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  • 1. Aro, Antti
    et al.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Improving nutrition in Finland.2010In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 13, no 6A, p. 899-900Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Assey, Vincent D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Mgoba, Celestin
    Mlingi, Nicholaus
    Sanga, Alfred
    Ndossi, Godwin D.
    Greiner, Ted
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Peterson, Stefan
    Remaining challenges in Tanzania's efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency2007In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 1032-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine iodine levels in salt and iodine deficiency prevalence in school-aged children in 16 districts in Tanzania with previous severe iodine deficiency. Design: A cross-sectional study in schoolchildren. Systematic probability sampling was used to select schools and subjects for goitre assessment and urinary iodine determination. Setting: Sixteen districts randomly selected from the 27 categorised as severely iodine-deficient in Tanzania. Subjects: The stndy population was primary-school children aged 6-18 years who were examined for goitre prevalence and urinary, iodine concentration (UIC). Salt samples from schoolchildren's homes and from shops were tested for iodine content. Results. The study revealed that 83.3% of households (n = 21 160) in the surveyed districts used iodised salt. Also, 94% of sampled shops (n = 397) sold iodised salt, with a median iodine level of 37.0 ppm (range 4.2-240 ppm). Median UIC in 2089 schoolchildren vas 235.0 mu g 1(-1) and 9.3% had UIC values below 50 mu g 1(-1). The overall unweighted mean visible and total goitre prevalence was 6.7% and 24.3%, respectively (n = 16 222). The age group 6-12 Nears had the lowest goitre prevalence (3.6% visible and 18.0% total goitre, 11 = 7147). The total goitre prevalence had decreased significantly in all districts from an unweighted mean of 65.4% in the 1980s to 24.3% in 1999 (P < 0.05). We believe this difference was also biologically significant. Conclusion: These findings indicate that iodine deficiency is largely eliminated in the 16 districts categorised as severely iodine-deficient in Tanzania, and that the iodine content of salt purchased from shops is highly variable.

  • 3.
    Blaznik, Urška
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Eržen, Ivan
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija; Department of the Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Hlastan Ribič, Cirila
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija; Department of the Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia2016In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 557-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health.

    Design: Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied.

    Setting: Slovenia, primary schools.

    Subjects: Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries.

    Results: The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8·3 (95 % CI 7·7, 10·6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99·9th percentile for daily intake and to 4·5 (95 % CI 3·5, 4·7) % of the ARfD at the 99·9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake.

    Conclusions: The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  • 4.
    Cattaneo, Adriano
    et al.
    U. for Hlth. Serv. Res./Intl. Coop., Istituto per l'Infanzia, Trieste, Italy .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich, Germany .
    Guzman, Luis Ruiz
    Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, Barcelona, Spain .
    Protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe: current situation2005In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the current situation regarding protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe, as a first step towards the development of a blueprint for action.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire was completed by 29 key informants and 128 other informants in the EU, including member states, accession and candidate countries.

    RESULTS: EU countries do not fully comply with the policies and recommendations of the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding that they endorsed during the 55th World Health Assembly in 2002. Some countries do not even comply with the targets of the Innocenti Declaration (1990). Pre-service training on breast-feeding practice is inadequate and in-service training achieves only low to medium coverage. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative is well developed only in three countries; in 19 countries, less than 15% of births occur in baby-friendly hospitals. The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, endorsed in 1981 by all countries, is not fully applied and submitted to independent monitoring. The legislation for working mothers meets on average the International Labour Organization standards, but covers only women with full formal employment. Voluntary mother-to-mother support groups and trained peer counsellors are present in 27 and 13 countries, respectively. Breast-feeding rates span over a wide range; comparisons are difficult due to use of non-standard methods. The rate of exclusive breast-feeding at 6 months is low everywhere, even in countries with high initiation rates.

    CONCLUSIONS: EU countries need to revise their policies and practices to meet the principles inscribed in the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding in order to better protect, promote and support breast-feeding.

  • 5. Chaparro, M Pia
    et al.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Byberg, L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition in young adulthood: the modifying role of offspring sex and birth order.2017In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 20, no 17, p. 3084-3089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring's body composition in late adolescence and young adulthood varies by offspring birth order and sex.

    DESIGN: Family cohort study, with data from registers, questionnaires and physical examinations. The main outcome under study was offspring body composition (percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage lean mass (%LM)) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    SETTING: Uppsala, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: Two hundred and twenty-six siblings (first-born v. second-born; average age 19 and 21 years) and their mothers.

    RESULTS: In multivariable linear regression models, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with daughter's %FM, with stronger estimates for first-born (β=0·97, 95 % CI 0·14, 1·80) v. second-born daughters (β=0·64, 95 % CI 0·08, 1·20). Mother's BMI before her first pregnancy was associated with her second-born daughter's body composition (β=1·05, 95 % CI 0·31, 1·79 (%FM)) Similar results albeit in the opposite direction were observed for %LM. No significant associations were found between pre-pregnancy BMI and %FM (β=0·59, 95 % CI-0·27, 1·44 first-born; β=-0·13, 95 % CI-0·77, 0·52 second-born) or %LM (β=-0·54, 95 % CI-1·37, 0·28 first-born; β=0·11, 95 % CI-0·52, 0·74 second-born) for sons.

    CONCLUSIONS: A higher pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher offspring %FM and lower offspring %LM in late adolescence and young adulthood, with stronger associations for first-born daughters. Preventing obesity at the start of women's reproductive life might reduce the risk of obesity in her offspring, particularly for daughters.

  • 6. Dernini, S
    et al.
    Berry, E M
    Serra-Majem, L
    La Vecchia, C
    Capone, R
    Medina, F X
    Aranceta-Bartrina, J
    Belahsen, R
    Burlingame, B
    Calabrese, G
    Corella, D
    Donini, L M
    Lairon, D
    Meybeck, A
    Pekcan, A G
    Piscopo, S
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Trichopoulou, A
    Med Diet 4.0: the Mediterranean diet with four sustainable benefits.2017In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 1322-1330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the multiple dimensions and benefits of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet, in order to revitalize this intangible food heritage at the country level; and to develop a multidimensional framework - the Med Diet 4.0 - in which four sustainability benefits of the Mediterranean diet are presented in parallel: major health and nutrition benefits, low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, high sociocultural food values, and positive local economic returns.

    DESIGN: A narrative review was applied at the country level to highlight the multiple sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet into a single multidimensional framework: the Med Diet 4.0. Setting/subjects We included studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals that contained data on the characterization of sustainable diets and of the Mediterranean diet. The methodological framework approach was finalized through a series of meetings, workshops and conferences where the framework was presented, discussed and ultimately refined.

    RESULTS: The Med Diet 4.0 provides a conceptual multidimensional framework to characterize the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet model, by applying principles of sustainability to the Mediterranean diet.

    CONCLUSIONS: By providing a broader understanding of the many sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the Med Diet 4.0 can contribute to the revitalization of the Mediterranean diet by improving its current perception not only as a healthy diet but also a sustainable lifestyle model, with country-specific and culturally appropriate variations. It also takes into account the identity and diversity of food cultures and systems, expressed within the notion of the Mediterranean diet, across the Mediterranean region and in other parts of the world. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed for the assessment of the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet to include these new dimensions.

  • 7.
    Dratva, Julia
    et al.
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Socinstr 57,POB 4002, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland..
    Bertelsen, Randi
    Haukeland Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Bergen, Norway..
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Johannessen, Ane
    Haukeland Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway..
    Benediktsdottir, Bryndis
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Allergy Resp Med & Sleep, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Bråback, Lennart
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Occupat & Environm Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Dharmage, Shyamali C.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Allergy & Lung Hlth Unit, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Occupat & Environm Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Allergy Resp Med & Sleep, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Imperial Coll, Fac Med, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, London, England..
    Jogi, Rain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology. Fdn Tartu Univ Clin, Lung Clin, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Tartu, Dept Pulm Med, Tartu, Estonia..
    Lindberg, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Norback, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Omenaas, Ernst
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway..
    Skorge, Trude D.
    Haukeland Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Bergen, Norway..
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Toren, Kjell
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Occupat & Environm Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Waatevik, Marie
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway..
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Haukeland Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Ctr Int Hlth, Bergen, Norway..
    Real, Francisco Gomez
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Gynecol & Obstet, Bergen, Norway..
    Validation of self-reported figural drawing scales against anthropometric measurements in adults2016In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1944-1951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate figural drawing scales depicting extremely lean to extremely obese subjects to obtain proxies for BMI and waist circumference in postal surveys.

