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  • 1. ALATALO, RV
    et al.
    HOGLUND, J
    LUNDBERG, A
    PATTERNS OF VARIATION IN TAIL ORNAMENT SIZE IN BIRDS1988In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 363-374Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bergek, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Genetic and morphological divergence reveals local subdivision of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.)2009In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 746-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of gene flow is an important factor influencing genetic differentiation between populations. Typically, geographic distance is considered to be the major factor limiting dispersal and should thus only influence the degree of genetic divergence at larger spatial scales. However, recent studies have revealed the possibility for small-scale genetic differentiation, suggesting that the spatial scale considered is pivotal for finding patterns of isolation by distance. To address this question, genetic and morphological differentiation were studied at two spatial scales (range 2–13 km and range 300 m to 2 km) in the perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) from the east coast archipelago of Sweden, using seven microsatellite loci and geometric morphometrics. We found highly significant genetic differentiation between sampled locations at both scales. At the larger spatial scale, the distance not affecting the level of divergence. At the small scale, however, we found subtle patterns of isolation by distance. In addition, we also found morphological divergence between locations, congruent with a spatial separation at a microgeographic scale, most likely due to phenotypic plasticity. The present study highlights the importance of geographical scale and indicates that there might be a disparity between the dispersal capacity of a species and the actual movement of genes. Thus, how we view the environment and possible barriers to dispersal might have great implications for our ability to fully understand the evolution of genetic differentiation, local adaptation, and, in the end, speciation.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Bisazza, Angelo
    Pilastro, Andrea
    Armaments and ornaments: An evolutionary explanation of traits of dual utility1996In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 385-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary sexual characters in many species function both in male-male competition and as cues for female choice. Based on a literature compilation of existing knowledge of traits with this dual function, we propose that they commonly arise through intrasexual selection processes and serve as honest signals to other males regarding fighting ability or dominance. Faking these traits, here called armaments, (i.e. weapons and status badges) is difficult, as they are constantly put to trial in male-male contests. Females that subsequently utilize them as indicators of male phenotypic quality when selecting a partner will benefit by acquiring males of higher quality to father their offspring. Thus, evolution of armaments through male-male competition is seen as a usually initiating process, whereas female choice later may assume a role as an additional selective factor. The reverse, that males use information from traits evolved through female choice, is, however, also possible. The traditional view of independently evolved and temporarily unordered intra- and intersexual selection processes fails to explain dual trait functions. Moreover, our model may more satisfyingly than traditional ones explain how trait honesty and trait genetic variance are maintained: theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that such honesty and variation are more easily maintained under male-male competition than under female choice. (C) 1996 The Linnean Society of London

  • 4.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Patterns of morphological variation among Cardueline finches (Fringillidae, Carduelinae)1991In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 43, p. 239-248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Similarity of growth among great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (P. caeruleus)1996In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 58, p. 343-355Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Alonso, Daniel
    Edelaar, Pim
    The genetic structure of crossbills suggests rapid diversification with little niche conservatism2013In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 109, no 4, p. 908-922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservatism of ecological niches can cause geographical ranges or the formation of new species to be constrained, and might be expected in situations where strong trade-offs result in ecological specialization. Here we address the flexibility of resource use in European crossbills by comparing the ecological and genetic similarities between four Mediterranean and three northern European crossbill populations, all specialized in feeding on a different resource. We used sequence data of one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from between 211 and 256 individuals. The northern crossbills were genetically too similar to infer which population was more related to the southern ones. Crossbills from the island of Mallorca showed genetic signatures of a stable and isolated population, supporting their past treatment as a locally (co)evolving taxon, and seem to have evolved from an ecologically distinct ancestor. Previous studies in other populations also suggest that genetic similarity does not predict morphological and resource similarity. We estimate that the divergence of all western European crossbills has occurred within the last 11000 years. Overall, it appears that crossbills can diversify rapidly and with little niche conservatism, but that such potentially reproductively isolated specialists are evolutionarily short-lived.

  • 7.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Evolution of morphological differences with moderate genetic correlations among traits as exemplified by two flycatcher species (Ficedula, Muscicapidae)1994In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 52, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Ruiz, Iker
    Carlos Senar, Juan
    Genetic differentiation in the urban habitat: the great tits (Parus major) of the parks of Barcelona city2010In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 9-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of urban areas has led to a fragmentation of habitats for many forest-living species. Man-made parks might be a solution, but they can also act as sinks that are unable to maintain themselves without immigration from natural areas. Alternatively, parks might act as true metapopulations with extinctions and colonizations. In both cases, we can expect genetic variation to be reduced in the parks compared to the natural habitat. A third alternative is that the parks have sufficient reproduction to maintain themselves. To test these hypotheses, we analysed the pattern of genetic variation in the great tit (Parus major) in 12 parks in central Barcelona, and in an adjacent forest population using microsatellites. Genetic variation was not lower in the parks compared to the forest population, but larger, and gene flow was higher from the town to the forest compared to vice versa. We found a significant genetic differentiation among the parks, with a structure that only partly reflected the geographic position of the parks. Relatedness among individuals within parks was higher than expected by chance, although we found no evidence of kin groups. Assignment tests suggest that some parks are acting as net donors of individuals to other parks.

  • 9.
    Faulks, Leanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Eklöv, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Östman, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Genetic and morphological divergence along the littoral–pelagic axis in two common and sympatric fishes: perch, Perca fluviatilis (Percidae) and roach, Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidae)2015In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 929-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals are constantly in competition with one another and, on both ecological and evolutionary timescales, processes act to reduce this competition and promote the gain of fitness advantages via diversification. Here we have investigated the genetic (AFLP) and morphological (geometric morphometrics) aspects of the littoral–pelagic axis, a commonly observed resource polymorphism in freshwater fishes of postglacial lakes. We found a large degree of variation in the genetic and morphological divergence between littoral and pelagic perch and roach across Swedish lakes. Although there was evidence of assortative mating (elevated kinship values) in both species, we could not find any significant coupling of morphology and genetic divergence. Instead, there was evidence that the extent of resource polymorphism may be largely caused by phenotypic plasticity. These results suggest that assortative mating, which can lead to genetically determined adaptive divergence, does occur in these species, particularly perch, but not according to genetically fixed morphological traits. The behavioural mechanisms facilitating associative mating need to be investigated to explore the interaction between phenotypic plasticity and adaptive genetic divergence and their roles in diversification.

