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  • 1. Ax, Erika
    Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey2015In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Warensjö-Lemming, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Becker, Wulf
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fung, Teresa T.
    Dietary patterns in Swedish adults: results from a national dietary survey2016In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 95-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010–11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51–0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25–0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20–0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13–0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes.

  • 3. Basic, Dean
    et al.
    Schjolden, Joachim
    Krogdahl, Ashild
    von Krogh, Kristine
    Hillestad, Marie
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Mayer, Ian
    Skjerve, Eystein
    Hoglund, Erik
    Changes in regional brain monoaminergic activity and temporary down-regulation in stress response from dietary supplementation with L-tryptophan in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)2013In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 109, no 12, p. 2166-2174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain monoamines serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) both play an integrative role in behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to challenges, and comparative models suggest common mechanisms for dietary modulation of transmission by these signal substances in vertebrates. Previous studies in teleosts demonstrate that 7 d of dietary administration with L-tryptophan (Trp), the direct precursor of 5-HT, suppresses the endocrine stress response. The present study investigated how long the suppressive effects of a Trp-enriched feed regimen, at doses corresponding to two, three or four times the Trp levels in commercial feed, last in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) when the fish are reintroduced to a diet with standard amino acid composition. We also wanted to determine whether Trp supplementation induced changes in brain monoaminergic neurochemistry in those forebrain structures innervated by DA- and 5-HTergic neurons, by measuring regional activity of DA and 5-HT in the lateral pallial regions (Dl) of the telencephalon and nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT) of the hypothalamus. Dietary Trp resulted in a dose-dependent suppression in plasma cortisol among fish exposed to confinement stress on the first day following experimental diet; however, such an effect was not observed at 2 or 6 d after Trp treatment. Feeding the fish with moderate Trp doses also evoked a general increase in DA and 5-HT-ergic activity, suggesting that these neural circuits within the NLT and Dl may be indirectly involved in regulating the acute stress response.

  • 4. Dawczynski, Christine
    et al.
    Schubert, Rainer
    Hein, Gert
    Mueller, Andreas
    Eidner, Thorsten
    Vogelsang, Heinz
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jahreis, Gerhard
    Long-term moderate intervention with n-3 long-chain PUFA-supplemented dairy products: effects on pathophysiological biomarkers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis2009In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 101, no 10, p. 1517-1526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA) may improve cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. The effects of n-3 LC-PUFA-supplemented dairy products on inflammation and immunological parameters, biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum lipids, and on disease activity were determined in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Forty-five subjects (forty-three females and two males) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Both groups received placebo or verum products consecutively for 3 months with a 2-month washout phase between the two periods. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and at the end of each period. The dairy products generally improved serum lipids by increasing HDL and lowering lipoprotein it. The n-3 LC-PUFA supplements act to lower TAG. Additionally, a decreased lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cylo-oxygenase-2 expression was found in patients who had consumed the enriched dairy products. The majority of the CD analysed were not influenced, although n-3 LC-PUFA did suppress the immune response as lymphocytes and monocytes were found to be significantly decreased. The n-3 LC-PUFA did not increase the biomarkers of oxidative stress such as 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha), and 15-keto-dihydro PGF(2 alpha), and DNA damage like 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. The long-term consumption of dairy products (2 x 12 weeks) diminished the excretion of hydroxypyridinium crosslinks, and favoured the diastolic blood pressure. The consumption of moderate doses of n-3 LC-PUFA in combination with dairy products did not improve the disease activity. However, there is evidence of cardioprotective effects. Furthermore, the long-term consumption of dairy products acts against the cartilage and bone destruction in RA.

  • 5.
    Doi, Mariko
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Sultana Rekha, Rokeya
    Laboratory Science Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B).
    Ahmed, Sultan
    Laboratory Science Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B).
    Okada, Masafumi
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Kumar Roy, Anjan
    Laboratory Science Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B).
    El Arifeen, Shams
    Child Health Unit, Public Health Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B).
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Raqib, Rubhana
    Laboratory Science Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B).
    Wagatsuma, Yukiko
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Association between calcium in cord blood and newborn size in Bangladesh2011In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 106, no 9, p. 1398-1407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ca status in the uterus during pregnancy has been suggested to affect fetal growth and size at birth. In Bangladesh, low Ca levels in pregnant women and low birth weight in infants are common. The present study explored the association between Ca levels in cord blood and newborn size at birth (birth weight and birth length) in Bangladesh. Samples and data included 223 women with live-born singleton deliveries in rural Bangladesh. Newborn weight and length were measured at birth. From cord blood obtained at delivery, Ca, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and intact parathyroid hormone levels were determined. An association between size at birth and Ca levels in cord blood was found (birth weight, P = 0·022; birth length, P = 0·001). Associations between Ca and newborn size were further analysed using multivariate regression analyses. After adjusting for several covariates of characteristics in mothers and newborns (gestational weeks at birth, sex of newborn, socio-economic status, maternal height, BMI, age and season at birth), birth length still exhibited a significant relationship with Ca levels in cord blood (birth length, P = 0·030). The present study indicates that Ca status in cord blood might be associated with the birth length of newborns. Ca levels during gestation may affect fetal growth.

  • 6. Freese, Riitta
    et al.
    Korkalo, Liisa
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vaara, Elina M.
    Hauta-Alus, Helena
    Selvester, Kerry
    Mutanen, Marja
    Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique2015In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 113, no 7, p. 1086-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18% of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9): arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

  • 7. Gulseth, Hanne L.
    et al.
    Gjelstad, Ingrid M. F.
    Tierney, Audrey C.
    Shaw, Danielle I.
    Helal, Olfa
    v. Hees, Anneke M. J.
    Delgado-Lista, Javier
    Leszczynska-Golabek, Iwona
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lovegrove, Julie
    Defoort, Catherine
    Blaak, Ellen E.
    Lopez-Miranda, Jose
    Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Roche, Helen M.
    Birkeland, Kåre I.
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Dietary fat modifications and blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome in the LIPGENE dietary intervention study2010In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 104, no 2, p. 160-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypertension is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome. Lifestyle and dietary changes may affect blood pressure (BP), but the knowledge of the effects of dietary fat modification in subjects with the metabolic syndrome is limited. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of an isoenergetic change in the quantity and quality of dietary fat on BP in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week European multi-centre, parallel, randomised controlled dietary intervention trial (LIPGENE), 486 subjects were assigned to one of the four diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: two high-fat diets rich in saturated fat or monounsaturated fat and two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets with or without 1.2 g/d of very long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation. There were no overall differences in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP or pulse pressure (PP) between the dietary groups after the intervention. The high-fat diet rich in saturated fat had minor unfavourable effects on SBP and PP in males.

