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  • 1.
    Alipour, Mohammad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Yin, Litao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Tavallaey, Shiva Sander
    ABB AB Corp Res, Forskargrand 7, SE-72178 Västerås, Sweden.;KTH, Dept Mech, Sch Sci, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Anna Mikaela
    ABB AB Corp Res, Forskargrand 7, SE-72178 Västerås, Sweden..
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    A surrogate-assisted uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis on a coupled electrochemical-thermal battery aging model2023In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 579, article id 233273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-fidelity physics-based models are required to comprehend battery behavior at various operating condi-tions. This paper proposes an uncertainty quantification analysis on a coupled electrochemical-thermal aging model to improve the reliability of a battery model, while also investigating the impact of parametric model uncertainties on battery voltage, temperature, and aging. The coupled model's high computing cost, however, is a significant barrier to perform uncertainty quantification (UQ) and sensitivity analysis (SA). To address this problem, a surrogate model - i.e, by simulating the outcome of a quantity of interest that cannot be easily computed or measured - based on the Gaussian process regression (GPR) theory and principle component analysis (PCA) is built, using a small collection of finite element simulation results as synthetic training data. In total, 43 variable electrochemical-thermal parameters as well as 13 variable aging parameters are studied and estimated. Moreover, the trained surrogate model is also used in the parameterization of the electrochemical and thermal models. The results show that the uncertainties in the input parameters significantly affect the estimations of battery voltage, temperature, and aging. Based on this sensitivity analysis, the most influential parameters affecting the above mentioned battery outputs are reported. This approach is thereby helpful for developing robust and reliable high-fidelity battery aging models with potential applications in digital twins as well as for synthetic data generation.

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Anna M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Henningsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Electrochemically lithiated graphite characterised by photoelectron spectroscopy2003In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 119-121, p. 522-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the depth profile of the solid–electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on a graphite powder electrode in a Li-ion battery. The morphology of the SEI-layer, formed in a 1 M LiBF4 EC/DMC 2:1 solution, consists of a 900 Å porous layer of polymers (polyethylene oxide) and a 15–20 Å thin layer of Li2CO3 and LiBF4 reduction–decomposition products. Embedded LiF crystals as large as 0.2 μm were found in the polymer matrix. LiOH and Li2O are not major components on the surface but rather found as a consequence of sputter-related reactions. Monochromatised Al Kα XPS-analysis based on the calibration of Ar+ ion sputtering of model compounds combined with a depth profile analysis based on energy tuning of synchrotron XPS can describe the highly complex composition and morphology of the SEI-layer.

  • 3.
    Armand, Michel
    et al.
    Basque Res & Technol Alliance BRTA, Ctr Cooperat Res Alternat Energies CIC EnergiGUNE, Alava Technol Pk,Albert Einstein 48, Vitoria 01510, Spain.
    Axmann, Peter
    Zentrum Sonnenenergie & Wasserstoff Forsch Baden, Helmholtzstr 8, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Bresser, Dominic
    Helmholtz Inst Ulm HIU, Helmholtzstr 11, D-89081 Ulm, Germany; Karlsruhe Inst Technol KIT, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Copley, Mark
    Univ Warwick, WMG, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands, England.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. ALISTORE European Res Inst, CNRS, FR 3104, Hub Energie, 15 Rue Baudelocque, F-80039 Amiens, France.
    Ekberg, Christian
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, Nucl Chem & Ind Mat Recycling, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Guyomard, Dominique
    Univ Nantes, CNRS, Inst Mat Jean Rouxel, IMN, F-44000 Nantes, France.
    Lestriez, Bernard
    Univ Nantes, CNRS, Inst Mat Jean Rouxel, IMN, F-44000 Nantes, France.
    Novák, Petr
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Electrochem Lab, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Petranikova, Martina
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, Nucl Chem & Ind Mat Recycling, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Porcher, Willy
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CEA Liten, 17 Ave Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble, France.
    Trabesinger, Sigita
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Electrochem Lab, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret
    Zentrum Sonnenenergie & Wasserstoff Forsch Baden, Helmholtzstr 8, D-89081 Ulm, Germany; Helmholtz Inst Ulm HIU, Helmholtzstr 11, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Zhang, Heng
    Basque Res & Technol Alliance BRTA, Ctr Cooperat Res Alternat Energies CIC EnergiGUNE, Alava Technol Pk,Albert Einstein 48, Vitoria 01510, Spain.
    Lithium-ion batteries: Current state of the art and anticipated developments2020In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 479, article id 228708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion batteries are the state-of-the-art electrochemical energy storage technology for mobile electronic devices and electric vehicles. Accordingly, they have attracted a continuously increasing interest in academia and industry, which has led to a steady improvement in energy and power density, while the costs have decreased at even faster pace. Important questions, though, are, to which extent and how (fast) the performance can be further improved, and how the envisioned goal of truly sustainable energy storage can be realized.

    Herein, we combine a comprehensive review of important findings and developments in this field that have enabled their tremendous success with an overview of very recent trends concerning the active materials for the negative and positive electrode as well as the electrolyte. Moreover, we critically discuss current and anticipated electrode fabrication processes, as well as an essential prerequisite for "greener" batteries - the recycling. In each of these chapters, we eventually summarize important remaining challenges and propose potential directions for further improvement. Finally, we conclude this article with a brief summary of the performance metrics of commercial lithium-ion cells and a few thoughts towards the future development of this technology including several key performance indicators for the mid-term to long-term future.

  • 4.
    Berastegui, Pedro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Electrochemical reactions of AgFeO2 as negative electrode in Li- and Na-ion batteries2018In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 401, p. 386-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AgFeO2 nanoparticles synthesized via precipitation at room temperature are investigated in Li- and Na-ion cells through electrode coatings with an alginate binder. The electrochemical reactions of AgFeO2 with Li+ and Na+ions, as well as its role as alternative negative electrode in these cell systems are carefully evaluated. Initial Li uptake causes irreversible amorphization of the AgFeO2 structure with concomitant formation of Ag0 nanoparticles. Further Li incorporation results in conversion into Fe0 nanoparticles and Li2O, together with Li-alloying of these Ag0 clusters. Similar mechanisms are also found upon Na uptake, although such processes are hindered by overpotentials, the capacity and reversibility of the reactions with Na+ ions being not comparablewith those of their Li+ counterparts. The behaviour of AgFeO2 at low potentials vs. Li+/Li displays a synergic pseudo-capacitive charge storage overlapping Li-Ag alloying/de-alloying. This feature is exploited in full cells having deeply lithiated AgFeO2 and LiFePO4 as negative and positive electrodes, respectively. These environmentally friendly iron-based full cells exhibit attractive cycle performances with ≈80% capacity retention after 1000 cycles without any electrolyte additive, average round trip efficiency of ≈89% and operational voltage of 3.0 V combined with built-in pseudo-capacitive characteristics that enable high cycling rates up to≈25C.

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  • 5.
    Biendicho, Jordi Jacas
    et al.
    ISIS Runtherford Appleton Laboratory.
    Roberts, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Offer, Colin
    ISIS Runtherford Appleton Laboratory.
    Noreus, Dag
    Stockholm University.
    Widenkvist, Erika
    Nilar.
    Smith, Ronald I.
    ISIS Runtherford Appleton Laboratory.
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Norberg, Stefan T.
    Eriksson, Sten G.
    Hull, Stephen
    New in-situ neutron diffraction cell for electrode materials2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 248, p. 900-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel neutron diffraction cell has been constructed to allow in-situ studies of the structural changes in materials of relevance to battery applications during charge/discharge cycling. The new design is based on the coin cell geometry, but has larger dimensions compared to typical commercial batteries in order to maximize the amount of electrode material and thus, collect diffraction data of good statistical quality within the shortest possible time. An important aspect of the design is its modular nature, allowing flexibility in both the materials studied and the battery configuration. This paper reports electrochemical tests using a Nickel-metal-hydride battery (Ni-MH), which show that the cell is able to deliver 90% of its theoretical capacity when using deuterated components. Neutron diffraction studies performed on the Polaris diffractometer using nickel metal and a hydrogen-absorbing alloy (MH) clearly show observable changes in the neutron diffraction patterns as a function of the discharge state. Due to the high quality of the diffraction patterns collected in-situ (i.e. good peak-to-background ratio), phase analysis and peak indexing can be performed successfully using data collected in around 30 min. In addition to this, structural parameters for the beta-phase (charged) MH electrode obtained by Rietveld refinement are presented.

