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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Njoroge, Kezia Muthoni
    School of Health, Community of Education Studies, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    'Not men enough to rule!': politicization of ethnicities and forcible circumcision of Luo men during the postelection violence in Kenya2013In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 454-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    As a contribution to ongoing research addressing sexual violence in war and conflict situations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Rwanda, this paper argues that the way sexual violence intersects with other markers of identity, including ethnicity and class, is not clearly articulated. Male circumcision has been popularized, as a public health strategy for prevention of HIV transmission, although evidence of its efficacy is disputable and insufficient attention has been given to the social and cultural implications of male circumcision.

    Methods

    This paper draws from media reporting and the material supporting the prosecutor at the International Criminal Court case against four Kenyans accused of crimes against humanity, to explore the postelection violence, especially forcible male circumcision.

    Results

    During the postelection violence in Kenya, women were, as in other conflict situations, raped. In addition, men largely from the Luo ethnic group were forcibly circumcised. Male circumcision among the Gikuyu people is a rite of passage, but when forced upon the Luo men, it was also associated with cases of castration and other forms of genital mutilation. The aim appears to have been to humiliate and terrorize not just the individual men, but their entire communities. The paper examines male circumcision and questions why a ritual that has marked a life-course transition for inculcating ethical analysis of the self and others, became a tool of violence against men from an ethnic group where male circumcision is not a cultural practice.

    Conclusion

    The paper then reviews the persistence and change in the ritual and more specifically, how male circumcision has become, not just a sexual health risk, but, contrary to the emerging health discourse and more significantly, a politicized ethnic tool and a status symbol among the Gikuyu elite. In the view of the way male circumcision was perpetrated in Kenya, we argue it should be considered as sexual violence, with far-reaching consequences for men's physical and mental health.

  • 2.
    Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    ‘Having a different conversation around death’: Diverse hospital chaplains' views on end-of-life care.2013In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 530-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hospital chaplaincy in the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) is an allied health profession that is emerging from its origins as an aspect of Anglican clerical organisation. Drawing on 19 semi-structured, exploratory interviews with hospital chaplains in three British cities, this paper describes perceptions and practices around end of life care and organ donation. Specific impediments to deceased organ donation around the process of a person’s bodily and spiritual death were described by Catholic, Muslim and Pentecostalist chaplains, and yet only a single chaplain said he would advise a patient against donation. Promoting the involvement of hospital chaplains in hospital work on organ donation and developing new forms of community engagement offer constructive means of promoting debate and awareness.

  • 3.
    Bradby, Hannah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Frenz, Margret
    Univ Oxford, Ctr Global Hist, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, St Cross Coll, Oxford, England..
    Snow, Stephanie
    Univ Manchester, Ctr Hist Sci Technol & Med, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Migration and danger: ethnicity and health2016In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 333-339Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Degni, Filio
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Clinical Institution, University of Turku, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari B
    Department of Public Health, Clinical Institution, University of Turku, Finland.
    El Ansari, Walid
    Nordic School of Public Health, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Gloucestershire, UK.
    Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri
    Department of Nursing Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Reproductive and maternity health care services in Finland: perceptions and experiences of Somali-born immigrant women2014In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 348-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective.

    To explore immigrant Somali women's experiences of reproductive and maternity health care services (RMHCS) and their perceptions about the service providers.

    Design.

    Five focus group discussions were conducted from April 1999 to June 2000 using a purposeful sampling strategy in order to reach multiparous female Somali-born Immigrants with experiences from the maternity health care in Finland.

    Participants.

    A total of 70 married Somali women aged 18-50 and mother of 2-10 children were studied. Among them, 18 came from Kenya, 32 from Mogadishu and 20 from Hargeysa.

    Settings.

    Of the participants, 45 were living in the city of Vantaa, 22 in the city of Helsinki and 13 in the city of Turku.

    Results.

    Participants were satisfied with the RMHCS they received in Finland. Despite their satisfaction, the health care providers' social attitudes towards them were perceived as unfriendly, and communication as poor.

