uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 25 of 25
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Axelson, Hans W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Signs of muscle thixotropy during human ballistic wrist joint movements2005In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 99, no 5, p. 1922-1929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted on healthy subjects to determine whether voluntary ballistic wrist flexion movements are influenced by immediately preceding conditioning of the forearm muscles. Single rapid wrist flexion movements were made in response to an auditory "Go" signal. Rectified surface EMG was recorded from wrist flexors and extensors, and joint position was measured by a goniometer. The movements were preceded (2-3 s) by four different conditioning routines: 40-s rest (Rest), 10-s voluntary alternating wrist joint flexion and extension movements (Osc), and 10 s of 25 degrees weak isometric wrist extensor (Ext) or flexor contractions (Flex). When subjects made ballistic movements after Osc compared with Rest, peak velocity was higher (P = 0.02) and movement time shorter (P = 0.06), but there was no difference (P = 0.83) in motor reaction time (time between the onset of the first agonist burst and movement onset). If the movements were preceded by Ext compared with Flex, motor reaction time was longer (P = 0.01), indicating a longer electromechanical delay. There were no indications that postconditioning differences in agonist or antagonist muscle activity could explain the results. It was also demonstrated that, after Rest, peak velocity was lower (P < 0.01) for the first than for the second of a series of repetitive ballistic movements. The observations corresponded to results from passive experiments in which the median nerve was electrically stimulated. In conclusion, history-dependent (thixotropic) changes in skeletal muscle resistance seem to have implications for voluntary ballistic wrist movements. The study also provided evidence that muscle conditioning influences the central nervous reaction time preceding ballistic contractions.

  • 2.
    Borges, João Batista
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Suarez Sipmann, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Costa, Eduardo L. V.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Amato, Marcelo
    Comment on Borges et al. "Regional lung perfusion estimated by electrical impedance tomography in a piglet model of lung collapse" Reply2012In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 112, no 12, p. 2128-2128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Borges, João Batista
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Bohm, Stephan H
    Tusman, Gerardo
    Melo, Alexandre
    Maripuu, Enn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science.
    Sandström, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Park, Marcelo
    Costa, Eduardo L V
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Amato, Marcelo
    Regional Lung Perfusion estimated by Electrical Impedance Tomography in a piglet model of lung collapse2011In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 225-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of the regional match between alveolar ventilation and perfusion in critically ill patients requires simultaneous measurements of both parameters. Ideally, assessment of lung perfusion should be performed in real-time with an imaging technology which provides, through fast acquisition of sequential images, information about the regional dynamics or regional kinetics of an appropriate tracer. We present a novel electrical impedance tomography (EIT) based method that quantitatively estimates regional lung perfusion based on first-pass kinetics of a bolus of hypertonic saline contrast. Pulmonary blood flow was measured in six piglets during control and unilateral or bilateral lung collapse conditions. The first-pass kinetics method showed good agreement with the estimates obtained by single-photon-emission computerized tomography (SPECT). The mean difference (SPECT minus EIT) between fractional blood flow to lung areas suffering atelectasis was -0.6 %, with a standard deviation of 2.9 %. This method outperformed the estimates of lung perfusion based on impedance-pulsatility. In conclusion, we describe a novel method based on Electrical Impedance Tomography for estimating regional lung perfusion at the bedside. In both, healthy and injured lung conditions, the distribution of pulmonary blood flow as assessed by EIT agreed well with the one obtained by SPECT. The method proposed in this paper has the potential to contribute to a better understanding of the behavior of regional perfusion under different lung and therapeutic conditions.