  • 6.
    Blidberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Alfredsson, Maria
    Univ Kent, Sch Phys Sci, Canterbury CT2 7NH, Kent, England.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Electronic changes in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-coated LiFeSO4F during electrochemical lithium extraction2019In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 418, p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The redox activity of tavorite LiFeSO4F coated with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), i.e. PEDOT, is investigated by means of several spectroscopic techniques. The electronic changes and iron-ligand redox features of this LiFeSO4F-PEDOT composite are probed upon delithiation through X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The PEDOT coating, which is necessary here to obtain enough electrical conductivity for the electrochemical reactions of LiFeSO4F to occur, is electrochemically stable within the voltage window employed for cell cycling. Although the electronic configuration of PEDOT shows also some changes in correspondence of its reduced and oxidized forms after electrochemical conditioning in Li half-cells, its p-type doping is fully retained between 2.7 and 4.1 V with respect to Li+/Li during the first few cycles. An increased iron-ligand interaction is observed in LixFeSO4F during electrochemical lithium extraction, which appears to be a general trend for polyanionic insertion compounds. This finding is crucial for a deeper understanding of a series of oxidation phenomena in Li-ion battery cathode materials and helps paving the way to the exploration of new energy storage materials with improved electrochemical performances.

  • 7.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Karo, Jaanus
    Thomas, John O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
     Modelling the Nafion® diffraction profile by molecular dynamics simulation2010In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 195, no 18, p. 5962-5965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diffraction profile is here derived from classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation for the hydrated perfluorosulphonic acid fuel-cell membrane material Nafion at 363 K using a 76 angstrom x 76 angstrom x 76 angstrom box. The MD simulation reproduces the phase-separated nanoscale structure of Nafion and water channels. No specific structural features, such as a characteristic channel diameter, could be distinguished. Nevertheless, the envelope of the simulated diffraction profile based on 6000 MD "snapshots" reproduced well the key features of the experimental SAXS profile. This draws into questions previous interpretations of diffraction data for the Nafion (R) system which involve simplistic notions of channel- and cluster-diameter.

  • 8.
    Brant, William
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Li, Dan
    Gu, Qinfen
    Schmid, Siegbert
    Comparative analysis of ex-situ and operando X-ray diffraction experiments for lithium insertion materials2016In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 302, p. 126-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    A comparative study of ex-situ and operando X-ray diffraction techniques using the fast lithium ion conductor Li0.18Sr0.66Ti0.5Nb0.5O3 is presented. Ex-situ analysis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data suggests that a single phase material exists for all discharges to as low as 0.422 V. For samples discharged to 1 V or lower, i.e. with higher lithium content, it is possible to determine the lithium position from the X-ray data. However, operando X-ray diffraction from a coin cell reveals that a kinetically driven two phase region occurs during battery cycling below 1 V. Through monitoring the change in unit cell dimension during electrochemical cycling the dynamics of lithium insertion are explored. A reduction in the rate of unit cell expansion of 22(2)% part way through the first discharge and 13(1)% during the second discharge is observed. This reduction may be caused by a drop in lithium diffusion into the bulk material for higher lithium contents. A more significant change is a jump in the unit cell expansion by 60(2)% once the lithium content exceeds one lithium ion per vacant site. It is suggested that this jump is caused by damping of octahedral rotations, thus establishing a link between lithium content and octahedral rotations.

    Graphical abstract

  • 9.
    Brant, William R
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Chem, Sydney, Australia..
    Roberts, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Jacas Biendicho, Jordi
    Catalonia Inst Energy Res, Jardins Dones Negre 1, Sant Adria De Besos 08930, Spain..
    Hull, Stephen
    STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, ISIS Facil, Harwell 11 0QX, Oxon, England..
    Ehrenberg, Helmut
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IAM, D-76344 Eggenstein Leopoldshafen, Germany..
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Schmid, Siegbert
    Univ Sydney, Sch Chem, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    A large format in operando wound cell for analysing the structural dynamics of lithium insertion materials2016In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 336, p. 279-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a large wound cell for in operando neutron diffraction (ND) from which high quality diffraction patterns are collected every 15 min while maintaining conventional electrochemical performance. Under in operando data collection conditions the oxygen atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and cell parameters were extracted for Li0.18Sr0.66Ti0.5Nb0.5O3. Analysis of diffraction data collected under in situ conditions revealed that the lithium is located on the (0.5 0.5 0) site, corresponding to the 3c Wyckoff position in the cubic perovskite unit cell, after the cell is discharged to I V. When the cell is discharged under potentiostatic conditions the quantity of lithium on this site increases, indicating a potential position where lithium becomes pinned in the thermodynamically stable phase. During this potentiostatic step the oxygen ADPs reduce significantly. On discharge, however, the oxygen ADPs were observed to increase gradually as more lithium is inserted into the structure. Finally, the rate of unit cell expansion changed by similar to 44% once the lithium content approached similar to 0.17 Li per formula unit. A link between lithium content and degree of mobility, disorder of the oxygen positions and changing rate of unit cell expansion at various stages during lithium insertion and extraction is thus presented.

  • 10. Brant, William R.
    et al.
    Schmid, Siegbert
    Du, Guodong
    Gu, Qinfen
    Sharma, Neeraj
    A simple electrochemical cell for in-situ fundamental structural analysis using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction2013In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 244, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bryngelsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Stjerndahl, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    How dynamic is the SEI?2007In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 174, no 2, p. 970-975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface chemistry of graphite and intermetallic AlSb has been studied by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in a Li-ion battery context using LiPF6 in EC/DEC as electrolyte. The main results for graphite are as follows: the SEI (solid electrolyte interphase) is different for the lithiated state after 3 cycles (0.01 V) compared to the delithiated state (1.5 V); after 50 cycles the SEI is thicker; there are more Li2CO3 or semi-carbonates on the surface of the delithiated sample (1.5 V) than on the lithiated sample (0.01 V); LiF is continuously formed during the first cycles but a steady state is reached after 50 cycles; a new peak in the C 1s spectra indicating a fluorine-containing compound is found at high photon energies (292 eV). The main results for AlSb are as follows: the SEI is different for the lithiated state (0.01 V) compared to the delithiated state (1.2 V) after 3 cycles; after 50 cycles the surface layer thickness is slightly larger but significantly thinner than for graphite; contrary to graphite, more Li2CO3 or semi-carbonates are found on the surface of the lithiated sample; also here a new peak indicating a fluorine-containing compound is found in the C 1s spectra at 292 eV. The general result is that the SEI has many similar features between graphite and AlSb but also important differences. The carbonaceous layer is dynamically shifting in chemical composition during cycling for both samples.

  • 12.
    Choi, Young Won
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Appl Mat Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Araujo, Moyses
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Karlstad Univ, Dept Engn & Phys, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Lizarraga, Raquel
    Royal Inst Technol, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Appl Mat Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Amorphisation-induced electrochemical stability of solid-electrolytes in Li-metal batteries: The case of Li3ClO2022In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 521, article id 230916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy storage technologies that can meet the unprecedented demands of a sustainable energy system based on intermittent energy sources require new battery materials. In recent years, new superionic conducting glasses have been discovered that have captured the attention of the community due to their potential use as solid electrolytes for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. New research is needed to understand the correlations between the non-crystalline structure of glasses and their advanced properties. Here we investigate the structural properties, the electronic structure and the electrochemical stability against Li metal of the high ionic conducting Li3ClO glass. We use the stochastic quenching method based on first principles theory to model the amorphous structure of the glass. We characterise the structure by means of radial distribution functions, angle distributions functions, bond lengths and coordination numbers. Our calculations of the electronic structure of Li3ClO for both phases, crystalline and amorphous, demonstrate that both materials are good insulators. We assess the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte against Li metal electrode and in particular we analyse the role of amorphisation. Our results show that crystalline Li3ClO is not stable against Li metal electrode and that the glass can be made stable if less oxygen is supplied, for instance, by producing an substoichiometric glass.

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  • 13.
    Christiansen, Ane S.
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Stamate, Eugen
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Thydén, Karl
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Younesi, Reza
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Holtappels, Peter
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Plasma properties during magnetron sputtering of lithium phosphorous oxynitride thin films2015In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 273, p. 863-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nitrogen dissociation and plasma parameters during radio frequency sputtering of lithium phosphorus oxynitride thin films in nitrogen gas are investigated by mass appearance spectrometry, electrostatic probes and optical emission spectroscopy, and the results are correlated with electrochemical properties and microstructure of the films. Low pressure and moderate power are associated with lower plasma density, higher electron temperature, higher plasma potential and larger diffusion length for sputtered particles. This combination of parameters favors the presence of more atomic nitrogen, a fact that correlates with a higher ionic conductivity. Despite of lower plasma density the film grows faster at lower pressure where the higher plasma potential, translated into higher energy for impinging ions on the substrate, resulted in a compact and smooth film structure. Higher pressures showed much less nitrogen dissociation and lower ion energy with thinner films, less ionic conductivity and poor film structure with large roughness.

