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  • 1. Brader, Lea
    et al.
    Rejnmark, Lars
    Carlberg, Carsten
    Schwab, Ursula
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Landin-Olsson, Mona
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg
    Poutanen, Kaisa S.
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Savolainen, Markku J.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (SYSDIET)2014In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 1123-1134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At northern latitudes, vitamin D is not synthesized endogenously during winter, causing low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a healthy Nordic diet based on Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) on plasma 25(OH)D and explored its dietary predictors. In a Nordic multi-centre trial, subjects (n = 213) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to a control or a healthy Nordic diet favouring fish (a parts per thousand yen300 g/week, including a parts per thousand yen200 g/week fatty fish), whole-grain products, berries, fruits, vegetables, rapeseed oil and low-fat dairy products. Plasma 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone were analysed before and after 18- to 24-week intervention. At baseline, 45 % had vitamin D inadequacy (< 50 nmol/l), whereas 8 % had deficiency (< 25 nmol/l). Dietary vitamin D intake was increased by the healthy Nordic diet (P < 0.001). The healthy Nordic and the control diet reduced the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 42 % (P < 0.001) and 19 % (P = 0.002), respectively, without between-group difference (P = 0.142). Compared with control, plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0.208) and parathyroid hormone (P = 0.207) were not altered by the healthy Nordic diet. Predictors for 25(OH)D were intake of vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), vitamin D supplement, plasma EPA and plasma DHA. Nevertheless, only vitamin D intake and season predicted the 25(OH)D changes. Consuming a healthy Nordic diet based on NNR increased vitamin D intake but not plasma 25(OH)D concentration. The reason why fish consumption did not improve vitamin D status might be that many fish are farmed and might contain little vitamin D or that frying fish may result in vitamin D extraction. Additional ways to improve vitamin D status in Nordic countries may be needed.

  • 2.
    Cai, Demin
    et al.
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yuan, Mengjie
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Haoyu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Han, Zhengqiang
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Pan, Shifeng
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Yangzhou Univ, Coll Vet Med, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Yang
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Ruqian
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Collaborat Innovat Ctr Meat Prod & Proc, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Epigenetic and SP1-mediated regulation is involved in the repression of galactokinase 1 gene in the liver of neonatal piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows2017In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1899-1909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of maternal betaine supplementation on the expression and regulation of GALK1 gene in the liver of neonatal piglets.

    Methods: Sixteen sows of two groups were fed control or betaine-supplemented diets (3 g/kg), respectively, throughout the pregnancy. Newborn piglets were individually weighed immediately after birth, and one male piglet close to mean body weight from the same litter was selected and killed before suckling. Serum samples of newborn piglets were analyzed for biochemical indexes, hormone and amino acid levels. Liver samples were analyzed for GALK1 expression by real-time PCR and western blotting, while GALK1 regulational mechanism was analyzed by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation and microRNAs expression.

    Results: Betaine-exposed neonatal piglets had lower serum concentration of galactose, which was associated with significantly down-regulated hepatic GALK1 expression. The repression of GALK1 mRNA expression was associated with DNA hypermethylation and more enriched repression histone mark H3K27me3 on its promoter. Binding sites of SP1, GR and STAT3 were predicted on GALK1 promoter, and decreased SP1 protein content and lower SP1 binding to GALK1 promoter were detected in the liver of betaine-exposed piglets. Furthermore, the expression of miRNA-149 targeting GALK1 was up-regulated in the liver of betaine-exposed piglets, along with elevated miRNAs-processing enzymes Dicer and Ago2.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that maternal dietary betaine supplementation during gestation suppresses GALK1 expression in the liver of neonatal piglets, which involves complex gene regulation mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modification, miRNAs expression and SP1-mediated transcriptional modulation.