  • 10. Fitzpatrick, Susan
    et al.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Ornaments or offspring: costs to reproductive success restrict sexual selection processes1995In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 251-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If, in their partner choice, males seek direct benefits (fecund females), the result will be selection for traits indicating female quality rather than for arbitrary (Fisherian) traits. However, the costs of developing and maintaining the sexually selected traits (ornaments) may reduce the resources available to the female for allocation to reproduction and hence result in lower reproductive success per brood. This hitherto unrecognized fecundity cost of sexually selected traits will constrain both the potency of sexual selection mechanisms and the degree of elaboration of sexually selected traits in females, and can also apply to males which invest in their offspring: sexual selection becomes self-limiting. The fitness implications of these costs are examined for both sexes in a variety of mating and parental care patterns. Sexual selection acting on both sexes may lead to either dimorphism or monomorphism, the latter being the case when the quality indicators chosen by both sexes coincide. Ways of evasion or reduction of these reproductive costs of allocations to sexually selected traits include using different resource components for the ornament and for reproduction, or partitioning the two allocations in time. (C) 1995 The Linnean Society of London

  • 11. Förschler, Marc I.
    et al.
    Carlos Senar, Juan
    Borras, Antoni
    Cabrera, Josep
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Gene flow and range expansion in a mountain-dwelling passerine with a fragmented distribution2011In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 103, no 3, p. 707-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied gene flow and bottleneck events in the population history of locally isolated citril finches endemic to European mountains. For the present study, we used two genetic markers with different rates of evolution: a fast evolving mitochondrial marker (ATPase6/8) and a more slowly evolving nuclear marker (02401). Populations north of the Pyrenees showed in general fewer haplotypes and a considerable lower nucleotide and gene diversity than the Iberian populations. Unexpectedly, we found very little genetic variability in the fast evolving mitochondrial marker, arguing for a strong and relatively recent bottleneck event in the species population history. This pattern potentially reflects a sudden decrease of crucial resources during Mid-Holocene (mountain pine, Scots pine, and black pine) and a subsequent breakdown of the population. The bottleneck could also have been caused or coincide with a selective sweep in the mitochondrion. By contrast, the slowly evolving nuclear marker showed a much higher variability. This marker probably reflects major gene flow along a potential expansion pathway from the Eastern Pyrenees, northwards to the populations of Central Europe, and southwards to the more fragmented populations of central and southern Spain. The population of the Western Pyrenees (Navarra) appears to be cut-off from this major gene flow and our data indicate a certain degree of partial isolation, probably reflecting more ancient events (e.g. the separation in distinct refuge sites during the last glacial maximum).

  • 12. Goncalves, Ines Braga
    et al.
    Mobley, Kenyon B.
    Ahnesjo, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sagebakken, Gry
    Jones, Adam G.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Effects of mating order and male size on embryo survival in a pipefish2015In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 639-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In species that provide parental care, individuals should invest adaptively in their offspring in relation to the pre- and post-zygotic care provided by their partners. In the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhleL., females transfer large, nutrient-rich eggs into the male brood pouch during mating. The male broods and nourishes the embryos for several weeks before independent juveniles emerge at parturition. Given a choice, females clearly prefer large partners. Yet, females provide protein-richer eggs when the same individual mates with a smaller than a larger male. In the present study, we allowed each female to mate with one small and one large male, in alternated order. We found a strong effect of female mating order, with larger clutches and higher embryo mortality in first- than second-laid broods, which may suggest that eggs over-ripen in the ovaries or reflect the negative effects of high embryo density in the brood pouch. In either case, this effect should put constraints on the possibility of a female being selective in mate choice. We also found that small and large males produced embryos of similar size and survival, consistent with the reproductive compensation hypothesis, suggesting that, in this species, larger males provide better nourishment to the embryos than smaller males.(c) 2014 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 114, 639-645.

  • 13.
    Höglund, Jacob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Thulin, Carl-Gustaf
    Genetic variation and structure in Scandinavian red deer (Cervus elaphus): influence of ancestry, past hunting, and restoration management2013In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 19th century, the red deer (Cervus elaphus) population in Sweden experienced a rapid decline in numbers and distribution. A small population was, however, remnant in the southernmost province (Skane) of the country, presumably corresponding to the nominate form of red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphusLinnaeus, 1758). After management, reintroductions, and supplementary release during the 20th century the Swedish C.elaphus population recovered. The recovery was partially uncontrolled, and included introductions of C.elaphus of continental origin. In northern central Sweden (Jamtland) the current C.elaphus population may stem from natural colonization from Norway and/or from specimens of Swedish origin that have escaped from enclosures. To evaluate the status of the current, partially separated populations, we investigated variation at microsatellite markers in 157 C.elaphus specimens from ten locations in Sweden and Norway. Analyses suggest that the highest-likelihood phylogenetic structure among the individuals sampled is described four distinct genetic clusters: (1) animals from the province of Vastergotland in south-western Sweden; (2) deer from the southernmost province of Skane; (3) deer from the provinces Jamtland, Blekinge, and Vastmanland; and (4) Norwegian deer. Cervus elaphus from a captive herd at the Skane Zoo cluster with deer from Skane or deer from Vastergotland, depending on the method of analysis. A number of populations in Sweden may genetically match the nominate form of red deer (C.e.elaphus). The recently established C.elaphus population in Jamtland seems to stem mainly from escapees from enclosures, with a mixed ancestry from the wild remnant population in Skane and continental deer, whereas the influx from Norway is minor, if any. Our results show the need for a detailed assessment of genetic differentiation, and emphasize the value of local management plans when planning and managing introductions.