    Conclusions.

    The women's experiences revealed that they have access to good quality RMHCS in Finland. While their experiences are significant, their perceptions are important for physicians, nurses and midwives in order to achieve culturally competent care.

  • 5.
    Ivert, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Unit Social Epidemiol, Fac Med,CRC, Jan Waldenstroms St 35, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden.;Malmo Univ, Fac Hlth & Soc, Malmo, Sweden..
    Mulinari, Shai
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Unit Social Epidemiol, Fac Med,CRC, Jan Waldenstroms St 35, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Sociol, Lund, Sweden..
    van Leeuwen, Willemijn
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Unit Social Epidemiol, Fac Med,CRC, Jan Waldenstroms St 35, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden.;Med Ctr Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, Netherlands..
    Wagner, Philippe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Unit Social Epidemiol, Fac Med,CRC, Jan Waldenstroms St 35, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Merlo, Juan
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Unit Social Epidemiol, Fac Med,CRC, Jan Waldenstroms St 35, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Appropriate assessment of ethnic differences in adolescent use of psychotropic medication: multilevel analysis of discriminatory accuracy2016In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 578-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In the present study, we used a multilevel approach to investigate the role of maternal country of birth (MCOB) in predicting adolescent use of psychotropic medication in Sweden.Design: Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register we identified all 428,314 adolescents born between 1987 and 1990 and who were residing in Sweden in the year they turned 18. We applied multilevel logistic regression analysis with adolescents (level 1) nested within MCOBs (level 2). Measures of association (odds ratio) and measures of variance (intra-class correlation (ICC)) were calculated, as well as the discriminatory accuracy by calculating the area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic (AU-ROC) curve.Results: In comparison with adolescents with Swedish-born mothers, adolescents with mothers born in upper-middle, lower-middle and low-income countries were less likely to use psychotropic medication. However, the variance between MCOBs was small (ICC = 2.5 in the final model) relative to the variation within MCOBs. This was confirmed by an AU-ROC value of 0.598.Conclusions: Even though we found associations between MCOB and adolescent use of psychotropic medication, the small ICC and AU-ROC indicate that MCOB appears to be an inaccurate context for discriminating adolescent use of psychotropic medication in Sweden.

  • 6.
    Kubai, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, The Hugo Valentin Centre. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Church and Mission studies, Science of Mission.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Making and unmaking ethnicities in the Rwandan context: implication for gender-based violence, health, and wellbeing of women2013In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 469-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To examine ethnicity and gender violence in Rwanda from cultural and historical perspectives and explore the encounters between cultural beliefs and practices and the new gender equality policy and programs and the implications of the particular encounters to the health of women.

    Design

    The study is a qualitative drawing from the growing range of interactive approaches and methods within an ethnographic framework of the research design. Twenty individual interviews, six focus group discussions and two 'community mobilization' dialogs were conducted.

    Results

    Violence has continued and there is a conflict between cultural tradition, the de-ethnicization, and gender equality policies. Some of the gender violence preventive programs are influenced by the ethos of the traditional norms, and therefore unwittingly perpetuate gender-based violence.

    Conclusions

    In spite of the progress that Rwanda has made in political empowerment of women, it still seems a long way before real gender equality is achieved. It seems that women's empowerment is not only just an opportunity for political participation but also this is important. It is also about the capacity to make effective choices and to translate them into desired actions and outcomes, unfettered by cultural sanctions. Universalised, top-down gender policy programs have not furnished all women with the necessary capacity to make decisions that affect their traditionally all important reproductive functions; to challenge the embedded gender imbalance; and to strive for a holistic wellbeing of their families, where they play a central role. Indeed, some of the policies could have negative implications to the health of women, in particular, with sexually transmitted infections, including HIV and AIDS.

  • 7.
    Torres, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Migration, diversity, ageing and health2010In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 438-439Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 7 of 7
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