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  • 1.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Swedish Inst Social Res, IFAU, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Swedish Inst Social Res, CREAM, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Holmlund, Helena
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Econ, CESifo, IFAU,IZA, POB 640, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, UCLS, POB 640, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Parental choice, neighbourhood segregation or cream skimming?: An analysis of school segregation after a generalized choice reform2016In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1155-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the evolution of school segregation in Sweden in the aftermath of the 1992 universal voucher reform, which spurred the establishment of new independent schools and introduced parental choice. We assess the relative importance of neighbourhood segregation, parental choice and the location of independent schools for school segregation. In particular, we exploit variation in school choice opportunities across municipalities and provide descriptive evidence that in regions where school choice has become more prevalent, school segregation between immigrants and natives, and between children of high/low educated parents, has increased more than in regions where choice is limited. This result also holds when we account for residential segregation and focus on excess segregation over and above the segregation that would occur if all pupils attended their assigned schools. We find that the increase in school segregation 15 years after the reform that can be attributed to choice is relatively small.

  • 2.
    Casarico, Alessandra
    et al.
    Bocconi University.
    Micheletto, Luca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Sommacal, Alessandro
    Faculty of Economics, University of Verona.
    Intergenerational transmission of skills during childhood and optimal public policy2015In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, no 28, p. 48p. 353-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper characterizes the optimal tax policy and the optimal quality of day care services in a OLG model with warm-glow altruism where parental choices over child care arrangements a effct the probability that the child becomes a high-skilled adult in a type-specific way. With respect to previous contributions, optimal tax formulas include type-specific Pigouvian terms which correct for the intergenerational externality in human capital accumulation. Our numerical simulations suggest that a public policy that disregards the effects of parental time on children's human capital entails a welfare loss that ranges from 0.2% to 5.7% of aggregate consumption.

  • 3. de Graaf-Zijl, Marloes
    et al.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Heyma, Arjan
    Stepping stones for the unemployed: the effect of temporary jobs on the duration until (regular) work2011In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 107-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions from unemployment into temporary work are often succeeded by a transition from temporary into regular work. This paper investigates whether temporary work increases the transition rate to regular work. We use longitudinal survey data of individuals to estimate a multi-state duration model, applying the 'timing of events' approach. The data contain multiple spells in labour market states at the individual level. We analyse results using novel graphical representations, which unambiguously show that temporary jobs shorten the unemployment duration, although they do not increase the fraction of unemployed workers having regular work within a few years after entry into unemployment.

  • 4.
    Eliason, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lost jobs, broken marriages2012In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1365-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impact of both husbands' and wives' job displacement on the risk that the marriage ends in divorce. Using Swedish-linked employee-employer data, all married couples in which one of the spouses lost his or her job because of an establishment closure in 1987 or 1988 and a comparison sample were identified. Over a 12-year period, the excess risk of divorce among couples' in which the husband was displaced was 13% and statistically significant. The estimated impact of wives' job displacements was of almost the same size, but not statistically significant.

  • 5.
    Enström Öst, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Housing and children - simultaneous decisions?: a cohort study of young adults' housing and family formation decision2012In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 349-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to earlier research on homeownership and childbearing by taking into account the potential simultaneity between these two life events. A dataset comprising three different Swedish birth cohorts suggests that these are events that are indeed simultaneous. Different tests indicate that taking this simultaneity into account gives an overall statistically significant improvement of the model fit. However, this result is most obvious for those young adults who faced increasing problems on the housing market. The childbearing decision of these cohorts also seems to be more sensitive to changes in the user cost.

  • 6.
    Erixson, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Health responses to a wealth shock: evidence from a Swedish tax reform2017In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 1281-1336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes two contributions to the literature on the effects of wealth on health. First, it deals with reverse causality and omitted variable bias by exploiting exogenous variation in inherited wealth generated by the repeal of the Swedish inheritance tax. Second, it analyzes responses in health outcomes through the use of administrative registers. The results show that increased wealth has limited short to medium run impacts on objective adult health. This is in line with what has previously been reported in the literature.