  • 14.
    Höglund, Jacob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Wang, Biao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Axelsson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Quintela, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Phylogeography of willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus) in the Arctic: taxonomic discordance as inferred from molecular data2013In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 77-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using independently segregating nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mitochondrial control region sequences, we found an east-west division among sampled willow grouse Lagopus lagopus subspecies. This division cut across the range of the subspecies with the largest distribution (lagopus) and thus contradicted existing taxonomic classifications. Russian Lagopus lagopus lagopus tended to cluster with North American willow grouse partly classified as other subspecies. Scandinavian willow grouse (L.l. lagopus) clustered with red grouse from Britain and Ireland (Lagopus lagopus scoticus and Lagopus lagopus hibernicus) but substructuring confirmed the monophyly of the latter. In North America, we could not detect any major genetic divisions apart from two birds described as alexandrae from the Heceta Island (Alaska) when using mitochondrial sequences. Other samples from North America were intermingled regardless of whether they were described as muriei, alexandrae or lagopus. A specimen described as alexandrae was to some extent distinct when analysing the SNP data. The genetic analyses indicated some concordance between genetics and taxonomy but not complete congruence. This is particularly evident for mitochondrial DNA network analyses. We suggest that the taxonomy of this species would benefit by a careful re-examination of the available evidence for subspecies. It appears as if subspecies status is a poor proxy for assigning evolutionary significant units and management units in this species.

  • 15.
    Jia, Shu-Wen
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xinjiang Inst Ecol & Geog, Key Lab Biogeog & Bioresource Arid Land, Urumqi 830011, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Grad Univ, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Ming-Li
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xinjiang Inst Ecol & Geog, Key Lab Biogeog & Bioresource Arid Land, Urumqi 830011, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Bot, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China..
    Raab-Straube, Eckhard V.
    Free Univ Berlin, Bot Garten, Konigin Luise Str 6-8, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.;Free Univ Berlin, Bot Museum Berlin Dahlem, Konigin Luise Str 6-8, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Thulin, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Evolutionary history of Gymnocarpos (Caryophyllaceae) in the arid regions from North Africa to Central Asia2016In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 511-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gymnocarpos has only about ten species distributed in the arid regions of Asia and Africa, but it exhibits a geographical disjunction between eastern Central Asia and western North Africa and Minor Asia. We sampled eight species of the genus and sequenced two chloroplast regions (rps16 and psbB-psbH), and the nuclear rDNA (ITS) to study the phylogeny and biogeography. The results of the phylogenetic analyses corroborated that Gymnocarpos is monophyletic, in the phylogenetic tree two well supported clades are recognized: clade 1 includes Gymnocarpos sclerocephalus and G. decandrus, mainly the North African group, whereas clade 2 comprises the remaining species, mainly in the Southern Arabian Peninsula. Molecular dating analysis revealed that the divergence age of Gymnocarpos was c. 31.33 Mya near the Eocene and Oligocene transition boundary, the initial diversification within Gymnocarpos dated to c. 6.69 Mya in the late Miocene, and the intraspecific diversification mostly occurred during the Quaternary climate oscillations. Ancestral area reconstruction suggested that the Southern Arabian Peninsula was the ancestral area for Gymnocarpos. Our conclusions revealed that the aridification since mid-late Miocene significantly affected the diversification of the genus in these areas.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Halvarsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mikolajewski, D. J.
    Free Univ Berlin, Inst Biol, Konigin Luise Str 1-3, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Genetic differentiation in the boreal dragonfly Leucorrhinia dubia in the Palearctic region2017In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last glacial period had a strong influence on the population genetic structure of boreal species in southern and central Europe. In addition, recent and current human impact on the boreal environment has led to habitat loss, which also has a large influence on population genetic structure of species. Here we present the spatial genetic structure of the boreal dragonfly Leucorrhinia dubia using ddRAD sequencing. We sampled individuals from nine locations in Europe, three in Asia (Russia and Japan) and one location of L. intermedia in Japan. Results showed three distinct genetic clusters in Europe. One genetic cluster consisted of individuals sampled from the locations in the Swiss Alps, a second consisted of individuals sampled in the United Kingdom, and a third cluster consisted of individuals from the rest of the seven sampled locations in Europe covering a latitudinal gradient from the French Pyrenees to the north of Finland. There was also a week support that the French Pyrenees and Austrian Alps samples differentiated from the cluster of the five samples from central and north Europe. We suggest that these clusters reflect historical recolonization patterns since the last glaciation. The L. dubia individuals sampled from locations in Asia formed one cluster referring to L. dubia orientalis separated from the individuals sampled in European and from the L. intermedia locality sampled. Our result suggests that aquatic insects in the fragmented boreal landscape in south central Europe and United Kingdom need conservation consideration.

  • 17.
    Jones, Eleanor P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Jensen, Jens-Kjeld
    Magnussen, Eydfinn
    Gregersen, Noomi
    Hansen, Heidi S.
    Searle, Jeremy B.
    A molecular characterization of the charismatic Faroe house mouse2011In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faroe house mice are a 'classic' system of rapid and dramatic morphological divergence highlighted by J. S. Huxley during the development of the Modern Synthesis. In the present study, we characterize these charismatic mice using modern molecular techniques, examining specimens from all Faroe islands occupied by mice. The aims were to classify the mice within the modern house mouse taxonomy (i.e. as either Mus musculus domesticus or Mus musculus musculus) using four molecular markers and a morphological feature, and to examine the genetic diversity and possible routes of colonization using mitochondrial (mt) control region DNA sequences and microsatellite data (15 loci). Mice on the most remote islands were characterized as M. m. domesticus and exhibited exceptionally low genetic diversity, whereas those on better connected islands were more genetically diverse and had both M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus genetic elements, including one population which was morphologically M. m. musculus-like. The mtDNA data indicate that the majority of the mice had their origins in south-western Norway (or possibly southern Denmark/northern Germany), and probably arrived with the Vikings, earlier than suggested by Huxley. The M. m. musculus genetic component appears to derive from recent mouse immigration from Denmark.