  • 14.
    Ciosek Högström, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lundgren, Henrik
    Wilken, Susanne
    Chalmers.
    Zavalis, Tommy
    Applied Electrochemistry KTH.
    Behm, Mårten
    Applied Electrochemistry KTH.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Jacobsson, Per
    Chalmers.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Chalmers.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    Applied Electrochemistry KTH.
    Impact of the flame retardant additive triphenyl phosphate (TPP) on the performance of graphite/LiFePO4 cells in high power applications2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 256, p. 430-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an extensive characterization of a standard Li-ion battery (LiB) electrolyte containing different concentrations of the flame retardant triphenyl phosphate (TPP) in the context of high power applications. Electrolyte characterization shows only a minor decrease in the electrolyte flammability for low TPP concentrations. The addition of TPP to the electrolyte leads to increased viscosity and decreased conductivity. The solvation of the lithium ion charge carriers seem to be directly affected by the TPP addition as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and increased mass-transport resistivity. Graphite/LiFePO4 full cell tests show the energy efficiency to decrease with the addition of TPP. Specifically, diffusion resistivity is observed to be the main source of increased losses. Furthermore, TPP influences the interface chemistry on both the positive and the negative electrode. Higher concentrations of TPP lead to thicker interface layers on LiFePO4. Even though TPP is not electrochemically reduced on graphite, it does participate in SEI formation. TPP cannot be considered a suitable flame retardant for high power applications as there is only a minor impact of TPP on the flammability of the electrolyte for low concentrations of TPP, and a significant increase in polarization is observed for higher concentrations of TPP.

  • 15.
    Dahbi, Mohammed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Urbonaite, Sigita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Combustion synthesis and electrochemical performance of Li2FeSiO4/C cathode material for lithium-ion batteries2012In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 205, p. 456-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel preparation technique was developed for synthesizing Li2FeSiO4/C nanoparticles through combustion of reaction mixtures containing silicon source. Li and Fe sources that operate as oxidizers and sucrose that act as a fuel. A systematic investigation of the synthesis parameters, such as the effect of the fuel content, on purity, morphology and electrochemical properties of the samples was performed. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area (BET) and electrochemical measurements, respectively. Among the synthesized cathode materials, Li2FeSiO4 obtained with 1.5 mol of sucrose, showed the best electrochemical performance in terms of discharge capacity, cycling stability and rate capability. Discharge capacity of 130 mAh/g at C/20, 88 mAh/g at C/2 and 44 mAh/g at 2C were obtained with no capacity fading after 50 cycles.

  • 16.
    Doubaji, Siham
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. LCME, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Saadoune, Ismael
    LCME, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Dahbi, Mohammed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Synthesis and characterization of a new layered cathode material for sodium ion batteries2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 266, p. 275-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the high abundance of sodium and its low cost compared to lithium, sodium ion batteries have recently attracted a renewed interest as possible candidates for stationary and mobile energy storage devices. Herein, we present a new sodium ion intercalation material, Na5CO2/3Mn2/9Ni1/9O2, which has been synthesized by a sol gel route in air followed by a heat treatment at 800 degrees C for 12 h. Its structure has been studied by X-ray diffraction showing that the material crystallized in a P2-type structure (space group P6(3)/mmc). As far as the electrochemical properties of NaxCo2/3Mn2/9Ni1/9O2 as positive electrode are concerned, this compound offers a specific capacity of 110 mAh g(-1) when cycled between 2.0 and 4.2 V vs. Na+/Na. The electrodes exhibited a good capacity retention and a coulombic efficiency exceeding 99.4%, as well as a reversible discharge capacity of 140 mAh g(-1) when cycled between 2.0 and 4.5 V. These results represent a further step towards the realization of efficient sodium ion batteries, especially considering that the synthesis method proposed here is simple and cost effective and that all the electrochemical measurements were carried out without any use of additives or any optimization for both the materials and the cell components. 

  • 17. El-Ghazaly, Ahmed
    et al.
    Halim, Joseph
    Ahmed, Bilal
    Etman, Ahmed S.
    Rosen, Johanna
    Exploring the electrochemical behavior of Mo1.33CTz MXene in aqueous sulfates electrolytes: Effect of intercalating cations on the stored charge2022In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 531, p. 231302-231302, article id 231302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Eriksson, Rickard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Sobkowiak, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Ångström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Sahlberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Formation of Tavorite-Type LiFeSO4F Followed by In Situ X-ray Diffraction2015In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 298, p. 363-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tavorite-type polymorph of LiFeSO4F has recently attracted substantial attention as a positive elec- trode material for lithium ion batteries. The synthesis of this material is generally considered to rely on a topotactic exchange of water (H2O) for lithium (Li) and fluorine (F) within the structurally similar hy- drated iron sulfate precursor (FeSO4·H2O) when reacted with lithium fluoride (LiF). However, there have also been discussions in the literature regarding the possibility of a non-topotactic reaction mechanism between lithium sulfate (Li2SO4) and iron fluoride (FeF2) in tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as reaction medium. In this work, we use in situ X-ray diffraction to continuously follow the formation of LiFeSO4F from the two suggested precursor mixtures in a setup aimed to mimic the conditions of a solvothermal autoclave synthesis. It is demonstrated that LiFeSO4F is formed directly from FeSO4·H2O and LiF, in agreement with the proposed topotactic mechanism. The Li2SO4 and FeF2 precursors, on the other hand, are shown to rapidly transform into FeSO4·H2O and LiF with the water originating from the highly hygroscopic TEG before a subsequent formation of LiFeSO4F is initiated. The results highlight the importance of the FeSO4·H2O precursor in obtaining the tavorite-type LiFeSO4F, as it is observed in both reaction routes.

  • 19.
    Esser, Birgit
    et al.
    Univ Freiburg, Inst Organ Chem, Albertstr 21, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany.;Univ Freiburg, Freiburg Mat Res Ctr, Stefan Meier Str 19, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany.;Univ Freiburg, Cluster Excellence livMatS FIT Freiburg Ctr Inter, Georges Kohler Allee 105, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany..
    Dolhem, Franck
    Univ Picardie Jules Verne, Lab Glycochim Antimicrobiens & Agroressources LG2, UMR CNRS 7378, 33 Rue St Leu, F-80039 Amiens, France.;FR CNRS 3085, Inst Chim Picardie ICP, 33 Rue St Leu, F-80039 Amiens, France..
    Becuwe, Matthieu
    FR CNRS 3085, Inst Chim Picardie ICP, 33 Rue St Leu, F-80039 Amiens, France.;Univ Picardie Jules Verne UPJV, Lab Reactivite & Chim Solides LRCS, UMR CNRS 7314, 33 Rue St Leu, F-80039 Amiens, France.;FR CNRS 3459, Reseau Stockage Electrochim Energie RS2E, F-80039 Amiens, France..
    Poizot, Philippe
    Univ Nantes, Inst Mat Jean Rouxel, IMN, CNRS, F-44000 Nantes, France..
    Vlad, Alexandru
    Catholic Univ Louvain, Inst Matiere Condense & Nanosci, B-1348 Louvain La Neuve, Belgium..
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    A perspective on organic electrode materials and technologies for next generation batteries2021In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 482, article id 228814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this perspective article, we review some of the most recent advances in the emerging field of organic materials as the electroactive component in solid electrodes for batteries. These comprise, but are not limited to, organometallic salts, small molecular systems, redox-active macromolecules, as well as hybrid formulations with inorganic electrode constituents. The materials are first scrutinized in terms of their general electrochemical performance and most apparent challenges, while an outlook is then made into how to best utilize them in battery electrodes and in all-organic cells. An insight into the fundamental structural-dynamic properties of these compounds, not least explored through a range of modelling and characterization techniques, is also given to complement the experimental advances. The major advantages of these materials as compared to competing technologies are most likely their potentially low environmental impact and general sustainability, which forms the context of this summary of the research field and corresponding technology area.

