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  • 1.
    Dawkins, Elena
    et al.
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Stockholm, Sweden;KTH, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andre, Karin
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Katarina
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Benoist, Lise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Swartling, Asa Gerger
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Asa
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Advancing sustainable consumption at the local government level: A literature review2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 231, p. 1450-1462Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of goods and services can be a driver of environmental and social impacts around the world. Understanding the role that the different levels of government can play in incentivising sustainable consumption is therefore critical. Using systematic review techniques, this paper reviews the latest evidence on the importance, effectiveness, successes and failures of local government in advancing sustainable consumption. We find that there is little focus on sustainable consumption in its entirety or whether it is being achieved at the local government level. Important consumption categories like food, procurement, water, waste prevention, clothing, other consumables or services are understudied. Evaluation of the outcome of sustainable consumption interventions was limited, and the assessment that was completed gave mixed results. The most popular policy instruments were of the less coercive administrative and informative type. Multiple barriers to the success of an intervention were identified, the top ones being funding; staff capacity, knowledge or data; lack of flexibility and lock-in to the status quo; lack of guidance or political will; administrative burdens; and lack of regulatory powers or tools. Sustainable consumption interventions by local government were most effective when they had strong leadership, good stakeholder engagement, participatory approaches and extensive consultations. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 2. Ekman, Anna
    et al.
    Campos, Monica
    Lindahl, Sofia
    Co, Michelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Borjesson, Pal
    Karlsson, Eva Nordberg
    Turner, Charlotta
    Bioresource utilisation by sustainable technologies in new value-added biorefinery concepts - two case studies from food and forest industry2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 57, p. 46-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a trans-disciplinary assessment of new and innovative biorefinery concepts producing high-value chemical compounds from residues from agriculture, food and forest industries. There is a significant potential of biomass residues in Sweden suitable for the extraction of various compounds, including upgrading by biocatalytic processes, in addition to current energy generation. Two examples presented are quercetin extracted from onion waste by pressurised hot water in conjunction with enzymatic hydrolysis, and betulin from birch bark extracted by liquid CO2 containing ethanol. Inherent in these two extraction processes and production routes is the ability to show good environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Extraction of high-value compounds also provides possibilities for innovation in the current agricultural, food and forest industry potentially leading to socio-economical benefits.

  • 3.
    Feng, Cuiyang
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Xu
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yi
    Leiden Univ, CML, Inst Environm Sci, Einsteinweg 2, NL-2333 CC Leiden, Netherlands.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    The role of energy-water nexus in water conservation at regional levels in China2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 210, p. 298-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and water resources are drawing increasing attention in China as indispensable elements of economic development and social stability. Energy production has led to widely debated issues such as water shortage and water pollution. Studies on their interrelation - i.e. the energy-water nexus - indicate that energy conservation impacts water resources. Energy conservation can bring synergy on water resources, but it is an unsettle issue to what degree energy conservation could indirectly protect water resources. In this work, we built an accounting framework to assess the synergy of energy conservation on both water quantity and quality at regional levels. Multiregional input-output (MRIO) analysis and economic parameters such as water price and treatment costs of water resources are applied to evaluate the value of synergy. The results show that Jiangsu saved the largest quantity of water with a volume of63.7 x 10(8)m(3), while Hunan achieved the largest reduction of wastewater with a volume of 3.2 x 10(8)m(3) during 2007-2012. The total synergy was divided into two aspects: internal and external. The former was generally larger in most regions except Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Hainan, Shaanxi, Anhui and Inner Mongolia. The results of an economic assessment show that China achieved 1.1 x 10(12) yuan of economic benefit through the synergy benefits from a holistic perspective. Jiangsu, Shanghai, Fujian, Shandong and Heilongjiang were primary beneficiaries due to their significant synergistic water saving and high shadow price of water resources. The proposed assessment framework may help understand the situation of regional resources conservation from both synergistic and economic perspectives. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Prenkert, Frans
    Örebro University School of Business.
    Sustainable supply chain management when focal firms are complex: A network perspective2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, p. 85-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to generate an understanding of the prerequisites for sustainable supply chain management. A common tendency in the literature is to see sustainable supply chain management as something that is undertaken by a focal firm at the end of the chain. Even though many scholars point to the need for cooperative approaches, focal firms are still considered to manage supply chains from one fixed and coherent vantage point: the managerial outlook of the focal firm itself, understood as a structurally coherent, top-down controlled unit. Through an illustration from the Swedish retail sector, we argue that such a vantage point is problematic. We suggest a deeper analysis of focal firms and sustainable supply chain management in terms of a network perspective employed mainly in the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) literature. The adopted network perspective recognizes both internal and external complexity of sustainable supply chain management, implying, for example, difficulties to control entire organizations and the existence of multiple supply chains to manage. It is also suggested that sustainable supply networks may be a viable concept to use when dealing with sustainability issues related to production, since it relates sustainability in the supply chain to the more general responsibility context of firms.  