    Design: Reported figural scales and anthropometric data from a large population-based postal survey were validated with measured anthropometric data from the same individuals by means of receiver-operating characteristic curves and a BMI prediction model.

    Setting: Adult participants in a Scandinavian cohort study first recruited in 1990 and followed up twice since.

    Subjects: Individuals aged 38-66 years with complete data for BMI (n 1580) and waist circumference (n 1017).

    Results: Median BMI and waist circumference increased exponentially with increasing figural scales. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses showed a high predictive ability to identify individuals with BMI > 25.0 kg/m(2) in both sexes. The optimal figural scales for identifying overweight or obese individuals with a correct detection rate were 4 and 5 in women, and 5 and 6 in men, respectively. The prediction model explained 74% of the variance among women and 62% among men. Predicted BMI differed only marginally from objectively measured BMI.

    Conclusions: Figural drawing scales explained a large part of the anthropometric variance in this population and showed a high predictive ability for identifying overweight/obese subjects. These figural scales can be used with confidence as proxies of BMI and waist circumference in settings where objective measures are not feasible.

  • 8. Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Sepp, Hanna
    Brage, Sören
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jakes, Rupert
    Hennings, Mark
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Criterion-related validity of the last 7-day, short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Swedish adults2006In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 258-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Objective:

    To examine the validity of the short, last 7-day, self-administered form of

    the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

     

    Design:

     

     

    All subjects wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days and completed the IPAQ questionnaire on the eighth day. Criterion validity was assessed by linear regression analysis and by modified Bland–Altman analysis. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated for classifying respondents according to the physical activity guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

     

    Setting:

     

     

    Workplaces in Uppsala, Sweden.

    Subjects:

     

     

    One hundred and eighty-five (87 males) participants, aged 20 to 69 years.

    Results:

    Total self-reported physical activity (PA) (MET-min day21) was significantly correlated with average intensity of activity (counts min

    21) from accelerometry (r ¼ 0.34, P 0.001). Gender, age, education and body mass index did not affect this relationship. Further, subcomponents of self-reported PA (time spent sitting, time in PA, time in moderate and vigorous activity (MVPA)) were significantly correlated with objectively measured PA (P , 0.05). Self-reported time in PA was significantly different from time measured by accelerometry (mean difference: 225.9 min day21; 95% limits of agreement: 2172 to 120 min day21; P , 0.001). IPAQ identified 77% (specificity) of those who met the current PA guidelines of accumulating more than 30 min day 21

    in MVPA as determined by accelerometry, whereas only 45% (sensitivity) of those not meeting the guidelines were classified correctly.

     

    Conclusions:

     

     

    Our results indicate that the short, last 7-days version of the IPAQ has acceptable criterion validity for use in Swedish adults. However, the IPAQ instrument significantly overestimated self-reported time spent in PA. The specificity to correctly classify people achieving current PA guidelines was acceptable, whereas the sensitivity was low.

  • 9. Erlich, Rita
    et al.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Wahlqvist, Mark L
    Cooking as a healthy behaviour2012In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 1139-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ferdous, Tamanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kabir, Zarina Nahar
    Division of Nursing, NVS, Karolinska Institutet.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Streatfield, Kim
    icddr, b: Knowledge for Global Lifesaving Solutions, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    The multidimensional background of malnutrition amongrural older individuals in Bangladesh – a challenge for the Millennium Development Goal2009In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 2270-2278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the associations and relative impact of illness, socio-economic and social indicators for nutritional status among elderly persons in rural Bangladesh.

    Design: A multi-disciplinary cross-sectional study employing home interviews to collect information on demographic, socio-economic, and social status; clinical examination to classify medical diagnoses, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to assess nutritional status of each participant.

    Setting: Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Subjects: A total of 625 randomly selected individuals (≥60 years of age) participated in home interviews, and 473 underwent clinical examination. Complete information on nutritional status was available for 457 individuals, median age 68 years, 55% women.

    Results: Twenty-six percent of the elderly participants were undernourished and 62% were at risk of malnutrition according to MNA. More than three quarters of the participants had acute infections, 66% suffered from chronic illnesses, 36% had sensory impairments, and 81% were suffering from gastrointestinal disorders. Acute infections (p<0.001), gastrointestinal disorders (p<0.05), depressive symptoms (p<0.001), and impaired cognitive function (p<0.01) were significantly and independently associated with poorer nutritional status. Moreover, female gender (p<0.05), having no income (p<0.01), being illiterate (p<0.01), and not receiving regular financial support (p<0.05) were also independently associated with poor nutritional status.

    Conclusions: Malnutrition among elderly people in rural Bangladesh is associated with female gender, medical, psychological, socio-economic and social indicators. A multidimensional approach is probably needed to reduce undernutrition in older populations in low-income countries like Bangladesh.

  • 11. Frith, Amy L
    et al.
    Ziaei, Shirin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum
    Khan, Ashraful Islam
    Kabir, Iqbal
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Breast-feeding counselling mitigates the negative association of domestic violence on exclusive breast-feeding duration in rural Bangladesh. The MINIMat randomized trial.2017In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 20, no 15, p. 2810-2818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if exclusive breast-feeding counselling modifies the association of experience of any lifetime or specific forms of domestic violence (DV) on duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF).

    DESIGN: In the MINIMat trial pregnant women were randomized to receive either usual health messages (UHM) or usual health messages with breast-feeding counselling (BFC) in eight visits. During pregnancy (30 weeks), lifetime experience of any or specific forms of DV was measured. Infant feeding practice information was collected from 0 to 6 months at 15 d intervals.

    SETTING: Matlab, Bangladesh.

    SUBJECTS: Pregnant and postpartum women (n 3186) and their infants.

    RESULTS: Among women in the UHM group, those who had experienced any lifetime DV exclusively breast-fed for a shorter duration than women who did not experience any lifetime DV (P=0·02). There was no difference, however, in duration of EBF among women in the BFC group based on their experience of any lifetime DV exposure (P=0·48). Using Cox regression analysis, there was an interaction of exposure to any lifetime DV, sexual violence and controlling behaviour, and counselling group with duration of breast-feeding at or before 6 months (P-interaction≤0·08). Among the UHM group, experience of any lifetime DV, sexual violence or controlling behaviour was associated with fewer days of EBF (P<0·05). In contrast, among the BFC group, experience of DV was not associated with duration of EBF.

    CONCLUSIONS: The experience of DV compromises EBF and the support of breast-feeding counselling programmes could assist this vulnerable group towards better infant feeding practices.

  • 12.
    Hawlader, Mohammad Delwer Hossain
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Noguchi, Emiko
    Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    El Arifeen, Shams
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Moore, Sophie E
    MRC International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Raqib, Rubhana
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Wagatsuma, Yukiko
    Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Nutritional status and childhood wheezing in rural Bangladesh2014In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 1570-1577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To investigate the association between current childhood nutritional status and current wheezing among pre-school children in rural Bangladesh.

    DESIGN:

    Cross-sectional study.

    SETTING:

    Matlab region, rural Bangladesh.

    SUBJECTS:

    Children (n 912) aged 4·5 years. Anthropometric measurements of the mothers and their children were taken during a 1-year period from December 2007 to November 2008. Current wheezing was identified using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Serum total IgE was measured by human IgE quantitative ELISA. IgE specific antibody to dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) was measured by the CAP-FEIA system (Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden).

