirical (mass spectrometry-derived) distributions of kexp captured the effects of preexposure to UV light. Overall, we present experimental evidence that the reactivity continuum within bulk OM emerges from a range of reactivity of numerous individual components. This constitutes direct empirical support for the major assumption behind the RC model of the natural OM decomposition.

  • 34. Mu, H L
    et al.
    Ewald, G
    Nilsson, E
    Sundin, Peter
    Wesen, C
    Fate of chlorinated fatty acids in migrating sockeye salmon and their transfer to arctic grayling2004In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, no 21, p. 5548-5554Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Paranaíba, José Reinaldo
    et al.
    Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.
    Barros, Nathan
    Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.
    Mendonça, Raquel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.
    Linkhorst, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Isidorova, Anastasija
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Roland, Fábio
    Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.
    Almeida, Rafael M.
    Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Spatially Resolved Measurements of CO2 and CH4 Concentration and Gas-Exchange Velocity Highly Influence Carbon-Emission Estimates of Reservoirs2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 607-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnitude of diffusive carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission from man-made reservoirs is uncertain because the spatial variability generally is not well-represented. Here, we examine the spatial variability and its drivers for partial pressure, gas-exchange velocity (k), and diffusive flux of CO2 and CH4 in three tropical reservoirs using spatially resolved measurements of both gas concentrations and k. We observed high spatial variability in CO2 and CH4 concentrations and flux within all three reservoirs, with river inflow areas generally displaying elevated CH4 concentrations. Conversely, areas close to the dam are generally characterized by low concentrations and are therefore not likely to be representative for the whole system. A large share (44–83%) of the within-reservoir variability of gas concentration was explained by dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll, water depth, and within-reservoir location. High spatial variability in k was observed, and kCH4 was persistently higher (on average, 2.5 times more) than kCO2. Not accounting for the within-reservoir variability in concentrations and k may lead to up to 80% underestimation of whole-system diffusive emission of CO2 and CH4. Our findings provide valuable information on how to develop field-sampling strategies to reliably capture the spatial heterogeneity of diffusive carbon fluxes from reservoirs.

  • 36.
    Pati, Sarah G.
    et al.
    Eawag, Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Biogeochem & Pollutant Dynam IBP, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Kohler, Hans-Peter E.
    Eawag, Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland..
    Pabis, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology. Lodz Univ Technol, Inst Appl Radiat Chem, PL-90924 Lodz, Poland..
    Paneth, Piotr
    Lodz Univ Technol, Inst Appl Radiat Chem, PL-90924 Lodz, Poland..
    Parales, Rebecca E.
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Hofstetter, Thomas B.
    Eawag, Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Biogeochem & Pollutant Dynam IBP, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Substrate and Enzyme Specificity of the Kinetic Isotope Effects Associated with the Dioxygenation of Nitroaromatic Contaminants2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 13, p. 6708-6716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a promising approach for tracking biotransformation of organic pollutants, but isotope fractionation associated with aromatic oxygenations is only poorly understood. We investigated the dioxygenation of a series of nitroaromatic compounds to the corresponding catechols by two enzymes, namely, nitrobenzene and 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase (NBDO and 2NTDO) to elucidate the enzyme- and substrate-specificity of C and H isotope fractionation. While the apparent C-13- and H-2-kinetic isotope effects of nitrobenzene, nitrotoluene isomers, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and naphthalene dioxygenation by NBDO varied considerably, the correlation of C and H isotope fractionation revealed a common mechanism for nitrobenzene and nitrotoluenes. Similar observations were made for the dioxygenation of these substrates by 2NTDO. Evaluation of reaction kinetics, isotope effects, and commitment-to-catalysis based on experiment and theory showed that rates of dioxygenation are determined by the enzymatic O-2 activation and aromatic C oxygenation. The contribution of enzymatic O-2 activation to the reaction rate varies for different nitroaromatic substrates of NBDO and 2NTDO. Because aromatic dioxygenation by nonheme iron dioxygenases is frequently the initial step of biodegradation, O-2 activation kinetics may also have been responsible for the minor isotope fractionation reported for the oxygenation of other aromatic contaminants.

