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  • 1.
    Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph
    et al.
    Univ Kent, Kent Business Sch, Int Business, Canterbury, Kent, England..
    Ottosson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden.; Stockholm Sch Econ, Inst Econ & Business Hist, Stockholm, Sweden..
    United we stand, divided we fall: historical trajectory of strategic renewal activities at the Scandinavian Airlines System, 1946–20122017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 572-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the second half of the twentieth century saw the rise and fall of ‘multi-flag companies’ (MFCs) in the civil aviation industry, our understanding of how some managed to buck the trend and achieve longevity remains limited. This article advances business history and strategic management research by examining the strategic renewal activities of Scandinavian Airlines (formerly Scandinavian Airlines System [SAS]) during the period 1946–2012. The study sheds light on the key roles of private and state owners, rivals as well as banks, in critical financial phases are discussed in terms of longevity in the company. The longevity of the business stems from the leaders’ ability to develop as anticipated and respond to change in their competitive arena in close interaction with the owners. Thus, incumbent firms that strategically renew themselves prior to or during market reform, such as deregulation, enhance their chances of developing the size of their networks and revenue streams. Our main contribution to business history and strategic management literatures is the development of context-specific stages, which shed light on the evolution of strategic renewal activities and shifts from older processes and routines towards customer service and efficiency.

  • 2.
    Andersson, David E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Innovation and entrepreneurial networks in Europe2019In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3. Colli, Andrea
    et al.
    Larsson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Family business and business history: An example of comparative research2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 37-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with one of the pillars of contemporary business history - the use of cross-national comparisons. Besides the longitudinal, the comparative perspective is a crucial dimension of business and economic history research. During the last decades several attempts have been made to illustrate the process of development and structuring of national markets and corporations both currently and in a historical perspective, through the use of a comparative method. This paper aims to point out the possibilities and problems with this approach. It especially highlights the role of institutional factors and changes as important determinants for national development and as obstacles for good comparative exercises. It also discusses the role of functional and coherent definitions in comparative research and the problems connected with data collection and analysis. The main research question is how cross-national comparisons can help us develop business history research further. A comparison between family firms in Italy and Sweden shows that the development of family business in these two countries exhibited extensive similarities during the early decades of the twentieth century. However after World War II the two countries became more diversified in terms of their industrial structure. While Swedish family firms became an important part of national big business, Italian family businesses developed into smaller and more flexible organisations. Thus, today in Sweden several family-owned and controlled firms are among the largest in the country, particularly in capital- and technology-intensive industries. Italian family firms, even if present among the largest in the country, are largely in industries other than high tech, and show a degree of organisational sophistication inferior to their Swedish counterparts. This paper discusses the driving forces behind this development, showing how the explicit use of the comparative, longitudinal approach can highlight the patterns of convergence and divergence across national business models.

  • 4.
    Dahlén, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Copy or Copyright Fashion?: Swedish design protection law in historical and comparative perspective2012In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 88-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While fashion piracy has been practised on an industrial scale for at least a century, the levels of intellectual property protection for fashion design have been low in most nations. This article gives a summary of the context of the lack of design protection for the Swedish textile and fashion industries, broadly defined, in the twentieth century, with comparisons to contemporary debates on fashion and creativity and to the historical French and US context. France, the US and Sweden have followed different paths in their approaches to intellectual property protection for fashion design. A study of the Swedish legislative debates 1916–70 shows that the different legislative approaches are connected to the local contexts of production. It is proposed that one way of understanding the levels of protection for fashion design is in terms of the differences in logic between ‘fashion’ and ‘clothing’.

  • 5.
    Dahlén, Marianne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Larsson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Business history and legal history2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 54-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between corporations, the market and the legal framework is crucial for understanding the development and function of the modern enterprise. The legal framework determines - and is determined by - the development of economic life, nationally, regionally and internationally. Business historians have often used legal material in their studies, however usually from a strict business history perspective. Drawing also from legal theory and method can contribute to a deeper understanding of the interplay between law and business, for example in terms of concepts such as hard law', soft law' and co-regulation'. In the same way, legal scholarship has dealt with business law, but would benefit from borrowing tools from the business history toolkit. Institutional theory is one of the pillars of this article, together with theories and methods focusing on law as a non-stable, multi-layer system with porous borders. The analysis starts with a discussion of the relationship between business history and legal history from a theoretical and methodological perspective. It continues with two cases at the borderland of business history and legal history: finance and fashion. Both cases serve as illustrations for the different roles that the state can assume as well as the different methodological approaches that are needed for an analysis of the state activities and the interaction between state, market and business.