  • 8. Helbig, Dorit
    et al.
    Wagner, Andreas
    Glei, Michael
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Schubert, Rainer
    Jahreis, Gerhard
    Blackcurrant seed press residue increases tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool whilst biomarkers in stool and urine indicate increased oxidative stress in human subjects2009In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 554-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Berry seeds are a tocopherol-rich by-product of fruit processing without specific commercial value. In a human intervention study, the physiological impact of blackcurrant seed press residue (PR) was tested. Thirty-six women (aged 24 +/- 3 years; twenty non-smokers, sixteen smokers) consumed 250 g bread/d containing 8% PR for a period of 4 weeks (period 3). Comparatively, a control bread without PR (250 g/d) was tested (period 2) and baseline data were obtained (period 1). Blood, stool and 24 h urine were collected during a 5 d standardised diet within each period. Tocopherol and Fe intakes were calculated from food intake. In serum, tocopherol concentration and Fe parameters were determined. In urine, oxidative stress markers 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-iso-PGF2alpha and inflammatory response marker 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha were analysed. Stool tocopherol concentration, genotoxicity of faecal water (comet assay) and antioxidant capacity of stool (aromatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid) were determined. Fe and total tocopherol intake, total tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool, and genotoxicity of faecal water increased with PR bread consumption (P < 0.05). The antioxidant capacity of stool decreased between baseline and intervention, expressed by increased formation of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid in vitro (P < 0.05). In smokers, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine increased with PR consumption (P < 0.05). Prostane concentrations were unaffected by PR bread consumption. In summary, the intake of bread containing blackcurrant PR for 4 weeks increased serum and stool total tocopherol concentrations. However, various biomarkers indicated increased oxidative stress, suggesting that consumption of ground berry seed may not be of advantage.

  • 9.
    Helmersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Low dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid is associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative stress status in a Swedish cohort2009In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 101, no 12, p. 1775-1782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including CVD. A part of these effects seen could be linked to anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects, although this has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on in vivo biomarkers of inflammation (PGF2alpha, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and IL-6 formation) and oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane formation), the two important factors associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. The dietary intake of 704 participants in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) at age 70 years was registered and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified 7 years later. The registered dietary intakes of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were negatively associated linearly and in quartiles with both PGF2alpha, hsCRP, IL-6 and F2-isoprostanes, where ascorbic acid intake generally was more strongly associated. Dietary intake of beta-carotene was only significantly negatively associated with F2-isoprostanes. In conclusion, the present study is the first to suggest that the intake of food rich in antioxidants is associated with reduced cyclo-oxygenase- and cytokine-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress at 7 years of follow-up. These associations could be linked to the beneficial effects of fruit and vegetables observed on CVD.

  • 10.
    Höglund, Erik
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Water Res NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo, Norway.;Univ Agder, Ctr Coastal Res, Postboks 422, N-4604 Kristiansand, Norway..
    Overli, Oyvind
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Anim & Agr Sci, POB 1432, As, Norway..
    Andersson, Madelene Å.
    Tech Univ Denmark, North Sea Ctr, Danish Inst Fisheries Res, Dept Marine Ecol & Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Silva, Patricia
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Anim & Agr Sci, POB 1432, As, Norway.;Tech Univ Denmark, North Sea Ctr, Danish Inst Fisheries Res, Dept Marine Ecol & Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Laursen, Danielle Caroline
    Tech Univ Denmark, North Sea Ctr, Danish Inst Fisheries Res, Dept Marine Ecol & Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Moltesen, Maria M.
    Tech Univ Denmark, North Sea Ctr, Danish Inst Fisheries Res, Dept Marine Ecol & Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Sect Ecol & Evolut, Univ Pk 15,Bldg 3,4th Floor, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Krogdahl, Åshild
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Basic Sci & Aquat Med, POB 8146 Dep, N-0033 Oslo, Norway..
    Schjolden, Joachim
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Anim & Agr Sci, POB 1432, As, Norway..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Vindas, Marco A.
    Uni Res AS, Uni Environm, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Mayer, Ian
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Prod Anim Clin Sci, POB 8146 Dep, N-0033 Oslo, Norway..
    Hillestad, Marie
    BioMar AS, Nordre Gate 11, N-7011 Trondheim, Norway..
    Dietary L-tryptophan leaves a lasting impression on the brain and the stress response2017In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 117, no 10, p. 1351-1357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative models suggest that effects of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) neurochemistry and stress responsiveness are present throughout the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, hypothalamic 5-HT seems to play a central role in control of the neuroendocrine stress axis in all vertebrates. Still, recent fish studies suggest long-term effects of dietary Trp on stress responsiveness, which are independent of hypothalamic 5-HT. Here, we investigated if dietary Trp treatment may result in long-lasting effects on stress responsiveness, including changes in plasma cortisol levels and 5-HT neurochemistry in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of Atlantic salmon. Fish were fed diets containing one, two or three times the Trp content in normal feed for 1 week. Subsequently, fish were reintroduced to control feed and were exposed to acute crowding stress for 1 h, 8 and 21 d post Trp treatment. Generally, acute crowding resulted in lower plasma cortisol levels in fish treated with 3xTrp compared with 1xTrp- and 2xTrp-treated fish. The same general pattern was reflected in telencephalic 5-HTergic turnover, for which 3xTrp-treated fish showed decreased values compared with 2xTrp-treated fish. These long-term effects on post-stress plasma cortisol levels and concomitant 5-HT turnover in the telencephalon lends further support to the fact that the extrahypothalamic control of the neuroendocrine stress response is conserved within the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, they indicate that trophic/structural effects in the brain underlie the effects of dietary Trp treatment on stress reactivity.

