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  • 1. Alfredsson, Lars
    et al.
    Hammar, Niklas
    Fransson, Eleonor
    de Faire, Ulf
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Theorell, Töres
    Westerholm, Peter
    Job strain and major risk factors for coronary heart disease among employed males and females in a Swedish study on work, lipids and fibrinogen.2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 238-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of job strain (high psychological job demands and low decision latitude) to hypertension, serum lipids, and plasmafibrinogen.

    METHODS: The study population consisted of employed persons between the ages of 15 and 64 years in the counties of Stockholm, Västernorrland, and Jämtland, Sweden. The data collection was carried out during 1992-1998. A total of 10,382 subjects participated in a medical examination and completed a questionnaire.

    RESULTS: No strong associations were found between job strain and plasma fibrinogen. The males reporting job strain had lower levels of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than the other males. Similar tendencies were found for the females. The females, but not the males, with job strain had an increased prevalence of hypertension when compared with the subjects with relaxed psychosocial work characteristics. In the subgroups of younger males and females an adverse association between job strain and the ratio between low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was noted.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results do not support the hypothesis that job strain has an adverse impact on serum total cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen levels. They suggest that an increased risk of coronary heart disease in association with job strain, if causal, is mediated by other factors, possibly partly by hypertension and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  • 2. Halonen, Jaana I
    et al.
    Lallukka, Tea
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Rod, Naja
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Bi-directional relation between effort‒reward imbalance and risk of neck-shoulder pain: assessment of mediation through depressive symptoms using occupational longitudinal data2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Hägg, Shad Amid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Toren, Kjell
    Lindberg, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Role of sleep disturbances in occupational accidents among women2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 368-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This population-based cohort study was performed to assess the association between sleep disturbances and the risk of occupational accidents among women. Methods Data were collected by questionnaires on two different occasions (2000 and 2010) and data on work injuries were also collected from Swedish government records (ISA). Insomnia symptoms were defined as having severe or very severe problems with (i) difficulty initiating sleep, (ii) difficulty maintaining sleep, or (iii) early morning awakening. Symptom of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) was defined as reporting both snoring and daytime sleepiness. Working-age respondents (20-67 years of age) who responded to both baseline and follow-up questionnaires and had worked for part or all of the 10-year follow-up period (N=4320) were included in the study. Results Of the subjects responding to the questionnaire, 12.2% reported >= 1 accident and 6.3% reported an accident requiring sick leave in the government register. Blue-collar workers and night and shift work were more common in the group with occupational accidents. Subjects with insomnia symptoms both at baseline and follow-up (persistent insomnia symptoms) ran a higher risk of being involved in an self-reported occupational accident [adjusted OR (ORadj) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-2.0] after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol dependency, white- or blue-collar worker, years at work, night work, and physical activity. Persistent insomnia symptoms did not reach statistical significance as an independent predictor of register-reported occupational accident with sick leave (ORadj 1.4, 95% CI 0.99-2.1). No significant association was found between symptoms of OSAS and self-reported or register-based occupational accidents. Conclusions Persistent insomnia symptoms were associated with an increased risk of self-reported occupational accidents, while no significant association was found with occupational accidents with sick leave reported to government register.

  • 4.
    Josephson, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Heijbel, Bodil
    Voss, Margaretha
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Influence of self-reported work conditions and health on full, partial and no return to work after long-term sickness absence2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 430-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at describing the frequency of full, partial, and no return to work after long-term sick leave and at ascertaining the influence of psychosocial work conditions, work ability and health, reported before the onset of sick leave, on full and partial return to work. METHODS: Altogether 853 public-sector employees in Sweden, mainly women, with at least one sick leave lasting > or = 28 days, were studied. The outcome was the level of sick leave 2 years after the sick leave began. Potential predictors were self-rated health, work ability, and psychosocial work conditions assessed by questionnaire before the sick leave. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by multinomial regression analyses. RESULTS: Altogether 41% of the participants went directly from full sick leave to full return to work; 21% had periods of partial return to work, but, at the 2-year follow-up, were fully back to work; 15% had partial return to work; and 23% were still not working. A relaxed work situation, a combination of low demands and high decision latitude, increased the odds for full (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.60-4.62) and partial (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.21-4.85) return to work. Negative consequences of organizational changes were associated with decreased odds for full return to work (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.38-0.77). Good self-rated health and work ability were associated with full return to work. CONCLUSIONS: Partial return to work often precedes full return to work, but also operates as a long-term solution for remaining occupationally active. Promoting relatively low demands and high decision latitude at work may support both full and partial return to work after long sick leaves.

