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  • 1.
    Berg, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The State of Autonomy: The social liberal state and the politics of financing non-formal education in Sweden c. 1870–19102015In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 48-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Berglund, Louise
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    A Medieval Heroine for the Modern Woman: The Fredrika Bremer Association writes women’s history (c. 1859–1916)2017In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 46-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the history writing of the early liberal women’s movement in Sweden, in the Fredrika Bremer Association’s journals such as Tidskrift för hemmet and Dagny. Prominent members of the movement sought to create a new history, by women and for women, and to create a pantheon of foremothers and examples for the modern woman. Medieval women were particularly favoured as they could be described in ways that harmonized well with the overall objectives of the liberal women’s movement and with the self-images of these early feminists. Thus, individuals such as Saint Birgitta and Queen Philippa were given heroine’s portraits and presented as carriers of ideal characteristics. This was a means of positioning themselves and of proving that women were fit to rule and to take active part in political and social life.

  • 3.
    Enefalk, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Alcohol and Respectability: A case study of central Sweden circa 1800-18502013In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 296-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of an extensive survey of primary and secondary sources from 19th-century central Sweden this article looks into the most neglected area of alcohol history, namely the role that alcohol played within the middle and upper classes. More specifically, it aims to analyze the relationship between drinking habits and respectability', as described by scholars such as George Mosse. The author identifies an aristocratic drinking culture with roots in the 18th century, in which respectability was not the governing structure of gendered behaviour. Among men belonging to the middle strata of society a different drinking culture existed, where the primary aim was to create a sense of brotherhood between men. The increasing insistence on respectability during the course of the period slowly eroded the old aristocratic drinking pattern, but also challenged the heavy drinking in middle-class male circles. The study thus adds detail and complexity to concepts such as 'respectability' and 'separate spheres'.

  • 4.
    Evertsson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Bishops and professionalization in Sweden, c. 1780-18802011In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the concept of professionalization in terms of the bishops' role in the 19th-century Church of Sweden. Previous research has generally claimed that from the late 18th century until the mid-19th century, before the abolition of the Diet of Estates, the Swedish bishops amounted to secularized, conservative state officials who lacked the ability to effect religious reform. In this article, however, it will be argued that in the early 19th century, several decades earlier than previously assumed, the Swedish episcopate had begun to undergo a slow transformation that is best described as professionalization. It is posited that the bishops, inspired by Evangelical revival and Romanticism, became increasingly specialized in religion and theology in their education, thinking and practice. The episcopal profile also changed as the middle classes gained more influence from the early 19th century onwards, and this, in turn, prompted a higher standard of role performance.

  • 5.
    Hedberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Europe’s Third World: the European periphery in the interwar years. Derek H. Aldcroft. Aldershot, Ashgate Pub. Co., 20062009In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 105-107Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Hedberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    War and Trade in Northern Seas: Anglo-Scandinavian Economic Relations in the Mid-eighteenth Century2009In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 449-451Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Heuman, Johannes
    Stockholms universitet, Historiska institutionen.
    Recension av: Schult, Tanja: A hero's many faces2010In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 223-225Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Holmila, Antero
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä.
    Kvist Geverts, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, The Hugo Valentin Centre.
    On Forgetting and Rediscovering the Holocaust in Scandinavia: Introduction to the special issue of the histories and memories of the Holocaust in Scandinavia2011In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 520-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in the Holocaust – Nazi Germany's concentrated attempt to exterminate European Jewry – has become increasingly noticeable in the Scandinavian countries during the last decades, with a growing number not only of dissertations, monographs and other publications, but also public debates and controversies relating to this event. This new upsurge of interest in the Holocaust reflects the dynamics and the contested nature of collective memories of wartime Scandinavia more broadly. This article highlights, broadly speaking, the development of Holocaust historiography in Scandinavia; the changing perspectives, interpretations, debates and focus from the immediate post-war years to the present day. It argues that, despite the fact that the Holocaust was truly a European-wide phenomenon transcending national borders, Holocaust studies have mainly been produced as nation-centred histories. Only with the end of the Cold War and with a paradigmatic shift from ‘the event’ to ‘the memory’ has a new form of Holocaust remembrance begun, ‘the cosmopolitanization of Holocaust remembrance’, which transcends borders and makes memory cultures coincide. In Scandinavian historical cultures and historiography, then, the 1990s marks the starting point of a process by which Holocaust remembrance has become officially embedded into European memory.

