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  • 1.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Marklund, Matti
    Department of Food Science; Swedish University of Argiculture Sciences, Uppsala.
    Diana, Mariana
    Department of Food Science; Swedish University of Argiculture Sciences, Uppsala.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Department of Food Science; Swedish University of Argiculture Sciences, Uppsala.
    Plasma Alkylresorcinol Concentrations Correlate with Whole Grain Wheat and Rye Intake and Show Moderate Reproducibility over a 2- to 3-Month Period in Free-Living Swedish Adults2011In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 141, no 9, p. 1712-1718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma alkylresorcinols (AR) are useful as dietary biomarkers of wheat and rye whole grain (WG) during interventions but need to be validated in free-living populations. This study estimated the medium-term reproducibility and relative validity of plasma AR as biomarkers of WG and cereal fiber intake. Seventy-two Swedish adults kept 3-d weighed food records on 2 occasions 2-3 mo apart. Of these men and women, 51 provided a fasting blood sample at the end of each occasion. In addition, 18 participants provided 3 fasting and 3 nonfasting samples for 3 consecutive days on the first and second occasions, respectively. Dietary and blood variables did not differ between the 2 occasions. Nonfasting plasma total AR concentration [210 nmol/L (95% CI: 140, 314)] was higher than fasting [99 nmol/L (95% CI: 72, 137)] (P < 0.0001). Mean WG intake was 70 ± 61 g/d (41% from rye) and the intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.63) for total WG intake and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.67) for the fasting plasma total AR concentration, suggesting moderate reproducibility. Fasting plasma total AR moderately correlated with WG rye + wheat (r(s) = 0.53; P < 0.001) and cereal fiber intake (r(s) = 0.32; P < 0.05) when using mean values from both occasions. This suggests that plasma AR concentration in fasting samples can be used as a biomarker of rye + wheat WG intake in free-living populations with a high and consistent WG intake.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Landberg, Rikard
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Åman, Per
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Whole-grain foods do not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in healthy, moderately overweight subjects2007In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 137, no 6, p. 1401-1407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High intakes of whole grain foods are inversely related to the incidence of coronary heart diseases and type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet rich in whole grains compared with a diet containing the same amount of refined grains on insulin sensitivity and markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation. In a randomized crossover study, 22 women and 8 men (BMI 28 +/- 2) were given either whole-grain or refined-grain products (3 bread slices, 2 crisp bread slices, 1 portion muesli, and 1 portion pasta) to include in their habitual daily diet for two 6-wk periods. Peripheral insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp tests. 8-Iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (8-iso PGF(2alpha)), an F(2)-isoprostane, was measured in the urine as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and highly sensitive C-reactive protein and IL-6 were analyzed in plasma as markers of inflammation. Peripheral insulin sensitivity [mg glucose . kg body wt(-1) . min(-1) per unit plasma insulin (mU/L) x 100] did not improve when subjects consumed whole-grain products (6.8 +/- 3.0 at baseline and 6.5 +/- 2.7 after 6 wk) or refined products (6.4 +/- 2.9 and 6.9 +/- 3.2, respectively) and there were no differences between the 2 periods. Whole-grain consumption also did not affect 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) in urine, IL-6 and C-reactive protein in plasma, blood pressure, or serum lipid concentrations. In conclusion, substitution of whole grains (mainly based on milled wheat) for refined-grain products in the habitual daily diet of healthy moderately overweight adults for 6-wk did not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation.

  • 3.
    Doherty, Tanya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Chopra, Mickey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Nkonki, Lungiswa
    Jackson, Debra
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    A Longitudinal Qualitative Study of Infant-Feeding Decision Making and Practices among HIV-Positive Women in South Africa2006In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 136, no 9, p. 2421-2426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the challenges that HIV-positive women face at different stages of early infant feeding using a longitudinal, qualitative design. The study explored factors influencing infant-feeding decision-making and behavior of HIV positive mothers and identified characteristics of women and their environments that contributed to success in maintaining exclusivity of their infant feeding practices. The study was undertaken at 3 sites in South Africa. Participants consisted of a purposive sample of 27 women who had a positive HIV test result during antenatal care and were intending to either exclusively breast-feed or exclusively formula-feed their infants. Women were interviewed once antenatally and at 1, 4, 6, and 12 wk postpartum. Just under one-half of the women who initiated breast-feeding maintained exclusivity and over two-thirds of the women who initiated formula-feeding maintained exclusivity. Key characteristics of women who achieved success in exclusivity included the ability to resist pressure from the family to introduce other fluids and to recall key messages on mother-to-child transmission risks and mixed feeding. Among women who maintained exclusive breast-feeding, a strong belief in the benefits of breast-feeding and a supportive home environment was important. For women using formula milk, having resources such as electricity, a kettle, and flask made feeding at night easier. Support for infant feeding that extends beyond the antenatal period is important to enable mothers to cope with new challenges and pressures at critical times during the early postpartum period.

  • 4.
    Elshorbagy, Amany K.
    et al.
    Univ Alexandria, Dept Physiol, Fac Med, Alexandria, Egypt.
    Samocha-Bonet, Dorit
    Garvan Inst Med Res, Diabet & Metab Div, Sydney, NSW, Australia;Univ New South Wales, Fac Med, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Jernerén, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Univ Oxford, Dept Pharmacol, Oxford, England.
    Turner, Cheryl
    Univ Oxford, Dept Pharmacol, Oxford, England.
    Refsum, Helga
    Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Nutr, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oxford, Dept Pharmacol, Oxford, England.
    Heilbronn, Leonie K.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia;Garvan Inst Med Res, Diabet & Metab Div, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Food Overconsumption in Healthy Adults Triggers Early and Sustained Increases in Serum Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Changes in Cysteine Linked to Fat Gain2018In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 148, no 7, p. 1073-1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. BCAAs predict future diabetes. Objective: We investigated amino acid changes during food overconsumption. Methods: Forty healthy men and women with a body mass index (mean +/- SEM) of 25.6 +/- 0.6 were overfed by 1250 kcal/d for 28 d, increasing consumption of all macronutrients. Insulin sensitivity and body composition were assessed at baseline (day 0) and day 28. Fasting serum amino acids were measured at days 0, 3, and 28. Linear mixed-effects models evaluated the effect of time in the total group and separately in those with low and high body fat gain (below compared with at or above median fat gain, 1.95 kg). At days 0 and 28, insulin-induced suppression of serum amino acids during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test and, in a subset (n = 20), adipose tissue mRNA expression of selected amino acid metabolizing enzymes were assessed. Results: Weight increased by 2.8 kg. High fat gainers gained 2.6 kg fat mass compared with 1.1 kg in low fat gainers. Valine and isoleucine increased at day 3 (+17% and +22%, respectively; P <= 0.002) and remained elevated at day 28, despite a decline in valine (P = 0.019) from day 3 values. Methionine, cystathionine, and taurine were unaffected. Serum total cysteine (tCys) transiently increased at day 3 (+11%; P = 0.022) only in high fat gainers (P-interaction = 0.043), in whom the cysteine catabolic enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO1) was induced (+26%; P = 0.025) in adipose tissue (P-interaction = 0.045). Overconsumption did not alter adipose tissue mRNA expression of the BCAA-metabolizing enzymes branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1 alpha polypeptide (BCKDHA) or branched-chain amino transferase 1 (BCAT1). In the total population at day 0, insulin infusion decreased all serum amino acids (-11% to -47%; P < 0.01), except for homocysteine and tCys, which were unchanged, and glutathione, which was increased by 54%. At day 28, insulin increased tCys (+8%), and the insulin-induced suppression of taurine and phenylalanine observed at day 0, but not that of BCAAs, was significantly impaired. Conclusions: These findings highlight the role of nutrient oversupply in increasing fasting BCAA concentrations in healthy adults. The link between cysteine availability, CDO1 expression, and fat gain deserves investigation.

