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  • 1.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management.
    Brunberg, Anna-Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Inorganic nutrient acquisition in a shallow clearwater lake: dominance of benthic microbiota2006In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This mesocosm study from the oligotrophic Lake Eckarfjärden in Sweden shows, in contrast to many previous studies, that benthic microbiota dominated production following elevated nutrient concentrations in the water. Increased nutrient concentrations favoured microphytobenthos, whereas phytoplankton biomass remained roughly the same. Microphytobenthos biomass and production were clearly stimulated by nitrogen addition, while phytoplankton showed signs of phosphorus limitation. There were tight interactions between pelagic and benthic habitats and between organisms, and pelagic as well as benthic heterotrophic bacteria were disfavoured when microphytobenthos had access to nitrogen.

    We conclude that increased nutrient concentrations in the water column may trigger immediate responses in both habitats, altering the tight interactions between microbiota, but not necessarily resulting in a shift towards pelagic production.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Kumblad, Linda
    A carbon budget for an oligotrophic clearwater lake in mid-Sweden2006In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 52-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a whole-lake carbon budget for the oligotrophic, clearwater Lake Eckarfjärden was established both on an annual and seasonal basis. For budget calculations, the lake was divided into three habitats (pelagial, littoral and benthic) and the biota into 19 functional groups. In the lake, major parts of biomass (97%) and primary production (91%) are concentrated in benthic and littoral habitats and to a few functional groups. Respiration on the other hand, is focused on benthic and pelagial habitats where 60% and 39%, respectively, of the respiration took place. Our conceptual model indicates strong interactions between habitats. For instance, the pelagial is fed with carbon fixed by primary producers in the benthic and littoral zones. On an annual basis, total primary production exceeds total respiration and the lake is net autotrophic. However, there are clear differences between habitats and between seasons. For instance, the littoral is net autotrophic during spring, summer and autumn, the benthic habitat is net autotrophic only during summer, and the pelagial is always net heterotrophic. Our results demonstrate clear couplings between habitats and organisms and the importance of a holistic view when studying lake ecosystems.

  • 3.
    Attermeyer, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Chemical Analytics and Biogeochemistry, Germany.
    Grossart, Hans-Peter
    Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and InlandFisheries, Experimental Limnology, Germany; Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, Potsdam University, Germany.
    Flury, Sabine
    Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Chemical Analytics and Biogeochemistry, Germany; Faculty of Science, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Premke, Katrin
    Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Chemical Analytics and Biogeochemistry, Germany; Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute for Landscape Biogeochemistry, Germany.
    Bacterial processes and biogeochemical changes in the water body of kettle holes: mainly driven by autochthonous organic matter?2017In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 675-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kettle holes are small inland waters formed from glacially-created depressions often situated in agricultural landscapes. Due to their high perimeter-to-area ratio facilitating a high aquatic-terrestrial coupling, kettle holes can accumulate high concentrations of organic carbon and nutrients, fueling microbial activities and turnover rates. Thus, they represent hotspots of carbon turnover in the landscape, but their bacterial activities and controlling factors have not been well investigated. Therefore, we aimed to assess the relative importance of various environmental factors on bacterial and biogeochemical processes in the water column of kettle holes and to disentangle their variations. In the water body of ten kettle holes in north-eastern Germany, we measured several physico-chemical and biological parameters such as carbon quantity and quality, as well as bacterial protein production (BP) and community respiration (CR) in spring, early summer and autumn 2014. Particulate organic matter served as an indicator of autochthonous production and represented an important parameter to explain variations in BP and CR. This notion is supported by qualitative absorbance indices of dissolved molecules in water samples and C:N ratios of the sediments, which demonstrate high fractions of autochthonous organic matter (OM) in the studied kettle holes. In contrast, dissolved chemical parameters were less important for bacterial activities although they revealed strong differences throughout the growing season. Pelagic bacterial activities and dynamics might thus be regulated by autochthonous OM in kettle holes implying a control of important biogeochemical processes by internal primary production rather than facilitated exchange with the terrestrial surrounding due to a high perimeter-to-area ratio.