  • 37.
    Patriarca, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Per JR
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Hawkes, Jeffrey A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Online HPLC-ESI-HRMS Method for the Analysis and Comparison of Different Dissolved Organic Matter Samples2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 2091-2099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an ultracomplex mixture that is essential to global carbon cycling but is poorly understood because of its complexity. The most powerful tool for the DOM characterization is high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) generally combined to direct infusion (DI) as sample introduction. Liquid chromatography (LC) represents a compelling alternative to DI; however, state-of-the-art techniques involve only offline LC-HRMS approaches, which have important logistical drawbacks that make DOM analysis more challenging. This study introduces a new method based on online coupling of liquid chromatography to high resolution mass spectrometry, able to overcome the disadvantages of usual approaches. It is characterized by high reproducibility (% Bray–Curtis dissimilarity among replicates ≈ 2.5%), and it reduces transient complexity and contaminant interferences, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), leading to the identification of an overall larger number of formulas in the mixture. Moreover, the application of an in silico fractionation prior to the statistical analysis allows an easy, flexible, fast, and detailed comparison of DOM samples from a variety of sources with a single chromatographic run.

  • 38. Phenrat, Tanapon
    et al.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, Tissa
    Lowry, Gregory V.
    Tilton, Robert D.
    Polymer-Modified Fe(0) Nanoparticles Target Entrapped NAPL in Two Dimensional Porous Media: Effect of Particle Concentration, NAPL Saturation, and Injection Strategy2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 14, p. 6102-6109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles are delivered into porous media for in situ remediation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones. A systematic and quantitative evaluation of NAPL targeting by polymer-modified NZVI in two-dimensional (2-D) porous media under field-relevant conditions has not been reported. This work evaluated the importance of NZVI particle concentration, NAPL saturation, and injection strategy on the ability of polymer-modified NZVI (MRNIP2) to target the NAPL/water interface in situ in a 2-D porous media model. Dodecane was used as a NAPL model compound for this first demonstration of source zone targeting in 2-D. A driving force for NAPL targeting, the surface activity of MRNIP2 at the NAPL/water interface was verified ex situ by its ability to emulsify NAPL in water. MRNIP2 at low particle concentration (0.5 g/L) did not accumulate in or near entrapped NAPL, however, MRNIP2 at moderate and high particle concentrations (3 and 15 g/L) did accumulate preferentially at entrapped NAPL, i.e., it was capable of in situ targeting. The amount of MRNIP2 that targets a NAPL source depends on NAPL saturation (S(n)), presumably because the saturation controls the available NAPL/water interfacial area and the flow field through the NAPL source. At effective S(n) close or equal to 100%, MRNIP2 bypassed NAPL and accumulated only at the periphery of the entrapped NAPL region. At lower S(n), flow also carries MRNIP2 to NAPL/water interfaces internal to the entrapped NAPL region. However, the mass of accumulated MRNIP2 per unit available NAPL/water interfacial area is relatively constant (similar to 0.8 g/m(2) for MRNIP2 = 3 g/L) from S(n) = 13 to similar to 100%, suggesting that NAPL targeting is mostly controlled by MRNIP2 sorption onto the NAPL/water interface.