  • 7.
    Erixson, Oscar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Sveriges Riksbank, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Estate division: equal sharing, exchange motives, and Cinderella effects2019In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 1437-1480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the empirical literature testing bequest motives by using a population-wide administrative dataset, covering data on inherited amounts for complete families matched with an extensive set of economic and demographic variables, to estimate the influence of child characteristics on differences in inherited amounts among siblings. Our main findings are, first, children who are more likely to have provided services to the parent receive more than their siblings, as predicted by the exchange model. Second, daughters with children receive more than sons with children. This is consistent with the prediction of the evolutionary model that larger investments should go to offspring who are certain to be genetically related. There are also Cinderella effects-that is, adopted stepchildren receive less than siblings who are biological or children who are adopted by both parents. Third, we do not find support for the prediction of the altruism model that bequests are compensatory.

  • 8.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Jonkoping Univ, Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    The effects of increasing the normal retirement age on health care utilization and mortality2018In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 193-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay estimates the health effects of increasing the normal retirement age using Swedish administrative data on drug prescriptions, hospitalizations, and mortality. To this end, I use a reform that raised the age at which broad categories of Swedish local government workers were entitled to retire with full pension benefits from 63 to 65. Estimating the effect of the reform on individuals' health within the age range 65-69, the results show no evidence that the reform impacted mortality or health care utilization. Increasing the normal retirement age may thus have positive government income effects without seriously affecting short to medium run government health care expenditures.

  • 9. Lundholm, Michael
    et al.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wages, taxes and publicly provided day care1998In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 185-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public employment growth has been parallelled by increased female labour force participation, while real wages for typical female public sector occupations have not increased. In a theoretical model we, first, show that there is a tradeoff between day care provision and gross wages for occupations for which day care is a complement. It is possible to combine increased public labour demand with public day care provision leaving the wage unaffected. Second, non-parents will be in favour of increasing day care as long as day care productivity is higher than the inverse of the tax rate. This is because the effective labour supply and, therefore, the tax base increase. Third, parents want to push day care provision even further. They are prepared to accept a lower day care productivity than non-parents because day care provision relaxes the constraint on their desired labour supply. The Pareto efficient day care provision is between parents‘ and non-parents‘ preferred levels.

  • 10. Lundholm, Michael
    et al.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Who takes care of the children? The quantity-quality model revisited2002In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 455-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the Becker and Lewis (1973) quantity-quality model of children adding an explicit child care time constraint for parents. Parents can take care of the children themselves or purchase day care. Our results are: (i) If there only is own care, a quantity-quality trade-off, different from that of Becker and Lewis (1973), arises. The income effect on fertility is positive if child quantity is a closer complement than child quality to the consumption of goods. (ii) If, instead, there is a combination of purchased and own care, the effect of income on fertility is ambiguous, even if quantity of children is a normal good in the standard sense. This is the Becker and Lewis (1973) result extended to a situation with a binding child care time constraint. The conclusion is that the Becker and Lewis (1973) result holds as long as at least some child care is purchased.

  • 11.
    Lyytikäinen, Teemu
    et al.
    London School Economics & Political Science , University of London .
    Santavirta, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The effect of church tax on church membership2013In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 1175-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine the effect of church tax on the church membership decision using Finnish data. We present both descriptive statistics from an opting-out website and econometric evidence exploiting the panel structure of a large individual-level data set. Our descriptive analysis shows that opting out is concentrated towards the last days of the year, i.e., the last chance to avoid paying church tax for the entire coming year. Our econometric evidence suggests that the average effect of tax incentives for the whole population is both statistically and economically significant. A 1 standard deviation increase in church tax leads to between 0.5 and 1 percentage point decline in the likelihood of church membership. In addition, we find that church membership dropped substantially when a law change made opting out significantly easier. This finding suggests that transaction costs play an important role in the membership decision.