  • 4.
    Covaciu, Lucian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    HUMAN CEREBRAL PERFUSION IS REDUCED DURING PASSIVE HEAT STRESS2011In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 110, no 2, p. 575-576Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. den Hoed, Marcel
    et al.
    Hesselink, Matthijs K C
    van Kranenburg, Gerrit P J
    Westerterp, Klaas R
    Habitual physical activity in daily life correlates positively with markers for mitochondrial capacity.2008In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 105, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical exercise training is a powerful tool to maintain or improve mitochondrial density and function (mitochondrial capacity). This study aims to determine whether mitochondrial capacity is also associated with habitual physical activity in daily life (PADL). The capacity of classic markers for mitochondrial density, i.e., the capacity of citrate synthase (CS) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), as well the capacity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD), was determined in homogenized muscle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of nonexercising healthy young (age 20+/-2 yr) subjects (31 women, 7 men). PADL was measured during two periods of 14 days using a triaxial accelerometer for movement registration. CS, SDH, and COX were positively associated with PADL [P<0.05, R=0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3.10(-4) to 2.2.10(-3); P<0.05, R=0.39, 95% CI: 1.1.10(-5) to 9.9.10(-5); and P<0.05, R=0.33, 95% CI: 7.5.10(-6) to 3.6.10(-4), respectively], and HAD tended to correlate positively with PADL (P=0.06, R=0.31, 95% CI: -2.2.10(-5) to 1.1.10(-3)). The population was subsequently stratified based on the intensity of the activities performed. CS was only associated with PADL in subjects spending more time on high-intensity physical activity, whereas HAD was only associated with PADL in subjects spending less time on low intensity physical activity. We are the first to report that even within the range of normal daily life activities, mitochondrial capacity is positively associated with the level of habitual physical activity in daily life. Thus an active lifestyle may help to maintain or improve mitochondrial capacity.

  • 6.
    Derosa, Savino
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Borges, João Batista
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Segelsjö, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Tannoia, Angela
    Pellegrini, Mariangela
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Perchiazzi, Gaetano
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    Reabsorption atelectasis in a porcine model of ARDS: regional and temporal effects of airway closure, oxygen, and distending pressure2013In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 115, no 10, p. 1464-1473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the small airways dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). By computed tomography (CT) imaging in a porcine experimental model of early ARDS, we aimed at studying the location and magnitude of peripheral airway closure and alveolar collapse under high and low distending pressures and high and low inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2). Six piglets were mechanically ventilated under anesthesia and muscle relaxation. Four animals underwent saline-washout lung injury, and two served as healthy controls. Beyond the site of assumed airway closure, gas was expected to be trapped in the injured lungs, promoting alveolar collapse. This was tested by ventilation with an FIO2 of 0.25 and 1 in sequence during low and high distending pressures. In the most dependent regions, the gas/tissue ratio of end-expiratory CT, after previous ventilation with FIO2 0.25 low-driving pressure, was significantly higher than after ventilation with FIO2 1; with high-driving pressure, this difference disappeared. Also, significant reduction in poorly aerated tissue and a correlated increase in nonaerated tissue in end-expiratory CT with FIO2 1 low-driving pressure were seen. When high-driving pressure was applied or after previous ventilation with FIO2 0.25 and low-driving pressure, this pattern disappeared. The findings suggest that low distending pressures produce widespread dependent airway closure and with high FIO2, subsequent absorption atelectasis. Low FIO2 prevented alveolar collapse during the study period because of slow absorption of gas behind closed airways.

  • 7.
    Dussault, C.
    et al.
    Armed Forces Biomed Res Inst, Dept Operat Environm, F-91223 Bretigny Sur Orge, France..
    Gontier, E.
    Hop Instruct Armees Val de Grace, Dept Nucl Med, Paris, France..
    Verret, C.
    Armed Forces Biomed Res Inst, Dept Operat Environm, F-91223 Bretigny Sur Orge, France..
    Soret, M.
    Hop Instruct Armees Val de Grace, Dept Nucl Med, Paris, France..
    Boussuges, A.
    Armed Forces Biomed Res Inst, Dept Operat Environm, F-91223 Bretigny Sur Orge, France..
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Montmerle-Borgdorff, S.
    Armed Forces Biomed Res Inst, Dept Operat Environm, F-91223 Bretigny Sur Orge, France..
    Hyperoxia and hypergravity are independent risk factors of atelectasis in healthy sitting humans: a pulmonary ultrasound and SPECT/CT study2016In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 66-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aeroatelectasis has developed in aircrew flying routine peacetime flights on the latest generation high-performance aircraft, when undergoing excessive oxygen supply. To single out the effects of hyperoxia and hypergravity on lung tissue compression, and on ventilation and perfusion, eight subjects were studied before and after 1 h 15 min exposure to +1 to +3.5 G(z) in a human centrifuge. They performed the protocol three times, breathing air, 44.5% O-2, or 100% O-2 and underwent functional and topographical imaging of the whole lung by ultrasound and single-photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Ultrasound lung comets (ULC) and atelectasis both increased after exposure. The number of ULC was <1 pre protocol (i.e., normal lung) and larger post 100% O-2 (22 +/- 3, mean +/- SD) than in all other conditions (P < 0.001). Post 44.5% O-2 differed from air (P < 0.05). Seven subjects showed low-to medium-grade atelectasis post 100% O-2. There was an effect on grade of gas mixture and hypergravity, with interaction (P < 0.001, respectively); 100% O-2, 44.5% O-2, and air differed from each other (P < 0.05). SPECT ventilation and perfusion were always normal. Ultrasound concurred with CT in showing normal lung in the upper third and ULC/atelectasis in posterior and inferior areas, not for other localizations. In conclusion, hyperoxia and hypergravity are independent risk factors of reversible atelectasis formation. Ultrasound is a useful screening tool. Together with electrical impedance tomography measurements (reported separately), these findings show that zones with decreased ventilation prone to transient airway closure are present above atelectatic areas.