  • 39. Phenrat, Tanapon
    et al.
    Kim, Hye-Jin
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, Tissa H.
    Tilton, Robert
    Lowry, Gregory
    Particle size distribution, concentration, and magnetic attraction affect transport of polymer-modified Fe0 nanoparticles in sand columns2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 13, p. 5079-5085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of particle concentration, size distribution (polydispersity) and magnetic attractive forces (Fe(0) content) on agglomeration and transport of poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) modified NZVI was studied in water-saturated sand (d(p) = 300 microm) columns. Particle concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 6 g/L in 5 mM NaCl/5 mM NaHCO3 at a pore water velocity of 3.2 x 10(-4) m/s. Three NZVI dispersions with different intrinsic particle size distributions obtained from sequential sedimentation are compared. The influence of magnetic attraction (Fe(0) content) on NZVI agglomeration and deposition in porous media is assessed by comparing the deposition behavior of PSS-modified NZVI (magnetic) having different Fe(0) contents with PSS-modified hematite (nonmagnetic) with the same surface modifier. At low particle concentration (30 mg/L) all particles were mobile in sand columns regardless of size or magnetic attractive forces. At high concentration (1 to 6 g/L), deposition of the relatively monodisperse dispersion containing PSS-modified NZVI (hydrodynamic radius (R(H)) = 24 nm) with the lowest Fe(0) content (4 wt%) is low (attachment efficiency (alpha) = 2.5 x 10(-3)), insensitive to particle concentration, and similar to PSS-modified hematite. At 1 to 6 g/L, the attachment efficiency of polydisperse dispersions containing both primary particles and sintered aggregates (R(H) from 15 to 260 nm) of PSS-modified NZVI with a range of Fe(0) content (10-60%) is greater (alpha = 1.2 x 10(-2) to 7.2 x 10(-2) and is sensitive to particle size distribution. The greater attachment for larger, more polydisperse Fe(0) nanoparticles with higher Fe(0) content is a result of their agglomeration during transport in porous media because the magnetic attractive force between particles increases with the sixth power of particle/agglomerate radius. A filtration model that considers agglomeration in porous media and subsequent deposition explains the observed transport of polydisperse PSS-modified NZVI at high concentration.

  • 40.
    Roos, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm University.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm University.
    van Dijk, Jiska
    Norsk institutt for Naturforskning, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Increasing concentrations ofperfluoroalkyl acids in Scandinavian otters (Lutra lutra) between 1972 and 2011: a new threat to the otter population?2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 20, p. 11757-11765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liver samples from 140 otters (Lutra lutra) from Sweden and Norway were analyzed for 10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-C15), 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,C6,C8,C10) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant compound accounting for approximately 80% of the fluorinated contaminants and showing concentrations up to 16 mu g/g wet weight. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the dominant PFCA (up to 640 ng/g wet weight) closely followed by the C10 and C11 homologues. A spatial comparison between otters from southwestern Norway, southern and northern Sweden sampled between 2005 and 2011 revealed that the samples from southern Sweden had generally the largest contaminant load, but two PFCAs and FOSA were higher concentrated in the Norwegian samples. A temporal trend study was performed on otters from southern Sweden collected between 1972 and 2011. Seven PFCAs (C8-C14), PFOS and perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) showed significantly increasing trends with doubling times between 5.5 and 13 years. The PFCAs also showed significantly increasing trends over the period 2002 to 2011. These findings together with the exceptionally high liver concentrations of PFOS are of great concern for the Scandinavian otter populations.

  • 41. Scanlan, Leona D
    et al.
    Loguinov, Alexandre V
    Teng, Quincy
    Antczak, Philipp
    Dailey, Kathleen P
    Nowinski, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Kornbluh, Jonah
    Lin, Xin Xin
    Lachenauer, Erica
    Arai, Audrey
    Douglas, Nora K
    Falciani, Francesco
    Stapleton, Heather M
    Vulpe, Chris D
    Gene transcription, metabolite and lipid profiling in eco-indicator daphnia magna indicate diverse mechanisms of toxicity by legacy and emerging flame-retardants.2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of chemical flame-retardants (FR) in consumer products has steadily increased over the last 30 years. Toxicity data exist for legacy FRs such as pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE), but less is known about effects of new formulations. To address this issue, the toxicity of seven FR chemicals and formulations was assessed on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. Acute 48-h nominal LC50 values for penta- and octabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE, octaBDE), Firemaster 550 (FM550), Firemaster BZ-54 (BZ54), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), triphenyl phosphate (TPhP), and nonbrominated BEH-TEBP analog bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) ranged from 0.058 mg/L (pentaBDE) to 3.96 mg/L (octaBDE). mRNA expression, (1)H NMR-based metabolomic and lipidomic profiling at 1/10 LC50 revealed distinct patterns of molecular response for each exposure, suggesting pentaPBDE affects transcription and translation, octaBDE and BEH-TEBP affect glycosphingolipid biosynthesis and BZ54 affects Wnt and Hedgehog signal pathways as well as glycosaminoglycan degradation. Brominated components of FM550 (i.e., BZ54) were significantly higher in Daphnia after 48 h following 1/10 LC50 exposure. FM550 elicited significant mRNA changes at five concentrations across a range from 1/10(6) LC50 to 1/2 LC50. Analyses suggest FM550 impairs nutrient utilization or uptake in Daphnia.