  • 11. Jakobsdottir, Greta
    et al.
    Jadert, Cecilia
    Holm, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Nyman, Margareta E.
    Propionic and butyric acids, formed in the caecum of rats fed highly fermentable dietary fibre, are reflected in portal and aortic serum2013In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 110, no 9, p. 1565-1572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SCFA are important end products formed during colonic fermentation of dietary fibre (DF). It has been suggested that propionic and butyric acids affect metabolic parameters, low-grade systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the various SCFA profiles observed after fermentation in the caecum of rats fed pectin, guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were also represented in hepatic portal and aortic serum. The SCFA in serum were extracted using hollow fibre-supported liquid membrane extraction before GLC analysis. The concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acids in caecal content correlated well with those in portal serum (P<0.001) for all the three diets. A weaker correlation was found for propionic and butyric acids between the caecal content and aortic serum (P<0.05). Butyric acid concentration in caecal content was also reflected in the aortic serum (P=0.019) of rats fed FOS. FOS gave rather low amounts of the SCFA, especially butyric acid, but caecal tissue weight was higher with FOS than with the other two diets. This may be explained by rapid fermentation and quick utilisation/absorption of the SCFA. The present study also showed that propionic acid was metabolised/utilised to a higher extent than butyric acid by colonocytes before reaching the liver. We conclude that the formation of propionic and butyric acids in the caecum is reflected by increased concentrations in the aortic blood. This approach may therefore simplify the evaluation and study of SCFA from DF in human subjects.

  • 12. Jansson, Erika
    et al.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Wolk, Alicja
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Åman, Per
    Presence of alkylresorcinols, potential whole grain biomarkers, in human adipose tissue2010In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 104, no 5, p. 633-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) in plasma samples have been suggested to be short- to medium-term biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake. In the present study, we investigated whether AR are present in human adipose tissues, and if content correlated with long-term whole grain bread intake. Furthermore, we investigated if the relative AR homologue composition reflected what has been found previously in the habitual diet of Swedes. Biopsy samples (10-25 mg) from free-living Swedish women (n 20) were analysed by GC-MS. The mean total AR concentration in the samples was 0.54 (SD 0.35) microg/g, ranging from below limit of quantification ( < 0.08 microg/g) to 1.50 microg/g. Whole grain bread intake was significantly correlated with plasma total AR content (r 0.48, P < 0.05), and the C17 : 0/C21 : 0 ratio was 0.35 (sd 0.24), which is similar to what is found in plasma among free-living subjects consuming a mixed whole grain wheat and rye diet. These results suggest that AR in the adipose tissue should be evaluated as a long-term biomarker of whole grain wheat and rye intake.

  • 13.
    Järvi, Anette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Natl Food Agcy, Risk Benefit Assessment Dept, POB 622, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake2016In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 115, no 10, p. 1760-1768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m(2)) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which >= 500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2 alpha) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum a-and beta-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  • 14. Kirkhus, Bente
    et al.
    Lamglait, Amandine
    Eilertsen, Karl-Erik
    Falch, Eva
    Haider, Trond
    Vik, Hogne
    Hoem, Nils
    Hagve, Tor-Arne
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Olsen, Elisabeth
    Seljeflot, Ingebjorg
    Nyberg, Lena
    Elind, Elisabeth
    Ulven, Stine M.
    Effects of similar intakes of marine n-3 fatty acids from enriched food products and fish oil on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy human subjects2012In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 107, no 9, p. 1339-1349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pate (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA: arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pate and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population.

  • 15.
    Landström, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Koivisto Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Magnusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Use of functional foods among Swedish consumers is related to health-consciousness and perceived effect2007In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 1058-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to survey attitudes to and use of functional foods and to investigate which demographic variables and attitudes to diet and health predict consumption of functional foods among Swedish consumers. A questionnaire was developed and sent to 2000 randomly selected Swedish citizens aged between 17 and 75 years. A total of 972 (48 %) responded, 53 % were female and 44 % male. Mean age was 45 years. The results revealed that 84 % of respondents were familiar with the concept of functional foods; 83 % had consumed/purchased at least one of the seven functional food products presented in the questionnaire. Of those who had consumed a functional food, 25 % had perceived effect of it. Positive correlations were seen between consumers perceiving a personal reward from eating functional foods, having an interest in natural products and an interest in general health. Consumption/purchase of functional foods was related to beliefs in the effects of the products, having consumed nutraceuticals or dietary supplements, having a diet-related problem personally or in the family, and a high level of education. The characteristic Swedish functional food consumer has a high level of education, is health-conscious and interested in healthy foods and believes in the health effect of functional foods. Thus, factors other than demographics better explain consumption of FF. However, the study population may represent a more health-conscious segment of the Swedish population in general. Additional studies are therefore required to elucidate the attitudes and use of FF in different consumer groups.

  • 16.
    Lee, Isabella
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Food Sci, POB 7051, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Shi, Lin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Food Sci, POB 7051, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Chalmers, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Webb, Dominic-Luc
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
    Hellström, Per M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Food Sci, POB 7051, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Inst Environm Med, POB 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Chalmers, Dept Biol & Biol Engn Food & Nutr Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Effects of whole-grain rye porridge with added inulin and wheat gluten on appetite, gut fermentation and postprandial glucose metabolism: a randomised, cross-over, breakfast study2016In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 116, no 12, p. 2139-2149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole-grain rye foods reduce appetite, insulin and sometimes glucose responses. Increased gut fermentation and plant protein may mediate the effect. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the appetite-suppressing effects of whole-grain rye porridge could be enhanced by replacing part of the rye with fermented dietary fibre and plant protein, and to explore the role of gut fermentation on appetite and metabolic responses over 8 h. We conducted a randomised, cross-over study using two rye porridges (40 and 55 g), three 40-g rye porridges with addition of inulin: gluten (9:3; 6:6; 3:9 g) and a refined wheat bread control (55 g), served as part of complete breakfasts. A standardised lunch and an ad libitum dinner were served 4 and 8 h later, respectively. Appetite, breath hydrogen and methane, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses were measured over 8 h. Twenty-one healthy men and women, aged 23-60 years, with BMI of 21-33 kg/m(2) participated in this study. Before lunch, the 55-g rye porridges lowered hunger by 20% and desire to eat by 22% and increased fullness by 29% compared with wheat bread (P < 0.05). Breath hydrogen increased proportionally to dietary fibre content (P < 0.05). Plasma glucose after lunch was 6% lower after the 55-g rye porridges compared with wheat bread (P< 0.05) and correlated to breath hydrogen (P < 0.001). No differences were observed in ad libitum food intake, insulin or GLP-1. We conclude that no further increase in satiety was observed when replacing part of the rye with inulin and gluten compared with plain rye porridges.

  • 17.
    Lehto, Elviira
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ray, Carola
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Haukkala, Ari
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Roos, Eva
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Do descriptive norms related to parents and friends predict fruit and vegetable intake similarly among 11-year-old girls and boys?2015In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 168-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.