  • 5.
    Eneroth, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    El Arifeen, Shams
    Child Health Unit, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Kabir, Iqbal
    Child Health Unit, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Dept of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA.
    Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar
    Child Health Unit, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Duration of exclusive breast-feeding and infant iron and zinc status in rural Bangladesh2009In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 139, no 8, p. 1562-1567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a concern that exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 mo may lead to iron and zinc deficiency in low-birth weight (LBW) infants. We assessed the association between duration of EBF and infant iron and zinc status in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial, Bangladesh, stratified for normal birth weigh (NBW) and LBW. Duration of EBF was classified into EBF <4 mo and EBF 4-6 mo based on monthly recalls of foods introduced to the infant. Blood samples collected at 6 mo were analyzed for plasma zinc (n = 1032), plasma ferritin (n = 1040), and hemoglobin (Hb) (n = 791). Infants EBF 4-6 mo had a higher mean plasma zinc concentration (9.9 +/- 2.3 micromol/L) than infants EBF <4mo (9.5 +/- 2.0 micromol/L) (P < 0.01). This association was apparent in only the NBW strata and was not reflected in a lower prevalence of zinc deficiency. Duration of EBF was not associated with concentration of plasma ferritin, Hb concentration, or prevalence of iron deficiency or anemia in any strata. Regardless of EBF duration, the prevalence of zinc deficiency, iron deficiency, and anemia was high in infants in this population and strategies to prevent deficiency are needed.

  • 6.
    Eneroth, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    El Arifeen, Shams
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar
    Stephensen, Charles B.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation has limited impact on micronutrient status of Bangladeshi infants compared with standard iron and folic acid supplementation2010In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 140, no 3, p. 618-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the impact of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation on infant micronutrient status is limited. We examined the effect of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation on infant micronutrient status in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab Trial. Pregnant women (n = 4436) were randomized to Early or Usual promotion of enrollment in a food supplementation program. In addition, they were randomly allocated to 1 of the following 3 types of daily micronutrient supplements provided from wk 14 of gestation to 3 mo postpartum: 1) folic acid and 30 mg iron (Fe30Fol); 2) folic acid and 60 mg iron; or 3) a multiple micronutrient including folic acid and 30 mg iron (MMS). At 6 mo, infant blood samples (n = 1066) were collected and analyzed for hemoglobin and plasma ferritin, zinc, retinol, vitamin B-12, and folate. The vitamin B-12 concentration differed between the micronutrient supplementation groups (P = 0.049). The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency was lower in the MMS group (26.1%) than in the Fe30Fol group (36.5%) (P = 0.003). The prevalence of zinc deficiency was lower in the Usual food supplementation group (54.1%) than in the Early group (60.2%) (P = 0.046). There were no other differential effects according to food or micronutrient supplementation groups. We conclude that maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation may have a beneficial effect on vitamin B-12 status in infancy.

  • 7. Engström, Annette
    et al.
    Håkansson, Helen
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Bjellerup, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Lidfeldt, Jonas
    Lundh, Thomas
    Samsioe, Göran
    Vahter, Marie
    Akesson, Agneta
    Retinol may counteract the negative effect of cadmium on bone2011In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 141, no 12, p. 2198-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium and high vitamin A intake are both proposed risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD), but potential interactions have not been studied. Within the Women's Health in the Lund Area, a population-based study in southern Sweden, we measured retinol in serum among 606 women aged 54-64 y. Data on BMD were measured by DXA at the distal forearm. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP), and osteocalcin in serum and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and cadmium in urine were available. Associations were evaluated using multivariable-adjusted linear regression analysis. Serum retinol concentrations (median, 1.9; range, 0.97-4.3 μmol/L) were inversely associated with the bone formation markers bALP and osteocalcin (P ≤ 0.04) and with PTH (P = 0.07) and tended to be positively associated with BMD (P = 0.08) but not with the bone resorption marker DPD, indicating different effects on bone compared to urinary cadmium (median, 0.66; range, 0.12-3.6 nmol/mmol creatinine). Women with serum retinol less than the median and cadmium greater than the median had lower BMD than those with retinol greater than the median and cadmium less than the median (P = 0.016 among all women and P = 0.010 among never-smokers). Our findings suggest that adequate vitamin A status may counteract the adverse association between cadmium and BMD.

  • 8. Frith, Amy L.
    et al.
    Naved, Ruchira T.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Rasmussen, Kathleen M.
    Frongillo, Edward A.
    Early Participation in a Prenatal Food Supplementation Program Ameliorates the Negative Association of Food Insecurity with Quality of Maternal-Infant Interaction2012In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 142, no 6, p. 1095-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food insecurity is detrimental to child development, yet little is known about the combined influence of food insecurity and nutritional interventions on child development in low-income countries. We proposed that women assigned to an early invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program could reduce the negative influence of food insecurity on maternal-infant interaction. A cohort of 180 mother-infant dyads were studied (born between May and October 2003) from among 3267 in the randomized controlled trial Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Mat lab, which was conducted in Mat lab, Bangladesh. At 8 wk gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation time to start receiving food supplements (2.5 MJ/d; 6 d/wk) either early (similar to 9 wk gestation; early-invitation group) or at the usual start time (similar to 20 wk gestation; usual-invitation group) for the government program. Maternal-infant interaction was observed in homes with the use of the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale, and food-insecurity status was obtained from questionnaires completed when infants were 3.4-4.0 mo old. By using a general linear model for maternal-infant interaction, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.012) between invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program and food insecurity. Those in the usual-invitation group with higher food insecurity scores (i.e., more food insecure) had a lower quality of maternal-infant interaction, but this relationship was ameliorated among those in the early-invitation group. Food insecurity limits the ability of mothers and infants to interact well, but an early invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program can support mother-infant interaction among those who are food insecure.