  • 42. Spears, Bryan M.
    et al.
    Dudley, Bernard
    Reitzel, Kasper
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Geo-Engineering in Lakes-A Call for Consensus2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 3953-3954Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Sternitzke, Vanessa
    et al.
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Duebendorf, Switzerland.
    Kaegi, Ralf
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Duebendorf, Switzerland.
    Audinot, Jean-Nicolas
    Centre de Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann.
    Lewin, Erik
    Laboratory of Nanoscale Materials Science, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf, Switzerland.
    Hering, Janet G.
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Duebendorf, Switzerland.
    Johnson, C. Annette
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Duebendorf, Switzerland.
    Uptake of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution on Nano-Sized Hydroxyapatite: Examination of a Fluoridated Surface Layer2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 802-809Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Svensson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Fick, Jerker
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    The Synthetic Progestin Levonorgestrel Is a Potent Androgen in the Three-Spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 2043-2051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of progestins has resulted in contamination of aquatic environments and some progestins have in experimental studies been shown to impair reproduction in fish and amphibians at low ng L-1 concentrations. The mechanisms underlying their reproductive toxicity are largely unknown. Some progestins, such as levonorgestrel (LNG), exert androgenic effects in mammals by activating the androgen receptor (AR). Male three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) kidneys produce spiggin, a gluelike glycoprotein used in nest building, and its production is directly governed by androgens. Spiggin is normally absent in females but its production in female kidneys can be induced by AR agonists. Spiggin serves as the best known biomarker for androgens in fish. We exposed adult female sticklebacks to LNG at 5.5, 40, and 358 ng L-1 for 21 days. Androgenic effects were found at LNG concentrations >= 40 ng L-1 including induction of spiggin transcription, kidney hypertrophy, and suppressed liver vitellogenin transcription. These are the first in vivo quantitative data showing that LNG is a potent androgen in fish supporting the contention that androgenic effects of certain progestins contribute to their reproductive toxicity.

  • 45.
    Wincent, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Jonsson, Maria E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Dreij, Kristian
    Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation and Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish in Response to Soil Extracts Containing Unsubstituted and Oxygenated PAHs2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 3869-3877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial sites are polluted by complex mixtures of polycydic aromatic compounds (PACs). Besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these mixtures often contain significant amounts of more polar PACs including oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs). The effects of oxy-PAHs are, however, poorly known. Here we used zebrafish embryos to examine toxicities and transcriptional changes induced by PAC containing soil extracts from three different industrial sites: a gasworks (GAS), a former wood preservation site (WOOD), and a coke oven (COKE), and to PAR and oxy-PAH containing fractions of these. All extracts induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr)-regulated mRNAs, malformations, and mortality. The WOOD extract was most toxic and the GAS extract least toxic. The extracts induced glutathione transferases and heat shock protein 70, suggesting that the toxicity also involved oxidative stress. With all extracts, Ahr2-knock-down reduced the toxicity, indicating a significant Ahr2-dependence on the effects. Ahr2-knock-down was most effective with the PAH fraction of the WOOD extract and with the oxy-PAH fraction of the COKE extract. Our results indicate that oxy-PAH containing mixtures can be as potent Ahr activators and developmental toxicants as PAHs. In addition to Ahr activating potency, the profile of cytochrome P4501 inhibitors may also determine the toxic potency of the extracts.