  • 18.
    Jones, Eleanor P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Searle, Jeremy B.
    Differing Y chromosome versus mitochondrial DNA ancestry, phylogeography, and introgression in the house mouse2015In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 348-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used Y chromosome microsatellites to infer the phylogeography of the house mouse (Mus musculus; predominantly the domesticus subspecies) across western Europe, and compared this with mitochondrial (mt)DNA phylogeography for the same samples. Overall, the distributions of mtDNA and Y haplotype lineages within M.m. domesticus were discordant, probably as a result of behavioural differences between males and females. In island contexts, there is evidence for a greater number of Y chromosome introductions compared to mtDNA introductions, indicating that island populations are more resistant to incoming females than males. This contrasts with a subspecies hybrid zone, which acts as a nonpermeable barrier to the Y chromosome but is relatively porous to mtDNA. Interestingly, within Norway, where Mus musculusY chromosomes are prevalent in the resident domesticus populations, the musculusY is apparently of a single, recent origin, with a distribution that is likely the result of a positive selection allowing the subspecies barrier to be crossed. Overall, we confirm the utility of Y chromosome microsatellites for inferring global ancestry and phylogeography in the house mouse.

  • 19.
    Kenward, Ben
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schloegl, Christian
    Rutz, Christian
    Weir, Alexander A. S.
    Bugnyar, Thomas
    Kacelnik, Alex
    On the evolutionary and ontogenetic origins of tool-oriented behaviour in New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides)2011In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 870-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides) are prolific tool users in captivity and in the wild, and have an inherited predisposition to express tool-oriented behaviours. To further understand the evolution and development of tool use, we compared the development of object manipulation in New Caledonian crows and common ravens (Corvus corax), which do not routinely use tools. We found striking qualitative similarities in the ontogeny of tool-oriented behaviour in New Caledonian crows and food-caching behaviour in ravens. Given that the common ancestor of New Caledonian crows and ravens was almost certainly a caching species, we therefore propose that the basic action patterns for tool use in New Caledonian crows may have their evolutionary origins in caching behaviour. Noncombinatorial object manipulations had similar frequencies in the two species. However, frequencies of object combinations that are precursors to functional behaviour increased in New Caledonian crows and decreased in ravens throughout the study period, ending 6 weeks post-fledging. These quantitative observations are consistent with the hypothesis that New Caledonian crows develop tool-oriented behaviour because of an increased motivation to perform object combinations that facilitate the necessary learning.

  • 20.
    Kivela, Sami M.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Svante Arrhenius Vag 18b, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Dept Zool, Vanemuise 46, EE-51014 Tartu, Estonia..
    Friberg, Magne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Svante Arrhenius Vag 18b, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Svante Arrhenius Vag 18b, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Adaptive developmental plasticity in a butterfly: mechanisms for size and time at pupation differ between diapause and direct development2017In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 122, no 1, p. 46-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diapause (overwintering) and direct development are alternative developmental pathways in temperate insects. Diapause necessitates physiological preparations for dormancy, while direct development is associated with strong time constraints, resulting in selection for fast development under the direct development pathway. Physiological and behavioural preparations for pupation contribute to development time, so divergent selection in them is expected between the alternative developmental pathways. Critical mass for pupation induction is a central physiological parameter for the pupation process. Here, we compare the critical masses and the characteristics of the wandering stage - wandering taking place after the cessation of growth and before pupation - between diapausing and directly developing larvae in the butterfly Pieris napi. Critical mass estimation succeeded only for diapausing individuals, among which it was lower in females than in males, indicating an inter-pathway difference in the physiology of critical mass. Directly developing individuals wandered for a shorter time and distance and lost less mass before pupation than diapausing individuals. These physiological and behavioural differences represent adaptive phenotypic plasticity and contribute to fast development under direct development. Thus, the observed developmental plasticity in physiology offers a mechanistic explanation for adaptive life-history variation between alternative developmental pathways and sexual dimorphism.

  • 21.
    Kivela, Sami M.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Friberg, Magne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Towards a mechanistic understanding of insect life history evolution: oxygen-dependent induction of moulting explains moulting sizes2016In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 117, no 3, p. 586-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moults characterise insect growth trajectories, typically following a consistent pattern known as Dyar's rule; proportional size increments remain constant across inter-instar moults. Empirical work suggests that oxygen limitation triggers moulting. The insect respiratory system, and its oxygen supply capacity, grows primarily at moults. It is hypothesized that the oxygen demand increases with increasing body mass, eventually meeting the oxygen supply capacity at an instar-specific critical mass where moulting is triggered. Deriving from this hypothesis, we develop a novel mathematical model for moulting and growth in insect larvae. Our mechanistic model has great success in predicting moulting sizes in four butterfly species, indirectly supporting a size-dependent mechanism underlying moulting. The results demonstrate that an oxygen-dependent induction of moulting mechanism would be sufficient to explain moulting sizes in the study species. Model predictions deviated slightly from Dyar's rule, the deviations being typically negligible within the present data range. The developmental decisions (e.g. moulting) made by growing larvae significantly affect age and size at maturity, which has important life history implications. The successful modelling of moulting presented here provides a novel framework for the development of realistic insect growth models, which are required for a better understanding of life history evolution.

  • 22.
    Klinga, Peter
    et al.
    Tech Univ, Fac Forestry, SK-96053 Zvolen, Slovakia..
    Mikolas, Martin
    Czech Univ Life Sci, Fac Forestry & Wood Sci, Prague 16521 6, Suchdol, Czech Republic.;PRALES, SK-01322 Rosina, Slovakia..
    Zhelev, Petar
    Univ Forestry, Fac Forestry, BG-17456 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Paule, Ladislav
    Tech Univ, Fac Forestry, SK-96053 Zvolen, Slovakia..
    Genetic differentiation of western capercaillie in the Carpathian Mountains: the importance of post glacial expansions and habitat connectivity2015In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 116, no 4, p. 873-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population structure and barriers to gene flow are important components for understanding the evolutionary history of a species. Here we study population structure and differentiation in the western capercaillie (Aves: Phasianidae) along the Carpathian Mountains. Further, we compared the levels of population differentiation among capercaillie from the Carpathian Mountains, Balkans (Bulgaria) and the boreal forest (Russia and Sweden) in order to reveal past and current processes which may influence population structure. Tissue samples, non-invasive faeces and feathers and toe pads from museum specimens were used for genetic analyses of mitochondrial (mtDNA) sequences and allelic variation at nine nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci. Analyses of mtDNA sequences revealed a southern subclade within the northern clade. Within the northern clade, microsatellite data distinguished two groups: (1) Western Carpathian populations; and (2) Eastern Carpathian and boreal forest populations. Bulgarian populations constituted a third cluster corresponding to the southern phylogenetic subclade. The Western Carpathian populations showed a heterozygote deficiency. The analyses indicate that the abundant Eastern Carpathian populations share alleles with populations from the boreal forest suggesting a common origin of these populations since the last glacial period. On the other hand, the Western Carpathian populations have been isolated over a long period with only a few migrants from the east, thereby becoming differentiated from the eastern and northern populations. The southern populations have been isolated from the northern populations since the last glacial maximum. The molecular analyses did not support the currently recognised taxonomy at the subspecies level.