  • 3. Elkan, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Engvall, Inga-Lill
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Hafström, Ingiäld
    Rheumatoid cachexia, central obesity and malnutrition in patients with low-active rheumatoid arthritis: Feasibility of anthropometry, Mini Nutritional Assessment and body composition techniques2009In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 315-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The concurrent decrease in fat free mass (FFM) and increase in fat mass (FM), including central obesity, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to increased cardiovascular morbidity as well as to functional decline. The objectives of this study were to evaluate body composition and nutritional status in patients with RA and the feasibility of bioelectrical impedance (BIA) to detect rheumatoid cachexia. METHODS: Eighty RA outpatients (76% women), mean age 61 (range 22-80) years and with mean disease duration of 6 (range 1-52) years, were assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), BIA and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). RESULTS: Fat free mass index (FFMI; kg/m(2)) was low in 26% of the women and in 21% of the men. About every fifth patient displayed concomitant low FFMI and elevated fat mass index (FMI; kg/m(2)), i.e. rheumatoid cachexia. BMI and MNA were not able to detect this condition. Sixty-seven percent had increased WC. Reduced FFM was independently related to age (p = 0.022), disease duration (p = 0.027), ESR (p = 0.011) and function trendwise (p = 0.058). There was a good relative agreement between DXA and BIA (FM r (2) = 0.94, FFM r (2) = 0.92; both p < 0.001), but the limits of agreement were wide for each variable, i.e. for FM -3.3 to 7.8 kg; and for FFM -7.9 to 3.7 kg. CONCLUSION: Rheumatoid cachexia and central obesity were common in patients with RA. Neither BMI nor MNA could detect this properly. There was a good relative agreement between DXA and BIA, but the limits of agreement were wide, which may restrict the utility of BIA in clinical practice.

  • 4. Elshorbagy, Amany
    et al.
    Jernerén, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Oxford.
    Basta, Marianne
    Basta, Caroline
    Turner, Cheryl
    Khaled, Maram
    Refsum, Helga
    Amino acid changes during transition to a vegan diet supplemented with fish in healthy humans.2017In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1953-1962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To explore whether changes in dietary protein sources can lower plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids and sulfur amino acids (SAAs) that are often elevated in the obese, insulin-resistant state and in type 2 diabetes.

    METHODS: Thirty-six subjects (mean age 31 ± 2 years) underwent a voluntary abstinence from meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products for 6 weeks, while enriching the diet with fish, in fulfillment of a religious fast. Subjects were assessed 1 week before the fast (V1), 1 week after initiation of the fast (V2) and in the last week of the fast (V3). Thirty-four subjects completed all three visits.

    RESULTS: Fasting plasma BCAAs decreased at V2 and remained low at V3 (P < 0.001 for all). Valine showed the greatest decline, by 20 and 19 % at V2 and V3, respectively. Phenylalanine and tryptophan, but not tyrosine, also decreased at V2 and V3. The two proteinogenic SAAs, methionine and cysteine, remained stable, but the cysteine product, taurine, decreased from 92 ± 7 μmol/L to 66 ± 6 (V2; P = 0.003) and 65 ± 6 μmol/L (V3; P = 0.003). A progressive decline in plasma glutamic acid, coupled with an increase in glutamine, was observed. Plasma total and LDL cholesterol decreased at V2 and V3 (P < 0.001 for all).

    CONCLUSION: Changing dietary protein sources to plant- and fish-based sources in an ad libitum setting lowers the plasma BCAAs that have been linked to diabetes risk. These findings point to habitual diet as a potentially modifiable determinant of fasting plasma BCAA concentrations.