  • 5.
    Ilic, Danica Djuric
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Div Energy Syst, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Ola
    Univ Gavle, Div Bldg Energy & Environm Engn, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Ödlund (Former Trygg), Louise
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Div Energy Syst, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Åberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    No zero burden assumption in a circular economy2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 352-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of previous studies on environmental problems caused by waste generation have focused on waste disposal issues without fully highlighting the primary reasons behind the problems. As a consequence, efforts to reduce these problems are usually directed towards the stakeholders that provide waste treatment and disposal instead of the stakeholders that contribute to waste generation. In order to detect connections between different problems of sustainability and to suggest measures which may contribute to their solutions, this study provides a simplified overview of the mechanisms behind waste generation and management. The results from the study show that the only way to eliminate problems of sustainability is to apply an upstream approach by dealing with the primary problems which occur in the early stages of the system (e.g. overconsumption of products, as well as use of finite resources, toxic materials, and non-recyclable materials). By dealing with these problems, the emergence of secondary problems would be prevented. Thereby, stakeholders who have the highest possibility to contribute to the sustainable development of the waste generation and management are the stakeholders from the origin of the product's life cycles, such as product developers, manufacturing companies, product users and policy makers. Different trade-off situations such as contradictions between economics, recyclability, energy efficiency, make it even harder to deal with issues of sustainability related to the system and to detect the stakeholders who may contribute to the development. One of the main conclusions from this study is that when transforming society towards a circular economy, the traditional view of separate systems for production and waste management must be changed. In order to refer to all problems of sustainability and also cover the top steps of the waste hierarchy, life cycle assessment of waste management should include manufacture and use of products ending up as waste. Waste entering the waste management system with "zero burden", by releasing the previous actors of the waste life cycle from any responsibility related to the environment (i.e. by shifting the total environmental burden into the waste management system), does not capture the problems with waste generation.

  • 6.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden.
    Creating a sense of urgency for sustainable development: Testing two system models2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, p. 1173-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of good coverage of sustainability and sustainable development both in scientific journals and other publications, humanity is on a steady unsustainable track consuming more than is produced. Understanding of change needs, does not seem to convert into sufficient change action. Sustainability issues are often complex, interdependent and hard to comprehend, indicating that sustainable development, in addition to change willingness, requires a holistic perspective. Seeing and understanding systems - systems thinking - is important. This implies that sense-making of systems and of sustainable development is important as a prerequisite for change. Possibilities of realising synergies between quality management and sustainable development are often discussed but do often not seem to be fully realised. This paper tests two system models from Quality Management in the context of sustainability in cement manufacturing and building material production. The indicative results suggest that the proposed system models are able to describe and identify improvement opportunities that could be used to create interest for change.