  • 4. Bloch, Ina
    et al.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Long-term changes in physical and chemical conditions of nutrient-poor lakes along a latitudinal gradient: is there a coherent phytoplankton community response?2012In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate climate and atmospheric deposition induced physical and water chemical changes and their effects on phytoplankton communities, we used complete time series (14 years, monthly measurements during the growing season) of 18 physical and chemical variables and phytoplankton data from 13 nutrient-poor Swedish reference lakes along a latitudinal gradient. We found numerous strong significant changes over time that were most coherent among lakes for sulfate concentrations, conductivity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, potassium, water color, surface water temperature and the intensity of thermal stratification. Despite these pronounced coherent physical and water chemical changes over Sweden, the phytoplankton biomass and species richness of six phytoplankton groups, measured at the same time as the water chemical variables, showed only few and weak significant changes over time. The only coherent significant change over Sweden, occurring in seven lakes, was observed in the species richness of chlorophytes. The number of chlorophyte taxa significantly declined over Sweden. Using a partial least square model for each lake, we attributed the decline primarily to an increase in water temperatures and water color, which were among the most important variables for the model performance of each lake. All other taxonomic groups were driven primarily by non-coherent changes in nutrient concentrations, pH and probably also non-coherent grazing pressure. We concluded that coherent phytoplankton responses can only be achieved for taxonomic groups that are driven primarily by coherent physical/chemical changes. According to our study, chlorophytes belong to such a group, making them possible global change indicators. Our findings give new insights into global change effects on different phytoplankton taxonomic groups in nutrient-poor lakes.

  • 5.
    Bryhn, Andreas Christoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Hessen, Dag O
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Predicting particulate pools of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon in lakes2007In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 484-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variation between lakes with respect to concentrations of particulate nutrient pools was studied in 126 Norwegian lakes covering a wide range in lake-specific properties. Particulate phosphorus (P) always constituted close to 60% of total P (TP) concentrations. Particulate nitrogen (N) and organic carbon (C) concentrations, on the other hand, were sensitive to several lake characteristics, particularly to TP concentrations. Through optimisation procedures and multivariate regression, the present study presents general empirical models for predicting particulate nutrient concentrations. Furthermore, significant trend shifts in the relationships between TP vs. particulate N and TP vs. particulate organic C were observed at TP = 6 mu g l(-1) and TP = 80 mu g l(-1), suggesting non-linearities in these relationships along the TP gradient. A trend shift in the TP vs. chlorophyll relationship was observed at TP = 90. Taking such non-linearities into account may decrease the uncertainty in predicting particulate N, particulate organic C and chlorophyll.

  • 6. Catalán, Núria
    et al.
    Obrador, Biel
    Felip, Marisol
    Pretus, Joan Lluís
    Higher reactivity of allochthonous vs. autochthonous DOC sources in a shallow lake2013In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 581-593Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Gascon Diez, Elena
    et al.
    Garcia Bravo, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    à Porta, Natacha
    Masson, Matthieu
    Graham, Neil D.
    Stoll, Serge
    Akhtman, Yosef
    Amouroux, David
    Loizeau, Jean-Luc
    Influence of a wastewater treatment plant on mercury contamination and sediment characteristics in Vidy Bay (Lake Geneva, Switzerland)2014In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 76, no S1, p. S21-S32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous direct observations of the sediment surface in Vidy Bay, Lake Geneva (Switzerland), revealed a range of sediment characteristics in terms of colour, texture and morphology. Dives with the MIR submersibles during the éLEMO project permitted the exploration of a large portion of Vidy Bay. It is the most contaminated part of Lake Geneva, due to inputs of treated and untreated waters from a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To evaluate the influence of WWTP effluent on mercury contamination and sediment characteristics, 14 sediment cores were retrieved in the vicinity of the wastewater treatment plant effluent. Total mercury concentrations in sediments ranged between 0.32 and 10.1 mg/kg. Inorganic mercury and monomethylmercury concentrations in overlying and pore waters were also measured. The total partition coefficients of mercury (logK d) ranged from 3.6 to 5.8. The monomethylmercury concentration in pore waters of surface sediments was a large proportion of the total mercury concentration (44 ± 25 %). A Spearman test showed a negative correlation between the distance to the wastewater treatment plant outlet and the concentrations of total mercury in sediments and pore waters. Visual observations from the submersible allowed recognizing six different types of sediment. The areal distribution of these different sediment types clearly showed the influence of the wastewater treatment plant outlet on the sediment surface patterns. However, no relationship with mercury concentrations could be established.

  • 8. Karlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Lymer, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Vrede, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Jansson, Mats
    Differences in efficiency of carbon transfer from dissolved organic carbon to two zooplankton groups: An enclosure experiment in an oligotrophic lake2007In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 108-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We added dissolved organic carbon (C) in various amounts to 6 enclosures in an oligotrophic subarctic lake to assess how bacterioplankton growth on dissolved organic C affects the growth of calanoid copepod (Eudiaptomus graciloides) and cladoceran (Daphnia longispina) zooplankton. Organic C was added as glucose (12.5 to 400 µgC L−1d−1) and was isotopically distinct (−11.7 ‰) from lakewater organic C (<−27.2‰). All enclosures were also enriched with the same amounts of inorganic nitrogen (30 µgN L−1d−1 as NH4NO3) and inorganic phosphorus (2 µgP L−1d−1 as Na3PO4). The results showed a direct relationship between bacterial growth on dissolved organic C and incorporation of bacterial biomass into crustacean zooplankton. After 9 days, D. longispina and E. graciloides contained glucose-C in all treatments and the incorporation of glucose-C by zooplankton was strongly correlated with bacterial growth on glucose-C.δ15N data revealed different trophic positions of the two crustaceans, suggesting that D. longispina fed directly on bacteria while E. graciloides incorporated bacterial C by consumption of bacterivorus protozoans. Greater incorporation of glucose-C in D. longispina than in E. graciloides was explained by higher individual growth rates in D. longispina, and this difference between the two zooplankters increased as the bacterial production increased. Thus, the results show that the transfer of dissolved organic C through the food web can be more efficient via cladocerans than via calanoid copepods and that the effect becomes more pronounced as bacterial energy mobilization increases.