  • 23. Kolluru, Gita R.
    et al.
    Grether, Gregory F.
    South, Sandra H.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.
    Dunlop, Eric
    Cardinali, Andrea
    Liu, Linda
    Carapiet, Andreh
    The effects of carotenoid and food availability on resistance to a naturally occurring parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli) in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)2006In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 301-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary carotenoids have been shown to confer immunological benefits to some species of animals in which males also use these pigments to attract mates. Thus, the potential exists for an allocation trade-off between the sexual and immunological functions of carotenoids. Food availability may also influence immune system function. The present study examined the effects of carotenoid and food availability on the resistance of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters) from four wild populations to the parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli Harris. Intermediate levels of carotenoid ingestion resulted in the lowest parasite loads, which suggests that carotenoids strengthen parasite resistance at low levels but either benefit parasites or suppress host immunity at high levels. Males raised on the high-food level initially had fewer parasites, suggesting heightened innate immunity relative to males raised on the low-food level. Over the course of the experiment, however, the high-food males supported higher parasite population growth rates than the low-food males. The results obtained emphasize the importance of evaluating the effects of diet on multiple aspects of immune system function, and caution against assuming that positive effects of carotenoids on immunity in one context will automatically translate to other contexts.

  • 24.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Maternal and genetic contributions to geographical variation in Rana temporaria larval life-history traits2002In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 61-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative importance of genetic, environmental, and maternal effects as determinants of geographical variation in vertebrate life-histories has not often been explored. We examined the role of genetic and maternal effects as determinants of population divergence in survival and three important larval life-history traits (growth rate, age, and size at metamorphosis) using reciprocal crosses between two latitudinally separated populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria Linnaeus). Genetic effects were important in all three traits as indicated by the significant effect of male origin, but there was also evidence for nonadditive genetic contributions on metamorphic size and growth rate. Likewise, maternal effect contributions to population divergence were large, partially environment dependent, and apparently acting primarily through egg size in two of three traits. These results suggest that both genetic and maternal effects are important determinants of geographical variation in amphibian life-histories, and that much of the differentiation resulting from maternal effects is mediated through variation in egg size.

  • 25.
    Lemoine, Melissa
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Lucek, Kay
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Aquat Ecol & Evolut, Baltzerstr 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.;Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England..
    Perrier, Charles
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, UMR 5175, 1919 Route Mende, FR-34293 Montpellier 5, France..
    Saladin, Verena
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Div Evolutionary Ecol, Baltzerstr 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Adriaensen, Frank
    Univ Antwerp, Dept Biol, Evolutionary Ecol Grp, BE-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    Barba, Emilio
    Univ Valencia, Cavanilles Inst Biodivers & Evolutionary Biol, C Catedrat Jose Beltran 2, Paterna 46980, Spain..
    Belda, Eduardo J.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Invest Gest Integrada Zonas Costeras IGIC, C Paraninfo 1, ES-46730 Valencia, Spain..
    Charmantier, Anne
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, UMR 5175, 1919 Route Mende, FR-34293 Montpellier 5, France..
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Eeva, Tapio
    Univ Turku, Dept Biol, FI-20014 Turku, Finland..
    Gregoire, Arnaud
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, UMR 5175, 1919 Route Mende, FR-34293 Montpellier 5, France..
    Hinde, Camilla A.
    Wageningen Univ, Dept Anim Sci, Behav Ecol Grp, NL-6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Johnsen, Arild
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, POB 1172 Blindern, NO-0318 Oslo, Norway..
    Komdeur, Jan
    Univ Groningen, Ctr Ecol & Evolutionary Studies, Behav Ecol & Selforg, POB 11103, NL-9747 AG Groningen, Netherlands..
    Mand, Raivo
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Dept Zool, Vanemuise 46, EE-51014 Tartu, Estonia..
    Matthysen, Erik
    Univ Antwerp, Dept Biol, Evolutionary Ecol Grp, BE-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    Norte, Ana Claudia
    Univ Coimbra, Fac Sci & Technol, Marine & Environm Sci Ctr MARE, Dept Life Sci, P-3004517 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Pitala, Natalia
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 35, FI-40014 Jyvaskyla, Finland..
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Slagsvold, Tore
    Univ Oslo, Dept Biosci, CEES, POB 1066 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Tinbergen, Joost M.
    Univ Groningen, Ctr Ecol & Evolutionary Studies, Anim Ecol Grp, POB 11103, NL-9747 AG Groningen, Netherlands..
    Torok, Janos
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Dept Systemat Zool & Ecol, Behav Ecol Grp, Pazmany Peter Setany 1-c, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary..
    Ubels, Richard
    Univ Groningen, Ctr Ecol & Evolutionary Studies, Anim Ecol Grp, POB 11103, NL-9747 AG Groningen, Netherlands..
    Van Oers, Kees
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Dept Anim Ecol, POB 50, NL-6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Visser, Marcel E.
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Dept Anim Ecol, POB 50, NL-6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5558, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.
    Richner, Heinz
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Div Evolutionary Ecol, Baltzerstr 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits2016In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 118, no 3, p. 668-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species - the great tit Parus major - at different spatial scales. We analysed 884 individuals from 30 sites across Europe including 10 close-by sites (< 50 km), using 22 microsatellite markers. Overall we found a low but significant genetic differentiation among sites (F-ST = 0.008). Genetic differentiation was higher, and genetic diversity lower, in south-western Europe. These regional differences were statistically best explained by winter temperature. Overall, our results suggest that great tits form a single patchy metapopulation across Europe, in which genetic differentiation is independent of geographical distance and gene flow may be regulated by environmental factors via movements related to winter severity. This might have important implications for the evolutionary trajectories of sub-populations, especially in the context of climate change, and calls for future investigations of local differences in costs and benefits of philopatry at large scales.