    RESULTS:

    Wheezing at 4·5 years old was significantly associated with stunting (OR = 1·58; 95 % CI 1·13, 2·22) and underweight (OR = 1·39; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·94). The association with stunting remained significant after adjustment for sex, birth weight, birth length, gestational age at birth, mother's parity, maternal BMI, family history of asthma, socio-economic status, season of birth and intervention trial arm (OR = 1·74; 95 % CI 1·19, 2·56).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Stunting was a significant risk factor for wheezing among rural Bangladeshi children. Further studies will be required to confirm the relationship between nutritional status and allergic illnesses in developing countries.

  • 13. Hodge, Allison
    et al.
    Haapala, Irja
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, SE-14183 Huddinge, Sweden.
    McNeill, Geraldine
    Tseng, Marilyn
    A refresher in research publication ethics2012In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 377-378Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hurtig Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för klinisk medicin.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Sjöström, Michael
    Sampling procedure, participation rates and representativeness in the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS)2003In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is a cross-sectional, school-based population study on risk factors for future cardiovascular disease in children, with an overall participation rate in Sweden of about 50%. To study the representativeness of the participants in the Swedish part of EYHS, a comprehensive non-participant follow-up study was carried out.

    DESIGN:

    A structured multilevel analysis model was developed, addressing each level in the sampling procedure. The income, educational and occupational categories of the geographical regions of the study (level I), school catchment areas (level II) and parents (level III) were compared with official data. Participating and non-participating pupils (level IV) were compared through a questionnaire.

    SETTING:

    Thirty-seven state schools in two regions of Central Sweden (Orebro and southern Stockholm) were visited during the school year 1998/1999.

    SUBJECTS:

    Boys and girls aged 9 and 15 years were randomly sampled through a multiphase sampling procedure.

    RESULTS:

    Data for socio-economic status for levels I and II corresponded well to national and regional official data. At level III, non-manually working parents were slightly over-represented among parents of participating children. At level IV, non-participating subjects corresponded in most respects to participants with a few exceptions--mainly more interest in physical exercise among participants.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Based on the knowledge from the non-participant study, we do not foresee problems regarding interpretation of the outcomes in the EYHS, despite the low participation rate.

  • 15.
    Ijumba, Petrida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Health Systems Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa.
    Doherty, Tanya
    Health Systems Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa.
    Jackson, Debra
    School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Tomlinson, Mark
    Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Sanders, David
    School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Swanevelder, Sonja
    Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Effect of an integrated community-based package for maternal and newborn care on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks of life: a cluster-randomized trial in a South African township2015In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 14, p. 2660-2668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of community-based counselling on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks after birth, and to study whether the effect differs by maternal HIV status, educational level or household wealth.

    DESIGN: Cluster-randomized trial with fifteen clusters in each arm to evaluate an integrated package providing two pregnancy and five postnatal home visits delivered by community health workers. Infant feeding data were collected using 24 h recall of nineteen food and fluid items.

    SETTING: A township near Durban, South Africa.

    SUBJECTS: Pregnant women (1894 intervention and 2243 control) aged 17 years or more.

    RESULTS: Twelve weeks after birth, 1629 (intervention) and 1865 (control) mother-infant pairs were available for analysis. Socio-economic conditions differed slightly across intervention groups, which were considered in the analyses. There was no effect on early initiation of breast-feeding. At 12 weeks of age the intervention doubled exclusive breast-feeding (OR=2·29; 95 % CI 1·80, 2·92), increased exclusive formula-feeding (OR=1·70; 95 % CI 1·28, 2·27), increased predominant breast-feeding (OR=1·71; 95 % CI 1·34, 2·19), decreased mixed formula-feeding (OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·83) and decreased mixed breast-feeding (OR=0·54; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·67). The effect on exclusive breast-feeding at 12 weeks was stronger among HIV-negative mothers than HIV-positive mothers (P=0·01), while the effect on mixed formula-feeding was significant only among HIV-positive mothers (P=0·03). The effect on exclusive feeding was not different by household wealth or maternal education levels.

    CONCLUSIONS: A perinatal intervention package delivered by community health workers was effective in increasing exclusive breast-feeding, exclusive formula-feeding and decreasing mixed feeding.

  • 16.
    Jiang, Jingxiong
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Rosenqvist, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Wang, Huishan
    Koletzko, Bert
    Lian, Guangli
    Huang, Jing
    Greiner, Ted
    Relationship of parental characteristics and feeding practices to overweight in infants and young children in Beijing, China2009In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 973-978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Childhood obesity has become a major public health problem in many countries. To explore the risk factors of overweight in infants and young children might be helpful in developing an early overweight intervention strategy. Objective To assess the prevalence of overweight and the relationship of parental characteristics and feeding practices to overweight in infants and young children in Beijing, China. Design Data on weight and length/height were collected on 4654 children aged 1–35 months in twelve communities in Beijing from a cross-sectional study. Overweight was defined as weight-for-length/height ≥2sd above the median of the WHO reference. Two hundred and fifteen families with overweight children and 215 families with normal-weight children were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain feeding practices. Results The overall prevalence of overweight was 4·7 %. Both parental overweight and low parental education were significantly higher among overweight than normal-weight children. The total energy intake was significantly higher in overweight than in normal-weight children at 12–35 months of age. Compared with normal-weight children, significantly fewer overweight children were breast-fed for at least 4 months. Overweight children were also more likely to have been introduced to infant formula and semi-solid foods during the first 4 months. Conclusion Early prevention strategies should include feeding practices identified as putting children at risk of obesity. These include early cessation of breast-feeding and premature introduction of other foods.

  • 17. Jonsdottir, Svandis
    et al.
    Hughes, Roger
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Consensus on the competencies required for public health nutrition workforce development in Europe: the JobNut project2011In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 1439-1449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess and develop consensus among a European panel of public health nutrition stakeholders regarding the competencies required for effective public health nutrition practice and the level of proficiency required in different practice contexts. Design: A modified Delphi study involving three rounds of questionnaires. Setting: European Union. Subjects: Public health nutrition workforce development stakeholders, including academics, practitioners and employers, from twenty European countries. Results: A total of fifty-two expert panellists (84% of an initial panel of sixty-two Delphi participants) completed all three rounds of the Delphi study. The panellists rated the importance of fifty-seven competency units possibly required of a public health nutritionist to effectively practice (Essential competencies). Twenty-nine of the fifty-seven competency units (51%) met the consensus criteria (>= 66.7% agreement) at the second round of the Delphi survey, with the highest agreement for competencies clustered within the Nutrition science, Professional, Analytical and Public health services competency domains. Ratings of the level of competencies required for different levels in the workforce indicated that for a public health nutrition specialist, advanced-level competency was required across almost all the twenty-nine competencies rated as essential. There were limited differences in rating responses between academics and employer panellists throughout the Delphi study. Conclusions: Competencies identified as essential can be used to review current public health nutrition practices and provide the basis for curriculum design and re-development, continuing education and workforce quality assurance systems in Europe. These are all important tools for systematic and strategic workforce development.

  • 18.
    Jonsdottir, Svandis
    et al.
    Unit for Nutrition Research, University of Iceland & Landspitali – The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, University of Iceland & Landspitali – The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Kugelberg, Susanna
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Faculty of Health, Nutrition and Management, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Faculty of Health, Nutrition and Management, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Kennedy, Nicholas P.
    Unit of Nutrition and Dietetic Studies, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin & Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St. James’s Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Hughes, Roger
    School of Health Sciences, Bond University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Core functions for the public health nutrition workforce in Europe: a consensus study2012In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 1999-2004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess and develop a consensus among a European panel of public health nutrition workforce stakeholders (academics and employers) regarding core functions required for effective public health nutrition practice.

    Design: A modified Delphi study involving data from two rounds of questionnaires administered among a panel of public health nutrition workforce stakeholders.

    Setting: Europe.

    Subjects: A panel of fifty-three public health nutrition development stakeholders, including thirty-three academics and twenty employers, sampled from eighteen European countries.

    Results: Panellists rated 50 % (19/38) of the initially listed functions as core (i.e. without which public health capacity is limited), using a majority cut-off (>50 %). Out of the nineteen core functions seven were categorised under the heading Intervention management, emphasising high agreement on the importance of managing interventions in public health nutrition work. Only one of the identified core public health nutrition functions was rated differently between academics and employers, suggesting consistent identification of core functions between stakeholder groups.