  • 7.
    Kapitulcinova, Dana
    et al.
    Charles University Prague, Environment Center.
    AtKisson, Alan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. AtKisson Group, Boston.
    Perdue, Joanne
    University of Calgary, Office of Sustainability, Calgary.
    Will, Markus
    University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Science, Zittau.
    Towards integrated sustainability in higher education - Mapping the use of the Accelerator toolset in all dimensions of university practice2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 4367-4382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of individual change agents and the human dimension in general are increasingly being acknowledged as critical elements in sustainability integration at higher education institutions. Yet few studies focus on the use of tools and methods employed by change agents to promote systematic and institution-wide integration of sustainability principles at universities. To advance current knowledge, this article presents an overview of terminology used for integrating sustainability principles in higher education, as well as the tools, methods, frameworks or models, and approaches (TMFAs) available to change agents. It follows by introducing an integrated change agentry approach encompassing a change management process and a supporting toolset - called the "Accelerator" - that has been used in higher education for over a decade but has not been previously covered in academic writings. The article reports on the toolset's use, drawing on survey data from users spanning 17 institutions in 13 countries across 4 continents. The findings indicate that the Accelerator is a versatile toolset suitable for promoting sustainability integration in all dimensions of higher education practice. Yet, very few of the institutions are currently using the toolset in an integrated way across all dimensions of institutional practice. The full potential of the Accelerator in supporting effective change towards holistic and integrated planning for sustainability integration in higher education therefore remains to be further explored as more universities and colleges embark on testing the toolset alongside other established approaches.

  • 8.
    Njenga, M.
    et al.
    World Agroforestry Ctr ICRAF, POB 30677, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.;Univ Nairobi, Wangari Maathai Inst Peace & Environm Studies, POB 30197, Nairobi 00100, Kenya..
    Iiyama, M.
    World Agroforestry Ctr ICRAF, POB 30677, Nairobi 00100, Kenya..
    Jamnadass, R.
    World Agroforestry Ctr ICRAF, POB 30677, Nairobi 00100, Kenya..
    Helander, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Larsson, Lovisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    de Leeuw, J.
    World Agroforestry Ctr ICRAF, POB 30677, Nairobi 00100, Kenya..
    Neufeldt, H.
    World Agroforestry Ctr ICRAF, POB 30677, Nairobi 00100, Kenya..
    de Nowina, K. Röing
    ICIPE, IITA, POB 30772, Nairobi 00100, Kenya..
    Sundberg, C.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, POB 7032, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gasifier as a cleaner cooking system in rural Kenya2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 121, p. 208-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global demand for wood fuel energy is high and rising due to population increases, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where firewood and charcoal are the main sources of cooking energy. Inefficient cooking techniques consume large amounts of fuel and create indoor pollution, with negative health impacts particularly among women and small children. Efficient cooking stoves can potentially save fuel and reduce the health risks of smoke in the kitchen. This study compared the ease of use, energy consumption, fuel use efficiency and gas and particle emissions of a small-scale gasifier cooking stove with that of a traditional three-stone stove and an improved Hifadhi stove in a smallholder farming setting in Kenya. This was done by participatory evaluation of these cooking techniques by women on smallholder farms, assessing fuel consumption, time used in cooking and indoor air concentrations of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter. It was found that compared with traditional and improved cooking stoves, the gasifier domestic cooking system saved 27-40% of fuel, reduced cooking time by 19-23% and reduced emissions by 40-90%. Thus the gasifier system has potential to alleviate energy and time poverty among small-scale farmers, while improving kitchen air quality. These new findings can assist in development of cleaner biomass cooking technologies in developing countries. Women who cooked using the gasifier preferred it to current cooking practices due to perceived benefits. Thus the gasifier is appropriate for rural areas; it constitutes a cleaner cooking system that saves fuel, produces charcoal for another round of cooking, cooks rapidly, and reduces indoor air pollution from cooking with biomass fuel. However, there is a need to improve the design to make it more stable and safer.

  • 9.
    Ruban, Anna
    et al.
    Reg Environm Ctr, Szentendre, Hungary;Tymoshenko 15g,Ap 142, UA-04212 Kiev, Ukraine.
    Rydén, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Introducing environmental auditing as a tool of environmental governance in Ukraine2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 212, p. 505-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper intends to describe and analyse the introduction, development and practice of environmental auditing in Ukraine and how it is affected by the EU-Ukraine integration process. Environmental auditing in Ukraine has combined features of both command-and-control and marked-based policy tools, which reflects a complex combination of influences from its Soviet past and international practices adopted as part of its transition to a market economy. Consequently, there are two types of environmental auditing: mandatory and voluntary, which, although based on different normative documents and having different objectives, largely rely on the same practitioners - environmental auditors. Environmental auditing in countries undergoing political and economic transition, like Ukraine, has not been studied before. A theoretical framework was developed for this purpose, consisting of 1) 'shift of policy paradigms' theory, 2) 'collective action' theory and 3) 'community of practice' theory. Several qualitative methods were used for data collection: literature review, semi-structure open-ended interviews, and participant/non-participant observations. The gathered data are summarised in a three-stage development of environmental auditing in Ukraine as preliminary (1991-2004), foundation (2004-2010) and stagnation (2010-2015) stages. Future EU-Ukraine integration will affect environmental auditing in Ukraine as the supremacy of European Law is accepted, mandatory and voluntary environmental auditing practices will follow different paths.