  • 12.
    Mitrut, Andreea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wolff, Francois-Charles
    Investing in children's education: are Muslim immigrants different?2014In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 999-1022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a unique data set on immigrants living in France in 2003, we investigate whether Muslims invest differently in their children's education compared to non-Muslims. In particular, we want to assess whether educational inequalities between the children of Muslim and non-Muslim immigrants stem from differences between or within families. After controlling for a broad set of individual and household characteristics, we find no difference in education between children of different religions. However, we do find more within-family inequality in children's educational achievements among Muslims relative to non-Muslims. The within-family variance is 15 % higher among Muslims relative to Catholics and 45 % higher relative to immigrants with other religions, but the intra-family inequality remains difficult to explain. Overall, our results suggest that Muslim parents tend to redistribute their resources more unequally among their children.

  • 13.
    Mörk, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Childcare costs and the demand for children-evidence from a nationwide reform2013In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 33-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting the exogenous variation in user fees caused by a Swedish childcare reform, we are able to identify the causal effect of childcare costs on fertility in a context in which childcare enrollment is almost universal, user fees are low, and labor force participation of mothers is very high. Anticipation of a reduction in childcare costs increased the number of first and higher-order births, but only seemed to affect the timing of second births. For families with many children we also find a marginally significant negative income effect on fertility.

  • 14. Neugart, Michael
    et al.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Economic incentives and the timing of births: Evidence from the German parental benefit reform of 20072013In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 87-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic theory suggests that incentives matter for people's decisions. This paper investigates whether this also holds for less self-evident areas of life such as the timing of births. We use a natural experiment when the German government changed its parental benefit system on January 1, 2007. The policy change strongly increased economic incentives for women to postpone delivery provided that they were employed. Applying a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach, we find very strong evidence that women with an employment history near to the end of their term indeed succeeded to shift births to the New Year and, therefore, could benefit from the new and more generous parental benefit system. Suggesting a model of chain reactions, we also report evidence that some women with due dates earlier in December tried but did not succeed to shift births to the New Year.

  • 15. Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Can adult education delay retirement from the labour market?2012In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 677-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether adult education delays retirement to potentially increase labour force participation among the elderly, a mechanism suggested in the OECD strategy for "active ageing" and the "Lisbon strategy" of the EU. Using register data from Sweden, we analyse transcripts from adult education for the period 1979-2004 and annual earnings 1982-2004. We match samples of treated individuals, in adult education 1986-1989, and untreated on the propensity score. The timing of exit from the workforce is assessed by non-parametric estimation of survival rates in the labour force. The results indicate no effects of adult education on the timing of retirement.

  • 16. Yeung, Gary Y. C.
    et al.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindeboom, Maarten
    Portrait, France R. M.
    The impact of early-life economic conditionson cause-specific mortality during adulthood2014In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 895-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects of economic conditions in early life on cause-specific mortality during adulthood. The analyses are performed on a unique historical sample of 14,520 Dutch individuals born in 1880-1918, who are followed throughout life. The economic conditions in early life are characterized using cyclical variations in annual real per capital gross domestic product during pregnancy and the first year of life. Exposure to recessions in early life appears to significantly increase cancer mortality risks of older males and females. It also significantly increases other mortality risks especially for older females. The residual life expectancies are up to about 8 and 6 % lower for male and female cancer mortality, respectively, and up to about 5 % lower for female cardiovascular mortality. Our analyses show that cardiovascular and cancer mortality risks are related and that not taking this association into account leads to biased inference.

  • 17.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    How to measure segregation conditional on the distribution of covariates2009In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 971-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short paper proposes a nonparametric method for accounting for the distribution of background characteristics when testing for segregation in empirical studies. It is shown and exemplified - using data on workplace segregation between immigrants and natives in Sweden - how the method can be applied to correct any measure of segregation for differences between groups in the distribution of covariates by means of simulation and how analytical results can be used when studying segregation by means of peer group exposure.

1 - 17 of 17
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