    Conclusions: This consensus on core functions of the public health nutrition workforce in Europe can be used to promote a consistent understanding of the role and value of public health nutritionists as a discrete disciplinary sub-specialty of the public health workforce. The convergence of opinions of academics and employers, as well as comparison with previous international studies, indicates that there is a set of core public health nutrition functions transferable between countries that can be used as a benchmark to guide further development of the public health nutrition workforce in Europe.

  • 19. Kabir, Zarina Nahar
    et al.
    Ferdous, Tamanna
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Khanam, Masuma Akter
    Streatfied, Kim
    Wahlin, Åke
    Mini Nutritional Assessment of rural elderly people in Bangladesh: the impact of demographic, socio-economic and health factors2006In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 968-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In stating the Millennium Development Goals, the United Nations aims to halve malnutrition around the world by 2015. Nutritional status of the elderly population in low-income countries is seldom focused upon. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of malnutrition among an elderly population in rural Bangladesh.

    Design and setting: Data collection for a multidimensional cross-sectional study of community-based elderly people aged 60 years and over was conducted in a rural area in Bangladesh.

    Subjects: Of 850 randomly selected elderly individuals, 625 participated in home interviews. Complete nutritional information was available for 457 individuals (mean age 69 +/- 8 years, 55% female). Nutritional status was assessed using an adapted form of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) including body mass index (BMI). Age, sex, education, household expenditure on food and self-reported health problems were investigated as potential predictors of nutritional status.

    Results: BMI < 18.5 kg m(-2), indicating chronic energy deficiency, was found in 50% of the population. MNA revealed a prevalence of 26% for protein-energy malnutrition and 62% for risk of malnutrition. Health problems rather than age had a negative impact on nutritional status. Level of education and food expenditure were directly associated with nutritional status.

    Conclusion: In order to reduce world hunger by half in the coming decade, it is important to recognise that a substantial proportion of the elderly population, particularly in low-income countries, is undernourished.

  • 20.
    Kugelberg, Susanna
    et al.
    Unit for Public Health Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Health, Nutrition and Management, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Jonsdottir, Svandis
    Unit for Nutrition Research, University of Iceland and Landspitali National University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Faxelid, Elisabeth
    Division of Global Health/IHCAR, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Kristina
    Department of Political Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Fox, Ann
    Department of Nutritional Sciences and The Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, University of Iceland and Landspitali National University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Public Health Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Health, Nutrition and Management, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Public health nutrition workforce development in seven European countries: constraining and enabling factors2012In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 1989-1998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Little is known about current public health nutrition workforce development in Europe. The present study aimed to understand constraining and enabling factors to workforce development in seven European countries.

    Design: A qualitative study comprised of semi-structured face-to-face interviews was conducted and content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed interview data.

    Setting: The study was carried out in Finland, Iceland, Ireland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK.

    Subjects: Sixty key informants participated in the study.

    Results: There are constraining and enabling factors for public health nutrition workforce development. The main constraining factors relate to the lack of a supportive policy environment, fragmented organizational structures and a workforce that is not cohesive enough to implement public health nutrition strategic initiatives. Enabling factors were identified as the presence of skilled and dedicated individuals who assume roles as leaders and change agents.

    Conclusions: There is a need to strengthen coordination between policy and implementation of programmes which may operate across the national to local spectrum. Public health organizations are advised to further define aims and objectives relevant to public health nutrition. Leaders and agents of change will play important roles in fostering intersectorial partnerships, advocating for policy change, establishing professional competencies and developing education and training programmes.

  • 21.
    Lehto, Elviira
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ray, Carola
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Te Velde, Saskia
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Petrova, Stefka
    National Center of Public Health and Analyses, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Duleva, Vesselka
    National Center of Public Health and Analyses, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Krawinkel, Michael
    Institute of Nutrition Sciences, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Behrendt, Isabel
    Institute of Nutrition Sciences, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany; Institute of Nutrition Physiology and Human Nutrition, University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
    Papadaki, Angeliki
    Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Kristjansdottir, Åsa
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital and Faculty of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital and Faculty of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Lien, Nanna
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Lynch, Christel
    Department for Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Department for Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences of Porto University, Porto, Portugal.
    Ribic, Cirila Hlastan
    National Institute of Public Health, Chronic Diseases Prevention Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Simčic, Irena
    National Education Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Roos, Eva
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland: Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mediation of parental educational level on fruit and vegetable intake among schoolchildren in ten European countries2015In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine which factors act as mediators between parental educational level and children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in ten European countries.

    Design: Cross-sectional data were collected in ten European countries participating in the PRO GREENS project (2009). Schoolchildren completed a validated FFQ about their daily F&V intake and filled in a questionnaire about availability of F&V at home, parental facilitation of F&V intake, knowledge of recommendations about F&V intake, self-efficacy to eat F&V and liking for F&V. Parental educational level was determined from a questionnaire given to parents. The associations were examined with multilevel mediation analyses.

    Setting: Schools in Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Greece, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden.

    Subjects: Eleven-year-old children (n 8159, response rate 72%) and their parents.

    Results: In five of the ten countries, children with higher educated parents were more likely to report eating fruits daily. This association was mainly mediated by knowledge but self-efficacy, liking, availability and facilitation also acted as mediators in some countries. Parents' education was positively associated with their children's daily vegetable intake in seven countries, with knowledge and availability being the strongest mediators and self-efficacy and liking acting as mediators to some degree.

    Conclusions: Parental educational level correlated positively with children's daily F&V intake in most countries and the pattern of mediation varied among the participating countries. Future intervention studies that endeavour to decrease the educational-level differences in F&V intake should take into account country-specific features in the relevant determinants of F&V intake.

  • 22.
    Lynch, Christel
    et al.
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, NOVUM, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Kristjansdottir, Asa Gudrun
    Unit for Nutrition Research, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland .
    Te Velde, Saskia J
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Lien, Nanna
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    Roos, Eva
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland .
    Krawinkel, Michael
    Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Nutrition, Environmental Sciences and Home Economics, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany .
    de Almeida, Maria Daniel Vaz
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Papadaki, Angeliki
    Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Ribic, Cirila Hlastan
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Petrova, Stefka
    National Center for Public Health Protection, Sofia, Bulgaria .
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, NOVUM, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Halldorsson, Thorhallur I
    Unit for Nutrition Research, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland .
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, NOVUM, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of 11-year-old children in ten European countries: the PRO GREENS cross-sectional survey2014In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 2436-2444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe fruit and vegetable intake of 11-year-old children in ten European countries and compare it with current dietary guidelines.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. Intake was assessed using a previously validated questionnaire containing a pre-coded 24 h recall and an FFQ which were completed in the classroom. Portion sizes were calculated using a standardized protocol.

    SETTING: Surveys were performed in schools regionally selected in eight countries and nationally representative in two countries.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 8158 children from 236 schools across Europe participating in the PRO GREENS project.

    RESULTS: The total mean consumption of fruit and vegetables was between 220 and 345 g/d in the ten participating countries. Mean intakes did not reach the WHO population goal of ≥400 g/d in any of the participating countries. Girls had a significantly higher intake of total fruit and vegetables than boys in five of the countries (Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Bulgaria and Slovenia). Mean total fruit intake ranged between 114 and 240 g/d and vegetable intake between 73 and 141 g/d. When using the level ≥400 g/d as a cut-off, only 23·5 % (13·8-37·0 %) of the studied children, depending on country and gender, met the WHO recommendation (fruit juice excluded).

    CONCLUSIONS: Fruit and vegetable consumption was below recommended levels among the schoolchildren in all countries and vegetable intake was lower than fruit intake. The survey shows that there is a need for promotional activities to improve fruit and vegetable consumption in this age group.