  • 8. Fischer, C.P
    et al.
    Hiscock, N.J
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kallner, Anders
    Sjöberg, Lars-Börje
    Febbraio, M.A
    Pedersen, B.K
    Vitamin E isoform-specific inhibition of the exercise-induced heat shock protein 72 expression in humans2006In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 1679-1687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as seen in response to exercise, challenge the cellular integrity. Important protective adaptive changes include induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesized that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins C (ascorbic acid) and E (tocopherol) would attenuate the exercise-induced increase of HSP72 in the skeletal muscle and in the circulation. Using randomization, we allocated 21 young men into three groups receiving one of the following oral supplementations: RRR-α-tocopherol 400 IU/ day + ascorbic acid (AA) 500 mg/day (CEα), RRR-α-tocopherol 290 IU/day + RRR-γ-tocopherol 130 IU/day + AA 500 mg/day (CEαγ), or placebo (Control). After 28 days of supplementation, the subjects performed 3 h of knee extensor exercise at 50% of the maximal power output. HSP72 mRNA and protein content was determined in muscle biopsies obtained from vastus lateralis at rest (0 h), postexercise (3 h), and after a 3-h recovery (6 h). In addition, blood was sampled for measurements of HSP72, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, AA, and 8-isoprostaglandin-F (8-PGF). Postsupplementation, the groups differed with respect to plasma vitamin levels. The marker of lipid peroxidation, 8-iso-PGF, increased from 0 h to 3 h in all groups, however, markedly less (P < 0.05) in CEα. In Control, skeletal muscle HSP72 mRNA content increased 2.5-fold (P < 0.05) and serum HSP72 protein increased 4-fold (P < 0.05) in response to exercise, whereas a significant increase of skeletal muscle HSP72 protein content was not observed (P = 0.07). In CEα, skeletal muscle HSP72 mRNA, HSP72 protein, and serum HSP72 were not different from Control in response to exercise. In contrast, the effect of exercise on skeletal muscle HSP72 mRNA and protein, as well as circulating HSP72, was completely blunted in CEαγ. The results indicate that γ-tocopherol comprises a potent inhibitor of the exercise-induced increase of HSP72 in skeletal muscle as well as in the circulation.

  • 9. Henriksen, Egil
    et al.
    Sundstedt, M
    Hedberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Despite the large quantity of data on LV performance during exercise, basic data on left ventricular performance are conflicting2008In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 281-282Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10. Homma, Ikuo
    et al.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Thixotropy of rib cage respiratory muscles in normal subjects2000In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 1753-1758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we searched for signs of thixotropic behavior in human rib cage respiratory muscles. If rib cage respiratory muscles possess thixotropic properties similar to those seen in other skeletal muscles in animals and humans, we expect resting rib cage circumference would be temporarily changed after deep rib cage inflations or deflations and that these aftereffects would be particularly pronounced in trials that combine conditioning deep inflations or deflations with forceful isometric contractions of the respiratory muscles. We used induction plethysmography to obtain a continuous relative measure of rib cage circumference changes during quiet breathing in 12 healthy subjects. Rib cage position at the end of the expiratory phase (EEP) was used as an index of resting rib cage circumference. Comparisons were made between EEP values of five spontaneous breaths immediately before and after six types of conditioning maneuvers: deep inspiration (DI); deep expiration (DE); DI combined with forceful effort to inspire (FII) or expire (FEI); and DE combined with forceful effort to inspire (FIE) or expire (FEE), both with temporary airway occlusion. The aftereffects of the conditioning maneuvers on EEP values were consistent with the supposition that human respiratory muscles possess thixotropic properties. EEP values were significantly enhanced after all conditioning maneuvers involving DI, and the aftereffects were particularly pronounced in the FII and FEI trials. In contrast, EEP values were reduced after DE maneuvers. The aftereffects were statistically significant for the FEE and FIE, but not DE, trials. It is suggested that respiratory muscle thixotropy may contribute to the pulmonary hyperinflation seen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  • 11.
    Honka, Miikka-Juhani
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, POB 52, FIN-20521 Turku, Finland..
    Bucci, Marco
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, POB 52, FIN-20521 Turku, Finland..
    Andersson, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Huovinen, Ville
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, POB 52, FIN-20521 Turku, Finland.;Univ Turku, Dept Radiol, Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Guzzardi, Maria Angela
    CNR, Inst Clin Physiol, Via Savi 8, I-56100 Pisa, Italy..
    Sandboge, Samuel
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Chron Dis Prevent, Helsinki, Finland.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland..
    Savisto, Nina
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, POB 52, FIN-20521 Turku, Finland..
    Salonen, Minna K.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Chron Dis Prevent, Helsinki, Finland.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland..
    Badeau, Robert M.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, POB 52, FIN-20521 Turku, Finland..
    Parkkola, Riitta
    Univ Turku, Dept Radiol, Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Iozzo, Patricia
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, POB 52, FIN-20521 Turku, Finland.;CNR, Inst Clin Physiol, Via Savi 8, I-56100 Pisa, Italy..
    Eriksson, Johan G.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Chron Dis Prevent, Helsinki, Finland.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.;Hosp Dist Helsinki & Uusimaa, Unit Gen Practice, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Gen Practice & Primary Hlth Care, Helsinki, Finland..
    Nuutila, Pirjo
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, POB 52, FIN-20521 Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Resistance training enhances insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production in elderly women2016In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 120, no 6, p. 633-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [ from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) mu mol.kg body wt(-1).min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) mu mol.kg body wt(-1).min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training.

  • 12.
    Hultström, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    LACK OF EFFECT OF DIETARY NITRATE IN ELITE ATHLETES MAY BE DUE TO DILATION OF NON-PRIORITIZED VASCULAR BEDS2015In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 762-762Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Hultström, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Amorim de Paula, Cristiane
    Antônio Peliky Fontes, Marco
    Porcelli, Simone
    Bellistri, Giuseppe
    Pugliese, Lorenzo
    Rasica, Letizia
    Marzorati, Mauro
    Pavei, Gaspare
    Ferguson, Scott K
    Holdsworth, Clark T
    Musch, Timothy I
    Poole, David C
    Bourdillon, Nicolas
    Hoon, Matthew W
    Burke, Louise M
    Michielli, Donald W
    Faiss, Raphael
    Millet, Grégoire P
    Corona, Benjamin T
    Green, Michael S
    da Silveira, Anderson Luiz B
    Sindler, Amy L
    Casey, Darren P
    Johnson, Bruce D
    Wheatley, Courtney M
    Kunces, Laura J
    Bescos, Raul
    Cody, L C
    Martens, C R
    Justice, J N
    Ballak, S B
    Ballak, D B
    Wanner, Samuel Penna
    Rehman, Shabina
    Commentaries on Viewpoint: Can elite athletes benefit from dietary nitrate supplementation?2015In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 762-769Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Jacinto, Tiago
    et al.
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, Ctr Hlth Technol & Serv Res, Edificio Nascente,Piso 2, P-4200450 Porto, Portugal;Porto Hlth Sch, Dept Cardiovasc & Resp Sci, Porto, Portugal.
    Amaral, Rita
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, Ctr Hlth Technol & Serv Res, Edificio Nascente,Piso 2, P-4200450 Porto, Portugal.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Fonseca, Joao
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, Ctr Hlth Technol & Serv Res, Edificio Nascente,Piso 2, P-4200450 Porto, Portugal;Univ Porto, Fac Med, Dept Community Med Informat & Hlth Sci, Porto, Portugal.
    Alving, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Exhaled NO reference limits in a large population-based sample using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method2018In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 125, no 5, p. 1620-1626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absolute values are used in the interpretation of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), but it has been suggested that equations to calculate reference values may be a practical and clinically useful approach. We hypothesize that the application of the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method may improve FeNO reference equations and their interpretation. Our aims were to develop FeNO reference equations with the LMS method and to describe the difference between this method and the absolute fixed cut-offs of the current recommendations. We utilized the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2007-2012 and included healthy individuals with no respiratory diseases and blood eosinophils <300/mm(3) (n = 8,340). Natural log-transformed FeNO was modeled using the LMS method, imbedded in the generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape models. A set of FeNO reference equations was developed. The explanatory variables were sex, age, height, smoking habits, and race/ethnicity. A significant proportion of individuals with normal FeNO given by the equations were classified as having intermediate levels by the current recommendations. Further lower predicted FeNO compared with previous linear models was seen. In conclusion, we suggest a novel model for the prediction of reference FeNO values that can contribute to the interpretation of FeNO in clinical practice. This approach should be further validated in large samples with an objective measurement of atopy and a medical diagnosis of asthma and rhinitis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Novel reference equations and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)-predicted values to improve interpretation of FeNO in clinical practice are presented. These may increase the accuracy of ruling out airway inflammation in patients with asthma or suspected asthma.