  • 10.
    Siva, Vanajah
    et al.
    Chalmers, Dept Technol Management & Econ, Div Qual Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers, Dept Technol Management & Econ, Div Qual Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden..
    Garvare, Rickard
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden..
    Zobel, Thomas
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden..
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    The support of Quality Management to sustainable development: a literature review2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 138, p. 148-157Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality Management is considered to be suitable as support for the integration of sustainability considerations in areas such as product development. The purpose of this paper is to review research in which Quality Management methods, tools or practices have been used in conjunction with sustainable development initiatives. We have identified four themes that synthesize the research on Quality Management and its support to approaches for sustainable development: (I) supporting sustainability through integration of management systems, (II) Quality Management as support to the implementation of Environmental Management Systems and to the management of sustainability, (III) supporting integration of sustainability considerations in daily work, and (IV) supporting stakeholder management and customer focus. By far the most research has been conducted within the first two themes. This paper also contributes with proposals for future research, such as the need to move beyond existing standards and management systems to enable more radical improvements, and the need for empirical evidence of the effect of integrated management systems on environmental performance. We also highlight the point that Quality Management practices and tools must be developed and adapted in order to support sustainability considerations.

  • 11.
    Tang, Xu
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    McLellan, Benjamin C.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Energy Sci, Sakyo Ku, Yoshida Honmachi, Kyoto 6068501, Japan..
    Zhang, Baosheng
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Snowden, Simon
    Univ Liverpool, Sch Management, Liverpool L69 7ZH, Merseyside, England..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Trade-off analysis between embodied energy exports and employment creation in China2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 134, p. 310-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving towards sustainable consumption in China must factor in the drivers of production. China's domestic energy demand is affected not only by domestic demand, but also by foreign trade. The accounting of energy embodied in China's international trade has attracted much attention in recent years. In fact, embodied energy imports/exports are a part of the normal pattern of economic phenomena occurring through international trade, with exports of embodied energy contributing significantly to China's economic development. This research suggest that China's net embodied energy exports remained relatively stable before 2002, and then increased dramatically from 73 MTOE in 2002 to 502 MTOE by 2007 with an average annual growth rate of 47.2% over that period. The total employment creation reliant on these exports is 191.3 million people including direct employment of 44.1 million people and indirect employment of 147.2 million people in 2007, and the total employment creation increased quickly between 2002 and 2007, with an average annual growth rate of 9.1%. The share of employment created by exports in China's total employment increased from 16.5% in 1997 to 18.6% in 2002, and a more dramatic increase can be observed in 2007 of 28.1%. The exports-oriented sectors in China are energy-intensive from the perspective of embodied energy consumption, and the energy intensive exports are located in nearly the same sectors as the labor-intensive exports. China will find it difficult to sustain the trade-off in costs due to unemployment if it wishes to reduce embodied energy exports. China needs to exercise patience and long-term reform to change the current development model because of its large economy and population base.

  • 12.
    Wang, Wenhuan
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing.
    Tang, Xu
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing.
    Yang, Xiaoguang
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing; Chinese Acad Sci, Acad Math & Syst Sci, Beijing.
    Zhang, Baosheng
    China University of Petroleum, Beijing.
    Zhang, Yiqiong
    UNSW Business School, The University of New South Wales, Sydney.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Energy savings in China's energy sectors and contributions to air pollution reduction in the 12th Five Year Plan2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 200, p. 305-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency and air pollution mitigation are critical issues for future development of the Chinese economy. Energy savings and their contribution to reduced air pollution from energy sectors during the 12th Five Year Plan are assessed using input-output analysis. A new dynamic quantitative method was developed to explore key sectors and identify critical paths for efficient emission reductions from energy industries. All the energy intensive key sectors, including Metal, Power, Chemical Products, Nonmetal are used to determine critical paths for emission reductions. Results indicate that the Coal Sector failed to achieve significant energy savings and did not contribute to direct and overall emissions reductions. The Oil Sector only achieved co-effects for reduction of overall waste gas, SO2, and particulates, while the Power Sector achieved emission reductions of all air pollutants. The results suggest that Chinese government should enact four main measures to achieve effective targets for energy savings and emission reductions: (1) Strengthen energy conservation in Coal and Oil Sectors, particularly the Coal Sector. (2) Promote energy conservation and emission reductions in highly energy intensive sectors to help emission reductions from other sectors. (3) Promote synergy effects of energy savings and emission reductions to enterprises. (4) Set lowest emission reduction targets for each department combined with targets for energy savings.