  • 23. Madeira, Teresa
    et al.
    Peixoto-Plácido, Catarina
    Sousa-Santos, Nuno
    Santos, Osvaldo
    Alarcão, Violeta
    Goulão, Beatriz
    Mendonça, Nuno
    Nicola, Paulo Jorge
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Bye, Asta
    Bergland, Astrid
    Amaral, Teresa F
    Lopes, Carla
    Gorjão Clara, João
    Malnutrition among older adults living in Portuguese nursing homes: the PEN-3S study.2019In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 486-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise the nutritional status and to identify malnutrition-associated variables of older adults living in Portuguese nursing homes.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Data on demographic and socio-economic characteristics, self-reported morbidity, eating-related problems, nutritional status, cognitive function, depression symptoms, loneliness feelings and functional status were collected by trained nutritionists through a computer-assisted face-to-face structured interview followed by standardised anthropometric measurements. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with being at risk of malnutrition/malnourished.

    SETTING: Portuguese nursing homes.

    SUBJECTS: Nationally representative sample of the Portuguese population aged 65 years or over living in nursing homes.

    RESULTS: A total of 1186 individuals (mean age 83·4 years; 72·8 % women) accepted to participate. According to the Mini Nutritional Assessment, 4·8 (95 % CI 3·2, 7·3) % were identified as malnourished and 38·7 (95 % CI 33·5, 44·2) % were at risk of malnutrition. These percentages increased with age and were significantly higher for women. Logistic regression showed (OR; 95 % CI) that older adults reporting no or little appetite (6·5; 2·7, 15·3), those revealing symptoms of depression (2·6; 1·6, 4·2) and those who were more dependent in their daily living activities (4·7; 2·0, 11·1) were also at higher odds of being malnourished or at risk of malnutrition.

    CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition and risk of malnutrition are prevalent among nursing home residents in Portugal. It is crucial to routinely screen for nutritional disorders, as well as risk factors such as symptoms of depression and lower functional status, to prevent and treat malnutrition.

  • 24.
    Margetts, Barrie
    et al.
    Public Health Nutrition, Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Warm, Daniel
    Public Health Nutrition, Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Developing an evidence-based approach to Public Health Nutrition: translating evidence into policy2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 6A, p. 1393-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of an evidence-based approach to the development, implementation and evaluation of policies aimed at improving nutrition-related health in the population. Public Health Nutrition was established to realise a population-level approach to the prevention of the major nutrition-related health problems world-wide. The scope is broad and integrates activity from local, national, regional and international levels. The aim is to inform and develop coherent and effective policies that address the key rate-limiting steps critical to improving nutrition-related public health. This paper sets out the rationale for an evidence-based approach to Public Health Nutrition developed under the umbrella of the European Network for Public Health Nutrition.

  • 25.
    Naska, Androniki
    et al.
    Department of Hygiene Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Bountziouka, Vasiliki
    Department of Hygiene Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Department of Hygiene Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.
    Soft drinks: time trends and correlates in twenty-four European countries. A cross-national study using the DAFNE (Data Food Networking) databank2010In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 1346-1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate time trends in the availability of soft drinks, to identify food choices associated with their consumption and to assess the relationship between socio-economic status and daily soft drink availability in a wide range of European countries.

    Design: Data on food and beverage availability collected through the national household budget surveys and harmonized in the DAFNE (Data Food Networking) project were used. Averages and variability of soft drink availability were estimated and tests for time trends were performed. The daily availability of food groups which appear to be correlated with that of soft drinks was further estimated. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were applied to evaluate the association between socio-economic status and the acquisition of soft drinks.

    Setting: Twenty-four European countries.

    Subjects: Nationally representative samples of households.

    Results: The availability of soft drinks is steadily and significantly increasing. Households in West and North Europe reported higher daily availability of soft drinks in comparison to other European regions. Soft drinks were also found to be correlated with lower availability of plant foods and milk and higher availability of meat and sugar products. Lower socio-economic status was associated with more frequent and higher availability of soft drinks in the household.

    Conclusions: Data collected in national samples of twenty-four European countries showed disparities in soft drink availability among socio-economic strata and European regions. The correlation of soft drinks with unfavourable dietary choices has public health implications, particularly among children and adolescents.

  • 26.
    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen
    et al.
    Community Nutrition Unit, Bilbao Department of Public Health, Bilbao, Spain.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    nstitute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Stockley, Lynn
    Food & Nutrition Consultant, Timberland, Mill Hill, Brockweir, nr Chepstow, Gloucestershire, UK.
    Aranceta, Javier
    Community Nutrition Unit, Bilbao Department of Public Health, Bilbao, Spain.
    The school setting: an opportunity for the implementation of dietary guidelines2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 2B, p. 717-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrition, physical activity and health related promotion programmes in schools have developed into a mature field of research over the past decades. A number of success factors have been identified and evidence-based interventions have been performed. However, the school setting as an arena for evidence-based health promotion programmes, is still not used to its full potential. Schools provide an excellent arena for reaching large segments of the population, such as young people, school staff, families and the surrounding community.

    There is a need for an overview regarding the current status of nutrition, physical activity, related health as well as support structures in the EU member states. Based upon such an analysis, a consensus report should be written, pointing out the major problems at hand. Self-assessment tools for national as well as for school level should be produced, in order to guide changes, but also to include an element of continuous assessment of change, for evaluation purposes.

  • 27.
    Ray, Carola
    et al.
    Folkha ̈ lsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Roos, Eva
    Folkha ̈ lsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brug, Johannes
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research and Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Behrendt, Isabel
    nstitute for Nutritional Sciences, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Unit for Public Health Nutrition, Department for Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    te Velde, Saskia J
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research and Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Role of free school lunch in the associations between family-environmental factors and children's fruit and vegetable intake in four European countries2013In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1109-1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an association exists between different clusters of fruit- and vegetable-specific family-environmental factors and children's daily fruit and vegetable intake, and whether these associations differ between countries with different school lunch policies.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from four European countries participating in the Pro Greens project in 2009. These countries have different school food policies: two serve free school lunches and two do not. Self-administered data were used. Food frequency questions served to assess fruit and vegetable intakes. The study assessed sixteen children-perceived family-environmental factors, which were clustered based on principal component analysis into five sum variables: fruit and vegetable encouragement; vegetable modelling, family routine and demand; fruit modelling; fruit and vegetable snacking practices; and fruit and vegetable allowing.

    SETTING: Schools in Finland, Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands.

    SUBJECTS: Schoolchildren aged 11 years (n 3317).

    RESULTS: Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed positive associations between nearly all clustered family-environmental factors and daily fruit and vegetable intake. The study tested a moderation effect between family-environmental factors and school lunch policy. In five out of twenty models significant interactions occurred. In the stratified analyses, most of the associations between family-environmental factors and raw and cooked vegetable intake were stronger in Germany and the Netherlands, neither of which provided free school lunches.

    CONCLUSIONS: Children reporting more fruit- and vegetable-promoting family-environmental factors had a more frequent intake of fruits and vegetables; the associations were stronger for vegetable intakes in countries providing no free school lunches, suggesting that parental involvement is crucial when schools offer no vegetables.

  • 28.
    Ray, Carola
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Paasikivenkatu 4, 00250 Helsinki, Finland; 2Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Roos, Eva
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Paasikivenkatu 4, 00250 Helsinki, Finland; 2Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brug, Johannes
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research and Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Behrendt, Isabel
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Unit for Public Health Nutrition, Department for Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Department of Health, Nutrition and Management, Oslo and Akershus University College, Lillestro¨m, Norway.
    te Velde, Saskia J.
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research and Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Role of free school lunch in the associations between family-environmental factors and children's fruit and vegetable intake in four European countries2013In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1109-1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:To determine whether an association exists between different clusters of fruit- and vegetable-specific family-environmental factors and children's daily fruit and vegetable intake, and whether these associations differ between countries with different school lunch policies.DESIGN:Cross-sectional data from four European countries participating in the Pro Greens project in 2009. These countries have different school food policies: two serve free school lunches and two do not. Self-administered data were used. Food frequency questions served to assess fruit and vegetable intakes. The study assessed sixteen children-perceived family-environmental factors, which were clustered based on principal component analysis into five sum variables: fruit and vegetable encouragement; vegetable modelling, family routine and demand; fruit modelling; fruit and vegetable snacking practices; and fruit and vegetable allowing.SETTING:Schools in Finland, Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands.SUBJECTS:Schoolchildren aged 11 years (n 3317).RESULTS:Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed positive associations between nearly all clustered family-environmental factors and daily fruit and vegetable intake. The study tested a moderation effect between family-environmental factors and school lunch policy. In five out of twenty models significant interactions occurred. In the stratified analyses, most of the associations between family-environmental factors and raw and cooked vegetable intake were stronger in Germany and the Netherlands, neither of which provided free school lunches.CONCLUSIONS:Children reporting more fruit- and vegetable-promoting family-environmental factors had a more frequent intake of fruits and vegetables; the associations were stronger for vegetable intakes in countries providing no free school lunches, suggesting that parental involvement is crucial when schools offer no vegetables

