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  • 1.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nälsén, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle reflects dietary fat compositionin humans2002In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 1222-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is still unknown whether the fatty acid composition of human skeletal muscle lipids is directly influenced by the fat composition of the diet.

    Objective: We investigated whether the fatty acid composition of the diet is reflected in the fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids and triacylglycerols.

    Design: Thirty-two healthy adults (25 men and 7 women) included in a larger controlled, multicenter dietary study were randomly assigned to diets containing a high proportion of either saturated fatty acids (SFAs) [total fat, 36% of energy; SFAs, 18% of energy; monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), 10% of energy] or MUFAs (total fat, 35% of energy; SFAs, 9% of energy; MUFAs, 19% of energy) for 3 mo. Within each diet group, there was a second random assignment to supplementation with fish oil capsules [containing 3.6 g n−3 fatty acids/d; 2.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n−3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n−3)] or placebo. A muscle biopsy sample was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle after the diet period. Parallel analyses of diet and supplementation effects were performed.

    Results: The proportions of myristic (14:0), pentadecanoic (15:0), heptadecanoic (17:0), and palmitoleic (16:1n−7) acids in the skeletal muscle phospholipids were higher and the proportion of oleic acid (18:1n−9) was lower in the SFA group than in the MUFA group. The proportion of total n−3 fatty acids in the muscle phospholipids was ≈2.5 times higher, with a 5 times higher proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n−3), in subjects supplemented with n−3 fatty acids than in those given placebo. Similar differences were observed in the skeletal muscle triacylglycerols.

    Conclusion: The fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle lipids reflects the fatty acid composition of the diet in healthy men and women.

  • 2. Astrup, Arne
    et al.
    Dyerberg, Jorn
    Elwood, Peter
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Hu, Frank B.
    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre
    Kok, Frans J.
    Krauss, Ronald M.
    Lecerf, Jean Michel
    LeGrand, Philippe
    Nestel, Paul
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sanders, Tom
    Sinclair, Andrew
    Stender, Steen
    Tholstrup, Tine
    Willett, Walter C.
    The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010?2011In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 684-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current dietary recommendations advise reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but recent findings question the role of SFAs. This expert panel reviewed the evidence and reached the following conclusions: the evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and mechanistic studies is consistent in finding that the risk of CHD is reduced when SFAs are replaced with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In populations who consume a Western diet, the replacement of 1% of energy from SFAs with PUFAs lowers LDL cholesterol and is likely to produce a reduction in CHD incidence of >= 2-3%. No clear benefit of substituting carbohydrates for SFAs has been shown, although there might be a benefit if the carbohydrate is unrefined and has a low glycemic index. Insufficient evidence exists to judge the effect on CHD risk of replacing SFAs with MUFAs. No clear association between SFA intake relative to refined carbohydrates and the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes has been shown. The effect of diet on a single biomarker is insufficient evidence to assess CHD risk. The combination of multiple biomarkers and the use of clinical end-points could help substantiate the effects on CHD. Furthermore, the effect of particular foods on CHD cannot be predicted solely by their content of total SFAs because individual SFAs may have different cardiovascular effects and major SFA food sources contain other constituents that could influence CHD risk. Research is needed to clarify the role of SFAs compared with specific forms of carbohydrates in CHD risk and to compare specific foods with appropriate alternatives.

  • 3.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Hallschmid, Manfred
    Lassen, Arne
    Mahnke, Christin
    Schultes, Bernd
    Schiöth, Helgi Birgir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Born, Jan
    Lange, Tanja
    Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men2011In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 93, no 6, p. 1229-1236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that chronic sleep curtailment increases risk of developing obesity, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown.

    Objective

    We examined the influence of a single night of total sleep deprivation on morning energy expenditures and food intakes in healthy humans.

    Design

    According to a balanced crossover design, we examined 14 normal-weight male subjects on 2 occasions during a regular 24-h sleep-wake cycle (including 8 h of nocturnal sleep) and a 24-h period of continuous wakefulness. On the morning after regular sleep and total sleep deprivation, resting and postprandial energy expenditures were assessed by indirect calorimetry, and the free-choice food intake from an opulent buffet was tested in the late afternoon at the end of the experiment. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, norepinephrine, cortisol, thyreotropin, glucose, and insulin were repeatedly measured over the entire 24-h session.

    Results

    In comparison with normal sleep, resting and postprandial energy expenditures assessed on the subsequent morning were significantly reduced after sleep deprivation by approximate to 5% and 20%, respectively (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Nocturnal wakefulness increased morning plasma ghrelin concentrations (P < 0.02) and nocturnal and daytime circulating concentrations of thyreotropin, cortisol, and norepinephrine (P < 0.05) as well as morning postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (P < 0.05). Changes in food intakes were variable, and no differences between wake and sleep conditions were detected.

    Conclusion

    Our findings show that one night of sleep deprivation acutely reduces energy expenditure in healthy men, which suggests that sleep contributes to the acute regulation of daytime energy expenditure in humans.

  • 4.
    Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Food Sci, Bioctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kyro, Cecilie
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Olsen, Anja
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore, Singapore..
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lindahl, Beret
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umea Univ, Dept Odontol & Cariol, Umea, Sweden..
    Landberg, Rikard
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Food Sci, Bioctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    The role of nutritional biomarkers in prediction and understanding the etiology of type 2 diabetes Reply2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, no 6, p. 1725-1726Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, BioCtr, Dept Food Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Wroclaw Med Univ, Dept Pharmacognosy, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Kyro, Cecilie
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Olsen, Anja
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Dept Med, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Singapore, Singapore.;Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Overvad, Kim
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Epidemiol Sect, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umea Univ, Dept Odontol & Cariol, Umea, Sweden..
    Landberg, Rikard
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, BioCtr, Dept Food Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and risk of type 2 diabetes in Scandinavian men and women2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 88-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies that use dietary biomarkers to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) are lacking. Objective: We examined the association between plasma total alkylresorcinols and the alkylresorcinol C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake and relative whole grain rye over whole-grain wheat intake, respectively, and the risk of T2D among Scandinavian men and women. Design: A nested case-control study was established within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Alkylresorcinol concentrations and the ratios of C17:0 to C21:0 were determined in plasma samples from 931 case-control pairs. ORs for T2D were calculated for plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration or C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio in quartiles with the use of conditional logistic regression that was adjusted for potential confounders. Additional analyses with whole-grain wheat and rye intake estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) as exposures were also performed. Results: The plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration was not associated with T2D risk (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.88) for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles in multivariable adjusted models. However, the C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio was associated with a lower diabetes risk (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.78). Analyses with whole-grain intake estimated from FFQs yielded similar results. Conclusions: Total whole-grain wheat and rye intake, reflected by alkylresorcinols in plasma, was not associated with a lower risk of T2D in a population with high whole-grain intake. In contrast, the proportion of whole-grain rye to whole-grain wheat intake, indicated by the plasma C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio, was inversely associated with T2D. This suggests that whole-grain intake dominated by rye may be favorable for T2D prevention.

  • 6.
    Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Bioctr, Dept Food Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Wroclaw Med Univ, Dept Pharmacognosy, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Kyro, Cecilie
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Olsen, Anja
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Dept Med, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Singapore, Singapore.;Harvard Univ, Dept Nutr, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Overvad, Kim
    Aarhus Univ, Epidemiol Sect, Dept Publ Hlth, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umea Univ, Dept Odontol & Cariol, Umea, Sweden..
    Landberg, Rikard
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Bioctr, Dept Food Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Insitutet, Inst Environm Med, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Chalmers, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Whole-grain intake and risk of type 2 diabetes Reply2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, no 6, p. 1723-1724Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bjermo, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Persson, Lena
    Berglund, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Pulkki, Kari
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Rudling, Mats
    Arner, Peter
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 1003-1012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Replacing SFAs with vegetable PUFAs has cardiometabolic benefits, but the effects on liver fat are unknown. Increased dietary n-6 PUFAs have, however, also been proposed to promote inflammation-a yet unproven theory.

    OBJECTIVE:

    We investigated the effects of PUFAs on liver fat, systemic inflammation, and metabolic disorders.

    DESIGN:

    We randomly assigned 67 abdominally obese subjects (15% had type 2 diabetes) to a 10-wk isocaloric diet high in vegetable n-6 PUFA (PUFA diet) or SFA mainly from butter (SFA diet), without altering the macronutrient intake. Liver fat was assessed by MRI and magnetic resonance proton (1H) spectroscopy (MRS). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9, a hepatic LDL-receptor regulator), inflammation, and adipose tissue expression of inflammatory and lipogenic genes were determined.

    RESULTS:

    A total of 61 subjects completed the study. Body weight modestly increased but was not different between groups. Liver fat was lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet [between-group difference in relative change from baseline; 16% (MRI; P < 0.001), 34% (MRS; P = 0.02)]. PCSK9 (P = 0.001), TNF receptor-2 (P < 0.01), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P = 0.02) concentrations were lower during the PUFA diet, whereas insulin (P = 0.06) tended to be higher during the SFA diet. In compliant subjects (defined as change in serum linoleic acid), insulin, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue gene expression was unchanged.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Compared with SFA intake, n-6 PUFAs reduce liver fat and modestly improve metabolic status, without weight loss. A high n-6 PUFA intake does not cause any signs of inflammation or oxidative stress. Downregulation of PCSK9 could be a novel mechanism behind the cholesterol-lowering effects of PUFAs.