  • 26.
    Lindell, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Mendez-De La Cruz, Fausto R.
    Murphy, Robert W.
    Deep biogeographical history and cytonuclear discordance in the black-tailed brush lizard2008In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 89-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular tools help us deduce historical events such as vicariance, dispersal, gene flow and speciation. However, our inferences are inevitably linked to the nature of the characters that we use to infer history. For example, the difference in inheritance patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (non-recombining maternal vs. recombining biparental inheritance) may lead us to propose different intraspecific histories. The peninsula of Baja California of north-western Mexico, a region affected by a complex geological history involving temporary seaways, permits evaluation of differences between these character types. We sequenced 1966 bp of mtDNA to reconstruct the genealogical history of Urosaurus nigricaudus (black-tailed brush lizard) from samples spanning the entire peninsula. The genealogy revealed several deep divergences, congruent with temporary vicariance events in the mid-peninsular, Loreto and Cape regions, as well as a major split across the Isthmus of La Paz, possibly resulting from a late Miocene seaway. The results support an emerging picture of the historical biogeography of Baja California, which suggests that key vicariance events are older than commonly perceived. The maternal genealogy of U. nigricaudus sharply contrasts with variation in allozymes that suggests very little differentiation across mitochondrial breaks, consistent with a pattern of ongoing gene flow. We interpret this cytonuclear discordance in relation to the historical biogeography of the region.

  • 27.
    Lindgren, Beatrice
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Physiological variation along a geographical gradient: is growth rate correlated with routine metabolic rate in Rana temporaria tadpoles?2009In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 217-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shorter season length and lower temperature towards higher latitudes and altitudes often select for intraspecific clines in development and growth rates. However, the physiological mechanisms enabling these clines are not well understood. We studied the relationship between routine metabolic rate (RMR) and larval life-history traits along a 1500-km latitudinal gradient across Sweden. In a laboratory common garden experiment, we exposed eight common frog Rana temporaria populations to two experimental temperatures (15 and 18 degrees C) and measured RMR using flow-through respirometry. We found significant differences among populations in RMR, but there was no evidence for a linear relationship between latitude and RMR in either temperature treatment. However, we found a concave relationship between latitude and RMR at the lower experimental temperature. RMR was not correlated with growth rate at population or at individual levels. The results obtained suggest that, unlike in growth and development rates, there is no latitudinal cline in RMR in R. temporaria tadpoles. (C) 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 98, 217-224.

  • 28.
    Lohmus, Mare
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, SE-11365 Stockholm, Sweden.;SLL, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, SE-11365 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Climate change: what will it do to fish-parasite interactions?2015In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 397-411Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change-related factors are predicted to affect aquatic environments in many ways. Fish physiology, immunology, behaviour, and parasite-avoidance strategies are likely to be affected by climate change and this may lead to ecosystem-level changes. Parasitic organisms that exploit fish are also likely to be affected by climate change, both directly and via climate effects on their hosts. It is possible that climate change will alter the prerequisites for parasite transfer, for example, through changes in phenological relationships, and/or change the direction and pressure of selection in host-parasite relationships. Our review indicates strong multifactorial effects of climate change on fish-parasite systems. Increased water temperature is, on the one hand, predicted to enhance parasite metabolism, resulting in more rapid spread of parasites; on the other hand, the occurrence of some parasites could also decrease if the optimal temperature for growth and transmission is exceeded.

  • 29.
    Olsson, Jens
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Quevedo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Colson, Celine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Gut length plasticity in perch: Into the bowels of resource polymorphisms2007In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 517-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource polymorphisms, intraspecific variation in morphology due to differential resource use, are common across a wide range of animal taxa. The focus in studies of such polymorphisms has been on external morphology, but the differential use of food resources could also influence other phenotypic traits such as the digestive performance. In the present study, we experimentally demonstrate that Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) display adaptive plasticity in gut length when exposed to different food types. Perch fed a less digestible food type developed relatively longer guts compared to fish fed a more easily digested food type. This divergence in gut length was also apparent under natural conditions because perch inhabiting the littoral and pelagic habitats of a lake differed in resource use and relative gut length. Despite that the digestive system in perch is plastic, we found that individuals switching to a novel food type might experience an initial fitness cost of the diet switch in the form of a temporary reduction in body condition. These results show the importance of gut length plasticity for an ontogenetic omnivore but also a cost that might prevent diet switching in polymorphic populations.

  • 30.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Biología de Organismos y Sistemas, University of Oviedo.
    Johansson, Frank
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    The effects of latitude, body size, and sexual selection on wing shape in a damselfly2011In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under natural selection, wing shape is expected to evolve to optimize flight performance. However, other selective factors besides flight performance may influence wing shape. One such factor could be sexual selection in wing sexual ornaments, which may lead to alternative variations in wing shape that are not necessarily related to flight performance. In the present study, we investigated wing shape variations in a calopterygid damselfly along a latitudinal gradient using geometric morphometrics. Both sexes show wing pigmentation, which is a known signal trait at intra- and interspecific levels. Wing shape differed between sexes and, within the same sex, the shape of the hind wing differed from the front wing. Latitude and body size explained a high percentage of the variation in wing shape for female front and hind wings, and male front wings. In male hind wings, wing pigmentation explained a high amount of the variation in wing shape. On the other hand, the variation in shape explained by pigmentation was very low in females. We suggest that the conservative morphology of front wings is maintained by natural selection operating on flight performance, whereas the sex-specific differences in hind wings most likely could be explained by sexual selection. The observed sexual dimorphism in wing shape is likely a result of different sex-specific behaviours. (C) 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 102, 263-274.