  • 9. Khalili, Maria I.
    et al.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Growing season variability of nitrate along a trophic gradient: contrasting patterns between lakes and streams2009In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 25-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the growing season (May to October) variability of NO3-N across Swedish lakes and streams. We found that NO3-N concentrations showed the highest growing season variability among all water chemical variables tested, both in lakes and in streams. However, the growing season variability of NO3-N increased with increasing trophic status in lakes while it decreased in streams. We attributed the contrasting pattern between lakes and streams to the relative importance of biological uptake and denitrification with increasing trophic status. Our results highlight the relation between growing season NO3-N variability and trophic status, which is positive in lakes but negative in streams. The findings of this study have important ramifications for ecosystem studies as well as water management. We suggest that the assessment of growing season variability of NO3-N in aquatic systems can be improved by considering the effect of trophic status.

  • 10.
    Müller, Roger A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Nisell, J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Bishop, Kevin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Water renewal along the aquatic continuum offsets cumulative retention by lakes: implications for the character of organic carbon in boreal lakes2013In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 535-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The character of organic carbon (OC) in lake waters is strongly dependent on the time water has spent in the landscape as well as in the lake itself due to continuous biogeochemical OC transformation processes. A common view is that upstream lakes might prolong the water retention in the landscape, resulting in an altered OC character downstream. We calculated the number of lakes upstream for 24,742 Swedish lakes in seven river basins spanning from 56º to 68º N. For each of these lakes, we used a lake volume to discharge comparison on a landscape scale to account for upstream water retention by lakes (Tn tot). We found a surprisingly weak relationship between the number of lakes upstream and Tn tot. Accordingly, we found that the coloured fraction of organic carbon was not related to lake landscape position but significantly related to Tn tot when we analysed lake water chemical data from 1,559 lakes in the studied river basins. Thus, we conclude that water renewal along the aquatic continuum by lateral water inputs offsets cumulative retention by lakes. Based on our findings, we suggest integrating Tn tot in studies that address lake landscape position in the boreal zone to better understand variations in the character of organic carbon across lake districts.

  • 11.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Holmgren, Staffan
    Responses in zooplankton populations to food quality and quantity changes after whole lake nutrient enrichment of an oligotrophic sub-alpine reservoir2008In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 142-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To sustain production of higher trophic levels in oligotrophic systems it is important that the trophic transfer of energy and nutrients is efficient. The phytoplankton-zooplankton interface is of specific interest since nutritional constraints can decouple energy flow in this step. Increased nutrient loading to oligotrophic systems with initially low abundance of high quality phytoplankton could induce changes in seston composition that reduces the nutritional value for zooplankton. We carried out a whole lake enrichment experiment for five years in two ultraoligotrophic subalpine hydroelectric power reservoirs in Sweden. The first year was an untreated reference year. Phosphorus and nitrogen were added to Lake Stora Mjolkvattnet during the following four years, and upstream Lake Burvattnet was used as an untreated reference lake. The phosphorus content of seston in the experimental lake increased in the years of fertilization and seston phosphorus to carbon ratios (atomic) were non-limiting for zooplankton growth. Decreasing concentrations of phosphorus in the reference lake lead to low phosphorus to carbon ratios that probably affected zooplankton growth negatively. The seston fatty acid concentrations and phytoplankton composition indicated good food quality in both lakes. The phytoplankton increased in the experimental lake despite an increase in zooplankton biomass. Some changes in the relative contributions of plankton species occurred but the same species were present. The crustacean zooplankton community composition shifted towards smaller species during the latter years in the experimental lake, indicating increased predation pressure from fish. A major result of this whole-lake ecosystem fertilization experiment is that gentle fertilization can significantly boost phytoplankton production while food quality remains high, and plankton community composition is not substantially altered.