  • 9. Garcia-Rios, Antonio
    et al.
    Perez-Martinez, Pablo
    Delgado-Lista, Javier
    Phillips, Catherine M.
    Gjelstad, Ingrid M. F.
    Wright, John W.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kie'c-Wilk, Beata
    van Hees, A. M. J.
    Helal, Olfa
    Polus, Anna
    Defoort, Catherine
    Riserus, Ulf
    Blaak, Ellen E.
    Lovegrove, Julie A.
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Roche, Helen M.
    Lopez-Miranda, Jose
    A Period 2 Genetic Variant Interacts with Plasma SFA to Modify Plasma Lipid Concentrations in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome2012In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 142, no 7, p. 1213-1218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic variants of Period 2 (PER2), a circadian clock gene, have been linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, it is still unknown whether these genetic variants interact with the various types of plasma fatty acids. This study investigated whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PER2 locus (rs934945 and rs2304672) interact with various classes of plasma fatty acids to modulate plasma lipid metabolism in 381 participants with MetS in the European LIPGENE study. Interestingly, the rs2304672 SNP interacted with plasma total SFA concentrations to affect fasting plasma TG, TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL-TG), total cholesterol, apoC-II, apoB, and apoB-48 concentrations (P-interaction <0.001-0.046). Carriers of the minor allele (GC+GG) with the highest SFA concentration (>median) had a higher plasma TG concentration (P = 0.001) and higher TRL-TG (P < 0.001) than the CC genotype. In addition, participants carrying the minor G allele for rs2304672 SNP and with a higher SFA concentration (>median) had higher plasma concentrations of apo C-II (P < 0.001), apo C-III (P = 0.009), and apoB-48 (P = 0.028) compared with the homozygotes for the major allele (CC). In summary, the rs2304672 polymorphism in the PER2 gene locus may influence lipid metabolism by interacting with the plasma total SEA concentration in participants with MetS. The understanding of these gene-nutrient interactions could help to provide a better knowledge of the pathogenesis in MetS. 

  • 10.
    Hawkesworth, Sophie
    et al.
    Medical Research Council International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Wagatsuma, Yukiko
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Kahn, Ashraf I.
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hawlader, Mohammad D. H.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Fulford, Anthony J. C.
    Medical Research Council International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Arifeen, Shams-El
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Moores, Sophie E.
    Medical Research Council International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Combined Food and Micronutrient Supplements during Pregnancy Have Limited Impact on Child Blood Pressure and Kidney Function in Rural Bangladesh2013In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 143, no 5, p. 728-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observational evidence suggests nutritional exposures during in utero development may have long-lasting consequences for health; data from interventions are scarce. Here, we present a trial follow-up study to assess the association between prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation and childhood blood pressure and kidney function. During the MINIMat Trial in rural Bangladesh, women were randomly assigned early in pregnancy to receive an early or later invitation to attend a food supplementation program and additionally to receive either iron and folate or multiple micronutrient tablets daily. The 3267 singleton birth individuals with measured anthropometry born during the trial were eligible for a follow-up study at 4.5 y old. A total of 77% of eligible individuals were recruited and blood pressure, kidney size by ultrasound, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; calculated from plasma cystatin c) were assessed. In adjusted analysis, early invitation to food supplementation was associated with a 0.72-mm Hg [(95% CI: 0.16, 1.28); P = 0.01] lower childhood diastolic blood pressure and maternal MMS supplementation was associated with a marginally higher [0.87 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.18, 1.56); P = 0.01] childhood diastolic blood pressure. There was also some evidence that a supplement higher in iron was associated with a higher offspring GFR. No other effects of the food or micronutrient interventions were observed and there was no interaction between the interventions on the outcomes studied. These marginal associations and small effect sizes suggest limited public health importance in early childhood.

  • 11.
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Forslund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Forslund, Jeanette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Metabolic responses to nocturnal eating in men are affected by sources of dietary energy2002In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 132, no 7, p. 1892-1899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because night work is becoming more prevalent, we studied whether feeding at different times of a 24-h period would elicit different metabolic responses and whether dietary macronutrient composition would affect these responses. Seven men (26-43 y, 19.9-26.6 kg/m(2)) consumed two isocaloric diets, in a crossover design. The diets were a high carbohydrate (HC) diet [65 energy % (E%) carbohydrates, 20E% fat] and a high fat (HF) diet (40E% carbohydrates, 45E% fat). After a 6-d diet-adjustment period, the men were kept awake for 24 h and the food (continuation of respective diet) was provided as six isocaloric meals (i.e., every 4 h). Energy and substrate turnover, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol were measured throughout the 24-h period. Significantly higher energy expenditure and NEFA concentration, and lower blood glucose and TAG concentrations were observed when the men consumed the HF diet than when they consumed the HC diet. Significant circadian patterns were seen in body and skin temperature (nadir, 0400-0500 h). When the men consumed the HF diet, significant circadian patterns were seen in fat oxidation (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1200-0800 h), heat release (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1600-0800 h), heart rate (nadir, 0000 h), blood glucose (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0000-0400 h), NEFA (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 1200-2000 h) and TAG (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0400-0800 h) concentrations. Energy expenditure, carbohydrate oxidation, MAP and glycerol concentration did not display circadian patterns. Unequal variances eradicated most circadian effects in the HC-diet data. The increased TAG concentration in response to feeding at 0400 h might be involved in the higher TAG concentrations seen in shift workers. Distinct macronutrient/circadian-dependent postprandial responses were seen in most studied variables.

  • 12.
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lowden, Arne
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Forslund, Jeanette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Forslund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    The Human Body May Buffer Small Differences in Meal Size and Timing during a 24-h Wake Period Provided Energy Balance Is Maintained2003In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 133, no 9, p. 2748-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because approximately 20% of the work force in the industrialized world have irregular working hours, it is pertinent to study the consequences of eating at irregular, especially nighttime hours. We studied the postprandial responses during nocturnal fasting vs. eating throughout a 24-h wake period. Seven healthy males were studied twice in a crossover design. After a 6-d diet adjustment period [high fat diet, 45 energy percent (en%) fat, 40 en% carbohydrates)] with sleep from 2300 to 0700 h, the men were kept awake for 24 h at the metabolic ward and given either 6 isoenergetic meals, i.e., every 4 h (N-eat) or 4 isoenergetic meals from 0800 to 2000 h followed by a nocturnal fast (N-fast), with the same 24-h energy intake. Energy expenditure, substrate utilization, activity, heat release, body temperature and blood variables were measured over 24 h. Energy expenditure and blood glucose, triacylglycerol, insulin and glucagon concentrations were lower and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations were higher during the nocturnal fast than during nocturnal eating (P < 0.05); however, no 24-h differences between the protocols were apparent. Nocturnal fasting slightly altered the secretory patterns of the thyroid hormones and cortisol (P < 0.05). We found no clear indication that it would be more favorable to ingest few larger daytime meals than smaller meals throughout the 24-h period. The body seems to be able to buffer small differences in meal size and timing provided energy balance is maintained.