  • 5.
    Kotova, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Natl Food Agcy, Dept Sci, S-75126 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Frostne, Cecilia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Environm Chem Unit, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    Swedish Natl Food Agcy, Dept Sci, S-75126 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Tareke, Eden
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Environm Chem Unit, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bergman, Rolf
    Knivsbrunna, S-75598 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Paulsson, Birgit
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Environm Chem Unit, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tornqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Environm Chem Unit, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Segerback, Dan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Jenssen, Dag
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Grawé, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine. Uppsala Univ, Rudbeck Lab, Cell Anal Core Facil, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Differences in micronucleus frequency and acrylamide adduct levels with hemoglobin between vegetarians and non-vegetarians2015In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 1181-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrients and food constituents can prevent or contribute to genotoxicity. In this study, the possible influence of a vegetarian/non-vegetarian diet on genotoxic effects was investigated in 58 non-smoking healthy vegetarians (V) and non-vegetarians (NV), age 21-37 years from the Stockholm area in Sweden. Physical activity and dietary habits were similar in both groups, with the exception of the intake of meat and fish. Using flow cytometry, we determined the formation of micronuclei (MN) in transferrin-positive immature peripheral blood reticulocytes (Trf-Ret) (Total: n = 53; V: n = 27; NV: n = 26). Dietary exposure to acrylamide was measured through hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in peripheral erythrocytes (Total: n = 53; V: n = 29; NV: n = 24). Hb adducts of both acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide were monitored as a measure of the corresponding in vivo doses. Our data demonstrated that compared with the non-vegetarians, the vegetarians exhibited lower frequencies of MN (fMN) in the Trf-Ret (p < 0.01, Student's t test). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that there was no association between the fMN and factors such as age, sex, intake of vitamins/minerals, serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels, physical activity, and body mass index. The mean Hb adduct levels of acrylamide and glycidamide showed no significant differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between the adduct levels and fMN in the individuals. The ratio of the Hb adduct levels from glycidamide and acrylamide, however, showed a significant difference (p < 0.04) between the two groups. These data suggest that the vegetarian diet might be beneficial in lowering genomic instability in healthy individuals. The measured Hb adduct levels indicate that the total intake of acrylamide does not differ between the two studied groups and does not contribute to the observed difference in fMN, although an influence of the diet on the metabolic rates of acrylamide was indicated. In addition, the observed significant difference in the background fMN in the two groups demonstrated that the MN analysis method has a sensitivity applicable to the biomonitoring of human lifestyle factors.

  • 6.
    McKeown, Nicola M.
    et al.
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer US Dept Agr USDA, Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111 USA.;Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ma, Jiantao
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer US Dept Agr USDA, Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Ross, Alastair B.
    Chalmers, Dept Life Sci Engn, Food & Nutr Sci, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lichtenstein, Alice H.
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer US Dept Agr USDA, Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111 USA.;Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Livingston, Kara A.
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer US Dept Agr USDA, Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Jacques, Paul F.
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer US Dept Agr USDA, Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111 USA.;Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Rasmussen, Helen M.
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer US Dept Agr USDA, Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111 USA.;Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Blumberg, Jeffrey B.
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer US Dept Agr USDA, Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111 USA.;Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Chen, C-Y. Oliver
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer US Dept Agr USDA, Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111 USA.;Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Comparison of plasma alkylresorcinols (AR) and urinary AR metabolites as biomarkers of compliance in a short-term, whole-grain intervention study2016In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 1235-1244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids present in the bran of wheat and rye. Plasma AR and their urinary metabolites may be suitable biomarkers of whole-grain (WG) wheat and rye consumption. The objective of this study was to examine plasma AR and urinary AR metabolites in response to WG wheat consumption. In a randomized crossover study, 19 subjects (10 males, 9 females; BMI 22.0 kg/m(2); age 26 years) incorporated either 3 servings (48 g) or 6 servings (96 g) of WG wheat daily into their regular diet for 1 week. Subjects completed a 2-week washout period, abstaining from all WG consumption, before each intervention. Fasting blood and 24-h urine were collected before and after each intervention. Plasma AR homologues (C19:0, C21:0, C23:0) were quantified by GC-MS after diethyl ether and solid phase extraction and derivatization. Urinary AR metabolites [3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid] were determined using HPLC with electrochemical detection after enzymatic deconjugation and ethyl acetate extraction. Urinary total AR metabolites were significantly higher after 6 compared with 3 servings of WG wheat (56 vs. 32 mu mol/day, P < 0.001). This dose-response relationship was independent of age, sex, energy intake, and baseline urinary AR metabolite concentration. Plasma total AR tended to be higher after 6 compared with 3 servings of WG wheat (103.0 vs. 86.9 nmol/L), but this difference was not significant (P = 0.42). The results suggest that urinary AR metabolites from 24-h urine collections may be useful as biomarkers of compliance in intervention studies of WG wheat.