  • 20.
    Gebert, Florian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Longhini, Matilde
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström. Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131, Padova, Italy..
    Conti, Fosca
    Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131, Padova, Italy.
    Naylor, Andrew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    An electrochemical evaluation of state-of-the-art non-flammable liquid electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries2023In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 556, article id 232412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid and accelerating adoption of lithium-ion batteries worldwide, especially in the transportation sector, has focused attention on their safety. One area of particular interest is finding alternatives for their most flammable component, the liquid electrolyte. Over the past 20 years, a number of non-flammable liquid elec-trolytes have been identified and tested. However, because these data are frequently obtained under a wide range of conditions - e.g., different active materials, current densities or voltage cutoffs - it is difficult to compare them. In this work, eight promising non-flammable liquid electrolytes - four phosphate derivatives and four based on fluorinated hydrocarbons - are identified from the literature and tested in commercially relevant high -voltage systems under identical conditions. The electrochemical stabilities of the electrolytes were studied against both inert electrodes and in LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2|graphite cells. Each electrolyte was assessed via long-term cycling experiments and rate-testing and the cell resistance during aging was monitored. It was found that the electrolytes containing phosphate and phosphonate-based solvents generally performed very poorly compared to the phosphorus-free fluorinated solvents; the latter resulted, on average, in twice the capacity retention after 500 cycles of the former. A strong correlation was observed between long-term cycling perfor-mance, rate capability and the cell resistance.

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  • 21.
    Ghoreishi, Farzaneh S.
    et al.
    Tarbiat Modares Univ, Dept Nanotechnol Engn, Tehran 14115111, Iran.;Uppsala Univ, Inst Phys Chem, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, S-75120523 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ahmadi, Vahid
    Tarbiat Modares Univ, Dept Nanotechnol Engn, Tehran 14115111, Iran.;Tarbiat Modares Univ, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Tehran 14115194, Iran..
    Poursalehi, Reza
    Tarbiat Modares Univ, Dept Nanotechnol Engn, Tehran 14115111, Iran..
    SamadPour, Mahmoud
    KN Toosi Univ Technol, Dept Phys, Tehran 1541849611, Iran..
    Johansson, Malin B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala Univ, Inst Phys Chem, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, S-75120523 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Enhanced performance of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells via interface modification using phenyl ammonium iodide derivatives2020In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 473, article id 228492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interface modification in perovskite solar cells is a key factor for achieving high power conversion efficiency by suppressing electron-hole recombination and accelerating charge carrier extraction. Here, we use a series of phenyl ammonium derivatives, phenyl ammonium iodide (PAI), benzyl ammonium iodide (BAI), and phenyl ethyl ammonium iodide (PEAI), to modify the interface between methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI(3)) perovskite and Spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transport layer in solar cell devices. The structural and optical properties of the perovskite films are studied and the results reveal the formation of two-dimensional perovskite interfacial layers on the surface of the MAPbI(3) film modified with PEAI and BAI whereas the MAPbI(3) layer modified with PAI gives an interface layer with slightly different properties compared to the two-dimensional perovskite. Impedance spectroscopy shows that the charge transport resistance of the interface engineered solar cells decreases when compared to pristine MAPbI(3). In addition, slower open-circuit voltage decay and longer carrier lifetime are also observed for the modified cells which in total lead to the improvement of the photovoltaic performance. The investigation therefore gives insight in the effect of interface modifications, and especially how different sizes of the molecular interface modifier results in different interface formation and characteristics.

  • 22.
    Golodnistky, Diana
    et al.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Raymond & Beverly Sackler Fac Exact Sci, Sch Chem, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Greenbaum, Steve
    Hunter Coll CUNY, Dept Phys & Astron, New York, NY 10065 USA..
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Passerini, Stefano
    Helmholtz Inst Ulm HIU, Helmholtzstr 11, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.;Karlsruhe Inst Technol KIT, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany.;Sapienza Univ Rome, Dept Chem, Piazzale A Moro 5, I-00185 Rome, Italy..
    Interfacial phenomena in lithium batteries and beyond2023In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 562, article id 232673Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Herstedt, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Fransson, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Rate capability of natural graphite as anode material in Li-ion batteries2003In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 124, no 1, p. 191-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jet-milled natural Swedish graphite has been evaluated as an anode material for Li-ion battery applications, with a focus on rate capability of the material. The material was found to have a superior rate capability compared to other carbon materials with similar particle sizes. It could also intercalate and deintercalate lithium reversibly in an electrolyte based on propylene carbonate:ethylene carbonate (1:1). Jet-milling was found to increase the amount of rhombohedral phase (3R) in the material from 15 to 40%. However, after repeated electrochemical intercalation and deintercalation of lithium, the amount of 3R phase decreases to ~5%. Neither rate capability nor PC-tolerance can therefore be correlated to the amount of 3R phase.

  • 24.
    Jeschull, Fabian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Lacey, Matthew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Influence of inactive electrode components on degradation phenomena in nano-Si electrodes for Li-ion batteries2016In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 325, p. 513-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrode morphology and electrochemistry of silicon nanocomposite electrodes containing either carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) or poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) binders are examined in context of their working surface area. Using porous carbon (Ketjenblack) additives, coatings with poor adhesion properties and deep cracks were obtained. The morphology is also reflected in the electrochemical behavior under capacity-limited conditions. Mapping the differential capacity versus potential over all cycles yields detailed insights into the degradation processes and shows the onset of cell failure with the emergence of lithium-rich silicon alloys at low potentials, well before capacity fading is observed. Fading occurs faster with electrodes containing PAA binder. The surface area of the electrode components is a major cause of increased irreversible reaction and capacity fade. Synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on aged, uncycled electrodes revealed accelerated conversion of the native SiOx-layer to detrimental SiOxFy in presence of Ketjenblack. In contrast, a conventional carbon black better preserved the SiOx-layer. This effect is attributed to preferred adsorption of binder on high surface area electrode components and highlights the role of binders as 'artificial SEI-layers'. This work demonstrates that optimization of nanocomposites requires careful balancing of the surface areas and amounts of all the electrode components applied.

  • 25.
    Khossossi, Nabil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Moulay Ismail Univ, LP2MS, Unite Associee CNRST URAC 08, Fac Sci,Dept Phys, BP 11201, Meknes, Morocco..
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Essaoudi, Ismail
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Moulay Ismail Univ, LP2MS, Unite Associee CNRST URAC 08, Fac Sci,Dept Phys, BP 11201, Meknes, Morocco..
    Ainane, Abdelmajid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Moulay Ismail Univ, LP2MS, Unite Associee CNRST URAC 08, Fac Sci,Dept Phys, BP 11201, Meknes, Morocco.;Max Planck Inst Phys Complexer Syst, NothnitzerStr 38, D-01187 Dresden, Germany..
    Jena, Puru
    Virginia Commonwealth Univ, Dept Phys, Richmond, VA 23284 USA..
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Mat & Engn, Appl Mat Phys, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thermodynamics and kinetics of 2D g-GeC monolayer as an anode materials for Li/Na-ion batteries2021In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 485, article id 229318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of high capacity anode materials is one of the essential strategies for next-generation high-performance Li/Na-ion batteries. Rational design, using density functional theory, can expedite the discovery of these anode materials. Here, we propose a new anode material, germanium carbide, g-GeC, for Li/Na-ion batteries. Our results show that g-GeC possesses both benefits of the high stability of graphene and the strong interaction between Li/Na and germanene. The single-layer germanium carbide, g-GeC, can be lithiated/sodiated on both sides yielding Li2GeC and Na2GeC with a storage capacity as high as 633 mA h/g. Besides germagraphene's 2D honeycomb structure, fast charge transfer, and high (Li/Na)-ion diffusion and negligible volume change further enhance the anode performance. These findings provide valuable insights into the electronic characteristics of newly predicted 2D g-GeC nanomaterial as a promising anode for (Li/Na)-ion batteries.

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  • 26.
    Kitz, Paul G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Paul Scherrer Inst, Electrochem Lab, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Lacey, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Södertälje, Sweden..
    Novak, Petr
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Electrochem Lab, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Berg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Paul Scherrer Inst, Electrochem Lab, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Operando investigation of the solid electrolyte interphase mechanical and transport properties formed from vinylene carbonate and fluoroethylene carbonate2020In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 477, article id 228567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrolyte additives vinylene carbonate (VC) and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) are well known for increasing the lifetime of a Li-ion battery cell by supporting the formation of an effective solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) at the anode. In this study combined simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and operando electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (EQCM-D) are employed together with in situ gas analysis (OEMS) to study the influence of VC and FEC on the passivation process and the interphase properties at carbon-based anodes. In small quantities both additives reduce the initial interphase mass loading by 30-50%, but only VC also effectively prevents continuous side reactions and improves anode passivation significantly. VC and FEC are both reduced at potentials above 1 V vs. Li+/Li in the first cycle and change the SEI composition which causes an increase of the SEI shear storage modulus by over one order of magnitude in both cases. As a consequence, the ion diffusion coefficient and conductivity in the interphase is also significantly affected. While small quantities of VC in the initial electrolyte increase the SEI conductivity, FEC decomposition products hinder charge transport through the SEI and thus increase overall anode impedance significantly.

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  • 27.
    Kjell, Maria Hellqvist
    et al.
    Applied Electrochemistry, KTH.
    Malmgren, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Ciosek, Katarzyna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Behm, Marten
    Applied Electrochemistry KTH.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lindbergh, Goran
    Applied Electrochemistry KTH.
    Comparing aging of graphite/LiFePO4 cells at 22 degrees C and 55 degrees C - Electrochemical and photoelectron spectroscopy studies2013In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 243, p. 290-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated aging at elevated temperature is commonly used to test lithium-ion battery lifetime, but the effect of an elevated temperature is still not well understood. If aging at elevated temperature would only be faster, but in all other respects equivalent to aging at ambient temperature, cells aged to end-of-life (EOL) at different temperatures would be very similar. The present study compares graphite/LiFePO4-based cells either cycle- or calendar-aged to EOL at 22 degrees C and 55 degrees C. Cells cycled at the two temperatures show differences in electrochemical impedance spectra as well as in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. These results show that lithium-ion cell aging is a complex set of processes. At elevated temperature, the aging is accelerated in process-specific ways. Furthermore, the XPS results of cycle-aged samples indicate increased deposition of oxygenated LiPF6 decomposition products in both the negative and positive electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The decomposition seems more pronounced at elevated temperature, and largely accelerated by cycling, which could contribute to the observed cell impedance increase.

  • 28.
    Klett, Matilda
    et al.
    Applied Electrochemistry, KTH.
    Eriksson, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Groot, Jens
    AB Volvo.
    Svens, Pontus
    Scania CV AB.
    Högström, Katarzyna Ciosek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lindstrom, Rakel Wreland
    Applied Electrochemistry KTH.
    Berg, Helena
    Libergreen.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lindbergh, Goran
    Applied Electrochemistry KTH.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Non-uniform aging of cycled commercial LiFePO4//graphite cylindrical cells revealed by post-mortem analysis2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 257, p. 126-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging of power-optimized commercial 2.3 Ah cylindrical LiFePO4//graphite cells to be used in hybrid electric vehicle is investigated and compared for three different aging procedures; (i) using a simulated hybrid electric vehicle cycle within a narrow SOC-range, (ii) using a constant-current cycle over a 100% SOC-range, and (iii) stored during three years at 22 degrees C. Postmortem analysis of the cells is performed after full-cell electrochemical characterization and discharge. EIS and capacity measurements are made on different parts of the disassembled cells. Material characterization includes SEM, EDX, HAXPES/XPS and XRD. The most remarkable result is that both cycled cells displayed highly uneven aging primarily of the graphite electrodes, showing large differences between the central parts of the jellyroll compared to the outer parts. The aging variations are identified as differences in capacity and impedance of the graphite electrode, associated with different SEI characteristics. Loss of cyclable lithium is mirrored by a varying degree of lithiation in the positive electrode and electrode slippage. The spatial variation in negative electrode degradation and utilization observed is most likely connected to gradients in temperature and pressure, that can give rise to current density and potential distributions within the jellyroll during cycling.

  • 29.
    Klink, Jacob
    et al.
    Tech Univ Clausthal, Res Ctr Energy Storage Technol, Stollen 19A, D-38640 Goslar, Germany.;Tech Univ Clausthal, Inst Elect Power Engn & Elect Energy Engn, Leibnizstr 28, D-38678 Clausthal Zellerfeld, Germany..
    Grabow, Jens
    Tech Univ Clausthal, Res Ctr Energy Storage Technol, Stollen 19A, D-38640 Goslar, Germany.;Tech Univ Clausthal, Inst Elect Power Engn & Elect Energy Engn, Leibnizstr 28, D-38678 Clausthal Zellerfeld, Germany..
    Orazov, Nury
    Tech Univ Clausthal, Res Ctr Energy Storage Technol, Stollen 19A, D-38640 Goslar, Germany.;Tech Univ Clausthal, Inst Elect Power Engn & Elect Energy Engn, Leibnizstr 28, D-38678 Clausthal Zellerfeld, Germany..
    Benger, Ralf
    Tech Univ Clausthal, Res Ctr Energy Storage Technol, Stollen 19A, D-38640 Goslar, Germany.;Tech Univ Clausthal, Inst Elect Power Engn & Elect Energy Engn, Leibnizstr 28, D-38678 Clausthal Zellerfeld, Germany..
    Börger, Alexander
    Volkswagen AG, LetterBox 1723, D-38440 Wolfsburg, Germany..
    Ahlberg Tidblad, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström. Volvo Car Corp, SE-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wenzl, Heinz
    Tech Univ Clausthal, Inst Elect Power Engn & Elect Energy Engn, Leibnizstr 28, D-38678 Clausthal Zellerfeld, Germany..
    Beck, Hans-Peter
    Tech Univ Clausthal, Res Ctr Energy Storage Technol, Stollen 19A, D-38640 Goslar, Germany.;Tech Univ Clausthal, Inst Elect Power Engn & Elect Energy Engn, Leibnizstr 28, D-38678 Clausthal Zellerfeld, Germany..
    Thermal fault detection by changes in electrical behaviour in lithium-ion cells2021In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 490, article id 229572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With this paper a method to detect faults of lithium-ion cells during operation is first presented and later validated by experiment. Since every cell fault will increase the cell temperature towards its process until thermal runaway the method uses the temperature-dependent change of the cell impedance as fault feature. Using a 46 Ah pouch cell the model was parameterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and then validated during dynamic load. For this purpose the Worldwide harmonised Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) was chosen. The presence of a fault was simulated by heating the cell once uniformly and once locally and the progression of the chosen fault feature analysed. For both test cases the method proposed was able to detect the present heat source before the thermal runaway was triggered and venting or voltage drop were observed.

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  • 30.
    Kumar, Sunil
    et al.
    Dongguk Univ Seoul, Nano Informat Technol Acad, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Magotra, Verjesh Kumar
    Dongguk Univ Seoul, Nano Informat Technol Acad, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Jeon, H. C.
    Dongguk Univ Seoul, Nano Informat Technol Acad, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Kang, T. W.
    Dongguk Univ Seoul, Nano Informat Technol Acad, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Inamdar, Akbar I.
    Dongguk Univ, Div Phys & Semicond Sci, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Aqueel, Abu Talha
    Dongguk Univ, Div Phys & Semicond Sci, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Im, Hyunsik
    Dongguk Univ, Div Phys & Semicond Sci, Seoul 100715, South Korea.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Multifunctional ammonium fuel cell using compost as a novel electro-catalyst2018In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 402, p. 221-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to acute ammonium toxicity, it is always desirable to find a cheaper and abundant electro-catalyst other than platinum, iridium oxide, boron diamond etc with a high selectivity and negligible de-activation for its oxidation. Also ammonium is not known for electricity generation except biological nitrification process. So this paper elucidates the studies of compost as a novel electro-catalyst in a ammonium fuel cell configuration. These studies are done by varying type of electrodes & compost as well as ammonium concentration. Bi-polar cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, temperature dependence, cyclic stability and chronoamperometry techniques are used to study compost. Cow dung based compost is found to show the best electro-catalytic activity. IV measurements are conducted to study power generation in tune with the electro-catalytic activity. Finally, polarization and sustainability measurements are done on a comparatively larger fuel cell to check the size scalability. The results shows that the maximum power density is 108 mW/m(2) and this multifunctional device can be fueled after every 12 h for continuous operation and with negligible de-activation of electro-catalyst. These studies opens a window for doing further advanced research in compost triggered electro-catalysis to make multifunctional fuel cell devices for solving environmental and energy issues together.

  • 31.
    Laakso, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Dept Chem & Mat Sci, Res Grp Electrochem Energy Convers & Storage, POB 16100, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland.;LUT Univ, Yliopistonkatu 34, Lappeenranta 53850, Finland..
    Efimova, Sofya
    Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Dept Chem & Mat Sci, Res Grp Electrochem Energy Convers & Storage, POB 16100, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland.;Univ Reims, Lab MATIM, F-51100 Reims, France..
    Colalongo, Mattia
    Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Dept Chem & Mat Sci, Res Grp Electrochem Energy Convers & Storage, POB 16100, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland.;European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, 71 Ave Martyrs, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Kauranen, Pertti
    Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Dept Chem & Mat Sci, Res Grp Electrochem Energy Convers & Storage, POB 16100, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland.;LUT Univ, Yliopistonkatu 34, Lappeenranta 53850, Finland..
    Lahtinen, Katja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Dept Chem & Mat Sci, Res Grp Electrochem Energy Convers & Storage, POB 16100, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland..
    Napolitano, Emilio
    TOFWERK AG, Schorenstr 39, CH-3645 Thun, Switzerland.;European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr JRC, Petten, Netherlands..
    Ruiz, Vanesa
    European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr JRC, Petten, Netherlands.;EmagyBV, Bijlestaal 54a, NL-1721 PW Broek Op Langedijk, Netherlands..
    Moskon, Joze
    Natl Inst Chem, Dept Mat Chem, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Gabersck, Miran
    Univ Reims, Lab MATIM, F-51100 Reims, France.;Natl Inst Chem, Dept Mat Chem, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Park, Juyeon
    Natl Phys Lab NPL, Hampton Rd, Teddington TW11 0LW, England..
    Seitz, Steffen
    GermanycPhys Tech Bundesanstalt, GermanycPhysikal Tech Bundesanstalt, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Kallio, Tanja
    Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Dept Chem & Mat Sci, Res Grp Electrochem Energy Convers & Storage, POB 16100, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland..
    Aging mechanisms of NMC811/Si-Graphite Li-ion batteries2024In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 599, article id 234159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrode degradation processes at various Li-ion batteries' state-of-health (SoH 100 %, 80 %, 50 %, and 30 %) and cycling temperatures (5°C, 23°C, and 45°C) were investigated. For this purpose, the standard format of Li-ion cylindrical 18,650 batteries with Si-Graphite negative and LiNi0⋅8Co0⋅1Mn0⋅1O2 (NMC811) positive electrodes were cycled with registering battery parameters and the electrochemical impedance spectrum were recorded after every 200 cycles. Once reaching their end-of-life, electrodes from cycled batteries were subjected to post-mortem analysis. NMC811 positive electrode was observed to crack during the charge and discharge processes, suffered by irreversible phase transition, transition metal dissolution, cathode electrolyte interphase growth, and cation mixing. The Si-Graphite negative electrode material was also affected by crack formation, layer exfoliation, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) recompositing, Li dendrite growth, transition metal contamination, and Si dissolution. Degradation of components leads to an increase of the contact resistance, Li+ diffusion limitations, reduction of active materials participating in Li-ion storage and, as a result, capacity fade that finally rendered the battery utilization unfeasible. Degradation processes can be detected by capacity fade and impedance growth of the full battery. High temperature accelerates electrode degradation processes when low temperature leads to SEI and Li dendrite growth.

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  • 32.
    Lacey, Matthew J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Jeschull, Fabian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Functional, water-soluble binders for improved capacity and stability of lithium-sulfur batteries2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 264, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Binders based on mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) are here shown to significantly improve the reversible capacity and capacity retention of lithium- sulfur batteries compared to conventional binders. This mixed binder formulation combines the local improvement to the solvent system offered by PEO and the lithium (poly)sulfide-stabilising effect of PVP. Cells with cathodes made of simple mixtures of sulfur powder and carbon black with a binder of 4:1 PEO:PVP exhibited a reversible capacity of over 1000 mAh g(-1) at C/5 after 50 cycles and 800 mAh g(-1) at 1C after 200 cycles. Furthermore, these materials are water soluble, environmentally friendly and widely available, making them particularly interesting for large-scale production and applications in, for example, electric vehicles. 

  • 33.
    Lasri, Karime
    et al.
    LCME, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Dahbi, Mohammed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Liivat, Anti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Saadoune, Ismael
    LCME, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Intercalation and conversion reactions in Ni0.5TiOPO4 Li-ion battery anode materials2013In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 229, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ni0.5TiOPO4/C composite Li-ion battery anode material has been prepared by a sol-gel method with a subsequent pyrolysis step for the formation of C-coating. The resulting sub-micronsized particles displayed a narrow particle size distribution and a corresponding high electrochemical activity which, in turn, facilitates in-depth analysis of the electrochemical behavior of the material. It is shown that by limiting the degree of lithiation in the material, the redox potential in subsequent cycles is substantially affected. Ex-situ XRD reveals a gradual evolution of the structure during cycling of the material, with lower crystallinity after the first discharge cycle. By correlating the electrochemical properties with the structural studies, new insights into the electrochemical behavior of the Ni0.5TiOPO4/C anode material are achieved, suggesting a combination of intercalation and conversion reactions.

  • 34.
    Lindberg, S.
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Jeschke, S.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Jankowski, P.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Energy Convers & Storage, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.;Warsaw Univ Technol, Fac Chem, PL-00664 Warsaw, Poland..
    Abdelhamid, Muhammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brousse, T.
    Univ Nantes, Inst Mat Jean Rouxel, CNRS, UMR 6502, F-44322 Nantes 3, France.;CNRS FR 3459, Reseau Stockage Electrochim Energie, F-80039 Amiens, France..
    Le Bideau, J.
    Univ Nantes, Inst Mat Jean Rouxel, CNRS, UMR 6502, F-44322 Nantes 3, France.;CNRS FR 3459, Reseau Stockage Electrochim Energie, F-80039 Amiens, France..
    Johansson, P.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Matic, A.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Charge storage mechanism of alpha-MnO2 in protic and aprotic ionic liquid electrolytes2020In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 460, article id 228111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we have investigated the charge storage mechanism of MnO2 electrodes in ionic liquid electrolytes. We show that by using an ionic liquid with a cation that has the ability to form hydrogen bonds with the active material (MnO2) on the surface of the electrode, a clear faradaic contribution is obtained. This situation is found for ionic liquids with cations that have a low pKa, i.e. protic ionic liquids. For a protic ionic liquid, the specific capacity at low scan rate rates can be explained by a densely packed layer of cations that are in a standing geometry, with a proton directly interacting through a hydrogen bond with the surface of the active material in the electrode. In contrast, for aprotic ionic liquids there is no interaction and only a double layer contribution to the charge storage is observed. However, by adding an alkali salt to the aprotic ionic liquid, a faradaic contribution is obtained from the insertion of Li+ into the surface of the MnO2 electrode. No effect can be observed when Li+ is added to the protic IL, suggesting that a densely packed cation layer in this case prevent Li-ions from reaching the active material surface.

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  • 35.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Xu, Chao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Maibach, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Andersson, Anna M.
    Marcinek, Marek
    Niedzicki, Leszek
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    A hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the solid electrolyte interphase of a lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolide based electrolyte for Si-electrodes2016In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 301, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report focuses on the relatively new salt, lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolide (LiTDI), and its functionality together with a silicon based composite electrode in a half-cell lithium ion battery context. LiTDI is a promising alternative to the commonly used LiPF6 salt because it does not form HF which can decompose the oxide layer on Si. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) as well as the development of the active Si-particles are investigated during the first electrochemical lithiation and de-lithiation. Characterizations are carried out at different state of charge with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) at two different photon energies. This enables a depth resolved picture of the reaction processes and gives an idea of the chemical buildup of the SEI. The SEI is formed by solvent and LiTDI decomposition products and its composition is similar to SEI formed by other carbonate based electrolytes. The LiTDI salt or its decomposition products are not in itself reactive towards the active Si-material and no unwanted side reactions occurs with the active Si-particles. Despite some decomposition of the LiTDI salt, it is a promising alternative for electrolytes aimed towards Si-based electrodes.

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  • 36.
    Liu, Jia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Northeast Normal Univ, Natl & Local United Engn Lab Power Batteries, Fac Chem, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China..
    Ma, Yue
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Roberts, Matthew
    Univ Oxford, Dept Mat, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH, England..
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Zhu, Jiefang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Highly efficient Ru/MnO2 nano-catalysts for Li-O2 batteries: Quantitative analysis of catalytic Li2O2 decomposition by operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction2017In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 352, p. 208-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-situ or operando quantitative analysis is very important for Li-O2 batteries, in order to properly, accurately and comprehensively evaluate electrocatalysts and characterize Li-O2 electrochemistry in real-time. Synchrotron XRD can provide much higher X-ray intensity and time resolution than traditional in-house diffractometers, and therefore can contribute to quantitative analysis for Li-O2 batteries. Here, operando synchrotron XRD is further developed to quantitatively study Li-O2 batteries with nano catalysts, Ru/MnO2. The time-resolved oxygen evolution reaction (OER) kinetics for Li-O2 cells with Ru/MNT was systematically investigated using operando synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD). Li2O2 decomposition in the electrodes with Ru/MNT catalysts during galvanostatic and potentiostatic charge processes followed pseudo-zero-order kinetics and showed ideal Coulombic efficiency (close to 100%). Furthermore, it was found that the OER kinetics for a cell with 2 wt% Ru/MNT charged at a constant potential of 4.3 V was even faster than that for a cell with the same amount of pure Ru nanoparticles, which have been considered as a highly active catalyst for Li-O2 batteries. These results indicated that Ru/MNT with a special nanostructure represented a very efficient electrocatalyst for promoting the OER in Li-O2 batteries. We also demonstrate that synchrotron radiation XRD can "highlight" a way to quantitative analysis for Li-O2 batteries.

  • 37.
    Liu, Jia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Wang, Zhaohui
    State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
    Zhu, Jiefang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Binder-free nitrogen-doped carbon paper electrodes derived from polypyrrole/cellulose composite for Li-O2 batteries2016In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 306, p. 559-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a novel binder-free nitrogen-doped carbon paper electrode (NCPE), which was derived from a N-rich polypyrrole (PPy)/cellulose-chopped carbon filaments (CCFs) composite, for Li–O2 batteries. The fabrication of NCPE involved cheap raw materials (e.g., Cladophora sp. green algae) and easy operation (e.g., doping N by a carbonization of N-rich polymer), which is especially suitable for large-scale production. The NCPE exhibited a bird's nest microstructure, which could provide the self-standing electrode with considerable mechanic durability, fast Li+ and O2 diffusion, and enough space for the discharge product deposition. In addition, the NCPE contained N-containing function groups, which may promote the electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, binder-free architecture designs can prevent binder-involved parasitic reactions. A Li–O2 cell with the NCPE displayed a cyclability of more than 30 cycles at a constant current density of 0.1 mA/cm2. The 1st discharge capacity for a cell with the NCPE reached 8040 mAh/g at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, with a cell voltage around 2.81 V. A cell with the NCPE displayed a coulombic efficiency of 81% on the 1st cycle at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2. These results represent a promising progress in the development of a low-cost and versatile paper-based O2 electrode for Li–O2 batteries.

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  • 38.
    Liu, Peng
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Xu, Bo
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hua, Yong
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cheng, Ming
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Aitola, Kerttu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Kári
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Design, synthesis and application of a pi-conjugated, non-spiro molecular alternative as hole-transport material for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells and perovskite solar cells2017In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 344, p. 11-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two low-cost, easily synthesized pi-conjugated molecules have been applied as hole-transport materials (HTMs) for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs). For X1-based devices, high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 5.8% and 14.4% in ssDSSCs and PSCs has been demonstrated. For X14-based devices, PCEs were improved to 6.1% and 16.4% in ssDSCs and PSCs, respectively.

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  • 39.
    Lundström, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Chem, Box 538, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Berg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Design and validation of an online partial and total pressure measurement system for Li-ion cells2021In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 485, article id 229347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry (OEMS) provides unparalleled access to the details of electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactions in electrochemical systems. Herein, the development and validation of an OEMS system along with detailed calibration protocols and limits of detection sensitivity are showcased. Combined partial and total pressure monitoring provides a clear advantage when detailing major and minor gas reactions as well as when determining unaccounted gases. A classical Li-ion LiCoO2/Graphite full cell is studied during overcharge to 4.9 V vs. Li+/Li at 50 degrees C at an unprecedented level of detail and the results are compared to LiCoO2/LiFePO4 and Graphite/LiFePO4 cells in order to differentiate between gases forming at the anode and cathode. The release of O-2 from LixCoO2 (x < 0.4) during both charge and discharge demonstrates that its degradation is dependent on state of charge 1-x rather than potential. The presented methodology establishes an improved experimental basis for deeper understanding of interfacial reactions in batteries and electrochemical systems alike.

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  • 40.
    Lv, Fei
    et al.
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Zhuyi
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China.
    Shi, Liyi
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Jie-Fang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Yuan, Shuai
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China;Shanghai Univ, Emerging Ind Inst, Jiaxing 314006, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
    Challenges and development of composite solid-state electrolytes for high-performance lithium ion batteries2019In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 441, article id 227175Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The safety concerns and the pursuit of high energy density have stimulated the development of high-performance solid-state lithium ion batteries. Therefore, the key component in solid-state lithium batteries, i.e. the solid-state electrolytes, also has attracted tremendous attention due to its non-flammability and good adaptability to high-voltage cathodes/lithium metal anodes. An in-depth understanding of the existing problems of solid-state electrolytes and proposed strategies for addressing these problems is crucial for the efficient design of high-performance solid-state electrolytes. In this review, we systematically summarized the current limitations of composite solid-state electrolytes and efforts to overcome them, and gave some proposals for the future perspectives of solid-state electrolytes with the aim to provide practical guidance for the researchers in this area.

  • 41.
    Ma, Yue
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Asfaw, Habtom Desta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Three-dimensional carbon foam supported tin oxide nanocrystallites with tunable size range: sulfonate anchoring synthesis and high rate lithium storage properties2015In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 294, p. 208-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a free-standing electrode with high rate capability requires the realization of facile electrolyte percolation, fast charge transfer at the electrode-electrolyte interface as well as the intimate electrical wiring to the current collector. Employing a sulfonated high internal phase emulsion polymer (polyHIPE) as the carbon precursor, we developed a free-standing composite of carbon foam encapsulated SnO 2 nanocrystallites, which simultaneously satisfies the aforementioned requirements. When directly evaluated in the pouch cell without using the binder, carbon additive or metallic current collector, the best performing composite exhibits a good rate performance up to 8 A g -1 and very stable cyclability for 250 cycles. This cycling performance was attributed to the synergistic coupling of hierarchical macro/mesoporous carbon foam and SnO 2 nanocrystals with optimized size range. Postmortem characterizations unveiled the significant influence of subtle size variation of oxides on the electrochemical performance. [All rights reserved Elsevier].

  • 42.
    Ma, Yue
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Asfaw, Habtom Desta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Three-dimensional carbon foam supported tin oxide nanocrystallites with tunable size range: Sulfonate anchoring synthesis and high rate lithium storage properties2015In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 294, p. 208-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a free-standing electrode with high rate capability requires the realization of facile electrolyte percolation, fast charge transfer at the electrode-electrolyte interface as well as the intimate electrical wiring to the current collector. Employing a sulfonated high internal phase emulsion polymer (polyHIPE) as the carbon precursor, we developed a free-standing composite of carbon foam encapsulated SnO2 nanocrystallites, which simultaneously satisfies the aforementioned requirements. When directly evaluated in the pouch cell without using the binder, carbon additive or metallic current collector; the best performing composite exhibits a good rate performance up to 8 A g(-1) and very stable cyclability for 250 cycles. This cycling performance was attributed to the synergistic coupling of hierarchical macro/mesoporous carbon foam and SnO2 nanocrystals with optimized size range. Postmortem characterizations unveiled the significant influence of subtle size variation of oxides on the electrochemical performance.

  • 43.
    Maher, Kenza
    et al.
    LCME, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Saadoune, Ismael
    LCME, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Mansori, Mohammed
    LCME, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.
    The electrochemical behaviour of the carbon-coated Ni0.5TiOPO4 electrode material2011In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 196, no 5, p. 2819-2825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ni0.5TiOPO4 oxyphosphate exhibits good electrochemical properties as an anode material in lithium ion batteries but suffers from its low conductivity. We present here the electrochemical performances of the synthesized Ni0.5TiOPO4/carbon composite by using sucrose as the carbon source. X-ray diffraction study confirms that this phosphate crystallizes in the monoclinic system (S.G. P21/c). The use of the Ni0.5TiOPO4/C composite in lithium batteries shows enhanced electrochemical performances compared with the uncoated material. Capacities up to 200 mAh g−1 could be reached during cycling of this electrode. Furthermore, an acceptable rate capability was obtained with very low capacity fading even at 0.5C rate. Nevertheless, a considerable irreversible capacity was evidenced during the first discharge. In situ synchrotron X-ray radiation was utilized to study the structural change during the first discharge in order to evidence the origin of this irreversible capacity. Lithium insertion during the first discharge induces an amorphization of the crystal structure of the parent material accompanied by an irreversible formation of a new phase.

  • 44. Mahmoud, Abdelfattah
    et al.
    Chamas, Mohamad
    Jumas, Jean-Claude
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Dedryvère, Rémi
    Gonbeau, Danielle
    Saadoune, Ismael
    Lippens, Pierre-Emmanuel
    Electrochemical performances and mechanisms of MnSn2 as anode material for Li-ion batteries2013In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 244, p. 246-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A synthesis method consisting of a mechanical ball milling activation process followed by a sinteringheating treatment is proposed to obtain MnSn2 as anode material for Li-ion batteries. This two-stepapproach strongly reduces the amount of bSn impurities and provides a better material morphology.This improves the electrochemical performances, even at high C-rate, as shown from the comparisonbetween electrode materials obtained with and without this preliminary activation process. The electrochemicalreactions have been followed at the atomic scale by in situ 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy.The first discharge is a restructuring step that transforms the pristine material into Mn/Li7Sn2 nanocompositewhich should be considered as the real starting material for cycling. The delithiation of thisnanocomposite is characterized by two plateaus of potential attributed to the de-alloying of Li7Sn2 followedby the back reaction of Mn with poorly lithiated LixSn alloys, respectively. The composition and thestability of the solid electrolyte interphase were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  • 45.
    Mansouri, Moufida
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn Nucl Chem & Ind Mat Recyclin, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Shtender, Vitalii
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Tunsu, Cristian
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn Nucl Chem & Ind Mat Recyclin, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Yilmaz, Duygu
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Messaoudi, Olfa
    Hail Univ, Dept Phys, Hail, Saudi Arabia..
    Ebin, Burcak
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn Nucl Chem & Ind Mat Recyclin, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sahlberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Petranikova, Martina
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn Nucl Chem & Ind Mat Recyclin, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Production of AB5 materials from spent Ni-MH batteries with further tests of hydrogen storage suitability2022In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 539, article id 231459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach for the reuse of rare earth (REE) elements generated during hydrometallurgical processing of Ni-MH batteries as alternative sources is provided to valorize Ni-MH batteries wastes. The production of AB5-based alloys from spent Ni-MH waste was thoroughly investigated. The REE elements were recovered as a mixture in oxalate form and annealed at 900 °C to obtain a single-phase REEs oxide REE2O3. Citrate gel and glycine nitrate processes followed by the Ca reduction process under H2 atmosphere were used to produce the AB5 alloys. The alloys were successfully produced, and their crystal structure and morphology have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with supporting energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. Nanoparticles with a size of 173±3 nm and 150±8 nm were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for CG and GNP alloys. Studied samples were subjected to hydrogenation, and the structural changes were depicted.

  • 46.
    Mao, Xufeng
    et al.
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China..
    Shi, Liyi
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Haijiao
    Shanghai Univ, Sch Environm & Chem Engn, Inst Nanochem & Nanobiol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Zhuyi
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Jiefang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Qiu, Zhengfu
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Yin
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Meihong
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China..
    Yuan, Shuai
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China..
    Polyethylene separator activated by hybrid coating improving Li+ ion transference number and ionic conductivity for Li-metal battery2017In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 342, p. 816-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low Li+ ion transference number is one fatal defect of the liquid LiPF6 electrolyte for Li-metal anode based batteries. This work aims to improve Li+ ion transference number and ionic conductivity polyethylene (PE) separators. By a simple dip-coating method, the water-borne nanosized molecular sieve with 3D porous structure (ZSM-5) can be coated on PE separators. Especially, the Li+ ion transference number is greatly enhanced from 0.28 to 0.44, which should be attributed to the specific pore structure and channel environment of ZSM-5 as well as the interaction between ZSM-5 and electrolyte. Compared with the pristine PE separator, the ionic conductivity of modified separators is remarkably improved from 0.30 to 0.54 mS cm(-1). As results, the C-rate capability and cycling stability are both improved. The Li-metal battery using the ZSM-5-modified PE separator keeps 94.2% capacity after 100 cycles. In contrast, the discharge capacity retention of the battery using pristine PE is only 74.7%.

  • 47.
    Mikheenkova, Anastasiia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Schökel, Alexander
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Smith, Alexander J.
    Applied Electrochemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Istaq
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Brant, William R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Hahlin, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Condensed Matter Physics of Energy Materials.
    Visualizing ageing-induced heterogeneity within large prismatic lithium-ion batteries for electric cars using diffraction radiography2024In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 599, article id 234190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) radiography was utilized to investigate the ageing heterogeneity in 48 Ah prismatic lithium-ion cells with Ni-rich LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) as the positive electrode active material and graphite as the negative electrode active material after ∼2800 cycles. The study revealed that the area closest to the positive electrode tab is most vulnerable to degradation, particularly impacting the NMC material. Application of principal component analysis allowed to differentiate and visualize part of positive electrode material that has a different degradation due to the lithium plating. A comparison of non-destructive X-ray diffraction-based methods and electrochemical characterization method which was performed on the opened cell has shown an importance of a complementary approach. Our results highlight the feasibility of employing non-destructive techniques to study large prismatic cells, thereby presenting extensive opportunities for advancements in battery research and industry.

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  • 48.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Sun, Bing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Törmä, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    High-performance solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries operational at ambient temperature2015In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 298, p. 166-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incorporation of carbonate repeating units in a poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) backbone used as a host material in solid polymer electrolytes is found to not only suppress crystallinity in the polyester material, but also give higher ionic conductivity in a wide temperature range exceeding the melting point of PCL crystallites. Combined with high cation transference numbers, this electrolyte material has sufficient lithium transport properties to be used in battery cells that are operational at temperatures down to below 23 degrees C, thus clearly demonstrating the potential of using non-polyether electrolytes in high-performance all-solid lithium polymer batteries.

  • 49.
    Misiewicz, Casimir
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lundström, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Ahmed, Istaq
    AB Volvo, SE-40508 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lacey, Matthew J.
    Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Södertälje, Sweden..
    Brant, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Berg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Online electrochemical mass spectrometry on large-format Li-ion cells2023In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 554, article id 232318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in methodologies for real-time analysis of batteries have come a long way, especially with the development of Operando Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry (OEMS). These approaches allow for the deter-mination of side reactions during battery cycling with unprecedented selectivity and sensitivity, providing vital information necessary for determination of lifetime-limiting processes. However, the work thus far has primarily been carried out on model battery systems, where cell atmospheres are largely altered (through open flow, closed cell, and intermittent sampling approaches) and operation conditions are therefore not comparable with real-life situations. Herein, the development and validation of an intermittently closed OEMS system adapted for readily available commercial batteries is showcased. We provide a detailed description of a unique analysis design for large-format PHEV2 cells, with subsequent pressure and gassing data. A qualitative analysis of the results shows that side reactions brought on by structural transitions within both electrodes can be clearly observed. Transi-tions causing large volume changes in graphite induce H2 and C2H4 as SEI reformation products while the c lattice collapse in NMC induces CO2 evolution (through O2 release). OEMS can therefore be used for the quick and effective study of commercially available rechargeable batteries without influencing the internal battery chemistry.

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  • 50.
    Mussa, Abdilbari Shifa
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Appl Electrochem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liivat, Anti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Marzano, Fernanda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Klett, Matilda
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Appl Electrochem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden;Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Goran
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Appl Electrochem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lindstrom, Rakel Wreland
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Appl Electrochem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svens, Pontus
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Appl Electrochem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden;Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Fast-charging effects on ageing for energy-optimized automotive LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite prismatic lithium-ion cells2019In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 422, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reactions in energy-optimized 25 Ah prismatic NMC/graphite lithium-ion cell, as a function of fast charging (1C-4C), are more complex than earlier described. There are no clear charging rate dependent trends but rather different mechanisms dominating at the different charging rates. Ageing processes are faster at 3 and 4C charging. Cycling with 3C-charging results in accelerated lithium plating but the 4C-charging results in extensive gas evolution that contribute significantly to the large cell impedance rise. Graphite exfoliation and accelerated lithium inventory loss point to the graphite electrode as the source of the gas evolution. The results are based on careful post-mortem analyses of electrodes using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). SEM results show particle cracking independent of the charging rate used for the cycling. XPS and EIS generally indicate thicker surface film and larger impedance, respectively, towards the edge of the jellyrolls. For the intended application of a battery electric inner-city bus using this type of cell, charging rates of 3C and above are not feasible, considering battery lifetime. However, charging rates of 2C and below are too slow from the point of view of practical charging time.

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