  • 13. Hruby, Adela
    et al.
    Ngwa, Julius S.
    Renstrom, Frida
    Wojczynski, Mary K.
    Ganna, Andrea
    Hallmans, Goran
    Houston, Denise K.
    Jacques, Paul F.
    Kanoni, Stavroula
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    Manichaikul, Ani
    North, Kari E.
    Ntalla, Ioanna
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Tanaka, Toshiko
    van Rooij, Frank J. A.
    Bandinelli, Stefania
    Djousse, Luc
    Grigoriou, Efi.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Lohman, Kurt K.
    Pankow, James S.
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Yannakoulia, Mary
    Zillikens, M. Carola
    Hassanali, Neelam
    Liu, Yongmei
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Papoutsakis, Constantina
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Viikari, Jorma
    Groves, Christopher J.
    Hofman, Albert
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    McCarthy, Mark I.
    Mikkila, Vera
    Mukamal, Kenneth
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Borecki, Ingrid B.
    Cupples, L. Adrienne
    Dedoussis, George V.
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Hu, Frank B.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Kahonen, Mika
    Kao, W. H. Linda
    Kritchevsky, Stephen B.
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Prokopenko, Inga
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Siscovick, David S.
    Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Meigs, James B.
    McKeown, Nicola M.
    Nettleton, Jennifer A.
    Higher Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Lower Fasting Glucose and Insulin, with No Evidence of Interaction with Select Genetic Loci, in a Meta-Analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies2013In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 143, no 3, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Favorable associations between magnesium intake and glycemic traits, such as fasting glucose and insulin, are observed in observational and clinical studies, but whether genetic variation affects these associations is largely unknown. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either glycemic traits or magnesium metabolism affect the association between magnesium intake and fasting glucose and insulin. Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified 1) cross-sectional associations of dietary magnesium intake with fasting glucose (mmol/L) and insulin (In-pmol/L) and 2) interactions between magnesium intake and SNPs related to fasting glucose (16 SNPs), insulin (2 SNPs), or magnesium (8 SNPs) on fasting glucose and insulin. After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [beta = -0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.013, -0.005), P< 0.0001] and insulin (-0.020 In-pmo/L (95% CI: -0.024, -0.017), P< 0.0001]. No magnesium-related SNP or interaction between any SNP and magnesium reached significance after correction for multiple testing. However, rs2274924 in magnesium transporter-encoding TRPM6 showed a nominal association (uncorrected P= 0.03) with glucose, and rs11558471 in SLC30A8and rs3740393 near CNNM2showed a nominal interaction (uncorrected, both P = 0.02) with magnesium on glucose. Consistent with other studies, a higher magnesium intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin. Nominal evidence of TRPM6 influence and magnesium interaction with select loci suggests that further investigation is warranted.

  • 14. Karlsson, Pernilla C
    et al.
    Huss, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Jenner, Andrew
    Halliwell, Barry
    Bohlin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Rafter, Joseph J
    Human fecal water inhibits COX-2 in colonic HT-29 cells: role of phenolic compounds2005In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 135, no 10, p. 2343-2349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inducible enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a major role in the regulation of inflammation and possibly in the development of colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to screen for COX-2 inhibitors in samples of fecal water (the aqueous phase of feces) and investigate whether phenolic compounds are responsible for any observed effects on COX-2. Volunteers (n = 20) were recruited and asked to supply a 24-h stool sample. Fecal water samples were prepared and analyzed by GC-MS for their content of phenolic compounds. These samples were also evaluated for their effects on COX-2 protein levels (Western blot) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 production in tumor necrosis-alpha-stimulated HT-29 cells and pure enzymatic activity in a COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis in vitro assay. The major phenolic compounds identified were phenylpropionic acid, phenylacetic acid, cinnamic acid, and benzoic acid derivatives. Of 13 fecal water samples analyzed, 12 significantly decreased PGE2 production (range 5.4-39.7% inhibition, P-value < 0.05) compared with control cells and 13 of 14 samples analyzed decreased COX-2 protein levels in HT-29 cells (19-63% inhibition). Of the 20 fecal water samples, 2 also weakly inhibited enzymatic activity of purified COX-2 (22-24% inhibition). Three compounds identified in fecal water, 3-phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid, decreased the protein level at 250 micromol/L (15-62% inhibition). This study shows for the first time that human fecal water contains components that can affect both the COX-2 protein level and enzymatic activity.

  • 15. Krog-Mikkelsen, I
    et al.
    Sloth, B
    Dimitrov, D
    Tetens, I
    Björck, I
    Flint, A
    Juul Holst, J
    Astrup, A
    Elmståhl, Helena
    Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University.
    Raben, A
    A Low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and inccreases fullness ratings in healthy women2011In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 141, no 9, p. 1679-1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, energy content, and energy density are still scarce. We investigated the effects of 2 high-carbohydrate (55%) diets with low GI (LGI; 79) or high GI (HGI; 103) on postprandial blood profile, subjective appetite sensations, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) from a corresponding test meal (LGI or HGI) after consuming the diets ad libitum for 10 wk. Two groups of a total of 29 healthy, overweight women (age: 30.5 ± 6.6 y; BMI: 27.6 ± 1.5 kg/m2) participated in the 10-wk intervention and a subsequent 4-h meal test. The breakfast test meals differed in GI but were equal in total energy, macronutrient composition, fiber content, and energy density. The LGI meal resulted in lower plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and higher plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations than the HGI meal (P ≤ 0.05). Ratings of fullness were slightly higher and the desire to eat something fatty was lower after the test meal in the LGI group (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma GLP-2, plasma glucagon, serum leptin, plasma ghrelin, EE, substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum EI at lunch did not differ between groups. In conclusion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and subjective appetite ratings after a test meal were better after 10-wk ad libitum intake of a LGI compared to a HGI diet. EE and substrate oxidation rates were, however, not affected. These findings give some support to recommendations to consume a LGI diet.

  • 16.
    Lankinen, Maria
    et al.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Schwab, Ursula
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Inst Clin Med, Internal Med, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Paananen, Jussi
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Biomed, Kuopio, Finland..
    Nygren, Heli
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Espoo, Finland..
    Seppanen-Laakso, Tuulikki
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Espoo, Finland..
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland.;VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Espoo, Finland..
    Hyötylainen, Tuulia
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Espoo, Finland.;Steno Diabet Ctr, DK-2820 Gentofte, Denmark..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Savolainen, Markku J.
    Univ Oulu, Res Ctr Internal Med & Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Oulu, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Med Res Ctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Oulu, Finland..
    Hukkanen, Janne
    Univ Oulu, Res Ctr Internal Med & Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Oulu, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Med Res Ctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Oulu, Finland..
    Brader, Lea
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol & Internal Med, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol & Internal Med, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, Lund, Sweden..
    Önning, Gunilla
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, Lund, Sweden..
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Univ Iceland, Sch Hlth Sci, Fac Food Sci & Nutr, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Landspitali Univ Hosp, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg
    Univ Iceland, Sch Hlth Sci, Fac Food Sci & Nutr, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Landspitali Univ Hosp, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Åkesson, Bjorn
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Nutr, Lund, Sweden..
    Dragsted, Lars Ove
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Sci, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, Frederiksberg, Denmark..
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Res Unit, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Espoo, Finland.;Steno Diabet Ctr, DK-2820 Gentofte, Denmark..
    A Healthy Nordic Diet Alters the Plasma Lipidomic Profile in Adults with Features of Metabolic Syndrome in a Multicenter Randomized Dietary Intervention2016In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 146, no 4, p. 662-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A healthy Nordic diet is associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effect on lipidomic profile is not known.

    Objective: The aim was to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet affects the fasting plasma lipidomic profile in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Methods: Men and women (n = 200) with features of metabolic syndrome [mean age: 55 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.6] were randomly assigned to either a healthy Nordic (n = 104) or a control (n = 96) diet for 18 or 24 wk at 6 centers. Of the participants, 156 completed the study with plasma lipidomic measurements. The healthy Nordic diet consisted of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, berries, vegetable oils and margarines, fish, low-fat milk products, and low-fat meat. An average Nordic diet served as the control diet and included low-fiber cereal products, dairy fat-based spreads, regular-fatmilk products, and a limited amount of fruits, vegetables, and berries. Lipidomic profiles were measured at baseline, week 12, and the end of the intervention (18 or 24wk) by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The effects of the diets on the lipid variables were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models. Data from centers with 18- or 24-wk duration were also analyzed separately.

