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  • 1.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Thomsson, Michaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Is there a relationship between socio-economic factors and biodiversity in urban ponds?: A study in the city of Stockholm2017In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1209-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban small water bodies, such as ponds, are essential elements of human socio-economic landscapes. Ponds also provide important habitats for species that would otherwise not survive in the urban environment. Knowledge on the biodiversity of urban ponds and the relationship between their ecological value and factors linked to urbanization and socio-economic status is crucial for decisions on where and how to establish and manage ponds in cities to deliver maximum biodiversity benefits. Our study investigates if the pattern of urban-pond biodiversity can be related to different socio-economic factors, such as level of wealth, education or percentage of buildings of different types. Because of lack of previous studies investigating that, our study is of exploratory character and many different variables are used. We found that the biodiversity of aquatic insects was significantly negatively associated with urbanisation variables such as amount of buildings and number of residents living around ponds. This relationship did not differ depending on the spatial scale of our investigation. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship with variables representing socio-economic status, such as education level and wealth of people. This latter result suggests that the socio-economic status of residents does not lead to any particular effect in terms of the management and function of ponds that would affect biodiversity. However, there is a need for a finer-scale investigation of the different potential mechanism in which residents in areas with differing socio-economic status could indirectly influence ponds.

  • 2.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    et al.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Doick, Kieron J.
    Forest Res, Farnham GU10 4LH, Surrey, England.
    Burton, Aaron
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Sibille, Raphael
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Steinbach, David
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Harris, Rachel
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Groves, Lisa
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Comparing the relative abilities of tree species to cool the urban environment2018In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 851-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing urbanisation poses numerous challenges to human quality of life. Cities are particularly vulnerable to the urban heat-island effect, which will be amplified by climate change. Increasing tree cover may be one of the most cost-effective ways of moderating urban temperatures. Trees cool their surroundings by casting shade, reflecting solar radiation, transpiring, and intercepting rainfall that subsequently evaporates. However, the potential of trees to reduce the urban heat-island effect is underutilised. The aim of this study was to synthesise understanding of the relative abilities of different tree species to provide urban cooling in temperate regions of the world and thereby develop a pragmatic approach for choosing those trees that have greatest potential in that regard. Based on a literature review and semi-structured interviews with leading experts, we developed a series of scenarios to illustrate the impacts of a tree's cooling mechanisms and tree species' attributes on components of the surface-energy balance equation. This enabled us to select parameters and propose simple equations that can be used to compare the relative abilities of tree species in relation to each of the cooling mechanisms. The parameters selected were for: transpiration - crown diameter, Leaf Area Index (LAI), canopy aspect ratio, and stomatal conductance or growth rate; reflection - albedo, crown diameter and LAI; shading - canopy aspect ratio, crown diameter, LAI and tree height. The approach is intended for use by urban planners and managers who wish to make informed decisions about which tree species to select for planting to counter the urban heat-island effect.

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