  • 8.
    Bjermo, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Should dietary SFA be exchanged for linoleic acid?: Reply2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 945-946Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Burgaz, Ann
    et al.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Öster, Annette
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Associations of diet, supplement use, and ultraviolet B radiation exposure with vitamin D status in Swedish women during winter2007In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 1399-1404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is produced endogenously after sun exposure but can also be obtained from natural food sources, food fortification, and dietary supplements. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the vitamin D status of women (61-86 y old) living in central Sweden (latitude 60 degrees ) during winter and its relation with vitamin D intake and exposure to ultraviolet B radiation. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) of 116 women by using an enzyme immunoassay. The women completed questionnaires covering food habits, use of dietary supplements, and sun-related behavior. RESULTS: In a multiple linear regression model, the main determinants of serum 25(OH)D concentrations (x +/- SD: 69 +/- 23 mmol/L) were dietary vitamin D (6.0 +/- 1.8 mug/d), travel to a sunny location during winter within the previous 6 mo (26%), and the use of dietary supplements (16%). There was no association between serum 25(OH)D status during the winter and age, time spent outdoors, the use of sunscreen, or skin type. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased by 25.5 nmol/L with 2-3 servings (130 g/wk) fatty fish/wk, by 6.2 nmol/L with the daily intake of 300 g vitamin D-fortified reduced-fat dairy products, by 11.0 nmol/L with regular use of vitamin D supplements, and by 14.5 nmol/L with a sun vacation during winter. Among nonsupplement users without a wintertime sun vacation, 2-3 servings fatty fish/wk increased serum vitamin D concentrations by 45%. CONCLUSION: Fatty fish, vitamin D-fortified reduced-fat dairy products, regular supplement use, and taking a sun vacation are important predictors for serum concentrations of 25(OH)D during winter at a latitude of 60 degrees .

  • 10.
    Byberg, Liisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Warensjö Lemming, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cancer death is related to high palmitoleic acid in serum and to polymorphisms in the SCD-1 gene in healthy Swedish men2014In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 551-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    A high proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or a high ratio of MUFAs to saturated fatty acids in plasma, reflecting a high activity of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), has been shown to be related to cancer death and incidence in some studies.

    OBJECTIVES:

    The objective was to study whether the serum cholesteryl ester proportion of palmitoleic acid [16:1n-7 (16:1ω-3)] and the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid (16:1n-7/16:0), as an estimation of the activity of SCD-1, are related to cancer death and to investigate whether polymorphisms in the SCD-1 gene are related to cancer mortality.

    DESIGN:

    A community-based cohort of 50-y-old men was followed for a maximum of >40 y. Survival analysis was used to relate fatty acid composition in serum, analyzed at baseline by gas-liquid chromatography (n = 1981), and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SCD-1 gene (n = 986) to cancer death. A 7-d dietary record was completed at age 70 y (n = 880).

    RESULTS:

    The proportions of 16:1n-7 and the ratio of 16:1n-7 to 16:0 were associated with cancer mortality during follow-up in a comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile of 16:1n-7 (adjusted HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.82). Inherited variance of the SCD-1 gene seemed to be related to cancer death, especially among men with a low proportion of PUFA in the diet in a comparison of the highest with the lowest weighted genetic risk score (HR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.13, 4.04).

    CONCLUSION:

    The findings are compatible with the hypothesis that there is an association between endogenously synthesized MUFAs and cancer death.

  • 11.
    Byberg, Liisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Olsson, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical pharmacogenomics and osteoporosis.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Reply to WB Grant2017In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 700-701Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Byberg, Liisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Olsson, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical pharmacogenomics and osteoporosis.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Reply to Y Mao and H Yu.2017In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 698-699Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sleep duration and energy intake: timing matters2014In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 1402-1403Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Chapman, Colin Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Brooks, Samantha Jane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi Birgir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Lifestyle determinants of the drive to eat: a meta-analysis2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 492-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is emerging as the most significant health concern of the 21st century. Although this is attributable in part to changes in our environment-including the increased prevalence of energy-dense food-it also appears that several lifestyle factors may increase our vulnerability to this calorie-rich landscape. Epidemiologic studies have begun to show links between adiposity and behaviors such as television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation. However, these studies leave unclear the direction of this association. In addition, studies that investigated the acute impact of these factors on food intake have reported a wide variety of effect sizes, from highly positive to slightly negative.

    Objective: The purpose of this article was to provide a meta-analysis of the relation between lifestyle choices and increases in acute food intake.

    Design: An initial search was performed on PubMed to collect articles relating television watching, sleep deprivation, and alcohol consumption to food intake. Only articles published before February 2012 were considered. Studies that took place in a controlled, laboratory setting with healthy individuals were included. Studies were analyzed by using 3 meta-analyses with random-effects models. In addition, a 1-factor ANOVA was run to discover any main effect of lifestyle.

    Results: The 3 most prominent lifestyle factors-television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation-had significant short-term effects on food intake, with alcohol being more significant (Cohen's d = 1.03) than sleep deprivation (Cohen's d = 0.49) and television watching (Cohen's d = 0.2).

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation are not merely correlated with obesity but likely contribute to it by encouraging excessive eating. Because these behaviors are all known to affect cognitive functions involved in reward saliency and inhibitory control, it may be that they represent common mechanisms through which this eating is facilitated.

  • 15.
    den Hoed, Marcel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Brage, Soren
    Zhao, Jing Hua
    Westgate, Kate
    Nessa, Ayrun
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Spector, Tim D.
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Loos, Ruth J. F.
    Heritability of objectively assessed daily physical activity and sedentary behavior2013In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 1317-1325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Twin and family studies that estimated the heritability of daily physical activity have been limited by poor measurement quality and a small sample size. Objective: We examined the heritability of daily physical activity and sedentary behavior assessed objectively by using combined heart rate and movement sensing in a large twin study. Design: Physical activity traits were assessed in daily life for a mean (+/- SD) 6.7 +/- 1.1 d in 1654 twins from 420 monozygotic and 352 dizygotic same-sex twin pairs aged 56.3 +/- 10.4 y with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26.1 +/- 4.8. We estimated the average daily movement, physical activity energy expenditure, and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior from heart rate and acceleration data. We used structural equation modeling to examine the contribution of additive genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental factors to between-individual variation in traits. Results: Additive genetic factors (le, heritability) explained 47% of the variance in physical activity energy expenditure (95% CI: 23%, 53%) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (95% CI: 29%, 54%), 35% of the variance in acceleration of the trunk (95% CI: 0%, 44%), and 31% of the variance in the time spent in sedentary behavior (95% CI: 9%, 51%). The remaining variance was predominantly explained by unique environmental factors and random error, whereas shared environmental factors played only a marginal role for all traits with a range of 0-15%. Conclusions: The between-individual variation in daily physical activity and sedentary behavior is mainly a result of environmental influences. Nevertheless, genetic factors explain up to one-half of the variance, suggesting that innate biological processes may be driving some of our daily physical activity.

  • 16. den Hoed, Marcel
    et al.
    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
    Bouwman, Freek G
    Mariman, Edwin C M
    Westerterp, Klaas R
    Postprandial responses in hunger and satiety are associated with the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism in FTO.2009In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 90, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The common rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is associated with adiposity, possibly by affecting satiety responsiveness.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether postprandial responses in hunger and satiety are associated with rs9939609, taking interactions with other relevant candidate genes into account.

    DESIGN: Sixty-two women and 41 men [age: 31 +/- 14 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 25.0 +/- 3.1] were genotyped for 5 SNPs in FTO, DNMT1, DNMT3B, LEP, and LEPR. Individuals received fixed meals provided in energy balance. Hunger and satiety were determined pre- and postprandially by using visual analog scales.

    RESULTS: A general association test showed a significant association between postprandial responses in hunger and satiety with rs9939609 (P = 0.036 and P = 0.050, respectively). Individuals with low postprandial responses in hunger and satiety were overrepresented among TA/AA carriers in rs9939609 (FTO) compared with TT carriers (dominant and additive model: P = 0.013 and P = 0.020, respectively). Moreover, multifactor dimensionality reduction showed significant epistatic interactions for the postprandial decrease in hunger involving rs9939609 (FTO), rs992472 (DNMT3B), and rs1137101 (LEPR). Individuals with a low postprandial decrease in hunger were overrepresented among TA/AA (dominant), CC/CA (recessive), and AG/GG (dominant) carriers in rs9939609 (FTO), rs992472 (DNMT3B), and rs1137101 (LEPR), respectively (n = 39), compared with TT, AA, and/or AA carriers in these SNPs, respectively (P = 0.00001). Each SNP had an additional effect.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm a role for FTO in responsiveness to hunger and satiety cues in adults in an experimental setting. The epistatic interaction suggests that DNA methylation, an epigenetic process, affects appetite.

  • 17.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; MRC Epidemiology Unit, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Worts Causeway, Cambridge, United Kingdom .
    Yngve, Agneta
    PREVNUT at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Brage, Sören
    Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark .
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands .
    Sjöström, Michael
    PREVNUT at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Body movement and physical activity energy expenditure in children and adolescents: how to adjust for differences in body size and age2004In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 79, no 5, p. 851-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity data in children and adolescents who differ in body size and age are influenced by whether physical activity is expressed in terms of body movement or energy expenditure.

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether physical activity expressed as body movement (ie, accelerometer counts) differs from physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) as a function of body size and age.

    DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study in children [n = 26; (+/-SD) age: 9.6 +/- 0.3 y] and adolescents (n = 25; age: 17.6 +/- 1.5 y) in which body movement and total energy expenditure (TEE) were simultaneously measured with the use of accelerometry and the doubly labeled water method, respectively. PAEE was expressed as 1) unadjusted PAEE [TEE minus resting energy expenditure (REE); in MJ/d], 2) PAEE adjusted for body weight (BW) (PAEE. kg(-1). d(-1)), 3) PAEE adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) (PAEE. kg FFM(-1). d(-1)), and 4) the physical activity level (PAL = TEE/REE).

    RESULTS: Body movement was significantly higher (P = 0.03) in children than in adolescents. Similarly, when PAEE was normalized for differences in BW or FFM, it was significantly higher in children than in adolescents (P = 0.03). In contrast, unadjusted PAEE and PAL were significantly higher in adolescents (P < 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: PAEE should be normalized for BW or FFM for comparison of physical activity between children and adolescents who differ in body size and age. Adjusting PAEE for FFM removes the confounding effect of sex, and therefore FFM may be the most appropriate body-composition variable for normalization of PAEE. Unadjusted PAEE and PAL depend on body size.

  • 18.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; .
    Åman, Jan
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Renman, Cecilia
    Department of Pediatrics, Örebro Medical Center, Örebro, Sweden .
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Physical activity but not energy expenditure is reduced in obese adolescents: a case-control study2002In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 76, no 5, p. 935-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The influence of physical activity on body weight in children and adolescents is controversial.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test the hypothesis that the intensity and duration of physical activity differ between obese and normal-weight adolescents, with no difference in estimated energy expenditure.

    DESIGN: We compared physical activity in 18 (8 males, 10 females) obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) > 30] adolescents (14-19 y) with that in a matched, normal-weight (BMI < 27) control group. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured with the doubly labeled water method, and physical activity was measured simultaneously by accelerometry. The physical activity level was determined as the ratio of TEE to the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and activity energy expenditure as 0.9 TEE minus RMR. Accelerometry data included total physical activity (counts x min(-1) x d(-1)), accumulated and continuous duration of activity, and continuous 10-min periods of physical activity of moderate intensity.

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in adjusted (analysis of covariance) TEE, RMR, or AEE between groups. The physical activity level was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the obese group. No sex x group interaction was observed. Differences in total physical activity (P < 0.001), accumulated time (P < 0.05), continuous time (P < 0.01), and continuous 10-min periods of physical activity of moderate intensity (P < 0.01) were observed between groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents are less physically active than are normal-weight adolescents, but physical activity-related energy expenditure is not significantly different between groups. The data suggest that physical activity is not necessarily equivalent to the energy costs of activity.

  • 19. Epstein, Mara M.
    et al.
    Kasperzyk, Julie L.
    Andrén, Ove
    Giovannucci, Edward L.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Håkansson, Niclas
    Andersson, Swen-Olof
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Fall, Katja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Mucci, Lorelei A.
    Dietary zinc and prostate cancer survival in a Swedish cohort2011In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 586-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Zinc is involved in many essential cellular functions, including DNA repair and immune system maintenance. Although experimental evidence supports a role for zinc in prostate carcinogenesis, epidemiologic data are inconsistent; no data on cancer-specific survival have been reported. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether dietary zinc assessed near the time of prostate cancer diagnosis is associated with improved disease-specific survival. Design: This population-based cohort consists of 525 men aged < 80 y from Orebro County, Sweden, with a diagnosis of prostate cancer made between 1989 and 1994. Study participants completed self-administered food-frequency questionnaires, and zinc intake was derived from nutrient databases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for time to death from prostate cancer as well as death from all causes through February 2009 by quartile (Q) of dietary zinc intake. Models were also stratified by disease stage at diagnosis (localized or advanced). Results: With a median follow-up of 6.4 y, 218 (42%) men died of prostate cancer and 257 (49%) died of other causes. High dietary zinc intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (HRQ4 vs Q1: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.94; P for trend = 0.05) in the study population. The association was stronger in men with localized tumors (HR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.66; P for trend = 0.005). Zinc intake was not associated with mortality from other causes. Conclusion: These results suggest that high dietary intake of zinc is associated with lower prostate cancer-specific mortality after diagnosis, particularly in men with localized disease.

  • 20. Ferguson, Jane F
    et al.
    Phillips, Catherine M
    Tierney, Audrey C
    Pérez-Martínez, Pablo
    Defoort, Catherine
    Helal, Olfa
    Lairon, Denis
    Planells, Richard
    Shaw, Danielle I
    Lovegrove, Julie A
    Gjelstad, Ingrid M F
    Drevon, Christian A
    Blaak, Ellen E
    Saris, Wim H M
    Leszczýnska-Golabek, Iwona
    Kiec-Wilk, Beata
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Miranda, José Lopez
    Roche, Helen M
    Gene-nutrient interactions in the metabolic syndrome: single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1 interact with plasma saturated fatty acids to modulate insulin resistance2010In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 794-801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Progression of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Gene-environment interactions may be important in modulating the susceptibility to the development of MetS traits. OBJECTIVE: Gene-nutrient interactions were examined in MetS subjects to determine interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) and plasma fatty acid composition and their effects on MetS characteristics. DESIGN: Plasma fatty acid composition, insulin sensitivity, plasma adiponectin and lipid concentrations, and ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 SNP genotypes were determined in a cross-sectional analysis of 451 subjects with the MetS who participated in the LIPGENE (Diet, Genomics, and the Metabolic Syndrome: an Integrated Nutrition, Agro-food, Social, and Economic Analysis) dietary intervention study and were repeated in 1754 subjects from the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX (SUpplementation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants) case-control study (http://www.ucd.ie/lipgene). RESULTS: Single SNP effects were detected in the cohort. Triacylglycerols, nonesterified fatty acids, and waist circumference were significantly different between genotypes for 2 SNPs (rs266729 in ADIPOQ and rs10920533 in ADIPOR1). Minor allele homozygotes for both of these SNPs were identified as having degrees of insulin resistance, as measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, that were highly responsive to differences in plasma saturated fatty acids (SFAs). The SFA-dependent association between ADIPOR1 rs10920533 and insulin resistance was replicated in cases with MetS from a separate independent study, which was an association not present in controls. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in plasma SFAs could be expected to lower insulin resistance in MetS subjects who are minor allele carriers of rs266729 in ADIPOQ and rs10920533 in ADIPOR1. Personalized dietary advice to decrease SFA consumption in these individuals may be recommended as a possible therapeutic measure to improve insulin sensitivity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00429195.

  • 21.
    Frith, Amy L.
    et al.
    Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Ithaca, NY.
    Naved, Ruchira T.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Rasmussen, Kathleen M.
    Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Ithaca, NY.
    Frongillo, Edward A.
    Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Ithaca, NY.
    Micronutrient supplementation affects maternal-infant feeding interactions and maternal distress in Bangladesh2009In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Good maternal-infant interaction is essential for optimal infant growth, health, and development. Although micronutrient malnutrition has been associated with poorer interaction, the effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on interaction are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We examined differences in maternal-infant feeding interaction between 3 maternal pre- and postpartum micronutrient supplementation groups that differed in iron dose and inclusion of multiple micronutrients and determined whether any differences observed were mediated by maternal distress. DESIGN: A cohort of 180 pregnant women was selected from 3300 women in the randomized controlled trial Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, which was conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 wk of gestation, women were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups to receive a daily supplement of micronutrients (14 wk gestation to 12 wk postpartum): 60 or 30 mg Fe each with 400 microg folic acid or multiple micronutrients (MuMS; 30 mg Fe, 400 microg folic acid, and other micronutrients). A maternal-infant feeding interaction was observed in the home when infants were 3.4-4.0 mo of age, and maternal distress was assessed. RESULTS: Compared with 30 mg Fe, 60 mg Fe decreased the quality of maternal-infant feeding interaction by approximately 10%. Compared with 30 mg Fe, MuMS did not improve interaction but reduced maternal early postpartum distress. Distress did not mediate the effects of micronutrient supplementation on interaction. CONCLUSION: For pregnant and postpartum women, micronutrient supplementation should be based on both nutritional variables (eg, iron status) and functional outcomes (eg, maternal-infant interaction and maternal distress).

  • 22.
    Hellström, Per M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
    Obesity research in adolescence: moving object-hard to target2013In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 1147-1148Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23. Hemmingsson, Erik
    et al.
    Johansson, Kari
    Eriksson, Jonas
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Neovius, Martin
    Marcus, Claude
    Weight loss and dropout during a commercial weight-loss program including a very-low-calorie diet, a low-calorie diet, or restricted normal food: observational cohort study2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, no 5, p. 953-961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The effectiveness of commercial weight-loss programs consisting of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) and low-calorie diets (LCDs) is unclear. Objective: The aim of the study was to quantify weight loss and dropout during a commercial weight-loss program in Sweden (Itrim; cost: $1300/(sic)1000; all participants paid their own fee). Design: This observational cohort study linked commercial weight-loss data with National Health Care Registers. Weight loss was induced with a 500-kcal liquid-formula VLCD [n = 3773; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 34 +/- 5 (mean +/- SD); 80% women; 45 +/- 12 y of age (mean +/- SD)], a 1200-1500-kcal formula and food-combination LCD (n = 4588; BMI: 30 +/- 4; 86% women; 50 +/- 11 y of age), and a 1500-1800-kcal/d restricted normal-food diet (n = 676; BMI: 29 +/- 5; 81% women; 51 +/- 12 y of age). Maintenance strategies included exercise and a calorie-restricted diet. Weight loss was analyzed by using an intention-to-treat analysis (baseline substitution). Results: After 1 y, mean (+/- SD) weight changes were -11.4 +/- 9.1 kg with the VLCD (18% dropout), -6.8 +/- 6.4 kg with the LCD (23% dropout), and -5.1 +/- 5.9 kg with the restricted normal-food diet (26% dropout). In an adjusted analysis, the VLCD group lost 2.8 kg (95% CI: 2.5, 3.2) and 3.8 kg (95% CI: 3.2, 4.5) more than did the LCD and restricted normal-food groups, respectively. A high baseline HMI and rapid initial weight loss were both independently associated with greater 1-y weight loss (P < 0.001). Younger age and low initial weight loss predicted an increased dropout rate (P < 0.001). Treatment of depression (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and psychosis (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.3) were associated with an increased dropout rate in the VLCD group. Conclusion: A commercial weight-loss program, particularly one using a VLCD, was effective at reducing body weight in self-selected, self-paying adults.

  • 24. Herzog, Nina
    et al.
    Jauch-Chara, Kamila
    Oltmanns, Kerstin M.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Compromised sleep increases food intake in humans:: two sexes, same response?2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 531-531Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Jernerén, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Oxford.
    Elshorbagy, Amany K
    Oulhaj, Abderrahim
    Smith, Stephen M
    Refsum, Helga
    Smith, A David
    Brain atrophy in cognitively impaired elderly: the importance of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids and B vitamin status in a randomized controlled trial.2015In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 215-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increased brain atrophy rates are common in older people with cognitive impairment, particularly in those who eventually convert to Alzheimer disease. Plasma concentrations of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids and homocysteine are associated with the development of brain atrophy and dementia.

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether plasma ω-3 fatty acid concentrations (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) modify the treatment effect of homocysteine-lowering B vitamins on brain atrophy rates in a placebo-controlled trial (VITACOG).

    DESIGN: This retrospective analysis included 168 elderly people (≥70 y) with mild cognitive impairment, randomly assigned either to placebo (n = 83) or to daily high-dose B vitamin supplementation (folic acid, 0.8 mg; vitamin B-6, 20 mg; vitamin B-12, 0.5 mg) (n = 85). The subjects underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline and 2 y later. The effect of the intervention was analyzed according to tertiles of baseline ω-3 fatty acid concentrations.

    RESULTS: There was a significant interaction (P = 0.024) between B vitamin treatment and plasma combined ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) on brain atrophy rates. In subjects with high baseline ω-3 fatty acids (>590 μmol/L), B vitamin treatment slowed the mean atrophy rate by 40.0% compared with placebo (P = 0.023). B vitamin treatment had no significant effect on the rate of atrophy among subjects with low baseline ω-3 fatty acids (<390 μmol/L). High baseline ω-3 fatty acids were associated with a slower rate of brain atrophy in the B vitamin group but not in the placebo group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effect of B vitamin treatment on brain atrophy was observed only in subjects with high plasma ω-3 fatty acids. It is also suggested that the beneficial effect of ω-3 fatty acids on brain atrophy may be confined to subjects with good B vitamin status. The results highlight the importance of identifying subgroups likely to benefit in clinical trials. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN94410159.

  • 26.
    Karimi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Med & Hematol HERM, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vedin, Inger
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Med & Hematol HERM, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Levi, Yvonne Freund
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Basun, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Irving, Gerd Faxen
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eriksdotter, Maria
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schultzberg, Marianne
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hjorth, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cederholm, T
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Palmblad, Jan
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Med & Hematol HERM, Stockholm, Sweden..
    DHA-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases DNA methylation in blood leukocytes: the OmegAD study2017In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 106, no 4, p. 1157-1165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dietary fish oils, rich in long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids (FAs) [e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)], modulate inflammatory reactions through various mechanisms, including gene expression, which is measured as messenger RNA concentration. However, the effects of long-term treatment of humans with DHA and EPA on various epigenetic factors-such as DNA methylation, which controls messenger RNA generation-are poorly described. Objective: We wanted to determine the effects of 6 mo of dietary supplementation with an n-3 FA preparation rich in DHA on global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the relation to plasma EPA and DHA concentrations in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Design: In the present study, DNA methylation in four 5'-cytosinephosphate- guanine-3' (CpG) sites of long interspersed nuclear element-1 repetitive sequences was assessed in a group of 63 patients (30 given the n-3 FA preparation and 33 given placebo) as an estimation of the global DNA methylation in blood cells. Patients originated from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled OmegAD study, in which 174 AD patients received either 1.7 g DHA and 0.6 g EPA (the n-3 FA group) or placebo daily for 6 mo. Results: At 6 mo, the n-3 FA group displayed marked increases in DHA and EPA plasma concentrations (2.6-and 3.5-fold), as well as decreased methylation in 2 out of 4 CpG sites (P<0.05 for all), respectively. This hypomethylation in CpG2 and CpG4 sites showed a reverse correlation to changes in plasma EPA concentration (r = -0.25, P = 0.045; and r = -0.26, P = 0.041, respectively), but not to changes in plasma DHA concentration, and were not related to apolipoprotein E-4 allele frequency. Conclusion: Supplementation with n-3 FA for 6 mo was associated with global DNA hypomethylation in PBLs. Our data may be of importance in measuring various effects of marine oils, including gene expression, in patients with AD and in other patients taking n-3 FA supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00211159.

  • 27.
    Karlström, Brita E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Järvi, Anette E.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Berglund, Lars G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Vessby, Bengt O. H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fatty fish in the diet of patients with type 2 diabetes: comparison of the metabolic effects of foods rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids2011In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dietary advice, including modification of dietary fat quality, is the basis of treatment of diabetes, but there is some uncertainty about the optimal amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-6 (omega-6) and n-3 (omega-3) series. Objective: The objective was to compare the effects of diets rich in n-3 or n-6 fatty acids on glucose and lipoprotein metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Design: In a crossover study during 2 consecutive 3.5-wk periods, the participants were provided diets with identical nutrient compositions containing either a high proportion of n-3 (n-3 diet) or n-6 (n-6 diet) fatty acids through the inclusion of fatty fish or lean fish and fat containing linoleic acid, respectively. Results: Blood glucose concentrations at fasting and during the day were lower with the n-6 than with the n-3 diet (P = 0.009 and P = 0.029, respectively), and the area under the insulin curve during the day was significantly higher (P = 0.03) with the n-6 diet. Both diets showed similar effects on insulin sensitivity and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentrations. The reductions in VLDLs and serum apolipoprotein B concentrations were more pronounced after the n-3 diet. Conclusions: The risk related to the moderately higher blood glucose concentrations with the n-3-enriched diet may be counteracted by positive effects with regard to lipoprotein concentrations. An increase in long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fatty fish, and of n-6 fatty acids from linoleic acid, may be recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes.

  • 28. Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O
    et al.
    den Hoed, Marcel
    Ong, Ken K
    Grøntved, Anders
    Brage, Soren
    Jameson, Karen
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Loos, Ruth J F
    Obesity-susceptibility loci have a limited influence on birth weight: a meta-analysis of up to 28,219 individuals.2011In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 93, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: High birth weight is associated with adult body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that birth weight and BMI may partly share a common genetic background.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the associations of 12 established BMI variants in or near the NEGR1, SEC16B, TMEM18, ETV5, GNPDA2, BDNF, MTCH2, BCDIN3D, SH2B1, FTO, MC4R, and KCTD15 genes and their additive score with birth weight.

    DESIGN: A meta-analysis was conducted with the use of 1) the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk, Hertfordshire, Fenland, and European Youth Heart Study cohorts (n(max) = 14,060); 2) data extracted from the Early Growth Genetics Consortium meta-analysis of 6 genome-wide association studies for birth weight (n(max) = 10,623); and 3) all published data (n(max) = 14,837).

    RESULTS: Only the MTCH2 and FTO loci showed a nominally significant association with birth weight. The BMI-increasing allele of the MTCH2 variant (rs10838738) was associated with a lower birth weight (β ± SE: -13 ± 5 g/allele; P = 0.012; n = 23,680), and the BMI-increasing allele of the FTO variant (rs1121980) was associated with a higher birth weight (β ± SE: 11 ± 4 g/allele; P = 0.013; n = 28,219). These results were not significant after correction for multiple testing.

    CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-susceptibility loci have a small or no effect on weight at birth. Some evidence of an association was found for the MTCH2 and FTO loci, ie, lower and higher birth weight, respectively. These findings may provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms by which these loci confer an increased risk of obesity.

  • 29. Klingenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Chaput, Jean-Philippe
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Jennum, Poul
    Astrup, Arne
    Sjodin, Anders
    Sleep restriction is not associated with a positive energy balance in adolescent boys2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A short sleep (SS) duration has been linked to obesity in observational studies. However, experimental evidence of the potential mechanisms of sleep restriction on energy balance is conflicting and, to our knowledge, nonexistent in adolescents.

    Objective: We investigated the effects of 3 consecutive nights of partial sleep deprivation on components of energy balance.

    Design: In a randomized, crossover design, 21 healthy, normal-weight male adolescents (mean +/- SD age: 16.8 +/- 1.3 y) completed the following 2 experimental conditions, each for 3 consecutive nights: an SS (4 h/night) and a long sleep (LS; 9 h/night) duration. Endpoints were 24-h energy expenditure (EE), spontaneous physical activity (SPA), postintervention diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), appetite sensations, ad libitum energy intake (EI), and profiles of plasma ghrelin and leptin.

    Results: The 24-h EE on day 3 was 370 +/- 496 kJ higher in the SS condition than in the LS condition (P = 0.003). This difference in EE was explained by prolonged wakefulness in the SS condition and a 19% higher SPA (P = 0.003). In a postintervention breakfast-meal challenge, there was a 0.19-kJ/min smaller incremental AUC in DIT over 4 h in the SS condition than in the LS condition (P = 0.012) with no time X condition effect (P = 0.29). Subjects consumed 13% less energy in the ad libitum meal in the SS condition (P = 0.031), with a concomitant decreased motivation to eat. Concentrations of ghrelin and leptin remained unchanged with sleep restriction.

    Conclusion: Short-term sleep restriction in male adolescents is associated with a small negative energy balance driven by increased EE from prolonged wakefulness and a concomitant decreased El and motivation to eat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01198431.

  • 30.
    Knutson, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Koenders, Damiet J. P. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Fridblom, Helle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Viberg, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Sein, Arjen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Gastrointestinal metabolism of a vegetable-oil emulsion in healthy subjects2010In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 515-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Given the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight-management strategies could be developed based on the effect of specific food ingredients on the gastrointestinal system to reduce food intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which a vegetable-oil emulsion may exert its effect on satiety by applying a multilumen tube to investigate digestion and absorption of lipids in the stomach and proximal jejunum. DESIGN: We gave 16 healthy, normal-weight subjects (in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design) a test product (yogurt with a vegetable-oil emulsion) or an equal-calorie control by intragastric administration on 2 separate occasions. Gastric and intestinal samples were collected from the proximal jejunum during 180 min. RESULTS: We observed almost double amounts (P < 0.05) of total lipids, mainly as free fatty acids, from the test product (450 +/- 119 mg) in the proximal jejunum compared with amounts of total lipids from the control product (230 +/- 50 mg), and an over-time difference of free fatty acid concentrations was observed between the products (P < 0.05). To our knowledge, a novel and unexpected finding was the appearance of needle-shaped crystals in the jejunal samples that originated from the vegetable-oil emulsion and consisted of saturated fatty acids. Crystals were only rarely seen in the control samples. CONCLUSION: The higher amount of lipids in the proximal jejunum and the recovery of crystals in the intestinal samples after test-product infusion provide a plausible physiologic explanation for the ileal brake mechanism that leads to the increased satiety observed for this test product.

  • 31. Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    et al.
    Ulven, Stine M
    Paananen, Jussi
    de Mello, Vanessa
    Schwab, Ursula
    Carlberg, Carsten
    Myhrstad, Mari
    Pihlajamäki, Jussi
    Dungner, Elisabeth
    Sjölin, Eva
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Landin-Olsson, Mona
    Akesson, Björn
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Hukkanen, Janne
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Dragsted, Lars O
    Savolainen, Markku J
    Brader, Lea
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Poutanen, Kaisa S
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Arner, Peter
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Healthy Nordic diet downregulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome.2015In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 101, no 1, p. 228-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previously, a healthy Nordic diet (ND) has been shown to have beneficial health effects close to those of Mediterranean diets.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore whether the ND has an impact on gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and whether changes in gene expression are associated with clinical and biochemical effects.

    DESIGN: Obese adults with features of the metabolic syndrome underwent an 18- to 24-wk randomized intervention study comparing the ND with the control diet (CD) (the SYSDIET study, carried out within Nordic Centre of Excellence of the Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies). The present study included participants from 3 Nordic SYSDIET centers [Kuopio (n = 20), Lund (n = 18), and Oulu (n = 18)] with a maximum weight change of ±4 kg, highly sensitive C-reactive protein concentration <10 mg/L at the beginning and the end of the intervention, and baseline body mass index (in kg/m(2)) <38. SAT biopsy specimens were obtained before and after the intervention and subjected to global transcriptome analysis with Gene 1.1 ST Arrays (Affymetrix).

    RESULTS: Altogether, 128 genes were differentially expressed in SAT between the ND and CD (nominal P < 0.01; false discovery rate, 25%). These genes were overrepresented in pathways related to immune response (adjusted P = 0.0076), resulting mainly from slightly decreased expression in the ND and increased expression in the CD. Immune-related pathways included leukocyte trafficking and macrophage recruitment (e.g., interferon regulatory factor 1, CD97), adaptive immune response (interleukin32, interleukin 6 receptor), and reactive oxygen species (neutrophil cytosolic factor 1). Interestingly, the regulatory region of the 128 genes was overrepresented for binding sites for the nuclear transcription factor κB.

    CONCLUSION: A healthy Nordic diet reduces inflammatory gene expression in SAT compared with a control diet independently of body weight change in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00992641.

  • 32.
    Kuehnelt, Doris
    et al.
    Institute of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz.
    Engström, Karin
    Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University.
    Skroder, Helena
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Kokarnig, Sabine
    Institute of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz.
    Schlebusch, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University.
    Kippler, Maria
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Alhamdow, Ayman
    Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University.
    Nermell, Barbro
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Francesconi, Kevin
    Institute of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz.
    Broberg, Karin
    Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University.
    Vahter, Marie
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Selenium metabolism to the trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) varies markedly because of polymorphisms in the indolethylamine N-methyltransferase gene2015In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 102, no 6, p. 1406-1415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Selenium is an essential element, but its metabolism in humans is not well characterized. A few small studies indicate that the trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) is a common selenium metabolite in humans. Objective: This study aimed to elucidate the human metabolism of selenium to TMSe. Design: Study individuals constituted subsamples of 2 cohorts: 1) pregnant women (n = 228) and their 5-y-old children (n = 205) in rural Bangladesh with poor selenium status [median urinary selenium (U-Se): 6.4 mu g/L in mothers, 14 mu g/L in children] and 2) women in the Argentinian Andes (n = 83) with adequate selenium status (median U-Se: 24 mu g/L). Total U-Se and blood selenium were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), and urinary concentrations of TMSe were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography/vapor generation/ICPMS. A genomewide association study (GWAS) was performed for 1,629,299 (after filtration) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Bangladeshi women (n = 72) by using Illumina Omni5M, and results were validated by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: TMSe "producers" were prevalent (approximately one-third) among the Bangladeshi women and their children, in whom TMSe constituted similar to 10-70% of U-Se, whereas "nonproducers" had, on average, 0.59% TMSe. The TMSe-producing women had, on average, 2-mu g U-Se/L higher concentrations than did the nonproducers. In contrast, only 3 of the 83 Andean women were TMSe producers (6-15% TMSe in the urine); the average percentage among the nonproducers was 0.35%. Comparison of the percentage of urinary TMSe in mothers and children indicated a strong genetic influence. The GWAS identified 3 SNPs in the indolethylamine N-methyltransferase gene (INMT) that were strongly associated with percentage of TMSe (P < 0.001, false-discovery rate corrected) in both cohorts. Conclusions: There are remarkable population and individual variations in the formation of TMSe, which could largely be explained by SNPs in INMT. The TMSe-producing women had higher U-Se concentrations than did nonproducers, but further elucidation of the metabolic pathways of selenium is essential for the understanding of its role in human health.