  • 29.
    Roos, Eva
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Paasikivenkatu Helsinki, Finland; Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Pajunen, Tuuli
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Paasikivenkatu 4Helsinki, Finland .
    Ray, Carola
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Paasikivenkatu Helsinki, Finland; Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Lynch, Christel
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gudrun Kristiansdottir, Åsa
    Unit for Nutrition Research, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland .
    Halldorsson, Thorhallur
    Unit for Nutrition Research, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland .
    te Velde, Saskia
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Krawinkel, Michael
    Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Nutrition, Environmental Sciences and Home Economics, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany .
    Behrendt, Isabel
    Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Nutrition, Environmental Sciences and Home Economics, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany .
    Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Franchini, Bela
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Papadaki, Angeliki
    Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom .
    Moschandreas, Johanna
    Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland .
    Ribic, Cirila Hlastan
    National Education Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Petrova, Stefk
    National Center for Public Health Protection, Sofia, Bulgaria .
    Duleva, Vesselka
    National Center for Public Health Protection, Sofia, Bulgaria .
    Simcic, Irena
    National Education Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Does eating family meals and having the television on during dinner correlate with overweight?: a sub-study of the PRO GREENS project, looking at children from nine European countries2014In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 2528-2536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Family meals have been negatively associated with overweight in children, while television (TV) viewing during meals has been associated with a poorer diet. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of eating family breakfast and dinner, and having a TV on during dinner, with overweight in nine European countries and whether these associations differed between Northern and Southern & Eastern Europe.

    Design: Cross-sectional data. Schoolchildren reported family meals and TV viewing. BMI was based on parental reports on height and weight of their children. Cut-off points for overweight by the International Obesity Task Force were used. Logistic regressions were performed adjusted by age, gender and parental education.

    Setting: Schools in Northern European (Sweden, the Netherlands, Iceland, Ger- many and Finland) and Southern & Eastern European (Portugal, Greece, Bulgaria and Slovenia) countries, participating in the PRO GREENS project.

    Subjects: Children aged 10–12 years in (n 6316).

    Results: In the sample, 21 % of the children were overweight, from 35 % in Greece to 10 % in the Netherlands. Only a few associations were found between family meals and TV viewing during dinner with overweight in the nine countries. Northern European children, compared with other regions, were significantly more likely to be overweight if they had fewer family breakfasts and more often viewed TV during dinner.

    Conclusions: The associations between family meals and TV viewing during dinner with overweight were few and showed significance only in Northern Europe. Differences in foods consumed during family meals and in health-related lifestyles between Northern and Southern & Eastern Europe may explain these discrepancies.

  • 30.
    Saha, Kuntal K.
    et al.
    International Centre for diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
    Frongillo, Edward A.
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Alam, Dewan S.
    International Centre for diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
    Arifeen, Shams E.
    International Centre for diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Rasmussen, Kathleen M.
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Household food security is associated with growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh2009In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 1556-1562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Despite a strong relationship between household food security and the health and nutritional status of adults and older children, the association of household food security with the growth of infants and young children has not been adequately studied, particularly in developing countries. We examined the association between household food security and subsequent growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh. DESIGN: We followed 1343 children from birth to 24 months of age who were born in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat) study in rural Bangladesh. A food security scale was created from data collected on household food security from the mothers during pregnancy. Data on weight and length were collected monthly in the first year and quarterly in the second year of life. Anthropometric indices were calculated relative to the 2006 WHO child growth standards. Growth trajectories were modelled using multilevel models for change controlling for possible confounders. RESULTS: Household food security was associated (P < 0.05) with greater subsequent weight and length gain in this cohort. Attained weight, length and anthropometric indices from birth to 24 months were higher (P < 0.001) among those who were in food-secure households. Proportions of underweight and stunting were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in food-secure households. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that household food security is a determinant of child growth in rural Bangladesh, and that it may be necessary to ensure food security of these poor rural households to prevent highly prevalent undernutrition in this population and in similar settings elsewhere in the world.

  • 31. Scander, Henrik
    et al.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Nilsen, Bente
    Tellström, Richard
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Beverage consumption patterns and energy contribution from beverages per meal type: results from a national dietary survey in Sweden.2018In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 21, no 18, p. 3318-3327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Many studies of food intake have been performed and published in Sweden, but to our knowledge no studies have extensively explored the beverage consumption of the Swedish adult population. The present study aimed to describe the beverage consumption and the contribution of beverage energy (including alcohol energy) to total energy intake according to gender, region of living, meal type and day for a Swedish adult population.

    DESIGN: National dietary survey Riksmaten (2010-2011), collected by the Swedish National Food Agency.

    SETTING: Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 1682 participants (57 % women) reported dietary intake data during four consecutive days, specified by portion size, meal, time point, day of the week and venue. Meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner and 'other'.ResultThe beverage reported to be consumed the most was water (ml/d), followed by coffee. Men had a higher consumption of juice, soft drinks, beer, spirits and low-alcohol beer, while the consumption of tea and water was higher for women. For both genders, milk contributed the most to beverage energy intake. Energy percentage from beverages was higher at lunch and dinner during weekends for both genders. Participants from the biggest cities in Sweden had a higher consumption of wine for both genders and tea for men than participants from other regions.

    CONCLUSIONS: A considerable part of total energy intake was contributed by beverages, especially for men. Beverages can contribute to a more enjoyable diet, but at the same time provide energy, sugar and alcohol in amounts that do not promote optimal health.

  • 32.
    Sjöström, Michael
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge; Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge.
    Warm, Daniel
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge; nstitute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge; Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Diet and physical activity - interactions for health: public health nutrition in the European perspective1999In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 2, no 3A, p. 453-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the majority of European adults, who neither smoke nor drink excessively, the most significant controllable risk factors affecting their long-term health are what they eat, and how physically active they are.

    Scientists are supposed to clarify to policy makers and health professionals the usefulness of their health messages. However, to be able to do that, a more detailed understanding is needed of the basic mechanisms behind the effects on health of diet and physical activity and, especially, the two in combination. Further, better methods for assessment of nutrition and physical activity in the population have to be developed, and more and better baseline data have to be collected. Increased and more efficient interventions are then needed. People trained and competent in the new discipline of Public Health Nutrition are required.

    Through the stimulating support that the European Commission, as well as other national and international partners, are presently giving to the development of Public Health Nutrition across Europe, we can hope for an increased mobility, networking and understanding between European nutrition and physical activity professionals. This will most likely result in greater and better policy making, strategy development, implementation and evaluation. We now have a great possibility to develop the integrated field of preventive nutrition and health enhancing physical activity.

  • 33.
    Somaraki, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Eli, Karin
    Ek, Anna
    Lindberg, Louise
    Nyman, Jonna
    Marcus, Claude
    Flodmark, Carl-Erik
    Pietrobelli, Angelo
    Faith, Myles. S.
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Nowicka, Paulina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Controlling feeding practices and maternal migrant background: An analysis of a multicultural sample2017In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 848-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Parental feeding practices shape children's relationships with food and eating. Feeding is embedded socioculturally in values and attitudes related to food and parenting. However, few studies have examined associations between parental feeding practices and migrant background.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Parental feeding practices (restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring) were assessed using the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Differences were explored in four sub-samples grouped by maternal place of birth: Sweden, Nordic/Western Europe, Eastern/Southern Europe and countries outside Europe. Crude, partly and fully adjusted linear regression models were created. Potential confounding variables included child's age, gender and weight status, and mother's age, weight status, education and concern about child weight.