  • 5. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karlsson, Berndt
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Fransson, Eleonor I
    Westerholm, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Breast cancer among shift workers: results of the WOLF longitudinal cohort study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 170-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether shift work (with or without night work) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS: The population consisted of 4036 women. Data were obtained from WOLF (Work, Lipids, and Fibrinogen), a longitudinal cohort study. Information about baseline characteristics was based on questionnaire responses and medical examination. Cancer incidence from baseline to follow-up was obtained from the national cancer registry. Two exposure groups were identified: shift work with and without night work. The group with day work only was used as the reference group in the analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate relative risk. RESULTS: In total, 94 women developed breast cancer during follow-up. The average follow-up time was 12.4 years. The hazard ratio for breast cancer was 1.23 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.70-2.17] for shifts without night work and 2.02 (95% CI 1.03-3.95) for shifts with night work. When including only women <60 years of age, the risk estimates were 1.18 (95% CI 0.67-2.07) for shifts without night work, and 2.15 (95% CI 1.10-4.21) for shifts with night work. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an increased risk for breast cancer among women who work shifts that includes night work.

  • 6.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Eib, Constanze
    Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University.
    The influence of and change in procedural justice on self-rated health trajectories: Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health results.2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 320-8, article id 3565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Procedural justice perceptions are shown to be associated with minor psychiatric disorders, long sickness absence spells, and poor self-rated health, but previous studies have rarely considered how changes in procedural justice influence changes in health.

    METHODS: Data from four consecutive biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey of Health (SLOSH) (N=5854) were used to examine trajectories of self-rated health. Adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and marital status, we studied the predictive power of change in procedural justice perceptions using individual growth curve models within a multilevel framework.

    RESULTS: The results show that self-rated health trajectories slowly decline over time. The rate of change was influenced by age and sex, with older people and women showing a slower rate. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and marital status, procedural justice was significantly associated with self-rated health. Also, improvements in procedural justice were associated with improvements in self-rated health. Additionally, a reverse relationship with and change in self-rated health predicting procedural justice was found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the idea that procedural justice at work is a crucial aspect of the psychosocial work environment and that changes towards more procedural justice could influence self-rated health positively. The reciprocal association of procedural justice and self-rated health warrants further research.

  • 7. Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    Moreno, Claudia
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Tucker, Philip
    Eating and shift work: effects on habits, metabolism and performance2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 150-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to individuals who work during the day, shift workers are at higher risk of a range of metabolic disorders and diseases (eg, obesity, cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal problems, failure to control blood sugar levels, and metabolic syndrome). At least some of these complaints may be linked to the quality of the diet and irregular timing of eating, however other factors that affect metabolism are likely to play a part, including psychosocial stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, sleep debt, physical inactivity, and insufficient time for rest and revitalization. In this overview, we examine studies on food and nutrition among shift workers [ie, dietary assessment (designs, methods, variables) and the factors that might influence eating habits and metabolic parameters]. The discussion focuses on the quality of existing dietary assessment data, nutritional status parameters (particularly in obesity), the effect of circadian disruptions, and the possible implications for performance at work. We conclude with some dietary guidelines as a basis for managing the nutrition of shift workers.