  • 12.
    Rydin, E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Vrede, T.
    Persson, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Holmgren, S.
    Jansson, M.
    Tranvik, L.J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Milbrink, G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Compensatory nutrient enrichment in an oligotrophic mountain reservoir: effects and fate of added nutrients2008In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 323-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Scandinavian rivers are impounded for power production. High altitude reservoirs retain water during summer and fall for power production during winter and spring. The oligotrophic lakes Mjölkvattnet and Burvattnet were impounded in 1942. Annual water level fluctuations caused by regulation have resulted in a loss of littoral habitat, and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations have declined. To assess compensatory nutrient enrichment as a remedy against declining fish populations, we added dissolved phosphate and nitrate to Mjölkvattnet in June and July in 2002 and 2003, and used the upstream lake Burvattnet as a reference system. Nutrient addition doubled water column total phosphorus concentration, from 3 to 6 μg P/L and increased nitrogen concentration by about 20 μg/L. Half of the added phosphorus settled out as organic matter, and about one third was lost downstream. Phytoplankton production and biomass increased, but species composition remained principally unchanged. Rotifers and cladocerans responded rapidly, as did the condition of fish. After two years of nutrient addition, five year old Arctic char had doubled in weight and increased significantly in length, reaching pre-impoundment conditions.

  • 13.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Zurbruegg, Roland
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology.
    Ostrovsky, Ilia
    Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Yigal Allon Kinneret Limnological Laboratory.
    The burial efficiency of organic carbon in the sediments of Lake Kinneret2011In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 355-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though lake sediments constitute a significant long-term carbon sink, studies on the regulation of carbon burial in lakes sediments have, to date, been surprisingly few. We investigated to what degree the organic carbon (OC) being deposited onto the bottom of Lake Kinneret (Israel) is buried in the sediment at four different sites with varying degrees of oxygenation and varying supply of allochthonous particles from the River Jordan. For estimation of the OC burial efficiency (OC BE), i.e., the ratio between buried and deposited OC, we calculated OC burial from dated sediment cores, and calculated OC deposition using three different approaches. Calculation of OC deposition from sediment trap-derived mass deposition rates multiplied with the OC content of surface sediment yielded OC BE values that were at odds with published values for sediments dominated by autochthonous OC sources. Calculation via sediment trap data on organic matter flux collected within the Lake Kinneret monitoring program, as well as calculation of OC deposition as the sum of OC burial plus OC mineralization, returned fairly congruent estimates of OC BE (range 10-41%), but only if the sediment trap data were corrected for the proportion of resuspended particles in the traps. Differences in OC BE between sites were small, indicating that OC source (common to all sites) was a more important regulator of OC BE in Lake Kinneret than oxygen exposure or mineral particles characteristics.

  • 14.
    Trinh, Duc Anh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Vietnam Acad Sci & Technol, Inst Chem ICH, A18,18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Luu, Thi Nguyet Minh
    Trinh, Quan Hong
    Tran, Hai Sy
    Tran, Tien Minh
    Le, Thi Phuong Quynh
    Duong, Thuy Thi
    Orange, Didier
    SFRI, IRD, iEES Paris UMR 242, Hanoi, Vietnam.;Inst Rech Dve IRD Eco & Sols, UMR 210, Pl Viala, Montpellier, France..
    Janeau, Jean Louis
    SFRI, IRD, iEES Paris UMR 242, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Pommier, Thomas
    Univ Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5557, Lab Ecol Microbienne, USC INRA 1364, Bat G Mendel,43 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Rochelle-Newall, Emma
    SFRI, IRD, iEES Paris UMR 242, Hanoi, Vietnam.;IRD, iEES Paris, UMR 242, 32 Ave Henri Varagnat, Bondy, France..
    Impact of terrestrial runoff on organic matter, trophic state, and phytoplankton in a tropical, upland reservoir2016In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 367-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of organic matter inputs from agricultural, forest and domestic sources on aquatic processes has been considerably less studied in tropical reservoirs relative to temperate systems despite the high number of these small aquatic systems in the tropics. Here we present the results of an in situ mesocosm study that examined the impact of allochthonous organic matter on a headwater reservoir in Northern Vietnam. We examined the impact of wastewater and soils from floodplain paddies, Acacia mangium plantations and from upland slopes on the metabolic status of the reservoir. The addition of floodplain paddy soils to the reservoir water led to a rapid switch in metabolic status from net autotrophic to net heterotrophic. In contrast, the addition of wastewater in low concentrations had less impact on the metabolic status of the reservoir, reflecting the low population density in the area. The addition of floodplain paddy soils also increased phytoplankton diversity and evenness relative to the control. In summary, soils from floodplain paddies and from A. mangium plantations had the highest impact on the reservoir, with upland soils and wastewater having less of an impact. We also found that primary production in this reservoir was nitrogen limited. In order to avoid accelerating the impact of runoff on the reservoir, future management options should perhaps focus on minimizing water and sediment runoff from upstream paddy fields and from A. mangium plantations. These results also underline the importance of studying these upland tropical water bodies that can contribute an important but, on the whole, ignored part of the global carbon balance.

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