  • 31.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Biología de Organismos y Sistemas, University of Oviedo.
    Ocharan, Francisco J.
    Biología de Organismos y Sistemas, University of Oviedo.
    Wing pigmentation in Calopteryx damselflies: a role in thermoregulation?2011In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 36-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body melanization may show adaptive variation related to thermoregulation ability, and it is to be expected that the degree of melanization will change among populations or closely related species across environmental gradients of solar radiation and/or environmental temperature. Some melanized secondary sexual traits may also play a role in sexual selection, leading to interpopulation variation, which would not be predicted by thermoregulation pressures alone. We studied the relationships between the interpopulation variation in wing pigmentation level (i.e. melanized secondary sexual trait) of two closely related species of Calopteryx damselfly, and both solar radiation and maximum environmental temperature estimates. Wing pigmentation differs between these species, is gender specific and is used in species' discrimination. Only Calopteryx virgo meridionalis males showed a significant negative partial correlation between wing pigmentation degree and temperature. However, C. virgo meridionalis females showed a positive significant partial correlation between wing pigmentation degree and solar radiation. Wing pigmentation in Calopteryx xanthostoma males was not related to solar radiation or temperature. Thus, thermoregulation pressures poorly explained the observed variations in wing pigmentation between populations, although they might have an adaptive significance at the species' level. As wing pigmentation showed important latitudinal variation, several other selection pressures which might act on melanized traits are briefly discussed. (C) 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 103, 36-44.

  • 32.
    Padial, José M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    De La Riva, Ignacio
    A response to recent proposals for integrative taxonomy2010In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 747-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several proposals have been launched under the new concept 'integrative taxonomy' to frame the future development of species discovery and description. We consider that some of those proposals have failed to be truly integrative, by not acknowledging the limitations of operational definitions of species, by defending some kinds of evidence as universally superior, by considering taxonomy to be irreconcilable with population genetics, or by ignoring that the heterogeneity of evolutionary processes often precludes full character congruence in species. Here we defend a taxonomy where species exist, but not in any particular way everyone might want them to exist; a taxonomy open to data and methods from population biology, phylogeography and phylogenetics, as well as any other discipline providing evidence about the origin and evolution of species. This new taxonomy embraces all the consequences of considering species as lineages of reproductive populations, encouraging the use of as many lines of evidence as possible, but without negating that a single line may also be the only one providing evidence for a particular species. Species cannot only be those reproductive populations showing broad character congruence and/or reproductive isolation, due to the different degrees of character congruence, as well as of reproductive isolation, that result from the heterogeneity of evolutionary processes causing lineage splitting and divergence. Also, any kind of character - and not only those established by tradition or fashion - is potentially relevant as evidence of lineage divergence. To conciliate the authors who only see species supported by broad character congruence as good species hypotheses, we explain how a hypothesis can gain corroboration using single or multiple lines of evidence, even in cases of discordance with other lines of evidence. Finally, we propose guidelines to identify the expected degree of stability (preliminary, unstable, and stable) of species hypotheses. (C) 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 101, 747-756.

  • 33. Postma, Erik
    et al.
    Den Tex, Robert-Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Van Noordwijk, J
    Mateman, Christa
    Neutral markers mirror small-scale quantitative genetic differentiation in an avian island population2009In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 97, no 4, p. 867-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We still know remarkably little about the extent to which neutral markers can provide a biologically relevant description of population structure. In the present study, we address this question, and quantify microsatellite differentiation among a small, structured island population of great tits (Parus major), and a large mainland population 150 km away. Although only a few kilometres apart, we found small but statistically significant levels of differentiation between the eastern and the western part of the island. On the other hand, there was no differentiation between the western part of the island and the mainland population, whereas the eastern part and the mainland did differ significantly. This initially counterintuitive result provides powerful support for the hypothesis that the large genetic difference in clutch size between both parts of the island found earlier is maintained by different levels of gene flow into both parts of the island, and illustrates the capacity of microsatellites to provide a meaningful description of population structure. Importantly, because the level of microsatellite differentiation is very low, we were unable to infer any population structure without grouping individuals a priori. Hence, these low levels of differentiation in neutral markers could easily remain undetected, or incorrectly be dismissed as biologically irrelevant. Thus, although microsatellites can provide a powerful tool to study genetic structure in wild populations, they should be used in conjunction with a range of other sources of information, rather than as a replacement. (C) 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 97, 867-875.

  • 34.
    Roulin, Alexandre
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Biophore, University of Lausanne.
    Burri, Reto
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Biophore, University of Lausanne.
    Antoniazza, Sylvain
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Biophore, University of Lausanne.
    Owl melanin-based plumage redness is more frequent near than away from the equator: implications on the effect of climate change on biodiversity2011In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 573-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change acts as a major new selective agent on many organisms, particularly at high latitudes where climate change is more pronounced than at lower latitudes. Studies are required to predict which species are at a high risk of extinction and whether certain phenotypes may be more affected by climate change than others. The identification of susceptible phenotypes is important for evaluating the potential negative effect of climate change on biodiversity at the inter- and intraspecific levels. Melanin-based coloration is an interesting and easily accessible candidate trait because, within certain species, reddish pheomelanin-based coloration is associated with adaptations to warm climates. However, it is unclear whether the same holds among species. We tested one prediction of this hypothesis in four owl genera (wood, scops, screech, and pygmy owls), namely that darker reddish species are more prevalent near the equator than polewards. Our comparative analysis is consistent with this prediction for the northern hemisphere, suggesting that pale reddish species may be adapted to cold climates and dark reddish species to warmer climates. Thus, climate change may have a larger negative impact on pale pheomelanic owls and favour dark pheomelanic species.