    Results: Changes in 21 plasma lipids differed significantly between the groups at week 12 (false discovery rate P < 0.05), including increases in plasmalogens and decreases in ceramides in the healthy Nordic diet group compared with the control group. At the end of the study, changes in lipidomic profiles did not differ between the groups. However, when the intervention lasted 24 wk, changes in 8 plasma lipids that had been identified at 12 wk, including plasmalogens, were sustained. There were no differences in changes in plasma lipids between groups with an intervention of 18 wk. By the dietary biomarker score, adherence to diet did not explain the difference in the results related to the duration of the study.

    Conclusions: A healthy Nordic diet transiently modified the plasma lipidomic profile, specifically by increasing the concentrations of antioxidative plasmalogens and decreasing insulin resistance-inducing ceramides.

  • 17. Luis, Desiree
    et al.
    Huang, Xiaoyan
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lindholm, Bengt
    Arnlov, Johan
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Carrero, Juan Jesos
    Estimated Dietary Acid Load Is Not Associated with Blood Pressure or Hypertension Incidence in Men Who Are Approximately 70 Years Old2015In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 145, no 2, p. 315-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dietary acid load affects acid-base homeostasis, which may be associated with blood pressure (BP). Previous research on dietary acid load and BP in the community has provided conflicting results, which may be confounded by underlying kidney function with inability to eliminate acid excess. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary acid load is associated with blood pressure or the incidence of hypertension in older men taking into account each individual's kidney function. Methods: We included 673 men aged 70-71 y and not receiving antihypertensive medication from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men. Of those, 378 men were re-examined after 7 y. Dietary acid load was estimated at baseline by potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP), based on nutrient intake assessed by 7-d food records at baseline. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed at both visits. Cystatin C-estimated kidney function allowed identification of underlying chronic kidney disease. Results: Median estimated PRAL and NEAP were 3.3 and 40.7 mEq/d, respectively. In cross-section, PRAL was in general not associated with ABPM measurements (all P > 0.05, except for the 24-h diastolic BP). During follow-up, PRAL did not predict ABPM changes (all P > 0.05). When individuals with baseline hypertension (ABPM >= 130/80 mm Hg) or nondippers (with nighttime-to-daytime systolic BP ratio > 0.9) were excluded, PRAL was not a predictor of incident cases (P > 0.30). Kidney function did not modify these null relations. Similar findings were obtained with the use of NEAP as the exposure. Conclusion: Our analyses linking estimated dietary acid load with BP outcome measurements both cross-sectionally and after 7 y in community-based older Swedish men of similar age did not reveal an association between dietary acid load and BP.

  • 18. Magnusdottir, Ola Kally
    et al.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Akesson, Bjorn
    Onning, Gunilla
    Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Schwab, Ursula
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Savolainen, Markku J.
    Brader, Lea
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Plasma Alkylresorcinols Reflect Important Whole-Grain Components of a Healthy Nordic Diet2013In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 143, no 9, p. 1383-1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomarkers of dietary intake can be important tools in nutrition research. Our aim was to assess whether plasma alkylresorcinol (AR) and beta-carotene concentrations could be used as dietary biomarkers for whole-grain, fruits and vegetables in a healthy Nordic diet (ND). Participants (n = 166), 30-65 y with a body mass index of 27-40 kg/m(2) and two more features of metabolic syndrome (International Diabetes Federation definition, slightly modified), were recruited through six centers in the Nordic countries and randomly assigned to an ND or control diet for 18 or 24 wk, depending on study center. Plasma AR and beta-carotene were analyzed and nutrient intake calculated from 4-d food records. Median fiber intake increased in the ND group from 2.5 g/MJ at baseline to 4.1 g/MJ (P < 0.001) at end point (week 18 or 24), and median (IQR) fasting plasma total AR concentration increased from 73 (88) to 106 (108) nmol/L, or 45%, from baseline to end point (P < 0.001). The AR concentration was significantly higher in the ND group (P < 0.001) than in the control group at end point. beta-Carotene intake tended to increase in the ND group (P = 0.07), but the plasma beta-carotene concentration did not change significantly throughout the study and did not differ between the groups at follow-up. In conclusion, an ND resulted in higher dietary fiber intake and increased plasma total AR concentration compared with the control diet, showing that the total AR concentration might be a valid biomarker for an ND in which whole-grain wheat and rye are important components. No significant difference in plasma beta-carotene concentrations was observed between the ND and control groups, suggesting that beta-carotene may not be a sensitive enough biomarker of the ND.

  • 19.
    Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Magnusdottir, Ola K
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Landberg, Rikard
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Brader, Lea
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Poutanen, Kaisa S
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Hukkanen, Janne
    Savolainen, Markku J
    Dragsted, Lars O
    Schwab, Ursula
    Paananen, Jussi
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Åkesson, Björn
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    A dietary biomarker approach captures compliance and cardiometabolic effects of a healthy Nordic diet in individuals with metabolic syndrome2014In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 144, no 10, p. 1642-1649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of compliance with dietary interventions is necessary to understand the observed magnitude of the health effects of the diet per se. To avoid reporting bias, different dietary biomarkers (DBs) could be used instead of self-reported data. However, few studies investigated a combination of DBs to assess compliance and its influence on cardiometabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were to use a combination of DBs to assess compliance and to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet (ND) influences cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with high apparent compliance compared with the whole study population. From a recently conducted isocaloric randomized trial, SYSDIET (Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies), in 166 individuals with metabolic syndrome, several DBs were assessed to reflect different key components of the ND: canola oil (serum phospholipid α-linolenic acid), fatty fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], vegetables (plasma β-carotene), and whole grains (plasma alkylresorcinols). High-fat dairy intake (expectedly low in the ND) was reflected by serum pentadecanoic acid. All participants with biomarker data (n = 154) were included in the analyses. Biomarkers were combined by using a biomarker rank score (DB score) and principal component analysis (PCA). The DB score was then used to assess compliance. During the intervention, median concentrations of alkylresorcinols, α-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA were >25% higher in the ND individuals than in the controls (P < 0.05), whereas median concentrations of pentadecanoic acid were 14% higher in controls (P < 0.05). Median DB score was 57% higher in the ND than in controls (P < 0.001) during the intervention, and participants were ranked similarly by DB score and PCA score. Overall, estimates of group difference in cardiometabolic effects generally appeared to be greater among compliant participants than in the whole study population (e.g., estimates of treatment effects on blood pressure and lipoproteins were ∼1.5- to 2-fold greater in the most compliant participants), suggesting that poor compliance attenuated the dietary effects. With adequate consideration of their limitations, DB combinations (e.g., DB score) could be useful for assessing compliance in intervention studies investigating cardiometabolic effects of healthy dietary patterns.