  • 7. Miguel-Berges, María L
    et al.
    Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M
    Mouratidou, Theodora
    Androutsos, Odysseas
    de Craemer, Marieke
    Pinket, An-Sofie
    Birnbaum, Julia
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Iotova, Violeta
    Usheva, Natalia
    Kulaga, Zbigniew
    Gozdz, Magdalena
    Manios, Yannis
    Moreno, Luis A
    Associations between food and beverage consumption and different types of sedentary behaviours in European preschoolers: the ToyBox-study.2017In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1939-1951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between food and beverage consumption and time spent in different sedentary behaviours such as watching TV and DVDs, playing computer/video games and quiet play/activities in preschoolers.

    METHODS: A sample of 6431 (51.8 % males) European preschoolers aged 3.5-5.5 years from six survey centres was included in the data analyses. Data on dietary habits and sedentary behaviours [watching TV, playing computer and quiet play (both during weekdays and weekend days)] were collected via standardized proxy-administered questionnaires. One-way analysis of covariance and general linear model (adjusted for sex, maternal education, body mass index and centre) were conducted.

    RESULTS: The results of the generalized linear model showed that the more strong associations in both males and females who were watching TV for > 1 h/day during weekdays were positively associated with increased consumption of fizzy drinks (β = 0.136 for males and β = 0.156 for females), fresh and packed juices (β = 0.069, β = 0.089), sweetened milk (β = 0.119, β = 0.078), cakes and biscuits (β = 0.116, β = 0.145), chocolate (β = 0.052, β = 0.090), sugar-based desserts and pastries (β = 0.234, β = 0.250), salty snacks (β = 0.067, β = 0.056), meat/poultry/processed meat (β = 0.067, β = 0.090) and potatoes (β = 0.071, β = 0.067), and negative associations were observed for the consumption of fruits (β = -0.057, β = -0.099), vegetables (β = -0.056, β = -0.082) and fish (β = -0.013, β = -0.013). During weekend days, results were comparable.

    CONCLUSIONS: In European preschoolers, sedentary behaviours were associated with consumption of energy-dense foods and fizzy drinks. The present findings will contribute to improve the strategies to prevent overweight, obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases from early childhood.

  • 8. Nordenvall, Caroline
    et al.
    Oskarsson, Viktor
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of cholecystectomy: a prospective cohort study of women and men.2018In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Epidemiologic data on whether consumption of fruit and vegetables (FVs) decreases the risk of gallstone disease are sparse. Therefore, we examined the association between FV consumption and the 14-year risk of symptomatic gallstone disease (defined as occurrence of cholecystectomy) in a large group of middle-aged and elderly persons.

    METHODS: Data from two population-based cohorts were used, which included 74,554 men and women (born 1914-1952). Participants filled in a food frequency questionnaire in the late fall of 1997 and were followed up for cholecystectomy between 1998 and 2011 via linkage to the Swedish Patient Register. Cox regression models were used to obtain hazard ratios (HRs).

    RESULTS:  = .43). The multivariable-adjusted HR was 0.95 (95 % CI 0.83-1.08) for the highest compared with the lowest sex-specific quartile of FV consumption. There was no evidence of interactions with age (P = .25) or sex (P = .72) in analyses pooled by sex. However, an age-by-FV consumption interaction was observed in separate analyses of women (P = .010), with decreased HRs of cholecystectomy for ages up to 60 years.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study supports an inverse association between FV consumption and risk cholecystectomy in women, although the association was restricted to women aged 48-60 years. In contrast, the study does not support an association in men.