  • 18.
    Lehto, Reetta
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Paasikivenkatu 4, Helsinki, Finland .
    Määttä, Suvi
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Paasikivenkatu 4, Helsinki, Finland .
    Lehto, Elviira
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Paasikivenkatu 4, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Ray, Carola
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Paasikivenkatu 4, Helsinki, Finland .
    Te Velde, Saskia
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Lien, Nanna
    Department of Nutrition, The Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Roos, Eva
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Paasikivenkatu 4, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    The PRO GREENS intervention in Finnish schoolchildren: the degree of implementation affects both mediators and the intake of fruits and vegetables2014In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 112, no 7, p. 1185-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the mediating effects of the determinants of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in school-based interventions that promote FV intake, and few studies have examined the impact of the degree of implementation on the effects of an intervention. The present study examined whether the degree of implementation of an intervention had an effect on children's fruit or vegetable intake and determined possible mediators of this effect. The study is part of the European PRO GREENS intervention study which aimed to develop effective strategies to promote consumption of fruit and vegetables in schoolchildren across Europe. Data from 727 Finnish children aged 11 years were used. The baseline study was conducted in spring 2009 and the follow-up study 12 months later. The intervention was conducted during the school year 2009-2010. The effects were examined using multilevel mediation analyses. A high degree of implementation of the intervention had an effect on children's fruit intake. Knowledge of recommendations for FV intake and liking mediated the association between a high degree of implementation of the intervention and an increase in the frequency of fruit intake. Knowledge of recommendations for FV intake and bringing fruits to school as a snack mediated the association between a low degree of implementation of the intervention and an increase in the frequency of fruit intake. Overall, the model accounted for 34 % of the variance in the change in fruit intake frequency. Knowledge of recommendations acted as a mediator between the degree of implementation of the intervention and the change in vegetable intake frequency. In conclusion, the degree of implementation had an effect on fruit intake, and thus in future intervention studies the actual degree of implementation of interventions should be assessed when considering the effects of interventions.

  • 19.
    Lin, Yulan
    et al.
    Unit of Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Lagergren, Jesper
    Unit of Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Cancer Studies, King’s College London, London, UK.
    Lu, Yunxia
    Unit of Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    A dietary pattern rich in lignans, quercetin and resveratrol decreases the risk of oesophageal cancer2014In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 112, no 12, p. 2002-2009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary lignans, quercetin and resveratrol have oestrogenic properties, and animal studies suggest that they synergistically decrease cancer risk. A protective effect of lignans on the development of oesophageal cancer in humans has recently been demonstrated, and the present study aimed to test whether these three phytochemicals synergistically decrease the risk of oesophageal cancer. Data from a Swedish nationwide population-based case-control study that recruited 181 cases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), 158 cases of oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC), 255 cases of gastro-oesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma (JAC) and 806 controls were analysed. Exposure data were collected through face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. The intake of lignans, quercetin and resveratrol was assessed using a sixty-three-item FFQ. Reduced-rank regression was used to assess a dietary pattern, and a simplified dietary pattern score was categorised into quintiles on the basis of the distribution among the control subjects. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression provided OR with 95 % CI, adjusted for all the potential risk factors. A dietary pattern rich in lignans, quercetin and resveratrol was mainly characterised by a high intake of tea, wine, lettuce, mixed vegetables, tomatoes, and whole-grain bread and a low intake of milk. There were dose-dependent associations between simplified dietary pattern scores and all types of oesophageal cancer (all P for trend < 0·05). On comparing the highest quintiles with the lowest, the adjusted OR were found to be 0·24 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·49) for OAC, 0·31 (95 % CI 0·15, 0·65) for OSCC, and 0·49 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·84) for JAC. The results of the present study indicate that a dietary pattern characterised by the intake of lignans, quercetin and resveratrol may play a protective role in the development of oesophageal cancer in the Swedish population.

  • 20. Luis, Desiree
    et al.
    Huang, Xiaoyan
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Lindholm, Bengt
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    Renal function associates with energy intake in elderly community-dwelling men2014In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 111, no 12, p. 2184-2189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy intake and renal function decrease with age. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), spontaneous food intake decreases in parallel with the loss of renal function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a possible relationship between renal dysfunction and energy intake in elderly community-dwelling men. A cross-sectional study including 1087 men aged 70 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) community-based cohort was carried out. Dietary intake was assessed using 7 d food records, and glomerular filtration rate was estimated from serum cystatin C concentrations. Energy intake was normalised by ideal body weight, and macronutrient intake was energy-adjusted. The median normalised daily energy intake was 105 (interquartile range 88-124) kJ, and directly correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as determined by univariate analysis. Across the decreasing quartiles of eGFR, a significant trend of decreasing normalised energy intake was observed (P = 0.01). A multivariable regression model including lifestyle factors and co-morbidities was used for predicting total energy intake. In this model, regular physical activity (standardised beta = 0.160; P = 0.008), smoking (standardised beta = -0.081; P = 0.008), hypertension (standardised beta = -0.097; P = 0.002), hyperlipidaemia (standardised beta = -0.064; P = 0.037) and eGFR (per SD increase, standardised beta = 0.064; P = 0.04) were found to be independent predictors of energy intake. Individuals with manifest CKD (eGFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73m(2)) were more likely to have lower energy intake than those without. In conclusion, there was a direct and independent correlation between renal function and energy intake in a population-based cohort of elderly men. We speculate on a possible link between renal dysfunction and malnutrition in the elderly.

  • 21.
    Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Argicultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Argicultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Åman, Per
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Argicultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Argicultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Alkylresorcinol metabolites in urine correlate with the intake of whole grains and cereal fibre in free-living Swedish adults2013In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 129-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) have been established as short/medium-term biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake; and AR metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, have been suggested as complementary biomarkers to AR. The present study examined the medium-term reproducibility and relative validity of urinary AR metabolites as biomarkers for WG and cereal fibre intake. A total of sixty-six free-living Swedes completed 3 d weighed food records and provided single 24 h urine collections and morning urine spot samples on two occasions, 2–3 months apart. The medium-term reproducibility of urinary AR metabolites was moderate when assessed in 24 h collections and lower in creatinine (CR)-adjusted morning urine. Mean AR metabolite 24 h excretions correlated well with total WG (rs 0·31–0·52, P < 0·05) and cereal fibre (rs 0·46–0·58, P < 0·001) intake on both occasions. As expected, correlations with WG (rs 0·28–0·38, P < 0·05) and cereal fibre (rs 0·35–0·42, P < 0·01) were weaker for mean CR-adjusted AR metabolite concentrations in spot samples of morning urine, although the adjusted concentrations correlated well with 24 h urinary excretion (rs 0·69–0·73, P < 0·001). Adjustment for intra-individual variations substantially improved the correlations between intake and excretion. These findings suggest that urinary AR metabolites can successfully reflect the medium-term intake of WG and cereal fibre when adjusted for intra-individual variation in this population, where rye was the major contributor to high WG intake. The performance of urinary AR metabolites as medium-term biomarkers appears to be comparable to that of fasting plasma AR concentration in this population.