  • 20.
    Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Pingel, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Natl Food Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Jan W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism. en..
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    AstraZeneca R&D, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fatty Acid Proportions in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids Are Positively Correlated in Various Swedish Populations2017In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 147, no 11, p. 2118-2125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fatty acid (FA) proportions in cholesterol esters (CEs) and plasma phospholipids are widely used as dietary biomarkers. Information on how proportions in these fractions correlate could have implications for interpretation and use of FA biomarkers in observational and interventional studies. Objective: We investigated correlations between FA proportions in CEs and phospholipids in free-living individuals and assessed how diet-induced alterations of FA proportions correlate between fractions. Methods: Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs) between FA proportions (percentage of total FAs) in circulating CEs and phospholipids were calculated separately in 8 individual study populations including Swedish females and males (N = 2052; age range: 11-84 y), and pooled by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. In addition, study populations were stratified by age, sex, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), and diabetes status, and strata-specific rs were pooled by meta-analysis. In 2 randomized trials (N = 79) in which dietary saturated FAs were isocalorically replaced with unsaturated FAs, treatment-wise calculations of rs were conducted between FA changes in CEs and phospholipids. Results: Overall, FA proportions in CEs and phospholipids correlated well and especially strongly for polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), with pooled rs (95% CIs) ranging from 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) for a-linolenic acid to 0.92 (0.91, 0.93) for eicosapentaenoic acid. Weak correlations (pooled rs <0.4) were observed only for palmitic acid and stearic acid, with pooled rs (95% CIs): 0.29 (0.24, 0.33) and 0.30 (0.25, 0.34), respectively. Overall, correlations were not affected by age, sex, BMI, or diabetes status. Strong correlations (r(s) >= 0.6) between diet-induced FA changes in CEs and phospholipids were observed for most PUFAs. Conclusions: Proportions of most FAs in CEs and phospholipids ranked individuals similarly, suggesting that FA proportions in these fractions can be used interchangeably in populations of diverse age, sex, body composition, and diabetes status. Caution is advised, however, when comparing results from studies assessing palmitic acid or stearic acid in different lipid fractions.

  • 21.
    Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Strömberg, Eric A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hooker, Andrew C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Åman, Per
    Landberg, Rikard
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Chain length of dietary alkylresorcinols affects their in vivo elimination kinetics in rats2013In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 143, no 10, p. 1573-1578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two phenolic acids, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)- propanoic acid (DHPPA), are the major metabolites of cereal alkylresorcinols (ARs). Like their precursors, AR metabolites have been suggested as biomarkers for intake of whole-grain wheat and rye and as such could aid the understanding of diet-disease associations. This study estimated and compared pharmacokinetic parameters of ARs and their metabolites in rats and investigated differences in metabolite formation after ingestion of different AR homologs. Rats were i.v. infused for 30 min with 2, 12, or 23 μmol/kg DHBA or DHPPA or orally given the same amounts of the AR homologs, C17:0 and C25:0. Repeated plasma samples, obtained from rats for 6 h (i.v.) or 36 h (oral), were simultaneously analyzed for ARs and their metabolites by GC-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by population-based compartmental modeling and noncompartmental calculation. A 1-compartment model best described C25:0 pharmacokinetics, whereas C17:0 and AR metabolites best fitted 2-compartment models. Combined models for simultaneous prediction of AR and metabolite concentration were more complex, with less reliable estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters. Although the AUC of C17:0 was lower than that of C25:0 (P < 0.05), the total amount and composition of AR metabolites did not differ between rats given C17:0 or C25:0. The elimination half-life of ARs and their metabolites increased with length of the side chain (P-trend < 0.001) and ranged from 1.2 h (DHBA) to 8.8 h (C25:0). The formation of AR metabolites was slower than their elimination, indicating that the rate of AR metabolism and not excretion of DHBA and DHPPA determines their plasma concentrations in rats.

  • 22.
    Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Strömberg, Eric A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Lærke, Helle N
    Knudsen, Knud E Bach
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Hooker, Andrew C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of alkylresorcinols and their main metabolites indicates dual absorption mechanisms and enterohepatic elimination in humans2014In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 144, no 11, p. 1674-1680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Alkylresorcinols have proven to be useful biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake in many nutritional studies. To improve their utility, more knowledge regarding the fate of alkylresorcinols and their metabolites after consumption is needed.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a combined pharmacokinetic model for plasma concentrations of alkylresorcinols and their 2 major metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid (DHPPA).

    METHODS: The model was established by using plasma samples collected from 3 women and 2 men after a single dose (120 g) of rye bran and validated against fasting plasma concentrations from 8 women and 7 men with controlled rye bran intake (23, 45, or 90 g/d). Alkylresorcinols in the lymph and plasma of a pig fed a single alkylresorcinol dose (1.3 mmol) were quantified to assess absorption. Human ileostomal effluent and pig bile after high and low alkylresorcinol doses were analyzed to evaluate biliary alkylresorcinol metabolite excretion.

    RESULTS: The model contained 2 absorption compartments: 1 that transferred alkylresorcinols directly to the systematic circulation and 1 in which a proportion of absorbed alkylresorcinols was metabolized before reaching the systemic circulation. Plasma concentrations of alkylresorcinols and their metabolites depended on absorption and formation, respectively, and the mean ± SEM terminal elimination half-life of alkylresorcinols (1.9 ± 0.59 h), DHPPA (1.5 ± 0.26 h), and DHBA (1.3 ± 0.22 h) did not differ. The model accurately predicted alkylresorcinol and DHBA concentrations after repeated alkylresorcinol intake but DHPPA concentration was overpredicted, possibly because of poorly modeled enterohepatic circulation. During the 8 h following administration, <2% of the alkylresorcinol dose was recovered in the lymph. DHPPA was identified in both human ileostomal effluent and pig bile, indicating availability of DHPPA for absorption and enterohepatic circulation.

    CONCLUSION: Intact alkylresorcinols have advantages over DHBA and DHPPA as plasma biomarkers for whole-grain wheat and rye intake because of lower susceptibility to factors other than alkylresorcinol intake.

  • 23.
    Nälsén, C
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Berglund, L
    Uusitupa, M
    Hermansen, K
    Riccardi, G
    Rivellese, A
    Storlien, L
    Erkkilä, A
    Ylä-Herttuala, S
    Tapsell, L
    Basur, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Dietary (n-3) fatty acids reduce plasma F2-isoprostanes but not prostaglandin F2alpha in healthy humans2006In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 136, no 5, p. 1222-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (n-3) Fatty acids are unsaturated and are therefore easily subject to oxidization; however, they have several beneficial health effects, which include protection against cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether (n-3) fatty acids, with a controlled fat quality in the background diet, affect nonenzymatic and enzymatic lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in humans. A total of 162 men and women in a multicenter study (The KANWU study) were randomly assigned to a diet containing a high proportion of saturated fatty acids or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) for 3 mo. Within each diet group, there was a second random assignment to supplementation with fish-oil capsules [3.6 g (n-3) fatty acids/d] or placebo. Biomarkers of nonenzymatic and enzymatic lipid peroxidation in vivo were determined by measuring 8-iso-prostaglandin F (8-iso-PGF) and prostaglandin F (PGF) concentrations in plasma at baseline and after 3 mo. Antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma antioxidant capacity with an enhanced chemiluminescence assay. The plasma 8-iso-PGF concentration was significantly decreased after 3 mo of supplementation with (n-3) fatty acids (P = 0.015), whereas the PGF concentration was not affected. The antioxidant status was not affected by supplementation of (n-3) fatty acids, but was improved by the background diet with a high proportion of MUFA. We conclude that supplementation with (n-3) fatty acids decreases nonenzymatic free radical–catalyzed isoprostane formation, but does not affect cyclooxygenase-mediated prostaglandin formation.