    SETTING: Malmö and Stockholm, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: Mothers (n 1325, representing seventy-three countries; mean age 36·5 years; 28·1 % of non-Swedish background; 30·7 % with overweight/obesity; 62·8 % with university education) of pre-school children (mean age 4·8 years; 50·8 % boys; 18·6 % with overweight/obesity).

    RESULTS: Non-Swedish-born mothers, whether European-born or non-European-born, were more likely to use restriction. Swedish-born mothers and Nordic/Western European-born mothers reported lower levels of pressure to eat compared with mothers born in Eastern/Southern Europe and mothers born outside Europe. Differences in monitoring were small. Among the potential confounding variables, child weight status and concern about child weight were highly influential. Concern about child weight accounted for some of the effect of maternal origin on restriction.

    CONCLUSIONS: Non-European-born mothers were more concerned about children being overweight and more likely to report controlling feeding practices. Future research should examine acculturative and structural factors underlying differences in feeding.

  • 34.
    Stenhammar, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Edlund, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    The role of parents' educational background in healthy lifestyle practices and attitudes of their 6-year-old children2007In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 1305-1313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The aim of the present study was to examine parents' reported and desired frequencies (practices vs. attitudes) of their 6-year-old children's meals, nutritional intake and lifestyle components, as well as possible obstacles and desired support with respect to higher or lower educational backgrounds.

    Design Cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Setting Five elementary schools in Uppsala, Sweden.

    Subjects Parents of 176 6-year-old pupils attending the first grade. The total response rate was 89.7%.

    Results Parents with a college degree reported that their 6-year-olds had a higher frequency of milk, fruit and vegetable intake, more physical activity and fewer hours watching television compared with parents with a secondary school degree. Congruent to these differences in reported practices, more parents with a college degree desired a higher frequency of milk, fruit and vegetable intake, more physical exercise and less television viewing for their children. Regarding parents' desired meal frequencies during the week, no differences between the groups with higher and lower levels of education were found. Despite similar attitudes, however, parents with a college degree reported that their children ate mostly all meals significantly more often during the week. Both parent groups stated lack of time as the most common obstacle in providing their children with desired lifestyle practices, although parents with a secondary school education added lack of money as a contributing factor.

    Conclusions As attitudes are not always reflected in reported practices, it seems a fruitful approach to assess both, as well as obstacles perceived by parents, before planning interventions to enhance healthy lifestyle habits in children.

  • 35.
    Villa, Inga
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia; Estonian Centre of Behavioural & Health Sciences, Estonia.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grjibovski, Andrej
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Liiv, Krystiine
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Harro, Maarike
    Estonian Centre of Behavioural & Health Sciences, Estonia; National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Dietary intake among under-, normal- and overweight 9- and 15-year-old Estonian and Swedish schoolchildren.2007In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 311-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the differences in macronutrient and food group contribution to total food and energy intakes between Estonian and Swedish under-, normal- and overweight schoolchildren, and to estimate the association between diet and body mass index (BMI).

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison between Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents of different BMI groups.

    SETTING: Twenty-five schools from one region in Estonia and 42 in two regions of central Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: In total 2308 participants (1176 from Estonia and 1132 from Sweden), including 1141 children with a mean age of 9.6 +/- 0.5 years and 1167 adolescents with a mean age of 15.5 +/- 0.6 years.

    RESULTS: Overweight was more prevalent among younger girls in Sweden (17.0 vs. 8.9%) and underweight among girls of both age groups in Estonia (7.9 vs. 3.5% in younger and 10.5 vs. 5.1% in older age group of girls). Compared with that of normal- and underweight peers, the diet of overweight Estonian children contained more energy as fat (36.8 vs. 31.7%) but less as carbohydrates, and they consumed more milk and meat products. Absolute BMI of Estonian participants was associated positively with energy consumption from eggs and negatively with energy consumption from sweets and sugar. Swedish overweight adolescents tended to consume more energy from protein and milk products. Risk of being overweight was positively associated with total energy intake and energy from fish or meat products. In both countries the association of overweight and biological factors (pubertal maturation, parental BMI) was stronger than with diet.

    CONCLUSION: The finding that differences in dietary intake between under-, normal- and overweight schoolchildren are country-specific suggests that local dietary habits should be considered in intervention projects addressing overweight.

  • 36.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Poor breakfast habits in adolescence predict the metabolic syndrome in adulthood2015In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 122-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyse whether poor breakfast habits in adolescence predict the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood. Previous studies suggest that regular breakfast consumption improves metabolic parameters. Design: Prospective. Breakfast habits and other lifestyle variables at age 16 years were assessed from questionnaires. Poor breakfast habits were defined as skipping breakfast or only drinking or eating something sweet. At age 43 years, the effective sample consisted of 889 participants defined as having the metabolic syndrome or not, using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Setting: The Northern Swedish Cohort, a longitudinal population-based cohort with 27-year follow-up. Subjects: Adolescents (age 16 years). Results: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years was 27.0%. Of the participants, 9.9% were classified with poor breakfast habits at age 16 years. Adjusted odds for the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years was OR = 1.68 (95% CI 1.01, 2.78) for those with poor breakfast habits at age 16 years compared with breakfast eaters. Looking at the metabolic syndrome components, poor breakfast habits at age 16 years were associated with central obesity (OR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.00, 2.92) and high fasting glucose (OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.01, 3.02) at age 43 years, even after multivariate adjustments. Conclusions: Poor breakfast habits in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Of the metabolic syndrome components, poor breakfast habits in adolescence predicted central obesity and high fasting glucose in adulthood. Further research is needed to fully understand the relationship between early breakfast habits and adult metabolic syndrome.

  • 37.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Socialmedicin.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Socialmedicin.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Socialmedicin.
    Irregular eating of meals in adolescence and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood: results from a 27-year prospective cohort2016In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 667-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective was to investigate whether irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicts the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood, and if any specific meal is of particular importance. Design: Prospective cohort study with 27 years of follow-up. Information on meals (breakfast, school lunch and dinner with family), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking habits, physical activity, consumption of sweets and pastries) at age 16 years was assessed from questionnaires, and presence or not of the metabolic syndrome and its components were defined at age 43 years in 889 participants (82.1 % of total cohort). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Setting: The Northern Swedish Cohort; all school-leavers of the 9th grade in the town Lulea in 1981. Subjects: Adolescents (age 16 years). Results: Irregular eating of meals at age 16 years was associated with higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years (OR=1.74; 95 % CI 1.12, 2.71), but this was explained by concurrent unhealthy lifestyle at age 16 years. Poor breakfast at age 16 years was the only meal associated with the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years, independent of other meals, BMI (kg/m2) and lifestyle at age 16 years (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI 1.00, 2.80). Conclusions: Irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood, but not independently of BMI and lifestyle in adolescence. Poor breakfast in adolescence was the only specific meal associated with future metabolic syndrome, even after adjustments. Breakfast eating should be encouraged in adolescence.

  • 38. Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Evaluation of relative intake of fatty acids according to the Northern Sweden FFQ with fatty acid levels in erythrocyte membranes as biomarkers2009In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 1477-1484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the Northern Sweden eighty-four-item FFQ to estimate intake of fatty acids relative to 24 h diet recalls (24-HDR) and fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes. DESIGN: Participants, randomly recruited from the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Project, answered the eighty-four-item FFQ. During the following year each participant carried out ten 24-HDR. Intake of fatty acids measured by the FFQ was compared with intake by the 24-HDR and fatty acid levels in erythrocytes. SETTING: The county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. SUBJECTS: Ninety-six men and ninety-nine women. RESULTS: Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) between intakes of the fatty acids 14 : 0, 15 : 0, 16 : 0, 17 : 0, 18 : 2n-6, 18 : 3n-3, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3 estimated by the FFQ and the 24-HDR were all significant and ranged from 0.29 (22 : 6n-3 in men and women) to 0.60 (16 : 0 in men), whereas significant correlations between FFQ-estimated intake and erythrocyte membrane content were only seen for milk fatty acids 14 : 0, 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 (rs = 0.23-0.34) and fish fatty acids 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3 (rs = 0.42-0.51). CONCLUSION: The Northern Sweden eighty-four-item FFQ gives a satisfactory estimate of the intake of fish fatty acids (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) and milk fatty acids (15 : 0 and 17 : 0), whereas its validity for fatty acids 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3, derived mainly from vegetable oils, cannot be shown.

