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  • 1. Birath, Christina Scheffel
    et al.
    Demarinis, Valerie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, The Social Sciences of Religion, Psychology of Religions.
    Stenbacka, Marlene
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Women with alcohol problems: The possible significance of personality clustering for treatment planning2011In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 207-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Establishing subgroups in clinical practice is important for treatment planning. The aim of the study was to cluster the study group subjects according to personality traits and psychological health variables and to establish possible differences in treatment outcome in terms of: (i) drinking outcomes (gram and number of drinking days); (ii) perceived physiological health; and (iii) use of treatment resources (length of time in treatment and number of visits) among 134 treatment-seeking women with alcohol problems in a clinical context, between the two clusters obtained. Design and Methods. Data were collected from 134 consecutive women at a Swedish clinic specialised in treating women with alcohol problems. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the basis of self-rated personality scale scores and psychological health variables. Results. Two clusters were identified: one in which the women displayed personality and psychological health scores indicating problems (Cluster 1); and another where the women showed personality and psychological health scores within the norm range (Cluster 2). Alcohol consumption rates at the start of treatment were the same in both clusters. The consumption rates were also the same at the end of treatment for the cluster, showing a significant decrease in alcohol consumption in each. The Cluster 1 women, however, had a significantly higher number of visits at the clinic, and rated the consequences of their alcohol drinking as being significantly worse than Cluster 2 women. Discussion and Conclusions. The importance of individual differences according to personality traits for treatment planning is discussed in terms of the need for variation in treatment time and methods.

  • 2.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Box 70412, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Box 70412, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Adolescent non-drinkers: Who are they? Social relations, school performance, lifestyle factors and health behaviours2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no S1, p. S67-S75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    Traditionally, non-drinking adults or young adults have been associated with health deficits rather than health benefits. However, as the proportion of Swedish non-drinking adolescents has doubled since 2000, their health profiles are of interest. The aim of the present study is to examine whether social relations, school characteristics, lifestyle factors or health behaviours distinguish adolescent non-drinkers from adolescent drinkers, and if their health profiles have changed from 2004 to 2012.

    Design and Methods

    Data from the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland, a health survey biennially distributed to all 9th graders (15-16years) in a medium-sized Swedish county, was used. In total, 2872 students in 2004 and 2045 students in 2012 were included.

    Results

    Non-drinkers were distinguished from drinkers in both 2004 and 2012 by elevated parental supervision, a lower rate of school truancy and lower rates of cannabis use, use of other illicit drugs, daily smoking and lower scores on antisocial behaviour, but more problems of getting new friends. No differences between 2004 and 2012 were found.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Non-drinkers presented more adaptive and healthier behaviours than their drinking peers, but it is difficult to determine whether their health benefits were related to their improved alcohol status or to the more general trend towards adaptation that occurred from 2004 to 2012 among adolescents.

  • 3.
    Nehlin, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Grönbladh, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Jansson, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Three hours of training improve psychiatric staff’s self-perceived knowledge and attitudes toward problem-drinking patients2012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 544-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and aims

    Staff attitudes are an important factor in the successful implementation of systematic alcohol strategies and policies.  The forms and extent of training needed to improve therapeutic attitude among psychiatric staff to problem drinking are unclear. The aim of the investigation was to study the knowledge and attitudes of psychiatric staff toward problem drinking patients. A further aim was to investigate whether a short three-hour training is sufficient to improve knowledge and therapeutic attitude toward problem drinking.

    Design and methods

    A tailored training model for psychiatric staff (non-physicians) was carried out at a medium size university clinic. Participants were medical (nurses and psychiatric aides) and non-medical staff (psychologists and social workers). The training consisted of a two-hour workshop and a one-hour follow-up session. Knowledge and attitudes were measured at baseline and follow-up by a questionnaire including vignettes assessment and the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ).

    Results

    In total, 115 persons completed the questionnaire (follow-up rate 83.5 %). The distribution was even (50 % for the medical and 50 % for the non-medical staff). After training, the non-medical staff estimated vignette case severity higher than before. Both staff groups estimated their capacity to help a patient with complex problems higher after training. Role adequacy was higher in both subgroups after training.  Medical staff scored Work satisfaction higher after the training. 

    Discussion and conclusions

    Three hours of tailored training for psychiatric staff improve their knowledge and therapeutic attitude to problem drinking patients.

     

  • 4.
    Nehlin, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Jansson, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Brief alcohol screening in a clinical psychiatric population: Special attention needed2012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 538-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and aims: Abbreviated versions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and single-item screeners show promising results but have not previously been investigated in a clinical psychiatric setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the capacity of three brief screening methods to detect hazardous drinking in a psychiatric treatment-seeking population.

    Design and methods: Data was collected from consecutive patients (n = 1811) visiting a general psychiatric clinic. The screening capacity of the Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) screener, AUDIT item # 3 (AUDIT-3) and the three consumption items of AUDIT (AUDIT-C) was compared to the result of the full 10-item AUDIT with cut-off points 6 for females and 8 for males.

    Results: The HED screener and AUDIT-3 with recommended cut-offs captured low rates of hazardous drinkers when compared to the full AUDIT. Lowering the cut-offs created rates far above those of the full AUDIT. AUDIT-C with recommended cut-off limits categorised nearly the same rates of males as the full AUDIT but much higher rates of females. Raising the cut-off for females approached the detection rate of AUDIT-C closely to that of the full AUDIT.

    Discussion and conclusions:The findings of this study suggest that the HED screener is not sensitive enough in the clinical psychiatric setting. When designing alcohol screening measures to be used all over health care organisations, special attention should be paid to psychiatric patients. If a somewhat more extensive screening tool is used, the full AUDIT is recommended.

  • 5.
    Öster, Caisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Arinell, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Nehlin, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Drinking Motives Questionnaire among Swedish psychiatric patients: An exploration of the four-factor structure2017In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 400-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims: Alcohol use above hazardous limits is common among persons with psychiatric disorders, and there is limited knowledge about motives for drinking. The objective of this study was to explore the adequacy of the four-factor structure of drinking motives in an adult psychiatric outpatient population in Sweden by confirming the factor structure in the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ-R) and in alternative models.

    Design and Methods: In total, 371 patients responded to the DMQ-R along with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). AUDIT was used to assess frequency of alcohol consumption, number of drinks consumed on a typical occasion and binge drinking frequency. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of the DMQ-R and alternative models, including the short form, DMQ-R SF.

    Results: Fit statistics suggested that the original four-factor model had questionable fit (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.10, comparative fit index [CFI]=0.89, standardised root mean square residual [SRMR]=0.08). The model with the best fit indices was the DMQ-R SF (RMSEA=0.07, CFI=0.97, SRMR=0.04). When using DMQ-R SF in further analyses enhancement, the most strongly endorsed motives were related to quantity and AUDIT sum score. Coping motives were most strongly related to AUDIT sum score, frequency and binge drinking. Social motives were only related to binge drinking, whereas conformity motives were not statistically associated with any motives.

    Discussion and Conclusions: The study implies that the 12-item short form, DMQ-R SF, could be more appropriate than the original DMQ-R in this group.

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