  • 24.
    Ogle, Britta M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Nguyen, Thi Xuan Dung
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Tuyet, Ho Thi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hidden harvest - micronutrients from naturally occurring foods in women diets in the Mekong Delta2002In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 132, no 9 Supplement, p. 2962S-2962SArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 25. Phillips, Catherine M
    et al.
    Goumidi, Louisa
    Bertrais, Sandrine
    Field, Martyn R
    Ordovas, Jose M
    Cupples, L Adrienne
    Defoort, Catherine
    Lovegrove, Julie A
    Drevon, Christian A
    Blaak, Ellen E
    Gibney, Michael J
    Kiec-Wilk, Beata
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lopez-Miranda, Jose
    McManus, Ross
    Hercberg, Serge
    Lairon, Denis
    Planells, Richard
    Roche, Helen M
    Leptin receptor polymorphisms interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids to augment risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults2010In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 140, no 2, p. 238-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The leptin receptor (LEPR) is associated with insulin resistance, a key feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Gene-fatty acid interactions may affect MetS risk. The objective was to investigate the relationship among LEPR polymorphisms, insulin resistance, and MetS risk and whether plasma fatty acids, a biomarker of dietary fatty acids, modulate this. LEPR polymorphisms (rs10493380, rs1137100, rs1137101, rs12067936, rs1805096, rs2025805, rs3790419, rs3790433, rs6673324, and rs8179183), biochemical measurements, and plasma fatty acid profiles were determined in the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study of MetS cases and matched controls (n = 1754). LEPR rs3790433 GG homozygotes had increased MetS risk compared with the minor A allele carriers [odds ratio (OR) = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.05-2.57; P = 0.028], which may be accounted for by their increased risk of elevated insulin concentrations (OR 2.40; 95% CI: 1.28-4.50; P = 0.006) and insulin resistance (OR = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.18-3.90; P = 0.012). Low (less than median) plasma (n-3) and high (n-6) PUFA status exacerbated the genetic risk conferred by GG homozygosity to hyperinsulinemia (OR 2.92-2.94) and insulin resistance (OR 3.40-3.47). Interestingly, these associations were abolished against a high (n-3) or low (n-6) PUFA background. Importantly, we replicated some of these findings in an independent cohort. Homozygosity for the LEPR rs3790433 G allele was associated with insulin resistance, which may predispose to increased MetS risk. Novel gene-nutrient interactions between LEPR rs3790433 and PUFA suggest that these genetic influences were more evident in individuals with low plasma (n-3) or high plasma (n-6) PUFA.

  • 26. Raff, Marianne
    et al.
    Tholstrup, Tine
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Nonboe, Pernille
    Sørensen, Martin Tang
    Straarup, Ellen Marie
    A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men2008In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 509-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type II, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115 g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA oil, a mixture of 39.4% cis9, trans11 and 38.5% trans10, cis12) or of control fat with a low content of CLA in a 5-wk double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We collected blood and urine before and after the intervention. The fatty acid composition of plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha concentration compared with the control, P < 0.0001. We observed no other significant differences in the effect of the interventions diets. In conclusion, when given as part of a diet rich in butter, a mixture of CLA isomers increased lipid peroxidation but did not affect risk markers of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, or fasting insulin and glucose concentrations.

  • 27.
    Rydbeck, Filip
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rahman, Anisur
    Centre for Reproductive Health, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Grander, Margaretha
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Vahter, Marie
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kippler, Maria
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Maternal Urinary Iodine Concentration up to 1.0 mg/L Is Positively Associated with Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference of Male Offspring2014In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 144, no 9, p. 1438-1444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adequate iodine status in early life is crucial for neurodevelopment. However, little is known about the effects of maternal iodine status during pregnancy on fetal growth. The present study investigated the potential impact of maternal iodine status during pregnancy on offspring birth size. This large prospective cohort study was nested in a Bangladeshi population-based randomized supplementation trial in pregnant women [MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab)]. Urine samples obtained at 8 wk of gestation from 1617 women were analyzed for iodine and other elements, such as arsenic and cadmium, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Anthropometric measurements at birth included weight, length, and head and chest circumference. Maternal urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) ranged from 0.020 to 10 mg/L, with a median of 0.30 mg/L. Below similar to 1.0 mg/L, UIC was significantly positively associated with birth weight and length. Birth weight and length increased by 9.3 g (5% Cl: 2.9, 16) and 0.042 cm (95% Cl: 0.0066, 0.076), respectively, for each 0.1-mg/L increase in maternal UIC. No associations were observed between UIC and head or chest circumference. When we stratified the analyses by newborn sex, the positive associations between maternal UIC (<1 mg/L) and measurements of size at birth were restricted to boys, with no evidence in girls. Among boys, the mean weight, length, and head circumference increased by 70 g (P = 0.019), 0.41 cm (P = 0.013), and 0.28 cm (P = 0.031) for every 0.5-mg/L increase in maternal UIC. Maternal iodine status was positively associated with weight, length, and head circumference in boys up to similar to 1 mg/L, which is well above the recommended maximum concentration of 0.5 mg/L. The associations leveled off at UIC >= 1 mg/L. Our findings support previous conclusions that the advantages of correcting potential iodine deficiency outweigh the risks of excess exposure.

  • 28.
    Saha, Kuntal K
    et al.
    ICDDR, B, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
    Frongillo, Edward A
    Dept of Health Promotion, Education and Behavior, University of South Carolina, Columbia.
    Alam, Dewan S
    ICDDR, B, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
    Arifeen, Shams E
    ICDDR, B, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
    Persson, Lars Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Rasmussen, Kathleen
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
    Household food security is associated with infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh2008In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 138, no 7, p. 1383-1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although household food security (HHFS) has been shown to affect diet, nutrition, and health of adults and also learning in children, no study has examined associations with infant feeding practices (IFP). We studied 1343 infants born between May 2002 and December 2003 in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab study to investigate the effect of HHFS on IFP in rural Bangladesh. We measured HHFS using a previously developed 11-item scale. Cumulative and current infant feeding scales were created from monthly infant feeding data for the age groups of 1-3, 1-6, 1-9, and 1-12 mo based on comparison to infant feeding recommendations. We used lagged, dynamic, and difference longitudinal regression models adjusting for various infant and maternal variables to examine the association between HHFS and changes in IFP, and Cox proportional hazards models to examine the influence of HHFS on the duration of breast-feeding and the time of introduction of complementary foods. Better HHFS status was associated with poor IFP during 3-6 mo, but was associated with better IFP during 6-9 and 9-12 mo of age. Although better HHFS was not associated with the time of introduction of complementary foods, it was associated with the type of complementary foods given to the infants. Intervention programs to support proper IFP should target mothers in food-secure households when their babies are 3-6 mo old and also mothers in food-insecure households during the 2nd half of infancy. Our results provide strong evidence that HHFS influences IFP in rural Bangladesh.