  • 9. Olsson, Johan
    et al.
    Sundberg, Birgitta
    Viberg, Annika
    Hänni, Arvo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Effect of a vegetable-oil emulsion on body composition; a 12-week study in overweight women on a meal replacement therapy after an initial weight loss: a randomized controlled trial2011In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 235-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of an obtained lower weight level is often found to be difficult. The aim of this study was to determine weight maintenance after an initial weight loss by consumption of a meal replacement with a vegetable-oil emulsion associated with prolonged satiety. After a 6-week weight loss period with very low calorie diet (VLCD), subjects with > 5% body weight (BW) loss were randomized to a 12-week weight maintenance follow-up period, comparing a partial meal replacement diet containing a vegetable-oil emulsion (test) or dairy fat (control). Anthropometric data and safety variables were collected at baseline and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A significant weight loss was observed during the 12-week weight maintenance diet in the test and control group, respectively; 1.0 +/- A 2.1 kg (p < 0.05) versus 1.3 +/- A 2.1 kg (p < 0.05) with no significant difference between the groups. Body fat mass (BFM) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the test group (-1.7%) compared to the control group (-0.8%). Addition of a vegetable-oil emulsion to a meal replacement weight maintenance program after an initial weight loss using VLCD was associated with decreased BFM by 0.9% without any change in BW between the two groups.

  • 10. Oskarsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Sadr-Azodi, Omid
    Discacciati, Andrea
    Orsini, Nicola
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Overall diet quality and risk of recurrence and progression of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study.2017In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: An incident episode of acute pancreatitis is often followed by recurrent attacks and/or progression to chronic pancreatitis, especially if the etiology is non-gallstone-related. We examined whether overall diet quality influences the natural history of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

    METHODS: Three hundred and eighty-six individuals (born 1914-1952) were included in a prospective study, all of whom had an incident diagnosis of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1998 and 2013. Participants were already enrolled in two population-based cohorts and had completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1997. Overall diet quality was calculated using a recommended food score (RFS), which was based on 25 food items. Post-diagnosis follow-up was conducted throughout 2014 for recurrence of acute pancreatitis and/or progression to chronic pancreatic disease (including cancer). Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models.

    RESULTS: During 1859 person-years of follow-up, 23.3% of the study population (n = 90) developed recurrent or progressive pancreatic disease. An inverse association was observed between the RFS and risk of recurrent and progressive pancreatic disease after adjustment for age and sex (hazard ratio for each 2-unit increase 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.81-1.01) (P overall association = 0.06). However, the association became weaker and was not statistically significant after adjustment for other potential confounders, including alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking (P overall association = 0.27).

    CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study of individuals with non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis, there was no clear association between overall diet quality and risk of recurrent and progressive pancreatic disease.

  • 11. Svensson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Sobko, Tanja
    Ek, Anna
    Forssén, Michaela
    Ekbom, Kerstin
    Johansson, Elin
    Nowicka, Paulina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Westerståhl, Maria
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Marcus, Claude
    Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP)2016In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 781-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight.

    METHODS: Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental weight status. The odds for high diet quality in relation to parental diet quality were determined. Associations between measured infant relative weight and dietary intake were examined adjusting for obesity risk, socio-demographics, and infant feeding.

    RESULTS: Infant dietary intake did not differ between high- and low-risk families. The parents in high-risk families consumed soft drinks, French fries, and low-fat spread more frequently, and fish and fruits less frequently (p < 0.05) compared to parents in low-risk families. Paternal intake of vegetables and fish increased the odds for children being consumers of vegetables (OR 1.7; 95 % CI 1.0-2.9) and fish, respectively (OR 2.5; 95 % CI 1.4-4.4). Infant relative weight was weakly associated with a high intake of milk cereal drink (r = 0.15; p < 0.05), but not with any other aspect of dietary intake, obesity risk, or early feeding patterns.