  • 13.
    Wei, Chu
    et al.
    Renmin Univ China, Sch Econ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Royal Swedish Acad Sci, Beijer Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Ningbo Univ, Sch Business, Ningbo, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Resource misallocation in Chinese manufacturing enterprises: evidence from firm-level data2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, p. 837-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the important policy and welfare implications of China's energy issues, to date there has been little investigation from a micro-level perspective of the misallocation of resources in manufacturing enterprises. To fill this gap, this paper deals with resource misallocations in China with special reference to energy and labor inputs. Using a large, novel dataset of manufacturing enterprises from Zhejiang province, we employ a simultaneous system of equations for (gross) industrial output value, wage bill, energy expenditure and carbon emissions. The explanatory variables include labor, educational attainment of employees, capital value, materials, and a list of energy-related variables. Our results show that, for the same energy content, non-coal energy inputs are more productive than coal and coal-related fuels. Non coal energy is more environmentally friendly but more expensive than coal-related fuels. Using the model estimates, we conduct Wald tests on whether the marginal productivity of labor and energy significantly differ from their respective factor costs. The main findings are that there is substantial resource misallocation in manufacturing enterprises, with labor being underpaid and energy overpaid, on average, in comparison to their marginal productivity. For energy misallocation, however, the pattern varies considerably among the various subsectors. Specifically, energy is over-used in sectors such as Textile, Paper, Chemical, Plastics, Non-metallic, Ferrous metals and Non-ferrous metal. By contrast, energy is under-used in sectors such as Beverages, Textile-wearing apparel, Leather, Metal, Transport equipment, Electrical machinery and Communication equipment. These findings can assist decision-makers in targeting the sectors where there is the most misallocation, identifying which inputfactors are inappropriately used, improving economic efficiency and lowering overall production costs by reducing allocative inefficiency.

  • 14.
    Zhang, Z
    et al.
    Beijing Normal University.
    Moore, John C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Review of geoengineering approches to mitigating climate change2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Zhang, Zhihua
    et al.
    Moore, John C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Huisingh, Donald
    Zhao, Yongxin
    Review of geoengineering approaches to mitigating climate change2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 103, p. 898-907Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geoengineering, which is the intentional large-scale manipulation of the environment, has been suggested as an effective means of mitigating global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we will review and assess technical and theoretical aspects of land-based, atmosphere-based, ocean-based and space-based geoengineering schemes as well as their potential impacts on global climate and ecosystem. Most of the proposed geoengineering schemes carried out on land or in the ocean are to use physical, chemical or biological approaches to remove atmospheric CO2. These schemes are able to only sequester an amount of atmospheric CO2 that is small compared with cumulative anthropogenic emissions. Most of geoengineering schemes carried out in the atmosphere or space are based on increasing planetary albedo. These schemes have relatively low costs and short lead times for technical implementation, and can act rapidly to reduce temperature anomalies caused by greenhouse gas emissions. The costs and benefits of geoengineering are likely to vary spatially over the planet with some countries and regions gaining considerably while others may be faced with a worse set of circumstances than would be the case without geoengineering. Since current research on geoengineering is limited and various international treaties may limit some geoengineering experiments in the real world, the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) provides a framework of coordinated experiments for all earth system modeling groups to test geoengineering schemes. However, these experiments used on a global scale have difficulty with accurate resolution of regional and local impacts, so future research on geoengineering is expect to be done by combining earth system models with regional climate models.

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