  • 9.
    Husz, Orsi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Glover, Nikolas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Between human capital and human worth: Advertising for correspondence education in 20th century Sweden2018In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, article id SHIS-2018-0011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we challenge the conventional dichotomy in the Swedish historiography of the knowledge economy between a present characterized by the capitalization and marketization of knowledge, and a past signified by more idealistic and collectivist educational ideals. We examine how knowledge and education were promoted and justified in terms of their economic and/or ideal value from the 1920s to the 1970s. The sources consist of widely circulated advertisements for Hermods Korrespondensinstitut, the largest of the Swedish correspondence schools during the 20th century. By analysing and contextualising advertisements over six decades we find a strong dominance of individualistic economic valuations from the beginning, a successive increase in idealistic valuations over the decades, and an increasing amalgamation of idealistic and economic justifications for knowledge. Thus, long before human capital theory was formulated around 1960, knowledge was marketed in terms of an individually beneficial investment for economic gain. Given the extensive scale of Hermods and similar institutes’ educational activities, we argue that the narrative about 20th century Swedish society as “a study circle democracy” built on collectivistic ideals of knowledge needs to be nuanced.

  • 10.
    Jonsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Neunsinger, Silke
    Comparison and transfer: a fruitful approach to national history?2007In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 258-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to discuss how a combined comparative and transnational approach can widen our understanding of historical change. By using examples from the first wave of the women's movement in Sweden and Canada we argue that exploring national differences, investigating differences in class and political culture and finally even tracing the transfer of resources and ideas could open up for new perspectives in gender history. Comparisons of women's organizing in different countries, but within the same international organizations, could help us to discern common structures that otherwise tend to be regarded as unique in one national context. In addition, such an approach can help to highlight specific national opportunities, cultures or strategies influencing the outcome of women's organizing.

  • 11.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    A Whiter Shade of Pale: Visuality and race in the work of the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology2013In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 180-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1922 the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology (SIRB) was founded in Uppsala, with the purpose being to survey and classify the Swedish people according to their race. To make this categorization, both measurements and visual analysis of bodies and faces were used and documented in charts and photographs. The data collected was then intended to make a foundation for a rational population policy aiming at improving the Nordic (Swedish) race. The charts registering body characteristics, the photographic collection brought together by the institute, and the images illustrating the published results all testify to the importance of visuality in this eugenic project: how people looked was crucial when classifying them into different race types. In this study the works of the institute are analysed to see in what way race was constructed through this visuality. The results show how the institute followed a scientific and pictorial rhetoric founded centuries earlier, in which the human species was organized in different subgroups according to their visual appearance. The results also show how race, with time, became more and more differentiated and that white, in the work of the SIRB, came in many shades.

  • 12.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    How to picture race?: The use of photography in the scientific practice of the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology2014In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 580-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology, SIRB, was to survey the Swedish people according to its race criteria. In this research process photographs were used to document and portray the different races living in Sweden. This article examines how the photographs were used in this process: What pictorial rhetoric did they use and what did the photographs bring to the research process? The result shows that SIRB did not succeeded in developing consistent methods of portraying race. The style and formula of the portraits varied; sometimes environmental aspects came in to focus, sometimes bodily aspects. These methodological shortcomings must be attributed not only to the fact that the institution was working with a new and immature scientific medium – photography – but also that it operated inside an

    immature scientific discipline. The race scientific community had no joint theories and methods to work with, and did not know how to affiliate with other disciplines – such as anthropology, focusing on environmental factors, or medicine, focusing on bodily aspects. But the lack of methodological consistency was not just a shortcoming; it could also be used to bias the material in a way that served the ideas of eugenics.

  • 13.
    Lindström, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Feud in Medieval and Early Modern Europe2010In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 347-349Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Makko, Aryo
    Stockholms universitet, Historiska institutionen.
    Multilateralism and the Shaping of an 'Active Foreign Policy': Sweden during the preparatory phase of the CSCE2010In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 310-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the early reactions of Swedish decision-makers and diplomats on the idea and preparations for the convocation of the Conference on Security and Cooperation inEurope (CSCE), mainly during the years 1969–1971. On the basis of recently declassifieddiplomatic sources from the archive of the Swedish Foreign Ministry, the study outlines therole of Swedish diplomacy in the preparatory phase of the security conference as part of thewider context of European Neutrality during détente. It is the very first contribution to the historiography of the Helsinki process based on Swedish archival material, and suggeststhat the picture of Sweden’s widely mentioned active foreign policy at that time should befurther scrutinized. It also sheds new light on the paradox between Swedish involvement inEuropean and global politics.

  • 15.
    Matz, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Russian and Eurasian Studies.
    Cables in Cipher, the Raoul Wallenberg Case and Swedish-Soviet Diplomatic Communication 1944-472013In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 344-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 2011, the Russian government, in order to mark the 100th anniversary of Swedish Diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, decided to allow one Swedish researcher to go through the diplomatic correspondence in cipher between the Soviet Embassy in Stockholm and the Soviet Foreign Ministry during the years 1944–1947. This article presents some of the major findings on Wallenberg and discusses whether parallel paths of Soviet encrypted communication between Moscow and Stockholm may still be harbouring additional information on his case. The ciphers cannot provide us with any conclusive answers on the Soviet motives for arresting Wallenberg, or his ultimate fate. They do, however, provide us with unique insights into how the matter was handled on both the Soviet and Swedish sides.

  • 16.
    Matz, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Russian and Eurasian Studies.
    The Concept of Neutrality in Stalin's Foreign Policy, 1945-19532016In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 257-261Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Molinder, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    What can the State do for you?: Relocation Allowances and Regional Subsidies in Post-War Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 273-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that Swedish policy during the early postwar period was strongly directed towards mobility increasing expenditures, most notably relocation allowances, aimed at moving labor from north to south. While this view has dominated the academic discussion on labor market policy there is little direct evidence. We make three claims. First, the relocation allowances have to be evaluated against the regional policy. Second, by doing so we show that the mobility oriented policy was predominant only for a short period of time. In the early 1970s, there was a decisive shift towards a policy directed at stimulating employment in the north. Third, drawing on this, we reevaluate the previous view on policy making in Sweden. Our analysis suggests that the Social Democratic government acted in a voter maximizing way. The relocation allowances were introduced at the behest of the Trade Union Confederation (LO). The regional subsidies were expanded when voter sentiment turned against the perceived depletion of rural regions. However, this strategy interacted with the political and institutional environment. The new election law in 1970 and political competition from the Center Party pushed the Social Democrats to shift their policies on regional subsidies.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Aligning the non-aligned:: a re-interpretation of why and how Sweden was granted access to US military materiel in the early cold war, 1948–19522010In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 290-309Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Nyberg, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Fenomenet Thams [Thams, the Phenomenon]2009In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 108-109Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Petersson, Tom
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Planning Division.
    Change and anchoring: The Savings Banks in Norway 1822-20142015In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 677-678Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Rudberg, Pontus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    ‘A Record of Infamy’: the use and abuse of the image of the Swedish Jewish response to the Holocaust2011In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 536-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with a subject that has been sensitive in the Jewish community in Sweden since the time of the Holocaust, namely the widespread image of the Stockholm Jewish Community as being negative towards letting Jewish refugees find a safe haven in Sweden during the Nazi persecution and mass murder. This image has previously been explained by the alleged ineffectivity of the Stockholm Jewish Community to aid the refugees and Swedish Jewry's failure to integrate them into the community. The present article, however, shows that this image was also a result of political differences between Jewish organizations, groups, and individuals, internationally as well as in Sweden. It was also due to an exaggerated belief in, and misconception of, the influence of the Swedish Jews on the Swedish administration of refugee aid, and resulted in personal feuds in which this negative image was accentuated. Furthermore, the image of the reluctant Swedish Jews has been reproduced and used by Swedish officials to avoid taking responsibility for the country's previous restrictive policy towards Jewish refugees. These accusations have cross-fertilized with the allegations from the inter-Jewish debate, further cementing the negative image of the Stockholm Jewish Community's responses to the Holocaust and the preceding persecutions.

  • 22.
    Rudberg, Pontus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    'A record of infamy': The use and abuse of the image of the Swedish Jewish response to the Holocaust2011In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 536-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with a subject that has been sensitive in the Jewish community in Sweden since the time of the Holocaust, namely the widespread image of the Stockholm Jewish Community as being negative towards letting Jewish refugees find a safe haven in Sweden during the Nazi persecution and mass murder. This image has previously been explained by the alleged ineffectivity of the Stockholm Jewish Community to aid the refugees and Swedish Jewry's failure to integrate them into the community. The present article, however, shows that this image was also a result of political differences between Jewish organizations, groups, and individuals, internationally as well as in Sweden. It was also due to an exaggerated belief in, and misconception of, the influence of the Swedish Jews on the Swedish administration of refugee aid, and resulted in personal feuds in which this negative image was accentuated. Furthermore, the image of the reluctant Swedish Jews has been reproduced and used by Swedish officials to avoid taking responsibility for the country's previous restrictive policy towards Jewish refugees. These accusations have cross-fertilized with the allegations from the inter-Jewish debate, further cementing the negative image of the Stockholm Jewish Community's responses to the Holocaust and the preceding persecutions.

  • 23.
    Rydén, Reine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    "Smallholders, organic farmers, and agricultural policy.: The case of Sweden compared with Denmark and Norway, from the 1970s to 2003"2007In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 63-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Selling, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, The Hugo Valentin Centre.
    Between History and Politics: The Swedish Living History project as discursive formation2011In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 555-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Texts and events regarding the Swedish Living History project in the years 1997–2008 are studied in the sense of a discursive formation, ‘Living History’. The article focuses on political aspects of changes, antagonism and discursive positions in public debates about ‘Living History’, whereby politics, journalism and academic history are seen as interacting parts. An examination of 651 press articles leads to the conclusion that ‘Living History’ changed its initial political focus of explicitly combating racism and anti-Semitism to eventually become a forum for universal democratic values, while at the same time focussing on apologetic views on communism. This development corresponds to the changing hegemonic discourse on ‘Living History’, from stressing the uniqueness of the Holocaust to a view strongly influenced by totalitarianism theory.

  • 25.
    Tistedt, Petter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Knowing the demos: Gender and the politics of classifying voters in the aftermath of universal suffrage2018In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concepts like voter and electorate are fundamental in all states practising democratic representation. However, the construction of these concepts following the introduction of universal suffrage is rarely studied. Swedish parliamentary debates on election statistics and sex-segregated ballots in 1921 and 1922 offer an illuminating opportunity to do that. Thus, this article argues that these key democratic concepts were in part constructed through the production of election statistics and in debates about what should be known about the respective political preferences of male and female citizens. Both sides in the debates emphasized sex as a fundamental category for understanding voters. But the debates also feature incompatible ways of representing the electorate – as individuals, as a unified whole, and as target groups – entailing conflicting visions of democratic politics. Thus, rather than being solely remembered as attempts to denigrate women’s votes and hence limit democracy, these debates should be understood as ways of dealing with the conceptual implications universal suffrage.

  • 26.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    How much did a Swedish Schoolhouse Cost to Build?: Rewriting the history of 19th-century rural schoolhouses2014In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 448-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How much did the 19th-century rural schoolhouse cost to build? On the basis of a study of schoolhouse building in the Sundsvall region in the period 1842–1900, this article shows how the cost of school buildings increased over time, both overall and by schoolhouse, largely because of the marginalization of cheaper and simpler redevelopment projects, as well as the construction of a number of more expensive schoolhouses. Through the use of extensive source material, preserved from the building of 66 schoolhouses, a more detailed analysis of these developments has demonstrated differences in price levels between purchased schoolhouses, redevelopments of existing buildings and new building projects, and buildings intended for different types of schools. Insights are also given into labour and material costs. In addition to establishing basic facts about a main feature of the expanding system of mass education, this study thus makes a reinterpretation of the 19th-century rural schoolhouse which emphasizes new patterns of development and fundamental distinctions, presenting schoolhouses as a social and economic issue, rather than an architectural or pedagogical concern. Instead of being described as rather simple buildings, in comparison with the major buildings in the cities, schoolhouses thus appear as a major item of expenditure for local government.

  • 27.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Politics of Debt, War and Peace: Scandinavia 1800-18302013In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 458-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the dynamic relationship between war finance and economic and political developments in Scandinavia during the period 1800–1830. By comparing the organization of government debt in Denmark-Norway and Sweden, it is shown that the Danish system relied on revenues from trade and consumption, while the Swedish system was heavily influenced by internal political factors such as a divided fiscal authority. The leadership in Copenhagen was committed to maintaining existing relationships with creditors even when faced with severe fiscal constraints, while the Swedish government chose partial defaults as the politically expedient option when faced with fiscal difficulties.

  • 28.
    Ågren, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Status, estate, or profession?: Social stratification via titles in 1730s Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on how social stratification was performed in everyday practice in 1730s Sweden. By studying the titles people were given in the court material of three communities – Uppsala town, Lagunda härad, and Sala town with its silver mine – three factors defining social categorisation can be identified: status, estate, and profession. Only people who rose above the commoners were entitled, which means that all titles denoted status. Some titles were shared by different social groups who had little in common, and therefore cannot be said to mark anything other than status. Other titles were exclusive to definable groups. Among those, some were given to groups whose exclusivity was based on legal and fiscal privileges, rather than education or competence. They were simply feudal corporations, or estates. In other groups – all defined by occupations – the members had completed specialist education that included formal exams. In those, social stratification was the result of professionalism.

  • 29.
    Åkerlund, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    National Relations. Public diplomacy, national identity and the Swedish Institute 1945-19702012In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 675-677Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Åkerlund, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Nikolas Glover, National Relations2012In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 675-677Article, book review (Refereed)
1 - 30 of 30
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