  • 8. Luoma, Katariina
    et al.
    Riihimäki, Hilkka
    Raininko, Raili
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology.
    Luukkonen, Ritva
    Lamminen, A.
    Viikari-Juntura, Eira
    Lumbar disc degeneration in relation to occupation1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 358-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study risk factors of lumbar disc degeneration demonstrable with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with special emphasis on occupational load and back accidents. METHODS: The subjects in this cross-sectional study were 53 machine drivers, 51 construction carpenters, and 60 municipal office workers aged 40-45 years. Data on possible risk factors were available from current structured questionnaires and for 4 and 7 years in retrospect. The prevalence of lumbar disc degeneration L2/L3-L5/S1 was determined with MRI. RESULTS: An increased risk was found for posterior disc bulges among the carpenters and for anterior disc bulges among the machine drivers, but decreased signal intensity was not related to occupation. Car driving was also associated with anterior disc bulges. All signs of disc degeneration were related to a history of back accidents. Disc degeneration was not related to body height, overweight, smoking, or the frequency of physical exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational load affects the risk of disc degeneration of the lumbar spine. Accidental back injuries and motor vehicle driving are associated with an increased risk of disc degeneration. Anterior and posterior disc bulges seem to be related to different types of physical loads.

  • 9. Monge, Patricia
    et al.
    Wesseling, Catharina
    Guardado, Jorge
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ahlbom, Anders
    Cantor, Kenneth P.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Partanen, Timo
    Parental occupational exposure to pesticides and the risk of childhood leukemia in Costa Rica2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 293-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Parental exposure to pesticides and the risk of leukemia in offspring were examined in a population-based case-control study in Costa Rica. METHODS: All cases of childhood leukemia (N=334), in 1995-2000, were identified at the Cancer Registry and the Children's Hospital. Population controls (N=579) were drawn from the National Birth Registry. Interviews of parents were conducted using conventional and icon-based calendar forms. An exposure model was constructed for 25 pesticides in five time periods. RESULTS: Mothers' exposures to any pesticides during the year before conception and during the first and second trimesters were associated with the risk [odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0-5.9; OR 22, 95% CI 2.8-171.5; OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.4-14.7, respectively] and during anytime (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.8). An association was found for fathers' exposures to any pesticides during the second trimester (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3). An increased risk with respect to organophosphates was found for mothers during the first trimester (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.0-12.2) and for fathers during the year before conception and the first trimester (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2 and OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6, respectively), and benzimidazoles during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.4; OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.0; OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2, respectively). There was a suggestion of an exposure-response gradient for fathers as regards picloram, benomyl, and paraquat. Age at diagnosis was positively associated with fathers' exposures and inversely associated with mothers' exposures. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that parental exposure to certain pesticides may increase the risk of leukemia in offspring.

  • 10.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hansson Risberg, Eva
    Mortimer, Monica
    Palmerud, Gunnar
    Toomingas, Allan
    Computer Use, Neck and upper-extremity Symptoms, Eyestrain and Headache among Female and Male Upper Secondary School Students2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, ISSN ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Computer use, neck and upper-extremity symptoms, headache, and eyestrain were studied in upper secondary school students.Methods A questionnaire was completed by 1575 female and 1251 male students. Associations between computer use and health problems were analyzed by calculating the prevalence ratios for the health variables, considering computer use for >14-56 or >56 hours/week as compared with ≤14 hours/week (reference). Health problems were defined as aches or pain or other trouble at least three days in the preceding month.Results Computer use (median) was reported to be 31 hours/week by the male students and 19 hours/week by the females. Most computer use (about 90%) took place outside school (eg, for entertainment). Headache was reported by 51% and 24%, and neck or shoulder symptoms by 31% and 15%, of the females and males, respectively. More than 50% of the females with health complaints indicated that their problems had disturbed their sleep, and they used painkillers to handle them. Between 10% and 43% experienced their health complaints as being related to computer use. For those using computers >56 hours/week, the prevalence ratios were significantly increased for neck or shoulder symptoms among both the females and the males, and for eyestrain and forearm symptoms among the females. Exposure-response relationships were indicated for the aforementioned associations. Approximately two-thirds of the students reported that they had not received any information in school about appropriate workplace layout and techniques for computer work.Conclusions Despite their young age, the students were not protected from computer-related health complaints. Therefore, providing adolescents with information about proper computer ergonomics may help prevent such health problems.