    CONCLUSIONS: At the age of one, dietary intake in infants is not associated with family obesity risk, nor with parental obesogenic food intake. Milk cereal drink consumption but no other infant dietary marker reflects relative weight at this young age.

  • 12. Wallin, Alice
    et al.
    Di Giuseppe, Daniela
    Burgaz, Ann
    Håkansson, Niclas
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Validity of food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of long-term long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake2014In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 549-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    To evaluate how long-term dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs), estimated by repeated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) over 15 years, is correlated with LCn-3 PUFAs in adipose tissue (AT).

    METHODS:

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained in 2003-2004 (AT-03) from 239 randomly selected women, aged 55-75 years, after completion of a 96-item FFQ (FFQ-03). All participants had previously returned an identical FFQ in 1997 (FFQ-97) and a 67-item version in 1987-1990 (FFQ-87). Pearson product-moment correlations were used to evaluate associations between intake of total and individual LCn-3 PUFAs as estimated by the three FFQ assessments and AT-03 content (% of total fatty acids).

    RESULTS:

    FFQ-estimated mean relative intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (% of total fat intake) increased between all three assessments (FFQ-87, 0.55 ± 0.34; FFQ-97, 0.74 ± 0.64; FFQ-03, 0.88 ± 0.56). Validity, in terms of Pearson correlations between FFQ-03 estimates and AT-03 content, was 0.41 (95 % CI 0.30-0.51) for total LCn-3 PUFA and ranged from 0.29 to 0.48 for individual fatty acids; lower correlation was observed among participants with higher percentage body fat. With regard to long-term intake estimates, past dietary intake was also correlated with AT-03 content, with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.21-0.33 and 0.21-0.34 for FFQ-97 and FFQ-87, respectively. The correlations were improved by using average estimates from two or more FFQ assessments. Exclusion of fish oil supplement users (14 %) did not alter the correlations.

    CONCLUSION:

    These data indicate reasonable validity of FFQ-based estimates of long-term (up to 15 years) LCn-3 PUFA intake, justifying their use in studies of diet-disease associations.

  • 13. Öhrvik, Veronica
    et al.
    Warensjö, Eva
    Science DepartmentNational Food AgencyUppsalaSweden.
    Nälsén, Cecilia
    Becker, Wulf
    Ridefelt, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Dietary intake and biomarker status of folate in Swedish adults2018In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 451-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: National data on folate status are missing in Sweden, and regional data indicate folate insufficiency in up to more than 25% of the study populations. The objectives were to determine folate intake and status in the adult Swedish population as well as identifying dietary patterns associated with beneficial folate status.

    METHODS: Folate intake was estimated using a web-based 4-d food record in adults aged 18-80 years (n = 1797). Folate status was measured as erythrocyte (n = 282) and plasma folate concentrations (n = 294). Factor analysis was used to derive a dietary pattern associated with a higher folate status.

    RESULTS: Median folate intake was 246 µg/day (Q 1 = 196, Q 3 = 304, n = 1797) and for women of reproductive age 227 µg/day (Q 1 = 181, Q 3 = 282, n = 450). As dietary folate equivalents (DFE), median intake was 257 µg/day (Q 1 = 201, Q 3 = 323) and for women of reproductive age 239 µg/day (Q 1 = 185, Q 3 = 300). Low blood folate concentrations were found in 2% (erythrocyte concentrations <317 nmol/L) and 4% (plasma concentrations <6.8 nmol/L) of the participants, respectively. None of the women of reproductive age had erythrocyte folate concentrations associated with the lowest risk of neural tube defects. Dietary patterns associated with higher folate status were rich in vegetables, pulses and roots as well as cheese and alcoholic beverages, and low in meat.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of low erythrocyte folate concentrations was low in this population, and estimated dietary intakes are well above average requirement. However, to obtain a folate status optimal for prevention of neural tube defects major dietary changes are required and folic acid supplements recommended prior to conception.

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