  • 6.
    Decker, Stephanie
    et al.
    Aston Univ, Aston Business Sch, Birmingham, W Midlands, England..
    Usdiken, Behlul
    Sabanci Univ, Sch Management, Management & Org, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Engwall, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Rowlinson, Michael
    Univ Exeter, Sch Business, Management & Org Hist, Exeter, Devon, England..
    Special issue introduction: Historical research on institutional change2018In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 613-627Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Both business historians and organisation studies scholars study institutional change to understand the interactions between business and society. However, research approaches differ fundamentally, with organisational research focusing on theory-driven explanations, whereas historical research is rather theory-informed. The consequence of such disciplinary orientation is that interdisciplinary conversations rarely occur. For this special issue, we invited submissions that address how historical research can contribute to our understanding of institutional change while demonstrating dual integrity' in terms of being significant pieces of historical research that provide us with new insights into historiography and at the same time addressing important theoretical concerns.

  • 7. Iversen, Martin Jes
    et al.
    Larsson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Strategic transformations in Danish and Swedish big business in an era of globalisation, 1973-20082011In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 119-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article concerns the corporate responses to the economic integration process from 1973 to 2008 in two small, open European countries, Denmark and Sweden. It focuses on strategic relations regarding the integration process and analyses the changing diversification patterns and internationalisation levels. The hypothesis from the economic integration literature indicates that we could expect a high degree of core business focus combined with a high degree of internationalisation concurrently with the economic integration process. The Danish case confirmed this prediction in a clear and substantial way, while the Swedish diversification pattern was marked by the continuous importance of diversification in the period from 1973 to 1993. This confirms the findings of Whittington and Mayer, who investigated the development of the largest British, French and German manufacturing enterprises. But the result also indicates that diversification perhaps proved to be less important after 1993 when the process of 'Europeanisation' dynamics was succeeded by the globalisation processes including the fast growing economies in South East Asia.

  • 8. Iversen, Martin Jes
    et al.
    Larsson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Strategic transformations in Danish and Swedish big business in an era of globalization 1973-20082011In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 119-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article concerns the corporate responses to the economic integration process from 1973 to 2008 in two small, open European countries, Denmark and Sweden. It focuses on strategic relations regarding the integration process and analyses the changing diversification patterns and internationalisation levels. The hypothesis from the economic integration literature indicates that we could expect a high degree of core business focus combined with a high degree of internationalisation concurrently with the economic integration process. The Danish case confirmed this prediction in a clear and substantial way, while the Swedish diversification pattern was marked by the continuous importance of diversification in the period from 1973 to 1993. This confirms the findings of Whittington and Mayer, who investigated the development of the largest British, French and German manufacturing enterprises. But the result also indicates that diversification perhaps proved to be less important after 1993 when the process of ‘Europeanisation’ dynamics was succeeded by the globalisation processes including the fast growing economies in South East Asia.

  • 9.
    Kulikov, Volodymyr
    et al.
    Kharkov Natl Univ, Dept Hist, Kharkov, Ukraine.
    Kragh, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies.
    Big business in the Russian empire: A European perspective2019In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 299-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an inventory of the largest private companies in the Russian Empire in 1914, and their comparison to the largest contemporary British, German, and French companies identified by Youssef Cassis as 'big business'. It focusses on three questions. First, how big was big business in Russia from a European perspective? Second, how did the structure of big business in Russia compare to that of other large European economies? And finally, how did foreign entrepreneurship appear in Russian big business? Drawing on new empirical evidence, it contributes to the discussion on the 'backward' and 'peripheral' character of the Russian economy before the First World War.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Magnusson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ullenhag, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Introduction: Scholarship in business history2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11. Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Ögren, Anders
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Rafferty, Michael
    Banks and Swedish financial crises in the 1920s and 1930s2011In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 230-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial crises occur at regular and unpredictable moments in capitalist economies. However, an absence of shared theoretical approaches to and even definitions of the subject still plague the analysis of financial crises. This situation makes historical analysis even more important. This article compares two Swedish financial crises, one in the 1920s and the other in the 1930s. The comparison shows that despite their temporal and spatial proximity, the crises seemed to have had quite different underlying causes, links to international circumstances, severity, and government responses. The 1920s crisis in Sweden was for instance much deeper than the crisis in the 1930s, a marked contrast to the experience of most countries during these two periods. In focusing on the driving forces behind the crises, their development and governmental policies, the article also provides an opportunity to reflect on both financial crisis theories, on the current crisis and on recent historical research concerning crises.

  • 12.
    Magnusson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Business history and the history of work - a contested relationship2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 71-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In historical discourse business history and the history of work are most often treated as two separate fields of enquiry, with different agendas, theoretical fundaments and sometimes also methodologies. This paper argues that this is a misnomer. Although division of labour in the social sciences is only a natural consequence of the growth of knowledge, there are many reasons why business history and history of work should cooperate more in the future. As a consequence, new insights could be found and novel ways to understand both the organisation of work and of business could be explored. The aim of this paper is to present some stylised examples connected with the three industrial revolutions occurring since the middle of the eighteenth century in order to argue for such joint ventures.

  • 13.
    Sandgren, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    From 'peculiar stores' to 'a new way of thinking': Discussions on self-service in Swedish trade journals, 1935-19552009In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 734-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish self-service grew swiftly from the late 1940s. One important conduit of knowledge was journals. This article studies how self-service was perceived, promoted or opposed in Swedish trade journals in 1935–1955. The main sources are journals published by wholesaling/retailing businesses (the Co-op, ICA and ASK), business associations, trade unions and academics. The principles of self service were discussed in the journals in the 1930s. Direct support for or no general criticism of self-service was found from the late 1940s. Co-operatives and academics were pioneers in promoting self-service. Trade unions hardly discussed the issue. Other actors had some early doubts. From the mid 1940s doubts disappeared. The business associations were ahead of businesses such as ICA and ASK in promoting self-service.

  • 14.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Magnus Henrekson, Mats Larsson & Hans Sjögren, Entrepreneurship in Business and Research: Essays in Honour of Håkan Lindgren’, Henreksson2003In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 131-132Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Ullenhag, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lars Thue, Ström och styring. Norsk kraftliberalisme i historisk perspectiv.: (Electricity and power - Norwegian energy - market liberalism in historical perspective)1998In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 137-138Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Ullenhag, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The part and the whole2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 84-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basis for this paper is that all firms are children of their time. They all depend on their environment: on technology and available markets, on prevailing attitudes, in short, on all institutions at hand. This means that the individual firm with the help of theory might be linked to the macro level and analysed as an expression of contemporary trends. This approach is exemplified by the study of AB angstrom tvidabergs forenade industrier during World War I. Developments in this company were part of broad industrial trends. Before the war, the company expanded on international markets; during the war, expansion on the stock exchange opened up for a shift in management in 1918; and in the deflationary crisis, in the early 1920s, the company went bankrupt. The war meant the loss of foreign markets and inflation that brought new institutions to be handled. As a member of the managerial elite, the founder of the angstrom tvidaberg company considered it his duty to work not only for his company, but also for Sweden. In the war he tried in various ways to influence politics. It turns out that the company's bankruptcy during the deflationary crisis had a background in an inability to account for inflation. Inflationary book profits spurred high dividends and heavy investments in 1918-19 - investments that could not be supported when the prices fell in the early 1920s. A recalculation of the accounts of the angstrom tvidaberg company using a method elaborated in the 1920s turns the book profit of 1918 into a loss. Thus, the lack of methods for accounting for inflation meant inflationary profits that in the war and the following years stimulated heavy investments not only in the angstrom tvidaberg company, but also in quite a number of Swedish companies. In professional circles it was stressed in the 1920s that this sharpened the deflationary crisis.

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