  • 46. Xing, Shan
    et al.
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Shi, Keliang
    Yi, Peng
    Zhou, Weijian
    Iodine-129 in Snow and Seawater in the Antarctic: Level and Source2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 11, p. 6691-6700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic I-129 has been released to the environment in different ways and chemical species by human nuclear activities since the 1940s. These sources provide ideal tools to trace the dispersion of volatile pollutants in the atmosphere. Snow and seawater samples collected in Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Seas in Antarctica in 2011 were analyzed for I-129 and I-127, including organic forms; it was observed that I-129/I-127 atomic ratios in the Antarctic surface seawater ((6.1-13) x 10(-12)) are about 2 orders of magnitude lower than those in the Antarctic snow ((6.8-9.5) x 10(-1)0), but 4-6 times higher than the prenuclear level (1.5 x 10(-12)), indicating a predominantly anthropogenic source of I-129 in the Antarctic environment. The I-129 level in snow in Antarctica is 24 orders of magnitude lower than that in the Northern Hemisphere, but is not significantly higher than that observed in other sites in the Southern Hemisphere. This feature indicates that I-129 in Antarctic snow mainly originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing from 1945 to 1980; resuspension and re-emission of the fallout I-129 in the Southern Hemisphere maintains the I-129 level in the Antarctic atmosphere. I-129 directly released to the atmosphere and re-emitted marine discharged I-129 from reprocessing plants in Europe might not significantly disperse to Antarctica.

  • 47.
    Yi, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hansen, V.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Hou, X. L.
    Iodine Isotopes (I-129 and I-127) in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Basins2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 903-909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radioactive anthropogenic pollution has raised concerns about the present and future environmental status of the semienclosed Baltic Sea. We here study the distribution and inventory of the anthropogenic radioactive I-129 in water depth profiles collected from 16 sites in August 2006 and 19 sites in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper and related Kattegat and Skagerrak basins. The results reveal considerable differences of I-129 concentration in terms Of spatial and temporal variability and expose relatively high concentrations in the deep waters. Variability in the concentration of I-127, stable natural isotope of iodine, seems to follow changes in the seawater salinity, but in oxygen-poor bottom waters sediment diagenetic release may contribute to the concentration of both isotopes in the water body. Inventory estimates show that I-129 in August 2006 (24.2 +/- 15.4 kg) is higher than that in April 2007 (14.4 +/- 8.3 kg) within the southern and central Baltic Proper whereas almost a constant load occurs in the Kattegat Basin. Calculated model inventory shows correspondence to empirical data and provides a guideline for future environmental assessment on the impact of I-129 load in the studied region.

  • 48.
    Yi, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Hou, X. L.
    Hansen, V.
    Wang, B.
    I-127 and I-129 Species and Transformation in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Basins2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 20, p. 10948-10956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occurrence of anthropogenic I-129 in seawater has provided invaluable information about water circulation and exchange rates, but results on I-129 species (iodide and iodate) are limited and only available for surface water. We here present the first extensive results on I-129 and I-127 species in samples of seawater depth profiles, which were collected in August 2006 and April 2007 in the Skagerrak, Kattegat, and Baltic Proper. The results expose <= 10% annual reduction of iodate as I-129 is transported from the English Channel along the Dutch coast and German Bight into the Skagerrak and Kattegat. The results also suggest strong variability between surface and bottom seawater with respect to the predominant iodine species. Distribution of iodide and iodate of both I-127 and I-129 in the Kattegat mainly reflects water mixing process rather than speciation transformation. In water of the Baltic Proper, high I-127(-)/(IO3-)-I-127 and I-129-/(IO3-)-I-129 values suggest effective reduction of iodate with a maximum rate of 8 x 10(-7) ((IO3-)-I-127) and 6 x 10(-14) ((IO3-)-I-129) (g/m(3).day). The reduction process of iodate seems to be related to decomposition of organic matter and photochemically induced reactions.

  • 49. Öquist, Mats G.
    et al.
    Wallin, Marcus
    Seibert, Jan
    Bishop, Kevin
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Dissolved inorganic carbon export across the soil/stream interface and its fate in a boreal headwater stream2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, p. 7364-7369Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 49 of 49
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf