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  • 1.
    Babakhani, Peyman
    et al.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Earth & Environm, Earth Surface Sci Inst, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England;Univ Liverpool, Sch Engn, Liverpool L69 3GH, Merseyside, England;Natl Tsing Hua Univ, Dept Biomed Engn & Environm Sci, 101,Sect 2,Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan.
    Bridge, Jonathan
    Sheffield Hallam Univ, Dept Nat & Built Environm, Howard St, Sheffield S1 1WB, S Yorkshire, England.
    Phenrat, Tanapon
    Naresuan Univ, Fac Engn, Dept Civil Engn, Res Unit Integrated Nat Resources Remediat & Recl, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand;Naresuan Univ, Fac Engn, Ctr Excellence Sustainabil Hlth Environm & Ind SH, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Doong, Ruey-an
    Univ Liverpool, Sch Engn, Liverpool L69 3GH, Merseyside, England;Natl Chiao Tung Univ, Inst Environm Engn, 1001 Univ Rd, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan.
    Whittle, Karl R.
    Univ Liverpool, Sch Engn, Liverpool L69 3GH, Merseyside, England.
    Comparison of a new mass-concentration, chain-reaction model with the population-balance model for early- and late-stage aggregation of shattered graphene oxide nanoparticles2019In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 582, article id 123862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggregation as an essential mechanism impacting nanoparticle (NP) functionality, fate, and transport in the environment is currently modelled using population-balance equation (PBE) models which are computationally expensive when combined with other continuum-scale reactive transport models. We propose a new simple mass-concentration-based, chain-reaction modelling (CRM) framework to alleviate computational expenses of PBE and potentially to facilitate combination with other fate, transport, and reaction models. Model performance is compared with analytical PBE solution and a standard numerical PBE technique (fixed pivot, FP) by fitting against experimental data (i.e., hydrodynamic diameter and derived count rate of dynamic light scattering used as a representative of mass concentration) for early- and late-stage, aggregation of shattered graphene oxide (SGO) NP across a broad range of solution chemistries. In general, the CRM approach demonstrates a better match with the experimental data with a mean Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE) coefficient of 0.345 than the FP model with a mean NSE of 0.29. Comparing model parameters (aggregation rate constant and fractal dimension) obtained from fitting CRM and FP to the experimental data, similar trends or ranges are obtained between the two approaches. Computationally, the modified CRM is an order-of-magnitude faster than the FP technique, suggesting that it can be a promising modelling framework for efficient and accurate modelling of NP aggregation. However, in the scope of this study, reaction rate coefficients of the CRM have been linked to collision frequencies based on simplified and empirical relationships which need improvement in future studies.

  • 2.
    Bergström, L. Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Influence of bending energetics on the size, shape and polydispersity of droplet microemulsions2008In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 316, no 1-3, p. 15-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theory for ellipsoidal shape fluctuating droplet microemulsions in the presence of excess discrete phase (Winsor I and II) is expounded that combines bending energetics of the amphiphilic monolayer at the droplet interface with thermodynamics of self-assembling solute and amphiphilic molecules. The theory relates the three bending elasticity constants spontaneous curvature (H-0), bending rigidity (k(c)) and saddle-splay constant (k(c)) with interfacial tension, average size and shape and polydispersity of microemulsion droplets. It is demonstrated that the well-known conventional relations become modified as the entropy of self-assembling amphiphilic as well as solute molecules are taken into account, in particular at low values of the effective bending constant 2k(c) + (k) over bar (c). As a result, the average droplet radius (R) as well as the droplet polydispersity sigma(R)/< R > behave consistently in the limit 2k(c) + (k) over bar (c) -> 0 whereas the conventional expressions are recovered in the limit 2k(c) + (k) over bar (c) -> infinity. It is demonstrated that association entropy effects may be quantified by a parameter k(s) with same dimension and order of magnitude as k(c) and (k) over bar (c). k(s) is found to be always negative and tends to decrease (R) and to increase sigma(R)/< R. Moreover, the average axial ratio of an oblate/prolate fluctuating droplet is found to be a strong function of the bending rigidity (the droplets become increasingly non-spherical with decreasing k(c)) but is independent of (k) over bar (c), in contrast to previous investigations where association entropy effects were neglected.

  • 3. Bodvik, Rasmus
    et al.
    Dedinaite, Andra
    Karlson, Leif
    Bergström, Magnus
    Bäverbäck, Petra
    Pedersen, Jan Skov
    Edwards, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Karlsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Varga, Imre
    Claesson, Per M
    Aggregation and network formation of aqueous methylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose solutions.2010In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 354, no 1-3, p. 162-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solution properties of methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) have been investigated as a function of temperature and concentration using a broad range of experimental techniques. Novelties include the extensive comparison between MC and HPMC solutions as well as the combination of techniques, and the use of Cryo transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). The correlation between rheology and light scattering results clearly demonstrates the relation between viscosity change and aggregation. Cryo-TEM images show the network structures formed. Viscosity measurements show that for both MC and HPMC solutions sudden changes in viscosity occur as the temperature is increased. The onset temperature for these changes depends on polymer concentration and heating rate. For both MC and HPMC solutions the viscosity on cooling is very different compared to on heating, demonstrating the slow equilibration time. The viscosity changes in MC and HPMC solutions are dramatically different; for MC solutions the viscosity increases by several orders of magnitude when a critical temperature is reached, whereas for HPMC solutions the viscosity decreases abruptly at a given temperature, followed by an increase upon further heating. Light and (SAXS) small-angle X-ray scattering shows that the increase in viscosity, for MC as well as for HPMC solutions, is due to extensive aggregation of the polymers. Light scattering also provides information on aggregation kinetics. The SAXS measurements allow us to correlate aggregation hysteresis to the viscosity hysteresis, as well as to extract some structural information. Cryo-TEM images give novel information that a fibrillar network is formed in MC solutions, and the strong viscosity increase occurs when this network spans the whole solution volume. For HPMC solutions the behaviour is more complex. The decrease in viscosity can be related to the formation of compact objects, and the subsequent increase to formation of fibrillar structures, which are more linear and less entangled than for MC.

  • 4.
    Bysell, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Månsson, Ronja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Effects of peptide cyclization on the interaction with oppositely charged microgels2011In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 391, no 1-3, p. 62-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of peptide cyclization on the interaction between antimicrobial peptides and oppositely charged poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) microgels of various charge density was investigated for linear and cyclic variants of peptide oligomers (C(ARKKAAKA)nC) (n = 1, 1.5, 2, 3). Through this, peptide length could be varied without substantially affecting peptide charge density and mean hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the peptides were demonstrated to display random coil conformation both in aqueous solution and when bound to oppositely charged microgels, allowing effects of cyclization to be monitored without interference from conformational transitions. With increasing peptide length, both cyclic and linear peptide variants displayed increased binding affinity to oppositely charged microgels. For all peptide lengths, however, the difference between cyclic and linear peptide variants was marginal at most, hence cyclization had little or no influence in peptide incorporation to oppositely charged microgels. In parallel, microgel deswelling increased with peptide length for both linear and cyclic peptide variants, while linear and cyclic peptide variants of the same length displayed very similar peptide-induced deswelling. Also electrolyte-induced peptide desorption from the microgels was similar for linear and cyclic peptide variants. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that end-to-end cyclization does not markedly affect peptide incorporation into, and release from, oppositely charged microgels. This opens up opportunities for the use of microgels as carriers for peptides which have been cyclized in order to improve their proteolytic and chemical stability, or in order to achieve other therapeutic advantages compared to the corresponding linear peptide variant.

  • 5.
    Cao, Wen-Tao
    et al.
    Beijing Forestry Univ, Coll Mat Sci & Technol, Beijing Key Lab Lignocellulos Chem, Engn Res Ctr Forestry Biomass Mat & Bioenergy..
    Liu, Yan-Jun
    Beijing Forestry Univ, Coll Mat Sci & Technol, Beijing Key Lab Lignocellulos Chem, Engn Res Ctr Forestry Biomass Mat & Bioenergy..
    Ma, Ming-Guo
    Beijing Forestry Univ, Coll Mat Sci & Technol, Beijing Key Lab Lignocellulos Chem, Engn Res Ctr Forestry Biomass Mat & Bioenergy.;Qilu Univ Technol, Minist Educ, Key Lab Pulp & Paper Sci & Technol..
    Zhu, Jie-Fang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Facile preparation of robust and superhydrophobic materials for self-cleaning and oil/water separation2017In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 529, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superhydrophobic coatings have broad applications owing to their excellent water-resisting and self-cleaning properties. In this study, we have successfully fabricated coated meshes with robust and superhydrophobic surface (i.e., water-repellent magnesium stearate powders on substrates made of phenol-formaldehyde resin). These coated meshes showed superhydrophobicity with water contact angles exceeding 150 degrees and excellent self-cleaning property both in air and oil circumstances. Additionally, the superhydrophobic surfaces also exhibited prominent mechanical stability, thermal stability, corrosion resistance, and oil/water separation properties (> 92%). Therefore, it is believed that the facile fabrication presented in this study may provide a novel methodology and these robust and superhydrophobic coated meshes have potential applications in oil/water separation.

  • 6.
    Hellsing, Maja S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Kwaambwa, Habauka M.
    Nermark, Fiona M.
    Nkoane, Bonang B. M.
    Jackson, Andrew J.
    Wasbrough, Matthew J.
    Berts, Ida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Porcar, Lionel
    Rennie, Adrian R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Structure of flocs of latex particles formed by addition of protein from Moringa seeds2014In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 460, p. 460-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins extracted from the seeds of Moringa trees are effective flocculents for particles dispersed in water and are attractive as a natural and sustainable product for use in water purification. Studies with a model system consisting of polystyrene latex particles have shown that the protein adsorbs to the surface and causes flocculation as unusually dense aggregates. Small-angle neutron scattering that exploits contrast matching of deuterated latex particles dispersed in D2O to highlight bound protein has shown that the adsorbed amount reaches about 3 mg m(-2). The particles form very compact flocs that are characterized by fractal dimensions that approach the theoretical maximum of 3. Ultra small-angle neutron scattering allows these flocs to be characterized for a range of particle and protein concentrations. Proteins from two species of Moringa trees were investigated. The protein from Moringa stenopetala seeds gave rise to slightly lower fractal dimensions compared to Moringa oleifera, but still much larger than values observed for conventional ionic or polymeric flocculents that are in the range 1.75-2.3. Compact flocs are desirable for efficient separation of impurities and dewatering of sludge as well as other applications. A trend of increasing fractal dimension with particle concentration was observed when M. stenopetala seed protein was used and this resembles the behaviour predicted in Brownian dynamics simulation of flocculation.

  • 7.
    Nordström, Randi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Nyström, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Ilyas, Humaira
    Bose Insitute, Kolkata, India.
    Atreya, Hanudatta S
    Indian Insitute of Science, Bangalore, India.
    Borro, Bruno C
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Microgels as carriers of antimicrobial peptides – effects of peptide PEGylation2019In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 565, p. 8-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delivery systems are likely to be central for the translation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) towards therapeutics. Addressing AMP interactions with microgel carriers, we here investigate how poly(ethylene glycol) conjugation ('PEGylation') of AMPs affect their loading and release to/from microgels, combining structural studies using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with ellipsometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), and light scattering. Such studies demonstrate that poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) microgels bind considerable amounts of the positively charged AMP KYE28 (KYEITTIHNLFRKLTHRLFRRNFGYTLR) and its PEGylated variants KYE28-PEG48, PEG48-KYE28, and PEG24-KYE28-PEG24. Z-potential measurements indicate that KYE28 resides primarily inside the microgel core, and that localization of the PEGylated peptides is shifted towards the microgel corona. Furthermore, while all peptides are disordered in solution, CD measurements report on helix induction on microgel binding, particularly so for the PEGylated peptides. Addressing such conformational changes in more detail, NMR structural studies showed that peptide-microgel interactions are facilitated by a hydrophobic domain formed by the peptide after microgel binding, and with modulating electrostatic/salt bridge interaction between the positively charged peptide residues and negative microgel charges. As the microgels remain negatively charged also at high peptide load, membrane disruption and antimicrobial effects necessitates peptide release, demonstrated to be promoted by PEGylation and high ionic strength. Importantly, microgel loading, as well as peptide localization, conformation, and release, did not depend significantly on PEG conjugation site, but instead seems to be dictated by the PEG content of the peptide conjugates.

  • 8.
    Ridell, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Ekelund, Katarina
    Evertsson, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Engström, Sven
    On the water content of the solvent/monoolein/water sponge (L3) phase2003In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 228, no 1-3, p. 17-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water content of the solvent/monoolein/water sponge phase depends on the lipophilicity of the solvent used. The relatively lipophilic solvent 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) gives a sponge phase at about 60 wt.% water compared with 30 wt.% for the sponge phase formed with polyethylene glycol (Mw≈400, PEG 400). A reasonably good correlation is found between the water content of the sponge phase and the octanol/water partition coefficient for the solvent. The water content of the PEG 400 sponge phase increases considerably (to about 50 wt.%) by adding up to 3 wt.% of ionic compounds such as SDS, CTAB and salts of amphiphilic drugs. Nonionic detergents show less effect on increasing the water content, whereas membrane lipids such as lecithins and cholesterol show unchanged or even decreasing effect on the water content of the sponge phase.

  • 9.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Schmidtchen, Artur
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Effects of single amino acid substitutions on peptide interaction with lipid membranes and bacteria-variants of GKE21, an internal sequence from human LL-372010In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 354, no 1-3, p. 65-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of helix destabilization on lipid membrane interaction, liposome rupture, and bacterial killing was investigated for variants of the antimicrobial peptide GKE21 (GKEFKRIVQRIKDFLRNLVPR), an internal sequence of human cathelicidin LL-37, by ellipsometry, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and bacterial radial diffusion assay. GKE21 displayed moderate helix induction in buffer, which increased on interaction with phospholipid membranes. Substituting either of the two valines (V) in GKE21 with either proline (P) or D-valine (dV) resulted in helix destabilization, while peptide isoelectric point, net charge at pH 7.4, and mean hydrophobicity remained unchanged. The decreased tendency for helix formation in GKE21 (V -> P, V -> dV) resulted in a lower induced (helix-related) amphiphilicity, and correlated to a lower peptide adsorption at supported phospholipid membranes, as well as to decreased peptide-induced liposome leakage, particularly at high electrolyte concentration where conformation-invariant electrostatic interactions are screened. In addition, bacterial killing was reduced for the substituted peptides, indicating that even minor changes in induced peptide amphiphilicity may be of relevance for the bactericidal properties of this type of antimicrobial peptides.

  • 10.
    Siegel, Günter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Charite Univ Clin Berlin, D-10117 Berlin, Germany;St Georges Univ, Sch Arts & Sci, True Blue, Grenada.
    Berkholz, J.
    Charite Univ Clin Berlin, D-10117 Berlin, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res DZHK, D-13353 Berlin, Germany.
    Klüssendorf, D.
    Charite Univ Clin Berlin, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.
    Knosalla, C.
    German Ctr Cardiovasc Res DZHK, D-13353 Berlin, Germany;German Heart Inst Berlin, D-13353 Berlin, Germany.
    Zakrzewicz, A.
    Charite Univ Clin Berlin, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.
    Ermilov, E.
    Charite Univ Clin Berlin, D-10117 Berlin, Germany;PicoQuant, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Charite Univ Clin Berlin, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.
    Lindman, B.
    Lund Univ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden;Univ Coimbra, P-3004535 Coimbra, Portugal;Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Singapore, Singapore.
    Atherogenesis and plaque rupture, surface/interface-related phenomena2018In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 557, p. 28-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In atherogenesis, free oxygen radicals cause a lipid peroxidation of apoB100-containing lipoproteins in the blood, at the blood-endothelium-interface and in the subendothelial space. These lipoproteins easily aggregate, bind to their receptor heparan sulfate proteoglycan and calcify to arteriosclerotic nanoplaques (ternary complexes). Nanoplaque formation was measured by ellipsometry, both in vitro on an HS-PG coated hydrophobic silica surface and also in vivo on living human coronary endothelial cells, which had overgrown the silica surface. Reversely, we show with the same techniques that, in dependence on the degree of peroxidation and epitope in concern, oxLDL attacks its molecular receptor and thus can induce degradation of arteriosclerotic plaques and, in a combined action with inflammatory processes, even a plaque rupture. In a previous work, we had found PML-NB, fibrous cap (collagens, proteoglycans) and HSBGF binding sites (e.g., TGF beta 1) up-regulated and NF kappa B down-regulated. With this background knowledge we created a molecular feedback control circuit model where PML-NB functions as regulation centre, fibrous cap as controlled variable, HSBGF binding sites as receptor and NF kappa B as effector. Since NF kappa B is inhibited by one reaction strand in this model and inhibits itself collagen and proteoglycan synthesis in the fibrous cap of the plaque, this double check (disinhibition) causes a stabilization of the fibrous cap through a specially strong collagen and proteoglycan production, which in addition is supported by circulating TGF beta. TGF beta furthers also calcification, so that fibrous cap tensile strength and resistance to shear stress are imparted. This way, a plaque rupture may possibly be averted.

  • 11.
    Siegel, Günter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Ermilov, Eugeny
    Pries, Axel R.
    Winkler, Karl
    Schmidt, Annette
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lindman, Bjoern
    The significance of lipid peroxidation in cardiovascular disease2014In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 442, p. 173-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The metabolic syndrome describes a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that frequently appear together. Its diagnosis is generally based on several well-recognized indicators in clinical practice, such as abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein, raised blood pressure, and elevated fasting plasma glucose. Today, decisive importance must be attached to the metabolic syndrome since it leads to increased morbidity and mortality, and thus to a decreased life expectancy, and to higher direct and indirect healthcare costs. This is also due to the fact that its symptomatology irradiates on many organs of the body, which may thereby be damaged. Methods: In the present clinical trial on 11 metabolic syndrome patients treated with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761,2 x 120 mg/d) for two months, ellipsometry, fluorescence microscopy, photometric methods, ELISAs and EIAs were applied for biosensor profiling of metabolic syndrome risk, status and treatment outcome. Results: A spectrum of more than 20 arteriosclerotic, cytokinic, inflammatory, lipidic, and oxidative stress biomarkers served for a detailed diagnosis and therapy monitoring. After medication, the ratio oxLDL/LDL was reduced by 21.0%, 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) 39.8%, MPO 29.6%, IL-6 12.9%, hs-CRP 39.3%, Lp(a) 26.3%, MMP-9 32.9%, insulin 9.4%, HOMA-IR 14.0%, ALP 14.8%, CREA 11.3%, URAC 10.6%, in vitro modeled nanoplaque formation 14.3% and size 23.4%, whereas SOD was augmented by 17.7%, GPx 11.6%, cAMP 43.5%, and cGMP 32.9%. Special focus was concentrated on the significance of lipid peroxidation for cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. Through multiple correlations between the biomarkers and clinical parameters, their significance for and involvement in several clinical pictures could be elucidated. Conclusion:The present clinical observational study was helpful in unraveling this network of biomarker interactions and demonstrated its usefulness for theranostics. For personalized medicine, the selection of the biomarkers is of decisive importance. On the background of a growing obesity among children and adolescents with an increase in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, diagnosing this syndrome in young subjects may be helpful in identifying a population of risk for increased subclinical arteriosclerosis.

  • 12.
    Siegel, Günter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Meyer-Rath, G.
    Ermilov, E.
    Rodriguez, M.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Claesson, P.
    Saunders, R.
    Hetzer, R.
    Lindman, B.
    Flow sensing in the cardiovascular system2015In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 480, p. 318-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This contribution deals with chemical processes at the biological membranes of endothelial cells in blood vessels. A basic observation is that the intensity of blood flow navigates the vascular width through a negative feedback circle. When the blood flow increases, the vessels become wider; when it decreases the vascular smooth muscle cells contract. The anionic polyelectrolyte heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS-PG) reacts to the shear stress generated by the flowing blood. In the present investigation, this naturally occurring biosensor is characterized in more detail, which is crucially involved in the regulation of peripheral blood flow and organ perfusion. A dysfunction of this sensor can lead to organ insufficiency, hypertension and arteriosclerosis.

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