  • 11.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Mortimer, M.
    Palmerud, G.
    Toomingas, A.
    Törnqvist, E. W.
    Computer use, neck and upper-extremity symptoms, eystrain and headache female and male upper secondary school students2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Computer use, neck and upper-extremity symptoms, headache, and eyestrain were studied in upper secondary school students. Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 1575 female and 1251 male students. Associations between computer use and health problems were analyzed by calculating the prevalence ratios for the health variables, considering computer use for >14-56 or >56 hours/week as compared with ≤14 hours/week (reference). Health problems were defined as aches or pain or other trouble at least three days in the preceding month. Results: Computer use (median) was reported to be 31 hours/week by the male students and 19 hours/week by the females. Most computer use (about 90%) took place outside school (eg, for entertainment). Headache was reported by 51% and 24%, and neck or shoulder symptoms by 31% and 15%, of the females and males, respectively. More than 50% of the females with health complaints indicated that their problems had disturbed their sleep, and they used painkillers to handle them. Between 10% and 43% experienced their health complaints as being related to computer use. For those using computers >56 hours/week, the prevalence ratios were significantly increased for neck or shoulder symptoms among both the females and the males, and for eyestrain and forearm symptoms among the females. Exposure-response relationships were indicated for the aforementioned associations. Approximately two-thirds of the students reported that they had not received any information in school about appropriate workplace layout and techniques for computer work. Conclusions: Despite their young age, the students were not protected from computer-related health complaints. Therefore, providing adolescents with information about proper computer ergonomics may help prevent such health problem.

  • 12.
    Selander, Jenny
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bluhm, Gösta
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Stockholms Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willix, Pernilla
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Joint effects of job strain and road-traffic and occupational noise on myocardial infarction2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the joint effect of job strain and both road-traffic and occupational noise on myocardial infarction (MI). METHOD: We conducted a population based case-control study on first time MI in Stockholm County during 1992-1994. Participants answered a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Residential road-traffic noise exposure was based on residential history combined with information on traffic intensity and distance to nearby roads. Occupational noise exposure was assessed by occupational history combined with a job-exposure matrix derived from measurements. Job strain was based on questions regarding psychological demands and decision latitude. A total of 3050 study participants (1252 cases and 1798 controls) were included in the study. RESULTS: An increased risk of MI was indicated among participants exposed to road-traffic noise [odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-1.51], occupational noise (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.98-1.41) and job strain (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.17-1.65). Participants exposed to one, two, or three of these factors showed an increased risk (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.97-1.40, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.24-1.98, and OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.41-3.64, respectively). Exposure to two or three of these factors occurred among about 20% of the controls. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that exposure to a combination of noise exposure and job strain increases the risk of MI substantially. Such exposures affect a considerable part of the population, which has relevance for prioritization of preventative measures.

  • 13. Ulfvarson, U
    et al.
    Alexandersson, R
    Aringer, L
    Svensson, E
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Department of Clinical Ph ysiology, Hudd inge Hospital , Huddinge, Sweden ..
    Hogstedt, C
    Holmberg, B
    Rosén, G
    Sorsa, M
    Effects of exposure to vehicle exhaust on health1987In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 505-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to combustion engine exhaust and its effect on crews of roll-on roll-off ships and car ferries and on bus garage staff were studied. The peak concentrations recorded for some of the substances studied were as follows: total particulates (diesel only) 1.0 mg/m3, benzene (diesel) 0.3 mg/m3, formaldehyde (gasoline and diesel) 0.8 mg/m3, and nitrogen dioxide (diesel) 1.2 mg/m3. The highest observed concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 30 ng/m3 from gasoline and diesel exhaust. In an experimental study volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust diluted with air to achieve a nitrogen dioxide concentration of 3.8 mg/m3. Pulmonary function was affected during a workday of occupational exposure to engine emissions, but it normalized after a few days with no exposure. The impairment of pulmonary function was judged to have no appreciable, adverse, short-term impact on individual work capacity. In the experimental exposure study, no effect on pulmonary function was observed. Analyses of urinary mutagenicity and thioether excretion showed no sign of exposure to genotoxic compounds among the occupationally exposed workers or among the subjects in the experimental study.

  • 14.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Jokela, Markus
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Helsinki, Finland..
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lallukka, Tea
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Borritz, Marianne
    Koge Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Koge, Denmark..
    Burr, Hermann
    Fed Inst Occupat Safety & Hlth BAuA, Berlin, Germany..
    Dragano, Nico
    Univ Dusseldorf, Med Fac, Inst Med Sociol, Dusseldorf, Germany..
    Erbel, Raimund
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Dept Cardiol, West German Heart Ctr Essen, Essen, Germany..
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Heikkila, Katriina
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Hlth Serv & Policy, London, England..
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lahelma, Eero
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Unit Social Med, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish Natl Ctr Social Res, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Pentti, Jaana
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Rahkonen, Ossi
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Publ Hlth, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Psychol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland..
    Schupp, Jurgen
    German Inst Econ Res, Berlin, Germany.;Free Univ Berlin, Berlin, Germany..
    Shipley, Martin J.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.;INSERM, Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, U1018, Villejuif, France..
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland.;Univ Skovde, Skovde, Sweden.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland..
    Theorell, Tores
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Turku, Finland..
    Wagner, Gert G.
    German Inst Econ Res, Berlin, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Berlin, Germany.;Berlin Univ Technol, Berlin, Germany..
    Wang, Jian Li
    Univ Ottawa, Sch Epidemiol Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Inst Mental Hlth Res, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara
    Australian Natl Univ, Ctr Res Ageing Hlth & Wellbeing, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;Australian Natl Univ, ARC Ctr Excellence Populat Ageing Res, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 239-250Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working >= 55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I-2 = 45.1%, P=0.004). A strong association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small. Conclusions This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.

  • 15. Wieslander, Gunilla
    et al.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Venge, Per
    Changes in the ocular and nasal signs and symptoms of aircrews in relation to the ban on smoking on intercontinental flights2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 514-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the influence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in aircraft on measured and perceived cabin air quality (CAQ), symptoms, tear-film stability, nasal patency, and biomarkers in nasal lavage fluid.

    METHODS: Commercial aircrews underwent a standardized examination, including acoustic rhinometry, nasal lavage, and measurement of tear-film break-up time. Eosinophilic cationic protein, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, and albumin were analyzed in the nasal lavage fluid. Inflight investigations [participation rate 98% (N=39)] were performed on board 4 flights, 2 in each direction between Scandinavia and Japan. Scandinavian crew on 6 flights from Scandinavia to Japan participated in postflight measurements after landing [participation rate 85% (N=41)]. Half the flights permitted smoking on board, and the other half, 0.5 months later, did not. Hygienic measurements showed low relative air humidity on board (2-10%) and a carbon dioxide concentration of <1000 ppm during 99.6% of the cruising time.

    RESULTS: The smoking ban caused a drastic reduction of respirable particles, from a mean of 66 (SD 56) microg/m3 to 3 (SD 0.8) microg/m3. The perceived CAQ was improved, and there were fewer symptoms, particularly ocular symptoms, headache and tiredness. Tear-film stability increased, and nasal patency was altered.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high air exchange rate and spatial separation between smokers and nonsmokers, smoking in commercial aircraft may cause significant air pollution, as indicated by a large increase in respirable particles. This ETS exposure is associated with an increase in ocular and general symptoms, decreased tear-film stability, and alterations of nasal patency.

  • 16.
    Wålinder, Robert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Runeson, Roma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Smedje, Greta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Physiological and psychological stress reactions in relation to classroom noise2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 260-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that classroom noise is related to stress reactions among primary school children. Stress was monitored via symptoms of fatigue and headache, systolic blood pressure, reduced diurnal cortisol variation, and indicators of emotional distress. Methods In three classrooms of pupils in the fourth grade (10 years of age), daily measurements of equivalent sound levels (Leq) were made during 4 weeks, evenly distributed from September to December. One day each week of the study, the pupils answered a questionnaire about disturbance and symptoms, and blood pressure and salivary cortisol were measured. In the first and fourth week, the children also performed a standardized drawing test concerning emotional indicators. Results Daily measurements of equivalent sound levels in the classes (Leq during schoolday) ranged from 59 to 87 dB(A). Equivalent sound-levels were significantly related to an increased prevalence of symptoms of fatigue and headache and a reduced diurnal cortisol variability. Blood pressure and emotional indicators were not significantly related to sound levels. Conclusions Current sound levels in Swedish classrooms may have a negative health impact, being directly or indirectly related to stress reactions among children. This finding indicates that noise should be focused on as a risk factor in the school environment.

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