  • 15.
    Jonasson, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Hjoberg, Josephine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Concomitant administration of nitric oxide and glucocorticoids improves protection against bronchoconstriction in a murine model of asthma2010In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 521-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glucocorticoids (GC) remain the first choice of treatment in asthma, but GC therapy is not always effective and is associated with side effects. In a porcine study in our laboratory, simultaneous administration of GC and nitric oxide (NO) attenuated the endotoxin-induced inflammatory response and made GC treatment more effective than inhaled NO or steroids alone. In the present study, we aimed to further investigate the interactions between NO and GC treatment in two murine models of asthma. Inflammation was induced by endotoxin, ovalbumin, or a combination of both. With an animal ventilator and a forced oscillation method (FlexiVent), lung mechanics and airway reactivity to methacholine in response to various treatments were assessed. We also describe histology and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein expression in response to inhaled NO treatment [40 ppm NO gas or NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO)]. SNP and GC provided protection against bronchoconstriction to a similar degree in the model of severe asthma. When GC-treated mice were given SNP, maximum airway reactivity was further reduced. Similar effects were seen after DEA/NO delivery to GC-treated animals. Using 1-H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, we found this effect of NO donors to be mediated through a cGMP-independent mechanism. In the severe model, prolonged NO treatment restored or even increased the nuclear levels of GR. In conclusion, in our murine model of severe asthma GC treatment provided protection to only a limited degree against bronchoconstriction, while concomitant treatment with a NO donor was markedly more potent than the use of either NO or GC alone.

  • 16. Korhonen, Marko
    et al.
    Cristea, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Alén, Markku
    Häkkinen, Keijo
    Sipilä, Sarianna
    Mero, Antti
    Viitasalo, Jukka
    Larsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Suominen, Harri
    Aging, muscle fiber type, and contractile function in sprint-trained athletes2006In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 906-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis of 18- to 84-yr-old male sprinters (n = 91). Fiber-type distribution, cross-sectional area, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content were identified using ATPase histochemistry and SDS-PAGE. Specific tension and maximum shortening velocity (V-o) were determined in 144 single skinned fibers from younger (18-33 yr, n = 8) and older (53-77 yr, n = 9) runners. Force-time characteristics of the knee extensors were determined by using isometric contraction. The cross-sectional area of type I fibers was unchanged with age, whereas that of type II fibers was reduced (P < 0.001). With age there was an increased MHC I (P < 0.01) and reduced MHC IIx isoform content (P < 0.05) but no differences in MHC IIa. Specific tension of type I and IIa MHC fibers did not differ between younger and older subjects. V-o of fibers expressing type I MHC was lower (P < 0.05) in older than in younger subjects, but there was no difference in V-o of type IIa MHC fibers. An aging-related decline of maximal isometric force (P < 0.001) and normalized rate of force development (P < 0.05) of knee extensors was observed. Normalized rate of force development was positively associated with MHC II (P < 0.05). The sprint-trained athletes experienced the typical aging-related reduction in the size of fast fibers, a shift toward a slower MHC isoform profile, and a lower V-o of type I MHC fibers, which played a role in the decline in explosive force production. However, the muscle characteristics were preserved at a high level in the oldest runners, underlining the favorable impact of sprint exercise on aging muscle.

  • 17.
    Kretzschmar, Moritz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Schilling, Thomas
    Vogt, Andreas
    Rothen, Hans Ulrich
    Borges, Joao Batista
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Hachenberg, Thomas
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Baumgardner, James E.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Multiple inert gas elimination technique by micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometry-a comparison with reference gas chromatography2013In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 115, no 8, p. 1107-1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mismatching of alveolar ventilation and perfusion (V-A/Q) is the major determinant of impaired gas exchange. The gold standard for measuring V-A/Q distributions is based on measurements of the elimination and retention of infused inert gases. Conventional multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET) uses gas chromatography (GC) to measure the inert gas partial pressures, which requires tonometry of blood samples with a gas that can then be injected into the chromatograph. The method is laborious and requires meticulous care. A new technique based on micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MMIMS) facilitates the handling of blood and gas samples and provides nearly real-time analysis. In this study we compared MIGET by GC and MMIMS in 10 piglets: 1) 3 with healthy lungs; 2) 4 with oleic acid injury; and 3) 3 with isolated left lower lobe ventilation. The different protocols ensured a large range of normal and abnormal V-A/Q distributions. Eight inert gases (SF6, krypton, ethane, cyclopropane, desflurane, enflurane, diethyl ether, and acetone) were infused; six of these gases were measured with MMIMS, and six were measured with GC. We found close agreement of retention and excretion of the gases and the constructed V-A/Q distributions between GC and MMIMS, and predicted Pa-O2 from both methods compared well with measured Pa-O2. V-A/Q by GC produced more widely dispersed modes than MMIMS, explained in part by differences in the algorithms used to calculate V-A/Q distributions. In conclusion, MMIMS enables faster measurement of V-A/Q, is less demanding than GC, and produces comparable results.

  • 18.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Holm, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Nordvall, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Alving, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Basal and induced NO formation in the pharyngo-oral tract influences estimates of alveolar NO levels2009In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 513-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyzed how models currently used to distinguish alveolar from bronchial contribution to exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are affected by manipulation of NO formation in the pharyngo-oral tract. Exhaled NO was measured at multiple flow rates in 15 healthy subjects in two experiments: 1) measurements at baseline and 5 min after chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash and 2) measurements at baseline, 60 min after ingestion of 10 mg NaNO3/kg body wt, and 5 min after CHX mouthwash. Alveolar NO concentration (CalvNO) and bronchial flux (J′awNO) were calculated by using the slope-intercept model with or without adjustment for trumpet shape of airways and axial diffusion (TMAD). Salivary nitrate and nitrite were measured in the second experiment. CalvNO [median (range)] was reduced from 1.16 ppb (0.77, 1.96) at baseline to 0.84 ppb (0.57, 1.48) 5 min after CHX mouthwash (P < 0.001). The TMAD-adjusted CalvNO value after CHX mouthwash was 0.50 ppb (0, 0.85). The nitrate load increased J′awNO from 32.2 nl/min (12.2, 60.3) to 57.1 nl/min (22.0, 119) in all subjects and CalvNO from 1.47 ppb (0.73, 1.95) to 1.87 ppb (10.85, 7.20) in subjects with high nitrate turnover (>10-fold increase of salivary nitrite after nitrate load). CHX mouthwash reduced CalvNO levels to 1.15 ppb (0.72, 2.07) in these subjects with high nitrate turnover. All these results remained consistent after TMAD adjustment. We conclude that estimated alveolar NO concentration is affected by pharyngo-oral tract production of NO in healthy subjects, with a decrease after CHX mouthwash. Moreover, unknown ingestion of dietary nitrate could significantly increase estimated alveolar NO in subjects with high nitrate turnover, and this might be falsely interpreted as a sign of peripheral inflammation. These findings were robust for TMAD.

  • 19.
    Nyman, Görel
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Röken, Bengt
    Kolmarden Wild Anim Pk, Kolmarden, Sweden..
    Hedin, Eva-Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology-Arrhythmia.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Case Studies in Physiology: Ventilation and perfusion in a giraffe-does size matter?2016In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 121, no 6, p. 1374-1378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trachea in the giraffe is long but narrow, and dead space ventilation is considered to be of approximately the same size as in other mammals. Less is known about the matching between ventilation and lung blood flow. The lungs in the giraffe are large, up to 1 m high and 0.7 m wide, and this may cause considerable ventilation/perfusion (V-A/Q) mismatch due to the influence of gravitational forces, which could lead to hypoxemia. We studied a young giraffe under anesthesia using the multiple inert gas elimination technique to analyze the V-A/Q distribution and arterial oxygenation and compared the results with those obtained in other species of different sizes, including humans. V-A/Q distribution was broad but unimodal, and the shunt of blood flow through nonventilated lung regions was essentially absent, suggesting no lung collapse. The V-A/Q match was as good as in the similarly sized horse and was even comparable to that in smaller sized animals, including rabbit and rat. The match was also similar to that in anesthetized humans. Arterial oxygenation was essentially similar in all studied species. The findings suggest that the efficiency of V-A/Q matching is independent of lung size in the studied mammals that vary in weight from less than 1 to more than 400 kg.

  • 20.
    Perchiazzi, Gaetano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Högman, Marieann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Rylander, Christian
    Giuliani, Rocco
    Fiore, Tommaso
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Assessment of respiratory system mechanics by artificial neural networks: an exploratory study2001In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 1817-1824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated 1) the performance of an artificial neural network (ANN)-based technology in assessing the respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and compliance (Crs) in a porcine model of acute lung injury and 2) the possibility of using, for ANN training, signals coming from an electrical analog (EA) of the lung. Two differently experienced ANNs were compared. One ANN (ANN(BIO)) was trained on tracings recorded at different time points after the administration of oleic acid in 10 anesthetized and paralyzed pigs during constant-flow mechanical ventilation. A second ANN (ANN(MOD)) was trained on EA simulations. Both ANNs were evaluated prospectively on data coming from four different pigs. Linear regression between ANN output and manually computed mechanics showed a regression coefficient (R) of 0.98 for both ANNs in assessing Crs. On Rrs, ANN(BIO) showed a performance expressed by R = 0.40 and ANN(MOD) by R = 0.61. These results suggest that ANNs can learn to assess the respiratory system mechanics during mechanical ventilation but that the assessment of resistance and compliance by ANNs may require different approaches.

  • 21.
    Perchiazzi, Gaetano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Rylander, Christian
    Vena, Antonio
    Derosa, Savino
    Polieri, Debora
    Fiore, Tommaso
    Giuliani, Rocco
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Lung regional stress and strain as a function of posture and ventilatory mode2011In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 110, no 5, p. 1374-1383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During positive-pressure ventilation parenchymal deformation can be assessed as strain ( volume increase above functional residual capacity) in response to stress (transpulmonary pressure). The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between stress and strain on the regional level using computed tomography in anesthetized healthy pigs in two postures and two patterns of breathing. Airway opening and esophageal pressures were used to calculate stress; change of gas content as assessed from computed tomography was used to calculate strain. Static stress-strain curves and dynamic strain-time curves were constructed, the latter during the inspiratory phase of volume and pressure-controlled ventilation, both in supine and prone position. The lung was divided into nondependent, intermediate, dependent, and central regions: their curves were modeled by exponential regression and examined for statistically significant differences. In all the examined regions, there were strong but different exponential relations between stress and strain. During mechanical ventilation, the end-inspiratory strain was higher in the dependent than in the nondependent regions. No differences between volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation were found. However, during volume control ventilation, prone positioning decreased the end-inspiratory strain of dependent regions and increased it in nondependent regions, resulting in reduced strain gradient. Strain is inhomogeneously distributed within the healthy lung. Prone positioning attenuates differences between dependent and nondependent regions. The regional effects of ventilatory mode and body positioning should be further explored in patients with acute lung injury.

  • 22. Rees, S.E
    et al.
    Kjeargaard, S.
    Andreassen, S.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Reproduction of MIGET retention and excretion data using a simple mathematical model of gas exchange in lung damage caused by oleic acid infusion2006In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 826-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproduction of MIGET retention and excretion data using a simple mathematical model of gas exchange in lung damage caused by oleic acid infusion. J Appl Physiol 101: 826-832, 2006. First published June 8, 2006; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01481.2005.-The multiple inert-gas elimination technique ( MIGET) is a complex mathematical model and experimental technique for understanding pulmonary gas exchange. Simpler mathematical models have been proposed that have a limited view compared with MIGET but may be applicable for use in clinical practice. This study examined the use of a simple model of gas exchange to describe MIGET retention and excretion data in seven pigs before and following lung damage caused by oleic acid infusion and subsequently at different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure. The simple model was found to give, on average, a good description of MIGET data, as evaluated by a chi(2) test on the weighted residual sum of squares resulting from the model fit (P > 0.2). Values of the simple model's parameters (dead-space volume, shunt, and the fraction of alveolar ventilation going to compartment 2) compared well with the similar MIGET parameters (dead-space volume, shunt, log of the standard deviation of the perfusion, log of the standard deveation of the ventilation), giving values of bias and standard deviation on the differences between dead-space volume and shunt of 0.002 +/- 0.002 liter and 7.3 +/- 2.1% (% of shunt value), respectively. Values of the fraction of alveolar ventilation going to compartment 2 correlated well with log of the standard deviation of the perfusion (r(2) = 0.86) and log of the standard deviation of the ventilation (r(2) = 0.92). These results indicate that this simple model provides a good description of lung pathology following oleic acid infusion. It remains to be seen whether physiologically valid values of the simple model parameters can be obtained from clinical experiments varying inspired oxygen fraction. If so, this may indicate a role for simple models in the clinical interpretation of gas exchange.

  • 23. Sollie, Ove
    et al.
    Jeppesen, Per Bendix
    Tangen, Daniel Steensen
    Jernerén, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. University of Oxford, Department of Pharmacology.
    Nellemann, Birgitte
    Valsdottir, Ditta
    Madsen, Klavs
    Turner, Cheryl
    Refsum, Helga
    Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen
    Ivy, John L
    Jensen, Jørgen
    Protein intake in the early recovery period after exhaustive exercise improves performance the following day.2018In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of protein and carbohydrate ingestion during early recovery from exhaustive exercise on performance after 18 h recovery. Eight elite cyclists (VO2max 74.0±1.6 ml∙kg-1∙min-1) completed two exercise and diet interventions in a double-blinded, randomized, crossover design. Participants cycled first at 73% of VO2max (W73%) followed by one-min intervals at 90% of VO2max until exhaustion. During the first two hours of recovery, participants ingested either 1.2 g carbohydrate∙kg-1∙h-1 (CHO) or 0.8 g carbohydrate + 0.4 g protein∙kg-1∙h-1 (CHO+PROT). The diet during the remaining recovery period was similar for both interventions and adjusted to body weight. After an 18 h recovery, cycling performance was assessed with a 10 s sprint test, 30 min of cycling at W73%, and a cycling time trial (TT). The TT was 8.5% faster (41:53±1:51 min vs 45:26±1:32 min; p&lt;0.03) after CHO+PROT compared to CHO. Mean power output during the sprints was 3.7% higher in CHO-PROT compared to CHO (1063±54 W vs 1026±53 W; p&lt;0.01). Nitrogen balance in the recovery period was negative in CHO and neutral in CHO+PROT (-82.4±11.5 vs 7.0±15.4 mg∙kg-1; p&lt;0.01).

    IN CONCLUSION: TT and sprint performances were improved 18 h after exhaustive cycling by CHO-PROT supplementation during the first two hours of recovery compared with isoenergetic CHO supplementation. Our results indicate that intake of carbohydrate plus protein after exhaustive endurance exercise more rapidly converts the body from a catabolic to an anabolic state than carbohydrate alone, thus speeding recovery and improving subsequent cycling performance.

  • 24.
    Strandberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Edholm, Peter
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Wahlin-Larsson, Britta
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Hellmen, Erik
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial2015In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, no 8, p. 918-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio < 2) in a population of healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 +/- 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet.

  • 25.
    Trachsel, Sebastien
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Hambraeus-Jonzon, Kristina
    Bergquist, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Martijn, Cecile
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Chen, Luni
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    No redistribution of lung blood flow by inhaled nitric oxide in endotoxemic piglets pretreated with an endothelin receptor antagonist2015In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 768-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) improves ventilation-perfusion matching and alleviates pulmonary hypertension in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, outcome has not yet been shown to improve, and non-response is common. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which INO acts, may guide in improving treatment with INO in patients with severe respiratory failure. We hypothesized that INO may act not only by vasodilation in ventilated lung regions, but also by causing vasoconstriction via endothelin (ET-1) in atelectatic, non-ventilated lung regions. This was studied in 30 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated piglets. The fall in oxygenation and rise in pulmonary artery pressure during a sepsis-like condition (infusion of endotoxin) were blunted by INO 40ppm. Endotoxin infusion increased serum ET-1, and INO almost doubled the ratio between mRNA expression of endothelin receptor A (mediating vasoconstriction) and B (mediating vasodilation and clearance of ET-1) (ET-A/ET-B) in atelectatic lung regions. INO caused a shift in blood flow away from atelectatic lung regions in the endotoxemic piglets, but not during ET receptor antagonism. We conclude that INO in short term experiments, in addition to causing selective pulmonary vasodilation in ventilated lung regions, also increases the ET-A/ET-B mRNA expression ratio in lung tissue. This might augment the vasoconstriction in atelectatic lung regions, enhancing the redistribution of pulmonary blood flow to ventilated lung regions which are reached by INO. Such vasoconstriction may be an important additional factor explaining the effect of INO.

1 - 25 of 25
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf