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  • 1.
    Aktekin, Burak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Zipprich, Wolfgang
    Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany..
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania CV AB, Södertalje..
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    The Effect of the Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 - Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 4, p. A942-A948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the electrolyte additive fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) for Li-ion batteries has been widely discussed in literature in recent years. Here, the additive is studied for the high-voltage cathode LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) coupled to Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) to specifically study its effect on the cathode side. Electrochemical performance of full cells prepared by using a standard electrolyte (LP40) with different concentrations of FEC (0, 1 and 5 wt%) were compared and the surface of cycled positive electrodes were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that addition of FEC is generally of limited use for this battery system. Addition of 5 wt% FEC results in relatively poor cycling performance, while the cells with 1 wt% FEC showed similar behavior compared to reference cells prepared without FEC. SEM and XPS analysis did not indicate the formation of thick surface layers on the LNMO cathode, however, an increase in layer thickness with increased FEC content in the electrolyte could be observed. XPS analysis on LTO electrodes showed that the electrode interactions between positive and negative electrodes occurred as Mn and Ni were detected on the surface of LTO already after 1 cycle. (C) The Author(s) 2017. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Avendano, Esteban
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Azens, A
    Sandell, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Azevedo, G. de M.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Coloration Mechanism in Proton-Intercalated Electrochromic Hydrated NiOy and Ni1-xVxOy Thin Films2009In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 156, no 8, p. p132-p138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic (EC) films of nickel oxide, with and without vanadium,   were prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. They were   characterized by electrochemical and optical measurements and studied   by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) using synchrotron radiation.  The films were analyzed under as-deposited conditions and after   bleaching/coloration by insertion/extraction of protons from a basic   solution and ensuing charge stabilization. Optical measurements were consistent with a coloration process due to charge-transfer transitions   from Ni2+ to Ni3+ states. The PES measurements showed a higher   concentration of Ni3+ in the colored films. Moreover, two peaks were   present in the O 1s spectra of the bleached film and pointed to contributions of Ni(OH)(2) and NiO. The changes in the O 1s spectra   upon coloration treatment indicate the presence of Ni2O3 in the colored   film and necessitated an extension of the conventional model for the   mechanism of EC coloration. The model involves not only proton   extraction from nickel hydroxide to form nickel oxyhydroxide but also participation of NiO in the coloration process to form Ni2O3.

  • 3. Barankova, Hana
    et al.
    Bardos, L
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Enhancement of the reactive deposition rate of TiN films at low nitrogen content1994In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 141, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Bardos, L
    et al.
    Barankova, Hana
    Nyberg, T
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Deposition of carbonaceous films onto internal walls of tubes1994In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 141, no 2, p. 374-377Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Bardos, Ladislav
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Barklund, AM
    the very high rate plasma jet dry etching technique1990In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 137, no 5, p. 1588-1591Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Björklund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Hahlin, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    How the Negative Electrode Influences Interfacial and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathodes in Li-Ion Batteries2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 13, p. A3054-A3059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cycle life of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) based cells are significantly influenced by the choice of the negative electrode. Electrochemical testing and post mortem surface analysis are here used to investigate NMC electrodes cycled vs. either Li-metal, graphite or Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) as negative electrodes. While NMC-LTO and NMC-graphite cells show small capacity fading over 200 cycles, NMC-Li-metal cell suffers from rapid capacity fading accompanied with an increased voltage hysteresis despite the almost unlimited access of lithium. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) results show that no structural degradation occurs on the positive electrode even after >200 cycles, however, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results shows that the composition of the surface layer formed on the NMC cathode in the NMC-Li-metal cell is largely different from that of the other NMC cathodes (cycled in the NMC-graphite or NMC-LTO cells). Furthermore, it is shown that the surface layer thickness on NMC increases with the number of cycles, caused by continuous electrolyte degradation products formed at the Li-metal negative electrode and then transferred to NMC positive electrode.

  • 7.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Hermansson, K
    Smith, Leif
    Bond-strenght measurements related to silicon surface hydrophilicity1992In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 139, no 8, p. 2299-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Böhme, Solveig
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Kerner, Manfred
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Scheers, Johan
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Elevated Temperature Lithium-Ion Batteries Containing SnO2 Electrodes and LiTFSI-Pip14TFSI Ionic Liquid Electrolyte2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 4, p. A701-A708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) comprising SnO2 electrodes and an ionic liquid (IL) based electrolyte, i.e., 0.5 MLiTFSI in Pip14TFSI, has been studied at room temperature (i.e., 22◦C) and 80◦C. While the high viscosity and low conductivity ofthe electrolyte resulted in high overpotentials and low capacities at room temperature, the SnO2 performance at 80◦C was found to beanalogous to that seen at room temperature using a standard LP40 electrolyte (i.e., 1MLiPF6 dissolved in 1:1 ethylene carbonate anddiethyl carbonate). Significant reduction of the IL was, however, found at 80◦C, which resulted in low coulombic efficiencies duringthe first 20 cycles, most likely due to a growing SEI layer and the formation of soluble IL reduction products. X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy studies of the cycled SnO2 electrodes indicated the presence of an at least 10 nm thick solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)layer composed of inorganic components such as lithium fluoride, sulfates, and nitrides as well as organic species containing C-H,C-F and C-N bonds.

  • 9. Duenas, S.
    et al.
    Castan, H.
    Garcia, H.
    Gomez, A.
    Bailon, L.
    Kukli, K.
    Hatanpaeae, T.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Ritala, M.
    Leskelae, M.
    Electrical properties of atomic-layer-deposited thin gadolinium oxide high-k gate dielectrics2007In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 154, no 10, p. G207-G214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous or cubic Gd2O3 thin films were grown from tris ( 2,3-dimethyl-2-butoxy)gadolinium( III) , Gd [OC(CH3)(2)CH(CH3)(2))(3)], and H2O precursors at 350 degrees C. As-deposited Gd2O3 films grown on etched (H-terminated) Si(100) exhibited better leakage current-voltage characteristics as well as lower flatband voltage shift than films grown on SiO2/ Si substrates. Interface trap densities were lower in Al/Gd2O3/ hydrofluoric acid (HF)-etched Si samples annealed at rather high temperatures.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Tom
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Andersson, Anna M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Bishop, Andrea G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Gejke, C
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Thomas, John O
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Surface analysis of LiMn2O4 electrodes in carbonate based electrolytes2002In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 149, no 1, p. A69-A78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interface chemistry of LixMn2O4 electrodes in carbonate-based electrolytes has been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy following cycling or storage in ⟨LiMn2O4| ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate LiPF6/LiBF4|Li⟩ cells. No significant changes were found in the elemental composition of surface films formed on cycled and stored samples, suggesting that surface-film formation is not governed by processes associated with cell cycling. The amount of surface species increases with storage time and cycle number at ambient temperature, where LiF, LixPFyOz products and some polyether-type polymeric compound could be identified as reaction products on the cathode surface. A lithium-rich manganese oxide layer develops on the surface of the cathode particles under continued storage and cycling. The thickness of the surface layer decreases rather than increases with storage at a higher state-of-charge. More carbon compounds are preserved on the electrode surface using LiBF4 rather than LiPF6 as electrolyte salt.

  • 11.
    Eskhult, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Pulsed galvanostatic and potentiostatic electrodeposition of Cu and Cu2O nanolayers from alkaline Cu(II)-citrate solutions2008In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 155, no 2, p. D115-D122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanolayers of Cu and Cu2O with a wide range of layer thicknesses have been produced using pulsed galvanostatic and potentiostatic electrodeposition from alkaline Cu(II)-citrate solutions. The thicknesses of the individual Cu and Cu2O layers can be independently controlled and the composition of the multilayered materials, which also were studied using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, can be varied from pure Cu to pure Cu2O by varying the current density or the deposition potential. It is shown that some of the deposited Cu2O is reduced during the subsequent copper deposition step and that the influence of this effect depends on the Cu (II) concentration, the Cu2O microstructure, and the deposition mode. Additional Cu2O deposition is demonstrated to take place after the copper deposition step due to comproportionation and precipitation of Cu2O. This effect facilitates electrodeposition of Cu2O on Cu. Deposition of Cu on the Cu2O layer formed by comproportionation and precipitation was likewise found to be more straightforward than on electrodeposited Cu2O. Well-defined nanolayered Cu/Cu2O materials are generally best manufactured using pulsed galvanostatic techniques because a much larger fraction of the Cu2O was found to be reduced during the subsequent Cu deposition pulse in pulsed potentiostatic depositions.

  • 12. Espinosa, E. H.
    et al.
    Ionescu, R.
    Llobet, E.
    Felten, A.
    Bittencourt, C.
    Sotter, E.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Heszler, Péter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Pireaux, J. J.
    Correig, X.
    Highly Selective NO2 Gas Sensors made of MWCNTs and WO3 Hybrid Layers2007In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 154, no 5, p. J141-J149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid gas sensors were fabricated by means of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) covered by W O3 deposited by an advanced reactive gas deposition method. In order to increase the dispersion of nanotubes and attach functional groups to their surface so as to enhance their compatibility with other compounds, the MWCNTs were functionalized in two different radio-frequency plasmas (oxygen or hydrogen) under different operating conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to analyze the composition and morphology of the hybrid films. Gas sensors based on such films were found to be very selective to N O2 when operated at room temperature. No cross-sensitivity was found to other hazardous gases such as N H3 or CO.

  • 13.
    Forsberg, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Hedberg, J.
    Leygraf, C.
    Nordgren, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Duda, Laurent-Claudius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    The Initial Stages of Atmospheric Corrosion of Iron in a Saline Environment Studied with Time-Resolved In Situ X-Ray Transmission Microscopy2010In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 157, no 3, p. C110-C115Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Forsberg, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Nordgren, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Duda, Laurent-Claudius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    The initial stages of atmospheric corrosion of iron in a saline environment studied with time-resolved in situ x-ray transmission microscopy2010In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 157, no 3, p. C110-C115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated atmospheric corrosion of a 50 nm layer of iron covered with a thin layer of NaCl by in situ X-ray transmission spectromicroscopy. We find that upon its deliquescence, a small part of the NaCl layer is rapidly transformed into a sodium oxide (NaOH) species. A large part of the sodium and chlorine ions forms a concentrated solution on the iron surface and becomes segregated, whereby the sodium ions appear stationary and passive during further corrosion progression. In contrast, the chlorine ions appear highly mobile and become concentrated at and travel with the corrosion front, apparently acting as a corrosion catalyst. The corrosion front progression is partly of filiform and partly of radial type. The early iron corrosion products (chloride-containing oxyhydroxides) are short-lived (for some hours) and undergo a transformation as the corrosion front sweeps by from a chlorinated species to a less chlorinated species.

     

     

  • 15.
    Forsberg, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Andersson, J
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Geometrically defined all-diamond abrasive surfaces for pad conditioning in chemical mechanical polishing2005In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 153, no 1, p. G1-G6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Forsgren, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Aarik, Jaan
    Aidla, Aleks
    Westlinder, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Deposition of HfO2 thin films in HfI4-based processes2002In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 149, no 10, p. F139-F144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes deposition of HfO2 thin films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) using HfI4 as the metal precursor. The layer-by-layer growth was also studied in real time with a quartz crystal microbalance. In ALD, the deposition rate was independent of the growth temperature, whereas in CVD, an exponential rate increase was observed. Monoclinic HfO2 was deposited on MgO and poly-Si substrates in a wide temperature range, and the choice of substrate had a strong influence on the orientation of the films. Epitaxial growth of HfO2 was observed on MgO(001) substrates at 400-500°C in the ALD process and at 500-600°C in the CVD process. The electrical characterization showed that the crystallinity of the films had a stronger influence on the dielectric constant than did the film thickness.

  • 17.
    Frenning, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Engelmark, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Li conduction in sputtered amorphous Ta2O52001In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 148, no 5, p. A418-A421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron and Li ion conducting properties of room temperature sputtered amorphous tantalum oxide (a-Ta2O5) films were studied in order to evaluate the feasibility of using a-Ta2O5 in electrochromic device applications. The films were investigated using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique, impedance spectroscopy, and isothermal transient ionic current measurements. It was found that the a-Ta2O5 met two out of three requirements posed on a Li ion conductor in a WO3 based electrochromic device. There was a negligible intercalation in the potential window used in WO3-based electrochromic devices (above 2.4-2.5 V vs. Li/Li+). Furthermore, in this potential region, the chemical diffusion coefficient for Li was larger than the corresponding quantity in WO3. However, there was a nonzero electron conductivity in the a-Ta2O5 films, not observed in the chemical vapor deposition-made β-Ta2O5 investigated earlier. Still, the ionic conductivity was approximately one order of magnitude larger than the electronic one.

  • 18. Grusell, E
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Andersson, LP
    Electrical defects in silicon introduced by sputtering and sputter-etching1980In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 127, no 7, p. 1573-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Hollmark, H.M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Duda, Laurent-Claudius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Dahbi, Mohammed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Saadoune, Ismael
    LCME, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Resonant Soft X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy on the Cathode Material LiNi0.65Co0.25Mn0.1O22010In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 157, no 8, p. A962-A966Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Hollmark, H.M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Vegelius, J.R.
    Kristiansen, P.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Werme, L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Duda, Laurent-Claudius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Exposure of Oxidized Copper Surfaces to Aqueous Na2S Solution Studied with Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy2011In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 158, no 1, p. C1-C5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Hollmark, Håkan M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Soft X-Ray Physics.
    Duda, Laurent
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Soft X-Ray Physics.
    Dahbi, Mohammed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Saadoune, Ismael
    LCME, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Resonant Soft X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy on the Cathode Material LiNi0.65Co0.25Mn0.1O22010In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 157, no 8, p. A962-A966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study of the charge-state behavior of the Li-ion battery cathode material LixNi(0.65)Co(0.25)Mn(0.1)O(2) as observed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant soft X-ray emission (RSXE). A set of six identical Li//LixNi0.65Co0.25Mn0.1O2 batteries has been cycled and is studied in different states of charge in the range of x = 1.0, ... ,0.2 before disassembly in an Ar glove box. Site and symmetry selective information about the electronic structure of the conduction and valence bands reveals that Ni as well as Co ions participate in the uptake and release of the extra electron charge that the inserted Li ions provide, but the Ni ion is much less than expected. The net amount of charge on the oxygen varies approximately 0.24 charge units in the range of x, and dramatic changes in the hybridization are evident in XAS and in particular in RSXE at the O K edge. We attribute this to a strong screening behavior of the Li ions between the oxide layers. Structural integrity effects limit the extraction of Li ions to a value of about x = 0.2-0.4. (C) 2010 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/1.3454739] All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Hollmark, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Soft X-Ray Physics.
    Vegelius, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Soft X-Ray Physics.
    Kristiansen, Paw
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Soft X-Ray Physics.
    Werme, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Soft X-Ray Physics.
    Duda, Laurent
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Soft X-Ray Physics.
    Exposure of Oxidized Copper Surfaces to Aqueous Na2S Solution Studied with Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy2011In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 158, no 1, p. C1-C5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) of oxidized polycrystalline copper surfaces [Cu(I) and Cu(II), respectively] exposed to a 1.0 mM aqueous solution of Na2S (sodium sulfide) for several hours. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the Cu oxide surfaces attain a much rougher texture upon sodium sulfide exposure, and that the exposed Cu(II) oxide sample exhibits areas with crystallites. The XAS spectra show that sodium sulfide effectively reduces Cu(II) oxide to Cu(I) compounds. The RIXS spectra of the exposed surfaces closely resemble those of the Cu2O reference sample with the notable exception of their Cu LIII,II-RIXS spectra. We conclude that copper evidently forms a Cu(I) compound with oxygen but with a Cu 3d-band of much reduced width, pointing to the possibility of a more complex compound containing both oxygen and sulfur.

  • 23.
    Jeschull, Fabian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Maibach, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    On the Electrochemical Properties and Interphase Composition of Graphite: PVdF-HFP Electrodes in Dependence of Binder Content2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 7, p. A1765-A1772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(vinylidene-difluoride) (PVdF) based polymers constitute the most commonly used binders for lithium-ion battery electrodes. In scientific studies, the binder content often exceeds commercially meaningful amounts. At the same time, the battery electrode performance can in various ways be coupled to its binder content, partly due to its influence on the surface properties. For example, an optimum binder content of around 5 wt% has been reported. In this study, graphite: PVdF-HFP electrodes containing 2.5, 5 and 10 wt% of PVdF-HFP are investigated, and their electrochemical behavior are put into context of the electrode-electrolyte interphase of the different formulations. Although the electrodes display similar electrochemical behavior, the SEI layer composition and thickness, analyzed by photoelectron spectroscopy, vary notably depending on binder content. It was found that a binder content of 5 wt% maintained the best cycling stability and also exhibited a thinner SEI layer with a larger fraction of inorganic components. In contrast to higher binder contents, where the binder covers most of the surface, larger parts of the active material are exposed directly to the electrolyte with binder contents of 2.5-5 wt%. The formation of a thinner, yet protective, SEI layer is beneficial for cycling performance of the graphite electrode. (C) 2017 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  • 24. Jogi, Indrek
    et al.
    Tamm, Aile
    Kukli, Kaupo
    Kemell, Marianna
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Sajavaara, Timo
    Ritala, Mikko
    Leskelä, Markku
    Investigation of ZrO2-Gd2O3 Based High-k Materials as Capacitor Dielectrics2010In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 157, no 10, p. G202-G210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZrO2-Gd2O3 nanolaminates and mixtures was investigated for the preparation of a high permittivity dielectric material. Variation in the relative number of ALD cycles for constituent oxides allowed one to obtain films with controlled composition. Pure ZrO2 films possessed monoclinic and higher permittivity cubic or tetragonal phases, whereas the inclusion of Gd2O3 resulted in the disappearance of the monoclinic phase. Changes in phase composition were accompanied with increased permittivity of mixtures and laminates with low Gd content. Further increase in the lower permittivity Gd2O3 content above 3.4 cat. % resulted in the decreased permittivity of the mixtures. Leakage currents generally decreased with increasing Gd content, whereby laminated structures demonstrated smaller leakage currents than mixed films at a comparable Gd content. Concerning the bottom electrode materials, the best results in terms of permittivity and leakage currents were achieved with Ru, allowing a capacitance equivalent oxide thickness of similar to 1 nm and a current density of 3 X 10(-8) A/cm(2) at 1 V. Charge storage values up to 60 nC/mm(2) were obtained for mixtures and laminates with thickness below 30 nm. In general, at electric fields below 2-3 MV/cm, normal and trap-compensated Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanisms were competing, whereas at higher fields, Fowler-Nordheim and/or trap-assisted tunneling started to dominate.

  • 25.
    Kristiansen, P. T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics. Max Planck Gesell, Fritz Haber Inst, Abt Anorgam Chem, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Massel, Felix
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Werme, L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Lilja, C.
    Swedish Nucl Fuel & Waste Management Co, SE-10124 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Duda, Laurent
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Sulfidation of Single-Phase Oxide on Copper and as Powder Studied Using Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy2015In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, no 14, p. C785-C791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high corrosion resistance of copper is a key feature in the design of copper-lined canisters that will be utilized to protect people and the environment from dangers of spent nuclear fuel far into the future. Our present study sheds light on the effects that sulfide ions in otherwise relatively benign anoxic groundwater may have on the copper of the container material. Using soft X-ray spectroscopy, we have studied the chemistry of the transformation of single-phase copper oxide cover layers (cuprite, tenorite, paratacamite) as well as single-phase oxide powders (paratacamite and malachite) when exposed to aqueous sulfide solutions. While X-ray diffraction shows that the main bulk of the oxides are nearly unaffected, Cu L-edge absorption spectroscopy shows that a cover layer of about 100 nm thickness on the metal substrate is transformed from Cu(II)- to Cu(I)-species. By contrast, paratacamite and malachite powders exposed to the same kind of aqueous sulfide solutions show much less transformation to Cu(I)-species. We conclude that the main mechanism for reduction of Cu(II) on copper is the comproportionation reaction between divalent copper ions from the covering oxide and the underlying metallic copper atoms to form monovalent copper ions. By contrast, the absence of metallic copper inhibits this mechanism in the powders.

  • 26. Krogh, O
    et al.
    Slomowitz, H
    Melaku, Y
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Spectroscopy diagnostics of phoresist in an aluminium etch plasma1987In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 134, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Ljungberg, K
    et al.
    Söderbärg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Bengtsson, S
    Jauhiainen, A
    Characterization of spontaneously bonded hydrophobic silicon surfaces1994In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 141, no 2, p. 562-566Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Ljungberg, K
    et al.
    Söderbärg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Tiensuu, A-L
    Johansson, S
    Thungström, G
    Petersson, S
    Buried cobalt silicide slyers in silicon created by wafer bonding1994In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 141, no 10, p. 2829-2833Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Ljungberg, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics.
    Söderbärg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics.
    Bergh, M
    Andersson, M O
    Bengtsson, Stefan
    The effects of HF-cleaning prior to silicon wafer bonding1995In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 142, no 4, p. 1297-1303Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Ljungberg, Karin
    et al.
    Söderbärg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Bengtsson, S
    Jauhiainen, A
    Characterization of spontaneously bonded hydrophobic silicon surfaces1993In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Lucht, Brett L.
    et al.
    Guyomard, Dominique
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Kostecki, Robert
    Electrochemical Interfaces in Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems2015In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, no 13, p. Y13-Y13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Norström, H
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Olaison, R
    Berg, Sören
    Andersson, LP
    Application of the langmuir probe in sputtering techniques1980In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 127, p. 1573-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Pasquariello, D
    et al.
    Hedlund, C
    Hjort, Klas
    Oxidation and induced damages in oxygen plasma in situ wafer bonding2000In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 2699-2703Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Hahlin, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Photoelectron Spectroscopy for Lithium Battery Interface Studies2016In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 2, p. A178-A191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) has become an important tool for investigating Li-ion battery materials, in particular for analyzing interfacial structures and reactions. Since the methodology was introduced in the battery research area, PES has undergone a dramatic development regarding photon sources, sample handling and electron energy analyzers. This includes the possibility to use synchrotron radiation with increased intensity and the possibility to vary the photon energy. The aim of the present paper is to describe how PES can be used to investigate battery interfaces and specifically highlight how synchrotron based PES has been implemented to address different questions useful for the development of the Li-ion batteries. We also present some recent developments of the techniques, which have the potential to further push the limits for the use of photoelectron spectroscopy in battery research.

  • 35.
    Rangsten, Pelle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics.
    Vallin, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics.
    Hermansson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics.
    Quartz-to-quartz direct bonding1999In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 146, no 3, p. 1104-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct bonding of single crystalline quartz wafers is presented. By this straightforward technique, hermetical seals between quartz wafers can be formed. Nearly Z-cut (the Z-cut rotated 1 degrees 50') and AT-cut wafers bonded spontaneously at room tempera

  • 36. Rashid, Abdul
    et al.
    Landström, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Piglmayer, Klaus
    Excimer-Laser Surface Processing in CH2I2 Atmospheres: Simultaneous Localized Etching of Si and Deposition of C2009In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 156, no 4, p. D113-D118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, a complex chemical process involving laser-materials interaction within a strong absorbing gas phase is investigated and characterized. The process utilizes excimer laser pulses to dissociate methylene iodide (CH2I2) in the gas phase and to locally heat the surface of a silicon substrate. These effects induce chemical reactions leading to efficient etching of silicon within the laser-irradiated surface area, in combination with simultaneous deposition of carbon material outside. Because of the sensitive behavior of the photoinduced substrate surface temperature on the absorption conditions in the gas phase, model calculations were performed to improve the design of the system and to analyze the observed experimental results.

  • 37.
    Rehnlund, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Electrodeposition of Vanadium Oxide/Manganese Oxide Hybrid Thin Films on Nanostructured Aluminum Substrates2014In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 161, no 10, p. D515-D521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodeposition of functional coatings on aluminum electrodes in aqueous solutions often is impeded by the corrosion of aluminum. In the present work it is demonstrated that electrodeposition of vanadium, oxide films on nanostructured aluminum substrates can be achieved in acidic electrolytes employing a novel strategy in which a thin interspacing layer of manganese oxide is first electrodeposited on aluminum microrod substrates. Such deposited films, which were studied using SEM, XPS, XRD, and surface enhances Raman scattering as well as chronopotentiometry, are shown to comprise a mixture of vanadium oxidation states (i.e. IV and V). As this all-electrochemical approach circumvents the problems associated with aluminum corrosion, the approach provides new possibilities for the electrochemical coating of nanostructured Al substrates with functional layers of metal oxides. The latter significantly facilitates the development of new procedures for the manufacturing of three-dimensional aluminum based electrodes for lithium ion microbatteries. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  • 38. Rydén, K-H
    et al.
    Norström, H
    Nender, C
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Oxide breakdown due to charge accumulation during plasma etching1987In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 134, no 12, p. 3113-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Sarkar, Debasish
    et al.
    Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    Das, Shyamashis
    Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    Sharada, G.
    Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    Pal, Banabir
    Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Shukla, Ashok
    Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    Sarma, D. D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    A Cost-Effective and High-Performance Core-Shell-Nanorod-Based ZnO/alpha-Fe2O3//ZnO/C Asymmetric Supercapacitor2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 6, p. A987-A994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel core-shell design for nano-structured electrode materials is introduced for realizing cost-effective and high-performance supercapacitors. In the proposed core-shell design, thin shell-layers of highly pseudo-capacitive materials provide the platform for surface or near-surface-based faradaic and non-faradaic reactions together with shortened ion-diffusion path facilitating fast-ion intercalation and deintercalation processes. The highly-conducting core serves as highway for fast electron transfer toward current collectors, improving both energy and power performance characteristics of the core-shell structure in relation to pristine component materials. Furthermore, use of carbon (C)-based materials as a shell layer in either electrode not only enhances capacitive performance through double-layer formation but also provides enough mechanical strength to sustain volume changes in the core material during long-cycling of the supercapacitor improving its cycle life. In order to enhance electrochemical performance in terms of specific capacitance and rate capability via core-shell architecture and nano-structuring, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is assembled using ZnO/alpha-Fe2O3 and ZnO/C core-shell nanorods as respective negative and positive electrodes. The ASC exhibits a specific capacitance of similar to 115 F/g at a scan rate of 10 mV/s in a potential window as large as 1.8 V with a response time as short as 39 ms and retains more than 80% of its initial capacitance after 4000 cycles. Interestingly, the ASC can deliver an energy density of similar to 41 Wh/kg and a power density of similar to 7 kW/kg that are significantly higher than those reported hitherto for iron-oxide-based ASCs.

  • 40.
    Sharma, Sangeeta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Fransson, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Sjöstedt, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Nordström, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Johansson, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    A theoretical and experimental study of the lithiation of η'-Cu6Sn5 in a lithium-ion battery2003In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 150, no 3, p. A330-A334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Themechanism of Li insertion in -Cu6Sn5 to form Li2CuSn isdiscussed in detail, based on both theoretical calculations and experimentalresults. The mechanism is investigated by means of first principlescalculations, with the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method,in combination with in situ X-ray diffraction experiments. The -Cu6Sn5structure, as well as its lithiated products, were optimized andthe electronic charge density calculated in order to study thechange in bond character on lithiation. The average insertion voltageof the -Cu6Sn5-Li2CuSn transformation has been calculated to be 0.378V, in good agreement with the experimental value.                            

  • 41.
    Sisbandini, Ciptanti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    The Mechanism of Capacity Enhancement in LiFePO4 Cathodes Through Polyetheramine Coating2009In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 156, no 9, p. A720-A725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thispaper addresses the possible mechanisms underlying the capacity enhancement throughpolyetheramine [PEA, glyceryl poly(oxypropylene)triamine] coating on LiFePO4 (Phostech Lithium) particlesurface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared studieshave confirmed the presence of PEA on the surface bythe appearance of the N 1s peak in the XPSspectra and bands in the 2850–2960  cm−1 wavenumber range of theIR spectra. Potentiostatic measurements in organic electrolytes have shown thatthe discharge capacity is increased ca. 12% compared to theas-received material, i.e., more Fe2+/Fe3+ ions are utilized during theredox process. This is due to better wettability of theelectrolyte to the particle surface, which is indicated by theslower sedimentation of coated particles. Furthermore, cyclic voltammetry has shownthat PEA-coated particles display higher capacity than the as-received materialalso in an aqueous electrolyte, which to some extent canbe explained by the difference in wettability between the materials,but also by the protection of LiFePO4 from spontaneous formationof a Li3PO4 surface layer and Fe3+-containing solids when incontact with water.

  • 42. Smith, Leif
    et al.
    Söderbärg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Electro-chemical etch stop obtained by accumulation of free carriers without pn junction1993In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 140, no 1, p. 271-275Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Söderbärg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Investigation of buried etch stop layer in silicon by nitrogen implantation1992In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 561-566Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Tirén, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Svensson, BG
    Evaluation of boron distributions in amorphous 49BF2+-implanted silicon1991In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 571-576Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Törndahl, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Carlsson, Jan-Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Growth of Copper(I) Nitride by ALD Using Copper(II) Hexafluoroacetylacetonate, Water, and Ammonia as Precursors2006In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 153, no 3, p. C146-C151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Films of copper(I) nitride were deposited by atomic layer deposition ALD using copper(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate, water, and ammonia as precursors. Introduction of a water pulse in the ALD cycle was found to be crucial for initiating film growth on both amorphous SiO2 and single-crystalline α-Al2O3(001) substrates. The water pulses generated an oxidic copper monolayer, which in a subsequent ammonia pulse was converted to the nitride. The films have been grown in the temperature range from 210 to 302°C. Phase pure films of Cu3N were obtained up to 265°C. At higher deposition temperatures such as 283°C, phase mixtures of Cu3N and Cu were obtained. For temperatures above 302°C films of only Cu were grown. Film growth rate was the same on the two different substrates. The films were randomly oriented on SiO2. Completely intact films were obtained at a thickness of 20 nm. The optical bandgap of the films was measured to be 1.6 eV.

  • 46.
    Wen, Rui-Tao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic Iridium-Containing Nickel Oxide Films with Excellent Electrochemical Cycling Performance2016In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 2, p. E7-E13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic Ni oxide thin films attract much interest because of their large potential for applications as optically active layers in energy-saving and comfort enhancing smart windows in buildings. However Ni oxide, typically being the anodic counter electrode in a W-oxide-based device, may suffer severe charge capacity degradation upon extended electrochemical cycling. It is therefore important to identify improved Ni-oxide-based thin films for electrochromics. Here we describe a new class of such films wherein an addition of a small amount of Ir to Ni oxide is found to provide strongly improved electrochemical cycling durability. Best properties were achieved with Ir/(Ir + Ni) = 7.6%, and such films displayed charge capacity and optical modulation that, remarkably, were still increasing after 10,000 cycles.

  • 47.
    Wijaya, Olivia
    et al.
    TUM CREATE, Singapore 138602, Singapore.; Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Singapore 639798, Singapore.
    Rinaldi, Ali
    TUM CREATE, Singapore 138602, Singapore.; King Fahd Univ Petr & Minerals, Dept Chem, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Yazami, Rachid
    TUM CREATE, Singapore 138602, Singapore.; Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Singapore 639798, Singapore.; Nanyang Technol Univ, Energy Res Inst, Singapore 637141, Singapore.
    The Origin of Li-O2 Battery Performance Enhancement Using Fluorocarbon Additive2016In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 13, p. A2660-A2664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorocarbon compounds (PFC) are known for their high O2 dissolution capability and have been investigated as additives/electrolyte solvents to improve Li-O2 batteries performance. Nevertheless, systematic studies that go beyond the proof of concept that fluorocarbon additives enhance the performance of Li-O2 batteries have not been carried out yet. In this work, we investigate 1-methoxyheptafluoropropane additive (1-PFC), a fluorocarbon with an ether functional group that has been considered as one of the candidates as additives in the Li-O2 battery. Using electrochemical methods and physical characterization of discharge products, we found that the enhancement of the discharge capacity of Li-O2 cells with 1-PFC additive is most likely correlated with instability of the 1-PFC additive against superoxide radicals, rather than the improvement in O2 solubility.

  • 48.
    Xu, Chao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Jeschull, Fabian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brant, William R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    The Role of LiTDI Additive in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/ Graphite Lithium-Ion Batteries at Elevated Temperatures2018In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 2, p. A40-A46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The poor thermal stability of conventional LiPF6-based electrolytes is one of the major obstacles for today's lithium-ion batteries. Recently, lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-( trifluoromethyl) imidazolide (LiTDI) has demonstrated to be highly efficient in scavenging moisture from the electrolyte and thereby improving electrolyte stability. In this context, effects of the LiTDI additive on LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC)/graphite cells are evaluated at a temperature of 55 degrees C. With the incorporation of LiTDI, an improved cycling performance of NMC/graphite cells was achieved, and the impedance increase at the NMC/electrolyte interface was significantly mitigated. Furthermore, LiTDI exhibited a profound influence on the interfacial chemistries in the full cell, and LiTDI-derived species were found on the surfaces of both the cathode and the anode. The SEI layer formed on graphite anodes was more homogenous in morphology and consisted of larger amounts of LiF and fewer oxygen-containing species, as compared to graphite in additive-free cells. This study shows that LiTDI is a promising electrolyte additive for NMC/graphite cells operated at elevated temperatures, highlighting that the influence of the LiTDI additive is worth exploring also in other battery chemistries.

  • 49.
    Younesi, Reza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Christiansen, Ane Sælland
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Scipioni, Roberto
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Ngo, Duc-The
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Hjelm, Johan
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Norby, Poul
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Analysis of the Interphase on Carbon Black Formed in High Voltage Batteries2015In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, no 7, p. A1289-A1296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon black (CB) additives commonly used to increase the electrical conductivity of electrodes in Li-ion batteries are generally believed to be electrochemically inert additives in cathodes. Decomposition of electrolyte in the surface region of CB in Li-ion cells at high voltages up to 4.9 V is here studied using electrochemical measurements as well as structural and surface characterizations. LiPF6 and LiClO4 dissolved in ethylene carbonate:diethylene carbonate (1:1) were used as the electrolyte to study irreversible charge capacity of CB cathodes when cycled between 4.9 V and 2.5 V. Synchrotron-based soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SOXPES) results revealed spontaneous partial decomposition of the electrolytes on the CB electrode, without applying external current or voltage. Depth profile analysis of the electrolyte/cathode interphase indicated that the concentration of decomposed species is highest at the outermost surface of the CB. It is concluded that carboxylate and carbonate bonds (originating from solvent decomposition) and LiF (when LiPF6 was used) take part in the formation of the decomposed species. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and transmission electron microscopy results, however, did not show formation of a dense surface layer on CB particles.

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