  • 22. Olofsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Discacciati, Andrea
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Orsini, Nicola
    Brismar, Kerstin
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Changes in fruit, vegetable and juice consumption after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men.2017In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 117, no 5, p. 712-719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the importance of prevention of complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), we aimed to examine changes over time in consumption of fruits, vegetables and juice among men who were diagnosed with T2D in comparison with men without diabetes. The prospective Cohort of Swedish Men, aged 45-79 years in 1997, was used to examine changes in diet after diagnosis of T2D. Dietary intake was assessed using FFQ in 1997 and 2009. In all, 23 953 men who were diabetes free at baseline (1997) and completed both FFQ were eligible to participate in the study. Diagnosis of T2D was reported by subjects and ascertained through registers. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to examine changes in mean servings/week over time. In total, 1741 men developed T2D during the study period. Increased consumption of vegetables and fruits was observed among those who developed T2D (equivalent to 1·6 servings/week, 95 % CI 1·08, 2·03) and men who remained diabetes free (0·7 servings/week, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84). Consumption of juice decreased by 0·6 servings/week (95 % CI -0·71, -0·39) among those who developed T2D and increased by 0·1 servings/week (95 % CI 0·05, 0·15) in those who were diabetes free. Changes over time and between groups were statistically significant. Although improvements in diet were observed, only 36 % of those with T2D and 35 % of those without diabetes consumed ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables/d in 2009.

  • 23.
    Oskarsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sadr-Azodi, Omid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orsini, Nicola
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wolk, Alicja
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    A prospective cohort study on the association between coffee drinking and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis2016In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 115, no 10, p. 1830-1834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Only one previous study has examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of acute pancreatitis, and it found a reduced risk for alcohol-related episodes among high consumers of coffee. Therefore, we examined (1) the association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and (2) whether this association was modified by alcohol intake. Data were obtained from two prospective cohorts, the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 76 731 men and women (born 1914-1952). Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline with a FFQ, and the cohorts were followed up between 1998 and 2012 via linkage to national health registries. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. During 1 035 881 person-years of total follow-up, 383 cases (246 in men and 137 in women) of incident non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis were identified. Overall, and irrespective of whether a categorical or a continuous exposure model was used, we observed no association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (e.g. the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for each 1 cup/d increase in coffee consumption was 0.97; 95% CI 0.92, 1.03). There was no evidence of effect modification by alcohol intake (P-interaction = 0.77). In conclusion, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis in this large prospective cohort study. Because of the limited number of epidemiological studies and their conflicting results, further research is needed to elucidate this potential association.

  • 24.
    Petersson, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Serum fatty acid composition and indices of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity are associated with systemic inflammation: longitudinal analyses in middle-aged men2008In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 99, no 6, p. 1186-1189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altered fatty acid (FA) composition is related to insulin resistance and CVD. One possible mediator may be inflammation, but longitudinal data relating FA composition to inflammation taking insulin resistance into account are limited. We investigated the long-term association between FA composition and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in a large population-based cohort study in 767 men followed for 20 years. The association between FA composition in serum cholesteryl esters at age 50 and CRP concentrations at age 70 was investigated using linear regression. In addition, desaturase activities (stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), Delta 5- and Delta 6-desaturase) were estimated using FA product-to-precursor ratios. Insulin resistance was measured directly at follow-up by euglycaemic clamp. After adjusting for confounders (smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, obesity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) CRP concentrations were inversely associated with the proportion of 18:2n-6 (P=0.002) and positively associated with 16:1n-7 (P=0.008), 18: 1n-9 (P=0.0003), 20:5n-3 (P=0.04) and estimated SCD-1 (P=0.005) and Delta 6-desaturase (P=0.02) activities. After adding insulin resistance to the model, 18: 1n-9, 18:2n-6 and SCD-1 remained significant predictors of CRP. A FA composition indicating low intake of 18:2n-6, high intake of SFA and high SCD-1 activity is, in a Swedish population of middle-aged men, associated with CRP concentrations 20 years later, even independently of obesity and insulin resistance.

  • 25.
    Petersson, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    McMonagle, Jolene
    Gulseth, Hanne L
    Tierney, Audrey C
    Morange, Sophie
    Helal, Olfa
    Shaw, Danielle I
    Ruano, Juan A
    López-Miranda, José
    Kieć-Wilk, Beata
    Gołąbek, Iwona
    Blaak, Ellen E
    Saris, Wim H M
    Drevon, Christian A
    Lovegrove, Julie A
    Roche, Helen M
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Effects of dietary fat modification on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in the LIPGENE study2010In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 104, no 9, p. 1357-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Dietary fat quality has been proposed to be implicated in these conditions. We investigated the impact of four diets distinct in fat quantity and quality on 8-iso-PGF2α (a major F2-isoprostane and oxidative stress indicator), 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2α (15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, a major PGF2α metabolite and marker of cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In a 12-week parallel multicentre dietary intervention study (LIPGENE), 417 volunteers with the MetS were randomly assigned to one of the four diets: two high-fat diets (38 % energy (%E)) rich in SFA or MUFA and two low-fat high-complex carbohydrate diets (28 %E) with (LFHCC n-3) or without (LFHCC) 1·24 g/d of very long chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation. Urinary levels of 8-iso-PGF2α and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α were determined by RIA and adjusted for urinary creatinine levels. Serum concentration of CRP was measured by ELISA. Neither concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α nor those of CRP differed between diet groups at baseline (P>0·07) or at the end of the study (P>0·44). Also, no differences in changes of the markers were observed between the diet groups (8-iso-PGF2α, P = 0·83; 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, P = 0·45; and CRP, P = 0·97). In conclusion, a 12-week dietary fat modification did not affect the investigated markers of oxidative stress and inflammation among subjects with the MetS in the LIPGENE study.

  • 26.
    Rytter, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Åsgård, Rikard
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Johansson, Clara
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    National Food Administration.
    Möller, Lennart
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Glycaemic status in relation to oxidative stress and inflammation in well-controlled type 2 diabetes subjects2009In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 101, no 10, p. 1423-1426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present observational study was to investigate the relationships between glycaemic status and levels of oxidative stress and inflammation in well-controlled type 2 diabetes subjects. Metabolic variables (weight, BMI, waist circumference (waist), blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), insulin, blood lipids), biomarkers of oxidative stress (8-iso-PGF, malondialdehyde, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, formamido pyrimidine glycosylase-sites, frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, nitrotyrosine) and inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), IL-6, cyclo-oxygenase-catalyzed PGF-metabolite) were measured. Fifty-six patients (thirty women and twenty-six men, age 62.3 (SD 7.0) years, HbA1c 6.1 (SD 0.9) %, BMI 28.3 (SD 3.8) kg/m2, waist 99.6 (SD 11.1) cm) were included in the study. HbA1c (r 0.29, P=0.03) and blood glucose (r 0.33, P=0.01) correlated positively with 8-iso-PGF. Positive correlations were also observed between HbA1c and nitrotyrosine (r 0.42, P=0.01), waist and hsCRP (r 0.37, P=0.005), hsCRP and IL-6 (r 0.61, P<0.0001) and between PGF-metabolite and 8-iso-PGF (r 0.27, P=0.048). The present study indicates that glycaemic status is associated with oxidative stress even in subjects with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, inflammation was more related to abdominal obesity than to glycaemic control. A large number of biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were investigated, but only a few associations were found between the markers. This could be due to the fact that none of these biomarkers biosynthesises via similar pathways or simultaneously owing to their diverse nature and origin.

  • 27.
    Selin, Jinjin Z.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindblad, Birgitta E.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Orebro Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Sch Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Bottai, Matteo
    Karolinska Inst, Div Biostat, Inst Environm Med, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Morgenstern, Ralf
    Karolinska Inst, Div Biochem Toxicol, Inst Environm Med, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    High-dose B-vitamin supplements and risk for age-related cataract: a population-based prospective study of men and women2017In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 118, no 2, p. 154-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies that have investigated the association between B-vitamin supplement use and risk for cataract yield conflicting results. The aim of this study was to examine the association between use of high-dose B-vitamin supplements (approximately 10 times recommended daily intake) and risk for age-related cataract in a population-based prospective study of 13 757 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and 22 823 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men. Dietary supplement use and potential confounders were assessed using a questionnaire at baseline. Information on cataract diagnosis and extraction was obtained through linkage to registers. During the follow-up period between January 1998 and December 2011, we identified 8395 cataract cases (3851 for women and 4544 for men). The use of B vitamins plus other supplements and B vitamins only was associated with 9% (95% CI 2, 17) and 27% (95% CI 12, 43) increased risk for cataract, respectively. The hazard ratios for use of B vitamins only and risk for cataract stratified by different age groups were as follows: < 60 years: 1.88 (95% CI 1.47, 2.39); 60-69 years: 1.21 (95% CI 0.96, 1.53); and >= 70 years: 1.09 (95% CI 0.91, 1.31) (P-interaction=0.002). Our results suggest that the use of high-dose B-vitamin supplements was associated with an increased risk for cataract. This association might be confined to younger participants.

  • 28. Shaw, Danielle I
    et al.
    Tierney, Audrey C
    McCarthy, Sinead
    Upritchard, Jane
    Vermunt, Susan
    Gulseth, Hanne L
    Drevon, Christian A
    Blaak, Ellen E
    Saris, Wim H M
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Helal, Olfa
    Defoort, Catherine
    Gallego, Raquel
    López-Miranda, José
    Siedlecka, Dominika
    Malczewska-Malec, Małgorzata
    Roche, Helen M
    Lovegrove, Julie A
    LIPGENE food-exchange model for alteration of dietary fat quantity and quality in free-living participants from eight European countries2009In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 101, no 5, p. 750-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlled human intervention trials are required to confirm the hypothesis that dietary fat quality may influence insulin action. The aim was to develop a food-exchange model, suitable for use in free-living volunteers, to investigate the effects of four experimental diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: high SFA (HSFA); high MUFA (HMUFA) and two low-fat (LF) diets, one supplemented with 1.24 g EPA and DHA/d (LFn-3). A theoretical food-exchange model was developed. The average quantity of exchangeable fat was calculated as the sum of fat provided by added fats (spreads and oils), milk, cheese, biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of UK adults. Most of the exchangeable fat was replaced by specifically designed study foods. Also critical to the model was the use of carbohydrate exchanges to ensure the diets were isoenergetic. Volunteers from eight centres across Europe completed the dietary intervention. Results indicated that compositional targets were largely achieved with significant differences in fat quantity between the high-fat diets (39.9 (sem 0.6) and 38.9 (sem 0.51) percentage energy (%E) from fat for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively) and the low-fat diets (29.6 (sem 0.6) and 29.1 (sem 0.5) %E from fat for the LF and LFn-3 diets respectively) and fat quality (17.5 (sem 0.3) and 10.4 (sem 0.2) %E from SFA and 12.7 (sem 0.3) and 18.7 (sem 0.4) %E MUFA for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively). In conclusion, a robust, flexible food-exchange model was developed and implemented successfully in the LIPGENE dietary intervention trial.

  • 29.
    Smedman, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Jovinge, S
    Fredrikson, G Nordin
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Conjugated linoleic acid increased C-reactive protein in human subjects2005In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 791-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We previously showed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) increases 15-keto-dihydro-prostaglandin F2alpha, a marker for cyclooxygenase-mediated lipid peroxidation and thus an indicator of cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CLA on other indicators of inflammation in human subjects, including C-reactive protein, TNF-alpha, TNF-alpha receptors 1 and 2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, fifty-three human subjects were supplemented with a mixture (4.2 g/d) of the isomers cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA or control oil for 3 months. CLA supplementation increased levels of C-reactive protein (P=0.003) compared with the control group. However, no changes in TNF-alpha, TNF-alpha receptors 1 and 2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were detected.

  • 30.
    Söderström, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Rosenblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Adolfsson, Eva T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hakansson, Niclas
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    A high energy intake from dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with increased risk of malnutrition 10 years later2015In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 114, no 6, p. 915-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A higher fat content in the diet could be an advantage for preventing malnutrition among older adults. However, there is sparse scientific evidence to determine the optimal fat intake among older adults. This prospective cohort study examined whether a high energy intake of dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with the risk of malnutrition 10 years later. The study population comprised 725 Swedish men and women aged 53-80 years who had completed a questionnaire about dietary intake and lifestyle factors in 1997 (baseline) and whose nutritional status was assessed when admitted to the hospital in 2008-2009 (follow-up). At the follow-up, 383 (52.8 %) participants were identified as being at risk of malnutrition and fifty-two (7.2 %) were identified as malnourished. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between previous dietary fat intake and nutritional status later in life. Contrary to what was expected, a high energy intake from total fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat among middle-aged and older adults increased the risk of exhibiting malnutrition 10 years later. However, this applied only to individuals with a BMI<25 kg/m(2) at the baseline. In conclusion, these findings suggest that preventive actions to counteract malnutrition in older adults should focus on limiting the intake of total fat in the diet by reducing consumption of food with a high content of saturated and monounsaturated fat.