  • 29. Smit, Liesbeth A.
    et al.
    Katan, Martijn B.
    Wanders, Anne J.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Brouwer, Ingeborg A.
    A High Intake of trans Fatty Acids Has Little Effect on Markers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Humans2011In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 141, no 9, p. 1673-1678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) increases LDL cholesterol, decreases HDL cholesterol, and is strongly associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, changes in circulating cholesterol cannot explain the entire effect. Therefore, we studied whether iTFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CIA) affect markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Sixty-one healthy adults consumed each of 3 diets for 3 wk, in random order. Diets were identical except for 7% of energy provided by oleic acid (control diet), ITFA, or CLA. At the end of the 3 wk, we measured plasma inflammatory markers IL-6, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II (TNF-R1 and -RII), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and E-selectin, and urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha), a marker of lipid peroxidation. Consumption of iTFA caused 4% lower TNF-RI concentrations and 60/s higher E-selectin concentrations compared with oleic acid (control and had no significant effect on other inflammatory markers. CIA did not significantly affect inflammatory markers. The urine concentration of 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) [geometric mean (95% CI)) was greater after the TFA [0.54 (0.48, 0.60) nmol/mmol creatinine) and the CIA [1.2 (1.1, 1.3) nmol/mmol creatininel diet periods than after the control period [0.45 (0.41, 0.50) nmoVmmol creatinine; P < 0.05]. In conclusion, high intakes of FIFA and CLA did not substantially affect plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers, but they increased the urine 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) concentration. However, it is unlikely this plays a major role in the mechanism by which ITFA increase the risk of CVD. However, more research is needed to fully understand the implications of these findings.

  • 30. Tholstrup, Tine
    et al.
    Raff, Marianne
    Straarup, Ellen M
    Lund, Pia
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Bruun, Jens M
    An oil mixture with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases markers of inflammation and in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in postmenopausal women2008In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 138, no 8, p. 1445-1451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mixture of trans-10, cis-12 (t10,c12) and cis-9, trans-11 (c9,t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA mixture) reduced atherosclerosis in animals, thus the effect of these isomers on endothelial dysfunctions leading to inflammation and atherosclerosis is of interest. We gave 75 healthy postmenopausal women a daily supplement of 5.5 g of oil rich in either CLA mixture, an oil rich in the naturally occurring c9,t11 CLA (CLA milk), respectively, or olive oil for 16 wk in a double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We sampled blood and urine before and after the intervention. The ratios of total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol and concentrations of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly higher in women supplemented with the CLA mixture than in those supplemented with CLA milk. Plasma triacylglycerol was significantly higher and HDL cholesterol was lower in women supplemented with the CLA mixture than with olive oil. Both CLA supplements increased lipid peroxidation, a marker of in vivo oxidative stress measured as urinary free 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha). However, the CLA mixture increased lipid peroxidation more than the CLA milk did. The plasma cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were not affected by the treatments, nor were any of the other variables measured. In conclusion, oil containing trans-10,cis-12 CLA has several adverse effects on classical and novel markers of coronary vascular disease, whereas the c9,t11 CLA isomer is more neutral, except for a small but significant increase in lipid peroxidation compared with olive oil.

  • 31. Xu, Hong
    et al.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Banerjee, Tanushree
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lindholm, Bengt
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    A Proinflammatory Diet Is Associated with Systemic Inflammation and Reduced Kidney Function in Elderly Adults2015In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 145, no 4, p. 729-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diet can affect kidney health through its effects on inflammation. Objective: We tested whether the Adapted Dietary Inflammatory Index (ADII) is associated with kidney function and whether effects of diet on chronic low-grade inflammation explain this association. Methods: This was an observational analysis in 1942 elderly community-dwelling participants aged 70-71 y from 2 independent cohorts: the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 1097 men) and the Prospective Investigation of Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (n = 845 men and women). The ADII was calculated from 7-d food records, combining putatively proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects of nutrients, vitamins, and trace elements. The ADII was validated against serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was assessed from serum cystatin C (cys) and creatinine (crea). Associations between the ADII and eGFR were investigated, and CRP was considered to be a mediator. Results: In adjusted analysis, a 1-SD higher ADII was associated with higher CRP (beta: 6%, 95% Cl: 1%, 10%; P= 0.01) and lower eGFR [Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI)(cys): -2.1%, 95% Cl: -3.2%, -1.1%; CKD-EPi(cys+crea): -1.8%; 95% Cl: -2.7%, -0.9%; both P < 0.001]. CRP was also inversely associated with eGFR. Mediation analyses showed that of the total effect of the ADII on kidney function, 15% and 17% (for CKD-EPIcys+crea and CKD-EPIcys equations, respectively) were explained/mediated by serum CRP. Findings were similar when each cohort was analyzed separately. Conclusions: A proinflammatory diet was associated with systemic inflammation as well as with reduced kidney function in a combined analysis of 2 community-based cohorts of elderly individuals. Our results also suggest systemic inflammation to be one potential pathway through which this dietary pattern is linked to kidney function.

  • 32.
    Ziaei, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Rahman, Anisur
    ICDDR B, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Raqib, Rubhana
    ICDDR B, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Nutr, Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    A Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplement Produces Higher Maternal Vitamin B-12 Concentrations and Similar Folate, Ferritin, and Zinc Concentrations as the Standard 60-mg Iron Plus 400-μg Folic Acid Supplement in Rural Bangladeshi Women.2016In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 146, no 12, p. 2520-2529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on maternal micronutrient status are not well known.

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy and effectiveness of 3 different micronutrient supplements on maternal micronutrient status when combined with food supplementation.

    METHODS: In the MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention, Matlab) trial in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomly assigned to daily intake of 3 types of micronutrient capsules: 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F), or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMNs) combined with early (week 9 of pregnancy) or usual (week 20 of pregnancy) food supplementation in a 2 by 3 factorial design. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, folate, ferritin, and zinc were analyzed before the start of micronutrient supplementation (week 14) and at week 30 of pregnancy in 641 randomly selected women. An electronic monitoring device was used to measure the number of capsules taken. The effectiveness of food and micronutrient regimens as well as efficacy per capsule in maternal micronutrient status were analyzed by ANOVA and general linear models.

    RESULTS: At week 30 of pregnancy, women in the MMN group had higher geometric mean concentrations of vitamin B-12 than women in the Fe60F group (119 compared with 101 pmol/L, respectively); no other differences in effectiveness of micronutrient and food regimens were observed. A dose-response relation between the number of capsules taken and concentrations of folate and ferritin was observed for all micronutrient supplements. Fe30F had lower efficacy per capsule in increasing ferritin concentrations within the first tertile of capsule intake than did Fe60F and MMNs. Because ferritin reached a plateau for all types of micronutrient supplements, there was no difference between the regimens in their effectiveness.

    CONCLUSION: Compared with Fe60F, MMNs produced higher maternal vitamin B-12 and similar ferritin and folate concentrations in Bangladeshi women. The MINIMat trial was registered at isrctn.org as ISRCTN16581394.

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