  • 39.
    Wijnhoven, Trudy Ma
    et al.
    Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-Course, WHO Regional Office for Europe, UN City, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van Raaij, Joop Ma
    Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Sjöberg, Agneta
    Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kunešová, Marie
    Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Duleva, Vesselka
    Department of Food and Nutrition, National Center of Public Health and Analyses, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Petrauskiene, Ausra
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Rito, Ana I
    National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Breda, João
    Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-Course, WHO Regional Office for Europe, UN City, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: health-risk behaviours on nutrition and physical activity in 6-9-year-old schoolchildren2015In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 17, p. 3108-3124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess to what extent eight behavioural health risks related to breakfast and food consumption and five behavioural health risks related to physical activity, screen time and sleep duration are present among schoolchildren, and to examine whether health-risk behaviours are associated with obesity.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional design as part of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (school year 2007/2008). Children's behavioural data were reported by their parents and children's weight and height measured by trained fieldworkers. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed.

    SETTING: Primary schools in Bulgaria, Lithuania, Portugal and Sweden; paediatric clinics in the Czech Republic.

    SUBJECTS: Nationally representative samples of 6-9-year-olds (n 15 643).

    RESULTS: All thirteen risk behaviours differed statistically significantly across countries. Highest prevalence estimates of risk behaviours were observed in Bulgaria and lowest in Sweden. Not having breakfast daily and spending screen time ≥2 h/d were clearly positively associated with obesity. The same was true for eating 'foods like pizza, French fries, hamburgers, sausages or meat pies' >3 d/week and playing outside <1 h/d. Surprisingly, other individual unhealthy eating or less favourable physical activity behaviours showed either no or significant negative associations with obesity. A combination of multiple less favourable physical activity behaviours showed positive associations with obesity, whereas multiple unhealthy eating behaviours combined did not lead to higher odds of obesity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite a categorization based on international health recommendations, individual associations of the thirteen health-risk behaviours with obesity were not consistent, whereas presence of multiple physical activity-related risk behaviours was clearly associated with higher odds of obesity.

  • 40. Wu, Huaxing
    et al.
    Mhd Omar, Nor Adila
    Håkansson, Niclas
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Evaluation of alkylresorcinols in adipose tissue biopsies as a long-term biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake in free-living Swedish men and women.2018In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1933-1942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Wheat and rye, the most consumed whole grains (WG) in the Nordic countries, contain alkylresorcinols (AR) in their bran. AR concentrations in human adipose tissue might reflect long-term WG rye and wheat intake. We aimed to evaluate AR concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies as a long-term biomarker of WG wheat and rye intake in free-living Swedish men and women.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. AR concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies were analysed and compared with long-term WG intake assessed by three FFQ (repeated over a period of 14 years in men, 17 years in women) and with plasma AR concentrations.

    SETTING: The Cohort of Swedish Men between 1997 and 2010 and the Swedish Mammography Cohort between 1987 and 2003, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: Men (n 149) and women (n 109).

    RESULTS: Long-term WG rye intake estimated with repeated FFQ correlated (r=0·31-0·41, P<0·01) with adipose-tissue AR concentrations, while WG wheat intake correlated only weakly (r=0·17-0·33, P<0·05). Total AR concentration in adipose tissue was 61 % lower in women than in men at similar energy-adjusted WG wheat and rye intakes, but plasma concentrations were similar. AR concentrations in adipose tissue correlated well with plasma concentrations (r=0·49-0·81, P<0·001).

    CONCLUSIONS: AR in adipose tissue reflected long-term WG rye but not WG wheat intake, probably due to poor precision in estimating WG wheat intake by FFQ. AR in adipose tissue appears promising as a biomarker of long-term WG rye intake but should be adjusted for sex.

  • 41. Yngve, Agneta
    A new academic year2008In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 875-876Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Challenges for Public Health Nutrition are immense: to be a good public health nutrition leader requires networking and collaboration2006In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 535-537Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. Karolinska Institutet.
    Editorial - The Santa Body Size Index (SBSI)2007In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 1415-1416Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Food and drink marketing to children: a continuing scandal2007In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 971-972Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Santa saga: RUT YACH. A random uncontrollable tribulation. One year blow-up2008In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 1203-1203Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Lissner, Lauren
    Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Serra Majem, Lluis
    Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Comunitaria (Spanish Society of Public Health Nutrition), Spain .
    Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Portugal; Portuguese Society for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Porto, Portugal .
    Berg, Christina
    Department of Home Economics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Hughes, Roger
    School of Public Health (Gold Coast), Griffith University, QLD, Australia .
    Cannon, Geoffrey
    World Health Policy Forum Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital, Iceland; University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland .
    Kearney, John
    Department of Biological Sciences, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland .
    Gustafsson, Jan-Åke
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Rafter, Joseph
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Elmadfa, Ibrahim
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria .
    Kennedy, Nick
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland .
    The Women's Health Initiative. What is on trial: nutrition and chronic disease? Or misinterpreted science, media havoc and the sound of silence from peers?2006In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 269-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first results of the Women's Health Initiative dietary intervention trial were published in the USA in February. This is a colossal intervention designed to see if diets lower in fat and higher in fruits, vegetables and grains than is usual in high-income countries reduce the incidence of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, heart disease and other chronic diseases, in women aged 50-79 years. As interpreted by US government media releases, the results were unimpressive. As interpreted by a global media blitz, the results indicate that food and nutrition has little or nothing to do with health and disease. But the trial was in key respects not reaching its aims, was methodologically controversial, and in any case has not produced the reported null results. What should the public health nutrition profession do about such messes?

  • 47.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Breast-feeding in Europe - rationale and prevalence, challenges and possibilities for promotion2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 6A, p. 1353-1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The status reports and other information collected showed that interpretation of the data on breast-feeding prevalence and duration collected at national or regional level within European countries is difficult, since this information is not collected in every country or it is gathered under different criteria. However, there seem to be vast differences in prevalence of breast-fed children and breast-feeding duration between European countries and possibly within countries. There is a need to establish monitoring systems enabling comparability of data between countries. Assessing determinants for breast-feeding is required as well. There are a number of important consensus documents supporting breast-feeding action. These documents are related to either one or more of the following categories: health benefits of breast-feeding; recommendations regarding breast-feeding duration and exclusiveness; providing guidance on breast-feeding promotion. Current recommendation is exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months.

  • 48.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Margetts, Barrie
    University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Building centres of excellence, and a new approach to food guides2009In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 589-590Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Margetts, Barrie
    Hughes, Roger
    Tseng, Marilyn
    Editorial on the occasion of the International Congress of Nutrition. World hunger: A good fight or a losing cause?2009In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 12, no 10, p. 1685-1686Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden .
    Breastfeeding determinants and a suggested framework for action in Europe2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 2B, p. 729-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a background paper for the EURODIET initiative. A number of international initiatives and documents were identified, such as the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and a number of consensus reports from professional groups, that propose ways forward for breastfeeding promotion. These point at a range of initiatives on different levels. The determinants for successful breastfeeding have to be identified. They can be categorised into five groups; socio-demographic, psycho-social, health care related, community- and policy attributes. A framework for future breastfeeding promoting efforts on European level is suggested, within which these determinants are considered. A common surveillance system needs to be built in Europe, where determinants of breastfeeding are included. There is also a need for a surveillance system which makes it possible to use the collected data on local level, not only on national and supranational level. Combined with a thorough review of the effectiveness of already existing breastfeeding promotion programmes, a co-ordinated EU-EFTA action plan on breastfeeding should be formulated and implemented within a few years. Urgent action could take place in parallel, especially targeting young, low-income, less educated mothers.

12 1 - 50 of 56
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