  • 31.
    Söderström, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Rosenblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Thors Adolfsson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Malnutrition is associated with increased mortality in older adults regardless of the cause of death2017In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 532-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malnutrition predicts preterm death, but whether this is valid irrespective of the cause of death is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether malnutrition is associated with cause-specific mortality in older adults. This cohort study was conducted in Sweden and included 1767 individuals aged >= 65 years admitted to hospital in 2008-2009. On the basis of the Mini Nutritional Assessment instrument, nutritional risk was assessed as well nourished (score 24-30), at risk of malnutrition (score 17-23.5) or malnourished (score < 17). Cause of death was classified according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, into twenty different causes of death. Data were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. At baseline, 55.1% were at risk of malnutrition, and 9.4% of the participants were malnourished. During a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 839 participants (47.5%) died. The multiple Cox regression model identified significant associations (hazard ratio (HR)) between malnutrition and risk of malnutrition, respectively, and death due to neoplasms (HR 2.43 and 1.32); mental or behavioural disorders (HR 5.73 and 5.44); diseases of the nervous (HR 4.39 and 2.08), circulatory (HR 1.95 and 1.57) or respiratory system (HR 2.19 and 1.49); and symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (HR 2.23 and 1.43). Malnutrition and risk of malnutrition are associated with increased mortality regardless of the cause of death, which emphasises the need for nutritional screening to identify older adults who may require nutritional support in order to avoid preterm death.

  • 32.
    Titova, Olga E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ayvazova, Elena A.
    Bichkaeva, Fatima A.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Chumakova, Galina N.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The influence of active and passive smoking during pregnancy on umbilical cord blood levels of vitamins A and E and neonatal anthropometric indices2012In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 108, no 8, p. 1341-1345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be detrimental for the developing fetus. The effects of active and passive maternal smoking on umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E were examined. Secondary measures included anthropometric parameters in the newborn. Maternal and umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E were measured at delivery. The mothers were assigned to three groups: non-smoking (n 12); passive smoking (n 13); active smoking (n 18). Based on multivariate linear regressions, active smoking during pregnancy was associated with increased umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E. While enhanced circulating levels of vitamin A in cord blood were also found in non-smoking mothers exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, those of vitamin E were not influenced. Further, an inverse association between smoking behaviour during pregnancy and birth length was observed, with shortest length in active smokers followed by passive smoking mothers. Active and passive maternal smoking behaviour during pregnancy increases the fetal demand for antioxidant compounds in order to counteract the oxidative burden by cigarette smoke. Against this background, the observed increase in umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E may subserve antioxidative processes in response to tobacco smoke-induced oxidative stress. This would reduce the availability of vitamins A and E for fetal maturation, which is critical inasmuch as both compounds are indispensable for the developing fetus. However, due to the cross-sectional nature of our observation, this line of reasoning definitely requires validation in cause-effect experiments in the future.

  • 33.
    Vessby, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Berglund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Indices of fatty acid desaturase activity in healthy human subjects: effects of different types of dietary fat2013In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 110, no 5, p. 871-879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delta 9-Desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, SCD-1) regulates the desaturation of SFA, mainly stearic and palmitic, to MUFA. Delta 6-Desaturase (D6D) and Delta 5-desaturase (D5D) are involved in the metabolism of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid to polyunsaturated metabolites. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of different types of dietary fat on indices of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) activity (evaluated as product: precursor ratios) in plasma and skeletal muscle in human subjects. A high SCD-1 index has been related to obesity and metabolic disorders, while the D5D index is associated with insulin sensitivity. Fatty acid composition of serum and skeletal muscle lipids was analysed by GLC during a randomised, controlled, 3-month dietary intervention in healthy subjects. A comparison of the effects of a diet containing butter fat (SFA, n 17) with a diet containing monounsaturated fat (MUFA, n 17), keeping all other dietary components constant, showed a reduced SCD-1 activity index by 20% on the MUFA diet compared with the SFA diet assessed in serum cholesteryl esters. The D6D and D5D indices remained unaffected. Supplementation with long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduced the SCD-1 index by a similar magnitude while the D6D index decreased and the D5D index increased. It is concluded that changes in the type of fat in the diet affect the indices of FADS activity in serum and skeletal muscle in human subjects. The desaturase activity indices estimated from the serum lipid ester composition are significantly related to corresponding indices studied in skeletal muscle phospholipids.

  • 34. Walsh, Marianne C.
    et al.
    McLoughlin, Gerard A.
    Roche, Helen M.
    Ferguson, Jane F.
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Saris, Wim H. M.
    Lovegrove, Julie A.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lopez-Miranda, Jose
    Defoort, Catherine
    Kiec-Wilk, Beata
    Brennan, Lorraine
    Gibney, Michael J.
    Impact of geographical region on urinary metabolomic and plasma fatty acid profiles in subjects with the metabolic syndrome across Europe: the LIPGENE study2014In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 424-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of metabolomics in multi-centre studies is increasing. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of geographical location on the metabolic profiles of individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Blood and urine samples were collected from 219 adults from seven European centres participating in the LIPGENE project (Diet, genomics and the metabolic syndrome: an integrated nutrition, agro-food, social and economic analysis). Nutrient intakes, BMI, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure, and plasma glucose, insulin and blood lipid levels were assessed. Plasma fatty acid levels and urine were assessed using a metabolomic technique. The separation of three European geographical groups (NW, northwest; NE, northeast; SW, southwest) was identified using partial least-squares discriminant analysis models for urine ((RX)-X-2: 0.33, Q(2): 0.39) and plasma fatty acid ((RX)-X-2: 032, Q(2): 0.60) data. The NW group was characterised by higher levels of urinary hippurate and N-methylnicotinate. The NE group was characterised by higher levels of urinary creatine and citrate and plasma EPA (20:5 n-3). The SW group was characterised by higher levels of urinary trimethylamine oxide and lower levels of plasma EPA. The indicators of metabolic health appeared to be consistent across the groups. The SW group had higher intakes of total fat and MUFA compared with both the NW and NE groups (P <= 0.001). The NE group had higher intakes of fibre and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids compared with both the NW and SW groups (all P<0.001). It is likely that differences in dietary intakes contributed to the separation of the three groups. Evaluation of geographical factors including diet should be considered in the interpretation of metabolomic data from multi-centre studies.