  • 35.
    Rudh, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Breed, Martin F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Does aggression and explorative behaviour decrease with lost warning colouration?2013In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 116-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For prey, many behavioural traits are constrained by the risk of predation. Therefore, shifts between warning and cryptic coloration have been suggested to result in parallel changes in several behaviours. In the present study, we tested whether changes in chromatic contrast among eight populations of the strawberry poison-dart frog, Dendrobates pumilio, co-vary with behaviour, as expected if selection is imposed by predators relying on visual detection of prey. These eight populations are geographically isolated on different island in the Bocas del Toro region of Panama and have recently diverged morphologically and genetically. We found that aggression and explorative behaviour were strongly correlated and also that males tended to be more aggressive and explorative if they belonged to populations with conspicuously coloured individuals. We discuss how evolutionary switches between predator avoidance strategies and associated behavioural divergence between populations may affect reproductive isolation.

  • 36.
    Sagebakken, Gry
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Nutritional state - a survival kit for brooding pipefish fathers2017In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 312-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A parent's nutritional state may influence its ability to provide care to offspring and ability to handle infections. In the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, males care for their offspring by brooding the developing embryos in a brood pouch, providing nutrients and oxygen, resembling a pregnancy. Here, we demonstrate that the nutritional state of pregnant males covaries with their own survival during a selective event. Brooding males surviving a Vibrio sp. infection were in a significantly better nutritional state, as estimated by their hepatosomatic index. Furthermore, a higher nutritional state of the brooding male correlated with a lower embryo mortality, while feeding treatment (low vs. high) had no effect on male survival, nutritional state or embryo mortality. Finally, males brooding heavier embryos also showed a lower embryo mortality. This may reflect a maternal effect (if large eggs result in higher embryo survival), a paternal effect (if higher provisioning of male care promotes both embryo growth and survival), or a combination thereof (males caring more for large embryos). The results demonstrate the importance of a good nutritional state for a caring parent when their immunity is challenged.

  • 37. Sun, Hai-Qin
    et al.
    Alexandersson, Ronny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Ge, Song
    Positive effects of flower abundance and synchronous flowering on pollination success, and pollinia dispersal in rewardless Changnienia amoena (Orchidaceae)2010In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 477-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollination success and pollen dispersal in natural populations depend on the spatial-temporal variation of flower abundance. For plants that lack rewards for pollinators, pollination success is predicted to be negatively related to flower density and flowering synchrony. We investigated the relationships between pollination success and flower abundance and flowering synchrony, and estimated pollinia dispersal distance in a rewardless species, Changnienia amoena (Orchidaceae). The results obtained in the present study revealed that male pollination success was negatively influenced by population size but was positively affected by population density, whereas female pollination success was independent of both population size and density. Phenotypic analysis suggested that highly synchronous flowering was advantageous through total pollination success, which is in contrast to previous studies. These results indicate that pollination facilitation rather than competition for pollinator visits occurs in this rewardless plant. The median distance of pollinia dispersal was 11.5 m (mean distance = 17.5 m), which is comparable to that of other rewardless plants but longer than for rewarding plants. However, pollen transfer occured mainly within populations; pollen import was a rare event. Restricted gene flow by pollinia and seeds probably explains the previous population genetic reporting a high degree of genetic differentiation between populations.

  • 38.
    Väli, Ülo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Dombrovski, Valery
    Treinys, Rimgaudas
    Bergmanis, Ugis
    Daroczi, Szilárd J.
    Dravecky, Mioslav
    Ivanovski, Vladimir
    Lontkowski, Jan
    Maciorowski, Grzegorz
    Meyburg, Bernd-Ulrich
    Mizera, Tadeusz
    Zeitz, Róbert
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Widespread hybridization between the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina (Aves: Accipitriformes) in Europe2010In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 725-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybridization is a significant threat for endangered species and could potentially even lead to their extinction. This concern applies to the globally vulnerable Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga, a species that co-occurs, and potentially interbreeds, with the more common Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in a vast area of Eastern Europe. We applied single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and microsatellite markers in order to study hybridization and introgression in 14 European spotted eagle populations. We detected hybridization and/or introgression in all studied sympatric populations. In most regions, hybridization took place prevalently between A. pomarina males and A. clanga females, with introgression to the more common A. pomarina. However, such a pattern was not as obvious in regions where A. clanga is still numerous. In the course of 16 years of genetic monitoring of a mixed population in Estonia, we observed the abandonment of A. clanga breeding territories and the replacement of A. clanga pairs by A. pomarina, whereby on several occasions hybridization was an intermediate step before the disappearance of A. clanga. Although the total number of Estonian A. clanga × A. pomarina pairs was twice as high as that of A. clanga pairs, the number of pairs recorded yearly were approximately equal, which suggests a higher turnover rate in interbreeding pairs. This study shows that interspecific introgressive hybridization occurs rather frequently in a hybrid zone at least 1700-km wide: it poses an additional threat for the vulnerable A. clanga, and may contribute to the extinction of its populations.

  • 39.
    Zajitschek, Susanne R. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Zajitschek, Felix
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Miles, D. B.
    Clobert, J.
    The effect of coloration and temperature on sprint performance in male and female wall lizards2012In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 573-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenotypic coloration in animals is often expected to have a signalling function, but it may also evolve as a correlated trait that reflects life-history strategy, social strategy, or ecological divergence. Wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) exhibit substantial colour variation, with both males and females being red, white, yellow, or a mixture of these colours. However, the biological significance of these colour morphs remains unknown. Here we investigate the relationship between coloration and temperature-dependent locomotor performance in an attempt to identify the adaptive significance of colour variation in this species. We investigate the maximum sprint speed of males and females of each of these colour morphs across seven different temperatures, using general additive mixed models (GAMMs). We predicted that the different sexes and colour phenotypes would exhibit differences in sprint speed performance, potentially indicating a correlation between coloration and adaptation into different ecological niches. We found no difference in performance of the discrete colour morphs, but amongst individuals that exhibited red coloration, those with a greater percentage of red were slower than those with less red coloration. This suggests a trade-off between red coloration and high sprint performance in this species. Furthermore, larger animals performed better, independent of colour and sex. Finally, we found no relative or absolute difference between males and females in their sprint performance. Taken together, our results suggest that there is no sex-specific or colour morph-specific differentiation in the use of microhabitats in this species.

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