  • 33. Kuhnt, K
    et al.
    Wagner, A
    Kraft, J
    Basu, S
    Jahreis, G
    The Dietary supplementation with t-11 and 1-12 18:1 fatty acids in humans and oxidative stress.2006In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 84, p. 981-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Kuhnt, Katrin
    et al.
    Wagner, Andreas
    Kraft, Jana
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jahreis, Gerhard
    Dietary supplementation with 11trans- and 12trans-18:1 and oxidative stress in humans2006In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 84, no 5, p. 981-988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High consumption of trans fat has been associated with high oxidative stress in humans, which could increase the risk of the development or acceleration of several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and type 2 diabetes.

    Objective: Several urinary and blood biomarkers of oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin-F2(alpha) (PGF(2 alpha)), 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha), and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxy-guanosine in urine and alpha-, beta, gamma-, delta-tocopherol, and retinol in plasma] were monitored to evaluate the oxidative stress induced by dietary supplementation of 11trans- and 12trans-18:1 isomers in humans during a 6-wk intervention.

    Design: After a 14-d adaptation period free of trans fatty acid supplementation (baseline), the test group (n = 12) received 3.0 g 11trans-18:1/d and 3.0 g 12trans-18:1/d (Sigma 6.0 g/d), and the control group (n = 12) consumed a control oil free of trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids for 6 wk.

    Results: The postintervention concentration of urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) (free radical-induced lipid peroxidation) in the test group was significantly higher than baseline and significantly higher than that observed in the control group. The concentrations of 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammatory response indicator) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxy-guanosine (oxidative DNA damage) were not affected by the 11trans- and 12trans-18:1 supplementation.

    Conclusions: Although an increase in urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) was observed and the effects of prolonged high (ie, > 5.0 g/d) consumption of trans fat could be relevant to the development of disease, the mean intakes of 11trans- and 12trans-18:1 in Europeans are estimated to be significantly below the amounts administered in this study (ie, 6.0 g/d); such low intakes could minimize the possible risk of detrimental effects on human health.

  • 35. Landberg, Rikard
    et al.
    Aman, Per
    Friberg, Lena E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Adlercreutz, Herman
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Dose response of whole-grain biomarkers: alkylresorcinols in human plasma and their metabolites in urine in relation to intake2009In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 290-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Alkylresorcinols (ARs), phenolic lipids almost exclusively present in the outer parts of wheat and rye grains in commonly consumed foods, have been proposed as specific dietary biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intakes.

    Objective:

    The objective was to assess the dose response of plasma ARs and the excretion of 2 recently discovered AR metabolites in 24-h urine samples in relation to AR intake and to establish a pharmacokinetic model for predicting plasma AR concentration.

    Design:

    Sixteen subjects were given rye bran flakes containing 11, 22, or 44 mg total ARs 3 times daily during week-long intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods in a nonblinded randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after the 1-wk run-in period, and after each treatment and washout period. Two 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline and after each treatment period.

    Results:

    Plasma AR concentrations and daily excretion of 2 urinary AR metabolites increased with increasing AR dose (P < 0.001). Recovery of urinary metabolites in 24-h samples decreased with increasing doses from ≈90% to ≈45% in the range tested. A one-compartment model with 2 absorption compartments with different lag times and absorption rate constants adequately predicted plasma AR concentrations at the end of each intervention period.

    Conclusion:

    Both plasma AR concentrations and urinary metabolites in 24-h samples showed a dose-response relation to increased AR intake, which strongly supports the hypothesis that ARs and their metabolites may be useful as biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intakes.

  • 36. Larsson, Susanna C.
    et al.
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Näslund, Ingmar
    Rutegård, Jörgen
    Wolk, Alicja
    Vitamin A, retinol, and carotenoids and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study2007In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vitamin A may influence gastric carcinogenesis through its essential role in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. However, epidemiologic studies of vitamin A, retinol (preformed vitamin A), and provitamin A carotenoids in relation to the risk of gastric cancer have documented inconsistent results. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the associations between intakes of vitamin A, retinol, and specific carotenoids and the risk of gastric cancer in a prospective population-based cohort study of Swedish adults. Design: The study cohort consisted of 82 002 Swedish adults aged 45-83 y who had completed a food-frequency questionnaire in 1997. The participants were followed through June 2005. Results: During a mean 7.2-y follow-up, 139 incident cases of gastric cancer were diagnosed. High intakes of vitamin A and retinol from foods only (dietary intake) and from foods and supplements combined (total intake) and of dietary α-carotene and β-carotene were associated with a lower risk of gastric cancer. The multivariate relative risks for the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake were 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32,0.89; P for trend = 0.02) for total vitamin A, 0.56 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.95; P for trend = 0.05) for total retinol, 0.50 (95% CI: 0.30,0.83; P for trend = 0.03) for a-carotene, and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.94; P for trend = 0.07) for β-carotene. No significant associations were found for β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, or lycopene intake. Conclusion: High intakes of vitamin A, retinol, and provitamin A carotenoids may reduce the risk of gastric cancer.

  • 37. Larsson, Susanna C.
    et al.
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Conjugated linoleic acid intake and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women2009In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 556-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies in animals and in vitro suggest that conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), a group of fatty acids found mainly in dairy products and in the meat of ruminants, have protective effects against mammary carcinogenesis. However, findings from epidemiologic studies on CLA intake in relation to breast cancer risk are sparse and inconsistent. Objective: The objective was to examine prospectively the association between CLA intake and the incidence of invasive breast cancer in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Design: In 1987-1990, 61,433 cancer-free women completed a food-frequency questionnaire from which we estimated each woman's CLA intake. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks, adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 17.4 y, 2952 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. In multivariate analyses, no significant association was observed between dietary CLA intake and risk of breast cancer, overall or by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. The multivariate relative risks (95% CI) for the highest quintile of CLA intake (>= 155.7 mg/d) compared with the lowest quintile (<78.1 mg/d) were 1.04 (0.92, 1.17) for overall breast cancer, 1.09 (0.90, 1.31) for ER+/PR+ tumors, 1.09 (0.78, 1.53) for ER+/PR- tumors, and 0.84 (0.57, 1.24) for ER-/PR-tumors. Conclusion: The results provide no evidence of a protective effect of CLA against breast cancer development in women.

  • 38. Larsson, Susanna C.
    et al.
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Consumption of sugar and sugar-sweetened foods and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective study2006In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 84, no 5, p. 1171-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Emerging evidence indicates that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia may be implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer. Frequent consumption of sugar and high-sugar foods may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer by inducing frequent postprandial hyperglycemia, increasing insulin demand, and decreasing insulin sensitivity.

    Objective: The objective of the study was to examine prospectively the association of the consumption of added sugar (ie, sugar added to coffee, tea, cereals, etc) and of high-sugar foods with the risk of pancreatic cancer in a population-based cohort study of Swedish women and men.

    Design: A food-frequency questionnaire was completed in 1997 by 77 797 women and men aged 45-83 y who had no previous diagnosis of cancer or history of diabetes. The participants were followed through June 2005.

    Results: During a mean follow-up of 7.2 y, we identified 131 incident cases of pancreatic cancer. The consumption of added sugar, soft drinks, and sweetened fruit soups or stewed fruit was positively associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. The multivariate hazard ratios for the highest compared with the lowest consumption categories were 1.69 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.89; P for trend = 0.06) for sugar, 1.93 (1.18, 3.14; P for trend = 0.02) for soft drinks, and 1.51 (0.97, 2.36; P for trend 0.05) for sweetened fruit soups or stewed fruit.

    Conclusion: High consumption of sugar and high-sugar foods may be associated with a greater risk of pancreatic cancer.

  • 39. Larsson, Susanna C.
    et al.
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Long-term dietary calcium intake and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of women2009In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 277-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Calcium may potentially influence the risk of breast cancer because of its role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, prospective studies of calcium intake in relation to breast cancer incidence are sparse. Objective: The objective of this study was to prospectively examine and show the association, if any, of dietary calcium intake with risk of breast cancer by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumor. Design: The Swedish Mammography Cohort is a population-based prospective cohort of 61,433 women who were cancer-free at enrollment in 1987-1990. Dietary calcium intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and again in 1997. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs, adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. Results: During an average of 17.4 y of follow-up, 2952 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were ascertained. Dietary calcium intake was not associated with risk of overall breast cancer; the multivariate RR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of calcium intake was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.09; P for trend: 0.49). There was a statistically significant inverse trend for ER-negative/PR-negative (ER-/PR-) breast cancer (P for trend: 0.02); the multivariate RR for the comparison of extreme quintiles of calcium intake was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.99). Calcium intake was not associated with ER-positive/ PR-positive (ER+/PR+) or ER+/PR-tumors. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between dietary calcium intake and overall breast cancer risk. The inverse relation between calcium intake and ER-/PR- breast cancer requires confirmation in other studies.

  • 40. Larsson, Susanna C.
    et al.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Multivitamin use and breast cancer incidence in a prospective cohort of Swedish women2010In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 91, no 5, p. 1268-1272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many women use multivitamins in the belief that these supplements will prevent chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, whether the use of multivitamins affects the risk of breast cancer is unclear. Objective: We prospectively examined the association between multivitamin use and the incidence of invasive breast cancer in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Design: In 1997, 35,329 cancer-free women completed a self-administered questionnaire that solicited information on multivitamin use as well as other breast cancer risk factors. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated by using Cox proportional hazard models and adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 9.5 y, 974 women were diagnosed with incident breast cancer. Multivitamin use was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer. The multivariable RR of women who reported the use of multivitamins was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.37). The association did not differ significantly by hormone receptor status of the breast tumor. Conclusions: These results suggest that multivitamin use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. This observed association is of concern and merits further investigation.

  • 41. Lindgärde, Folke
    et al.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ahrén, Bo
    Serum cholesteryl fatty acid composition and plasma glucose concentrations in Amerindian women2006In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 84, no 5, p. 1009-1013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions in women of Amerindian origin. The risk of developing diabetes has been found to be related to the serum fatty acid composition in whites.

    Objective: We prospectively investigated the relation between the serum cholesteryl fatty acid composition and changes in fasting plasma glucose concentrations in Peruvian Indian women who are characterized by hyperinsulinemia in comparison to white women.

    Design: A 5-y follow-up study of 73 women with normal fasting plasma glucose values was undertaken by performing a survey in 1999 and a follow-up survey in 2004. The studied variables included anthropometric measurements, plasma insulin and leptin, dietary food consumption from 24-h recall, blood pressure, and serum fatty acid composition.

    Results: The participants developed significantly higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations in 2004 compared with 1999 (P < 0.0001) with unaltered plasma insulin values. Palmitoleic acid (16:ln-7) in 1999 was the only fatty acid that was significantly correlated to glucose concentration at follow-up. In a multiple regression analysis that included waist circumference, percentage of body fat, systolic blood pressure, and circulating triacylglycerol, insulin, leptin, and 16:ln-7 as independent determinants, 16:ln-7 and systolic blood pressure were the only significant determinants of plasma glucose concentration 5 y later.

    Conclusions: A high proportion of 16:ln-7 in serum is an independent predictor of high plasma glucose concentrations in Amerindian women. The reason for this association remains to be elucidated.

  • 42.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Baron, John A
    Snellman, Greta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Gedeborg, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Berglund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Blomhoff, Rune
    Wolk, Alicja
    Garmo, Hans
    Regional Oncologic Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Plasma vitamin D and mortality in older men: a community-based prospective cohort study2010In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 841-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vitamin D status is known to be important for bone health but may also affect the development of several chronic diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, which are 2 major causes of death. Objective: We aimed to examine how vitamin D status relates to overall and cause-specific mortality. Design: The Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, a community-based cohort of elderly men (mean age at baseline: 71 y; n = 1194), was used to investigate the association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and mortality. Total plasma 25(OH)D was determined with HPLC atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Proportional hazards regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs). Results: During follow-up (median: 12.7 y), 584 (49%) participants died. There was a U-shaped association between vitamin D concentrations and total mortality. An approximately 50% higher total mortality rate was observed among men in the lowest 10% (<46 nmol/L) and the highest 5% (>98 nmol/L) of plasma 25(OH)D concentrations compared with intermediate concentrations. Cancer mortality was also higher at low plasma concentrations (multivariable-adjusted HR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.38) and at high concentrations (HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.46, 4.78). For cardiovascular death, only low (HR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.96) but not high (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 0.69, 2.54) concentrations indicated higher risk. Conclusions: Both high and low concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D are associated with elevated risks of overall and cancer mortality. Low concentrations are associated with cardiovascular mortality.

  • 43.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Intake and serum concentrations of α-tocopherol in relation to fractures in elderly women and men: 2 cohort studies2014In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    A reduction in the formation of free radicals and oxidative stress might reduce the rate of bone loss and muscle wasting.

    OBJECTIVE:

    The objective was to determine whether α-tocopherol intake or serum concentrations are associated with fracture risk in older women and men.

    DESIGN:

    Two cohort studies, the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC; n = 61,433 women) and the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM; n = 1138 men), were used.

    RESULTS:

    During 19 y of follow-up, 14,738 women in the SMC experienced a first fracture at any site (3871 hip fractures). A higher hip fracture rate was observed with lower intakes of α-tocopherol. Compared with the highest quintile of intake, the lowest quintile had a multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.67, 2.06). The HR of any fracture was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.28). α-Tocopherol-containing supplement use was associated with a reduced rate of hip fracture (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.93) and any fracture (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.94). Compared with the highest quintile of α-tocopherol intake in ULSAM (follow-up: 12 y), lower intakes (quintiles 1-4) were associated with a higher rate of hip fracture (HR: 3.33; 95% CI: 1.43, 7.76) and any fracture (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.88). The HR for hip fracture in men for each 1-SD decrease in serum α-tocopherol was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.22) and for any fracture was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48).

    CONCLUSION:

    Low intakes and low serum concentrations of α-tocopherol are associated with an increased rate of fracture in elderly women and men.

  • 44. Miles, Elizabeth A
    et al.
    Noakes, Paul S
    Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella
    Vlachava, Maria
    Diaper, Norma D
    Rosenlund, Grethe
    Urwin, Heidi
    Yaqoob, Parveen
    Rossary, Adrien
    Farges, Marie-Chantal
    Vasson, Marie-Paule
    Liaset, Bjørn
    Frøyland, Livar
    Helmersson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Garcia, Erika
    Olza, Josune
    Mesa, Maria D
    Aguilera, Concepcion M
    Gil, Angel
    Robinson, Sian M
    Inskip, Hazel M
    Godfrey, Keith M
    Calder, Philip C
    The Salmon in Pregnancy Study: study design, subject characteristics, maternal fish and marine n-3 fatty acid intake, and marine n-3 fatty acid status in maternal and umbilical cord blood2011In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 94, no 6, p. 1986S-1992SArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Oily fish provides marine n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids that are considered to be important in the growth, development, and health of the fetus and newborn infant.

    OBJECTIVES:

    The objectives were to increase salmon consumption among pregnant women and to determine the effect on maternal and umbilical cord plasma marine n-3 fatty acid content.

    DESIGN:

    Women (n = 123) with low habitual consumption of oily fish were randomly assigned to continue their habitual diet or were provided with 2 portions of farmed salmon/wk to include in their diet from week 20 of pregnancy until delivery.

    RESULTS:

    Median weekly consumption frequency of study salmon in the salmon group was 1.94 portions, and total fish consumption frequency was 2.11 portions/wk in the salmon group and 0.47 portions/wk in the control group (P < 0.001). Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the diet, from seafood, and from oily fish were higher in the salmon group (all P < 0.001). Percentages of EPA and DHA in plasma phosphatidylcholine decreased during pregnancy in the control group (P for trend = 0.029 and 0.008, respectively), whereas they increased in the salmon group (P for trend for both < 0.001). EPA and DHA percentages were higher in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine at weeks 34 and 38 of pregnancy and in umbilical cord plasma phosphatidylcholine in the salmon group (P < 0.001 for all).

    CONCLUSION:

    If pregnant women, who do not regularly eat oily fish, eat 2 portions of salmon/wk, they will increase their intake of EPA and DHA, achieving the recommended minimum intake; and they will increase their and their fetus' status of EPA and DHA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00801502.

  • 45. Moore, Sophie E.
    et al.
    Prentice, Andrew M.
    Coward, W. Andy
    Wright, Antony
    Frongillo, Edward A.
    Fulford, Anthony J.C.
    Mander, Adrian P.
    Persson, Lars Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Arifeen, Shams E.
    Kabir, Iqbal
    Use of stable-isotope techniques to validate infant feeding practices reported by Bangladeshi women receiving breastfeeding counseling2007In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 1075-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until age 6 mo. Studies relying on mothers' self-reported behaviors have shown that lactation counseling increases both the rate and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Objective: We aimed to validate reported infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh; intakes of breast milk and nonbreast-milk water were measured by the dose-given-to-the mother deuterium dilution technique. Design: Subjects were drawn from the large-scale Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab, study of combined interventions to improve maternal and infant health, in which women were randomly assigned to receive either exclusive breastfeeding counseling or standard health care messages. Data on infant feeding practices were collected by questionnaire at monthly visits. Intakes of breast milk and nonbreast-milk water were measured in a subsample of 98 mother-infant pairs (mean infant age: 14.3 wk) and compared with questionnaire data reporting feeding practices. Results: Seventy-five of the 98 subjects reported exclusive breastfeeding. Mean (±SD) breast milk intake was 884 ± 163 mL/d in that group and 791 ± 180 mL/d in the group reported as nonexclusively breastfed (P = 0.0267). Intakes of nonbreast-milk water were 40 ± 80.6 and 166 ± 214 mL/d (P < 0.0001), respectively. Objective cross-validation using deuterium dilution data showed good accuracy in reporting of feeding practices, although apparent misreporting was widely present in both groups. Conclusions: The dose-given-to-the-mother deuterium dilution technique can be applied to validate reported feeding behaviors. Whereas this technique shows that the reports of feeding practices were accurate at the group level, it is not adequate to distinguish between feeding practices in individual infants.

  • 46. Naessen, Sabine
    et al.
    Carlström, Kjell
    Holst, Jens J.
    Hellström, Per M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hirschberg, Angelica L.
    Women with bulimia nervosa exhibit attenuated secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1, pancreatic polypeptide, and insulin in response to a meal2011In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 967-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The eating disorder bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating, followed regularly by inappropriate compensatory behavior, such as self-induced vomiting.

    Objective:

    The current investigation was designed to examine possible alterations in the secretion of the gastrointestinal satiety peptides glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in women with BN.

    Design:

    Twenty-one women with BN and 17 healthy control subjects of comparable age and BMI were recruited. After fasting overnight, the subjects provided blood samples during ingestion of a standardized meal and self-rated their appetite on a visual analog scale. Fasting and meal-related secretion of the incretin GLP-1 and the meal-related feedback signal PP and insulin and glucose as indicators of the metabolic homeostasis were analyzed.

    Results:

    Women with BN had significantly lower fasting and postprandial serum concentrations of GLP-1 (P < 0.01) and PP (P < 0.05) than did the control subjects. Furthermore, both the basal (P < 0.001) and peak (P < 0.05) concentrations of insulin were significantly attenuated in the bulimic subjects, whereas glucose concentrations were normal. As a consequence, the bulimic homeostasis model assessment of insulin index values were also lower (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions:

    Women with BN secrete abnormally low amounts of GLP-1 and PP, possibly because of the adaption to large meals in the form of enlarged gastric capacity and reduced muscle tone in the gastric wall. Attenuated secretion of these gastrointestinal satiety peptides may play a role in the maintenance of bulimic behavior.

  • 47.
    Olsson, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical pharmacogenomics and osteoporosis.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Vitamin D is not associated with incident dementia or cognitive impairment: an 18-y follow-up study in community-living old men2017In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 936-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vitamin D has been implicated as being important for maintaining cognitive function in old age. Results from longitudinal studies examining the association of vitamin D with incident dementia and cognitive impairment have been inconsistent. Objective: We investigated the relation between vitamin D, assessed in 3 different ways, and the risk of dementia. Design: We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, assessed dietary vitamin D intake with the use of 7-d dietary records, and created a vitamin D-synthesis genetic risk score (GRS) at baseline (1991-1995) in a cohort of 1182 Swedish men (mean age: 71 y). In a maximum of 18 y (median: 12 y) of follow-up, 116 men developed Alzheimer disease, 64 men developed vascular dementia, and 250 men developed all-cause dementia. An additional 80 men declined in cognitive function as assessed with the use of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Adjusted HRs and ORs were calculated with the use of Cox and logistic regressions. Results: The mean +/- SD plasma 25(OH) D concentration was 68.7 +/- 19.1 nmol/L. Plasma 25(OH) D, dietary vitamin D intake, and vitamin D-synthesis GRS were not associated with any cognitive outcomes (crude and adjusted HRs and ORs were similar to 1.0 for all continuous exposures). The adjusted HR for all-cause dementia was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.31) in men with plasma 25(OH) D concentrations <= 50 compared with >75 nmol/L. The adjusted HR for all-cause dementia was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.32) for the lowest compared with highest tertiles of vitamin D intake. The adjusted HR for the continuous GRS for all-cause dementia was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.19). Conclusion: In this cohort study, we show that there is no association between baseline vitamin D status and long-term risk of dementia or cognitive impairment over an 18-y period of time.

  • 48. Perez-Martinez, Pablo
    et al.
    Delgado-Lista, Javier
    Garcia-Rios, Antonio
    Ferguson, Jane F.
    Gulseth, Hanne L.
    Williams, Christine M.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kiec-Wilk, Beata
    Blaak, Ellen E.
    Helal, Olfa
    Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata
    Defoort, Catherine
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Saris, Wim H.
    Lovegrove, Julie A.
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Roche, Helen M.
    Lopez-Miranda, Jose
    Calpain-10 interacts with plasma saturated fatty acid concentrations to influence insulin resistance in individuals with the metabolic syndrome2011In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 1136-1141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Calpain-10 protein (intracellular Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease) may play a role in glucose metabolism, pancreatic beta cell function, and regulation of thermogenesis. Several CAPN10 polymorphic sites have been studied for their potential use as risk markers for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fatty acids are key metabolic regulators that may interact with genetic factors and influence glucose metabolism. Objective: The objective was to examine whether the genetic variability at the CAPN10 gene locus is associated with the degree of insulin resistance and plasma fatty acid concentrations in subjects with MetS. Design: The insulin sensitivity index, glucose effectiveness, insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], insulin secretion (disposition index, acute insulin response, and HOMA of beta cell function), plasma fatty acid composition, and 5 CAPN10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined in a cross-sectional analysis of 452 subjects with MetS participating in the LIPGENE dietary intervention cohort. Results: The rs2953171 SNP interacted with plasma total saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentrations, which were significantly associated with insulin sensitivity (P < 0.031 for fasting insulin, P < 0.028 for HOMA-IR, and P < 0.012 for glucose effectiveness). The G/G genotype was associated with lower fasting insulin concentrations, lower HOMA-IR, and higher glucose effectiveness in subjects with low SFA concentrations (below the median) than in subjects with the minor A allele (G/A and A/A). In contrast, subjects with the G/G allele with the highest SFA concentrations (above the median) had higher fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values and lower glucose effectiveness than did subjects with the A allele. Conclusion: The rs2953171 polymorphism at the CAPN10 gene locus may influence insulin sensitivity by interacting with the plasma fatty acid composition in subjects with MetS. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00429195.

  • 49.
    Perfilyev, Alexander
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Diabet Ctr, Epigenet & Diabet Unit,Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden..
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gillberg, Linn
    Rigshosp, Dept Endocrinol, Diabet & Metab, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Volkov, Petr
    Lund Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Diabet Ctr, Epigenet & Diabet Unit,Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Emma
    Lund Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Diabet Ctr, Epigenet & Diabet Unit,Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ling, Charlotte
    Lund Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Diabet Ctr, Epigenet & Diabet Unit,Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden..
    Impact of polyunsaturated and saturated fat overfeeding on the DNA-methylation pattern in human adipose tissue: a randomized controlled trial2017In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 991-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dietary fat composition can affect ectopic lipid accumulation and, thereby, insulin resistance. Diets that are high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have different metabolic responses. Objective: We investigated whether the epigenome of human adipose tissue is affected differently by dietary fat composition and general overfeeding in a randomized trial. Design: We studied the effects of 7 wk of excessive SFA (n = 17) or PUFA (n = 14) intake (+750 kcal/d) on the DNA methylation of similar to 450,000 sites in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Both diets resulted in similar body weight increases. We also combined the data from the 2 groups to examine the overall effect of overfeeding on the DNA methylation in adipose tissue. Results: The DNA methylation of 4875 Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites was affected differently between the 2 diets. Furthermore, both the SFA and PUFA diets increased the mean degree of DNA methylation in adipose tissue, particularly in promoter regions. However, although the mean methylation was changed in 1797 genes [e.g., alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (FTO), interleukin 6 (IL6), insulin receptor (INSR), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] by PUFAs, only 125 genes [e.g., adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing (ADIPOQ)] were changed by SFA overfeeding. In addition, the SFA diet significantly altered the expression of 28 transcripts [e.g., acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1)], whereas the PUFA diet did not significantly affect gene expression. When the data from the 2 diet groups were combined, the mean methylation of 1444 genes, including fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1), fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), MC3R, PPARG coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), was changed in adipose tissue by overfeeding. Moreover, the baseline DNA methylation of 12 CpG sites that was annotated to 9 genes [e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (MAPK7), melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), and splicing factor SWAP homolog (SFRS8)] was associated with the degree of weight increase in response to extra energy intake. Conclusions: SFA overfeeding and PUFA overfeeding induce distinct epigenetic changes in human adipose tissue. In addition, we present data that suggest that baseline DNA methylation can predict weight increase in response to overfeeding in humans.

  • 50.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Bringeland, Nathalie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Bandstein, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Olaya Búcaro, Marcela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Vogel, Heike
    Department of Experimental Diabetology, German Institute of Human Nutrition (DIfE), Arthur-Scheunert Allee 114-116, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany; German Center of Diabetes Research, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.
    Schürmann, Annette
    Department of Experimental Diabetology, German Institute of Human Nutrition (DIfE), Arthur-Scheunert Allee 114-116, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany; German Center of Diabetes Research, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.
    Hogenkamp, Pleunie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Major difference in DNA methylation in blood between fasted and postprandial state; before and 160 min after meal2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 67
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