  • 35.
    Warensjö, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Jansson, JH
    Berglund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Boman, K
    Ahren, B
    Weinehall, L
    Lindahl, B
    Hallmans, G
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Estimated intake of milk fat is negatively associated with cardiovascular risk factors and does not increase the risk of a first acute myocardial infarction. A prospective case-control study2004In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 635-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Milk fat is high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and high intakes of SFA are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the potential risk of a first-ever acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in relation to the estimated milk-fat intake, reflected as the proportions of pentadecanoic acid (15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0) in serum lipid esters. This was evaluated in a study population selected within the Västerbotten Intervention Program and the northern Sweden 'Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular disease' survey populations. A prospective case-control design was used. The proportions of the biomarkers were lower in the cases (n 78) than in the controls (n 156), who were matched for age, sex, sampling time and geographical region. The standardised odds ratios of becoming an AMI case were between 0.7 and 0.8 for the biomarkers. The proportions of 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 in serum phospholipids were significantly and negatively correlated to serum concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator, triacylglycerols, insulin, specific insulin, pro-insulin and leptin (all P<0.0001), suggesting a negative relationship to the insulin-resistance syndrome and the risk of CHD. Adjustment for BMI did not materially change the relationships. Although there seems to be a negative association between milk-fat intake as mirrored by the proportions of 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 in serum lipid esters and a first-ever AMI, adjustment for clinical risk factors removed this relationship.

  • 36.
    Warensjö Lemming, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Liisa, Byberg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM), C6, Nutritional Epidemiology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    A comparison between two healthy diet scores, the modified Mediterranean diet score and the Healthy Nordic Food Index, in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality2018In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 119, no 7, p. 836-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High adherence to healthy diets has the potential to prevent disease and prolong life span, and healthy dietary pattern scores have each been associated with disease and mortality. We studied two commonly promoted healthy diet scores (modified Mediterranean diet score (mMED) and the Healthy Nordic Food Index (HNFI)) and the combined effect of the two scores in association with all-cause and cause-specific mortality (cancer, CVD and ischaemic heart disease). The study included 38 428 women (median age of 61 years) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Diet and covariate data were collected in a questionnaire. mMED and HNFI were generated and categorised into low-, medium- and high-adherence groups, and in nine combinations of these. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of register-ascertained mortality and 95 % CI were calculated in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. During follow-up (median: 17 years), 10 478 women died. In the high-adherence categories compared with low-adherence categories, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·81) for mMED and 0·89 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·96) for HNFI. Higher adherence to mMED was associated with lower mortality in each stratum of HNFI in the combined analysis. In general, mMED, compared with HNFI, was more strongly associated with a lower cause-specific mortality. In Swedish women, both mMED and HNFI were inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The combined analysis, however, indicated an advantage to be adherent to the mMED. The present version of HNFI did not associate with mortality independent of mMED score.

  • 37. Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Hallmans, Göran
    Lundh, Thomas
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Strömberg, Ulf
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Fish intake, mercury, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of stroke in northern Sweden2007In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 1038-1045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of previous studies on fish intake and stroke risk have been inconclusive. Different stroke types have often not been separated. Our aim was to elucidate whether intake of fish, Hg or the sum of proportions of fatty acids EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22: 6n-3) influence the risk of haemorrhagic or ischaemic stroke. Within a population-based cohort from a community intervention programme, 369 stroke cases and 738 matched controls were identified and included in the present nested case-control study. Information on fish intake had been recorded at recruitment, i.e. before diagnosis. Hg levels were determined in erythrocyte membranes, also collected at recruitment, and the relative content of fatty acids was measured in erythrocyte membranes or plasma phospholipids. The results showed that in women there was a non-significant decrease in stroke risk with increasing fish intake (OR 0·90 (95 % CI 0·73, 1-11) per meal per week). The risk in women differed significantly (P=0·03) from that in men, in whom the OR for stroke rose with increasing fish intake (OR 1·24 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·51) per meal per week). The corresponding risk in men for Hg was 0·99 (95 % CI 0·93, 1·06), and for the sum of proportions of EPA and DHA 1·08 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·28). We conclude that the relationship between stroke risk and fish intake seems to be different in men and women. Increased levels of EPA and DHA do not decrease the risk for stroke and there is no association between stroke risk and Hg at these low levels.

  • 38.
    Zamaratskaia, Galia
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Mol Sci, BioCtr, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Daniel P.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Mol Sci, BioCtr, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Junqueira, Matheus Antunes
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Mol Sci, BioCtr, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Deissler, Linda
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Mol Sci, BioCtr, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Hohenheim, Inst Biol Chem & Nutr, Garbenstr 28, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany..
    Langton, Maud
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Mol Sci, BioCtr, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hellström, Per M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Mol Sci, BioCtr, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Impact of sourdough fermentation on appetite and postprandial metabolic responses - a randomised cross-over trial with whole grain rye crispbread2017In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 118, no 9, p. 686-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sourdough fermentation is considered to have beneficial effects on postprandial satiety and metabolic responses, but studies demonstrating effects at physiological conditions are lacking. The aim of this acute breakfast intervention study was to determine the effect of consumption of sourdough-fermented and unfermented rye crispbread on self-rated appetite, postprandial glucose and insulin response in healthy subjects. In all, twenty-four Swedish adults were included in a single-blinded, randomised cross-over trial. Three crispbreads (sourdough-fermented and unfermented whole grain rye and yeast-fermented refined wheat as control) were consumed as part of a standardised breakfast. Subjective appetite score, assessed using visual analogue scale, and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline and postprandially until 360 and 240 min, respectively. Structural changes and viscosity during mastication and gastric digestion were investigated using in vitro methods. Hunger and desire to eat were lower (P<005) based on AUC measurements after intake of sourdough-fermented rye crispbread compared with after intake of yeast-fermented refined wheat crispbread. On the basis of AUC (0-230 min), insulin response was lowest after intake of unfermented rye crispbread compared with sourdough-fermented rye and yeast-fermented refined wheat crispbread. Degradation of viscous fibres and faster bolus disintegration for the sourdough-fermented bread may partly explain the less favourable metabolic responses compared with unfermented bread. Our results showed that food processing affects the composition and structural characteristics of rye bread, which has implications for appetite and metabolic responses.

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