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  • 1.
    Ahlström, K.
    et al.
    Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrens University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Biber, B.
    Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrens University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åberg, A.
    Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Waldenström, A.
    Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ronquist, G.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk kemi.
    Abrahamsson, P.
    Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Strandén, P.
    Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, G.
    Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Haney, Michael F.
    Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Metabolic responses in ischemic myocardium after inhalation of carbon monoxide2009Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 53, nr 8, s. 1036-1042Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To clarify the mechanisms of carbon monoxide (CO) tissue-protective effects, we studied energy metabolism in an animal model of acute coronary occlusion and pre-treatment with CO. METHODS: In anesthetized pigs, a coronary snare and microdialysis probes were placed. CO (carboxyhemoglobin 5%) was inhaled for 200 min in test animals, followed by 40 min of coronary occlusion. Microdialysate was analyzed for lactate and glucose, and myocardial tissue samples were analyzed for adenosine tri-phosphate, adenosine di-phosphate, and adenosine mono-phosphate. RESULTS: Lactate during coronary occlusion was approximately half as high in CO pre-treated animals and glucose levels decreased to a much lesser degree during ischemia. Energy charge was no different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: CO in the low-doses tested in this model results in a more favorable energy metabolic condition in that glycolysis is decreased in spite of maintained energy charge. Further work is warranted to clarify the possible mechanistic role of energy metabolism for CO protection.

  • 2. Aliverti, A.
    et al.
    Kostic, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Lo Mauro, Antonella
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Andersson-Olerud, Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Quaranta, M.
    Pedotti, A.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Frykholm, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Effects of propofol anaesthesia on thoraco-abdominal volume variations during spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation2011Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, nr 5, s. 588-596Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Anaesthesia based on inhalational agents has profound effects on chest wall configuration and breathing pattern. The effects of propofol are less well characterised. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of propofol anaesthesia on chest wall motion during spontaneous breathing and positive pressure ventilation. Methods We studied 16 subjects undergoing elective surgery requiring general anaesthesia. Chest wall volumes were continuously monitored by opto-electronic plethysmography during quiet breathing (QB) in the conscious state, induction of anaesthesia, spontaneous breathing during anaesthesia (SB), pressure support ventilation (PSV) and pressure control ventilation (PCV) after muscle paralysis. Results The total chest wall volume decreased by 0.41 +/- 0.08 l immediately after induction by equal reductions in the rib cage and abdominal volumes. An increase in the rib cage volume was then seen, resulting in total chest wall volumes 0.26 +/- 0.09, 0.24 +/- 0.10, 0.22 +/- 0.10 l lower than baseline, during SB, PSV and PCV, respectively. During QB, rib cage volume displacement corresponded to 34.2 +/- 5.3% of the tidal volume. During SB, PSV and PCV, this increased to 42.2 +/- 4.9%, 48.2 +/- 3.6% and 46.3 +/- 3.2%, respectively, with a corresponding decrease in the abdominal contribution. Breathing was initiated by the rib cage muscles during SB. Conclusion Propofol anaesthesia decreases end-expiratory chest wall volume, with a more pronounced effect on the diaphragm than on the rib cage muscles, which initiate breathing after apnoea.

  • 3.
    Arakelian, Erebouni
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kolorektalkirurgi.
    Gunningberg, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    Larsson, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning.
    Job satisfaction or production? How staff and leadership understand operating room efficiency: a qualitative study2008Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 52, nr 10, s. 1423-1428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: How to increase efficiency in operating departments has been widely studied. However, there is no overall definition of efficiency. Supervisors urging staff to work efficiently may meet strong reactions due to staff believing that demands for efficiency means just stress at work. Differences in how efficiency is understood may constitute an obstacle to supervisors' efforts to promote it. This study aimed to explore how staff and leadership understand operating room efficiency. METHODS: Twenty-one members of staff and supervisors in an operating department in a Swedish county hospital were interviewed. The analysis was performed with a phenomenographic approach that aims to discover the variations in how a phenomenon is understood by a group of people. RESULTS: Six categories were found in the understanding of operation room efficiency: (A) having the right qualifications; (B) enjoying work; (C) planning and having good control and overview; (D) each professional performing the correct tasks; (E) completing a work assignment; and (F) producing as much as possible per time unit. The most significant finding was that most of the nurses and assistant nurses understood efficiency as individual knowledge and experience emphasizing the importance of the work process, whereas the supervisors and physicians understood efficiency in terms of production per time unit or completing an assignment. CONCLUSIONS: The concept 'operating room efficiency' is understood in different ways by leadership and staff members. Supervisors who are aware of this variation will have better prerequisites for defining the concept and for creating a common platform towards becoming efficient.

  • 4. Barklin, A
    et al.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Vestergaard, C
    Koefoed-Nielsen, J
    Bach, A
    Nyboe, R
    Wogensen, L
    Tønnesen, E
    Does brain death induce a pro-inflammatory response at the organ level in a porcine model?2008Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 621-627Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Organs from brain-dead donors have a poorer prognosis after transplantation than organs from living donors. A possible explanation for this is that brain death might initiate a systemic inflammatory response, elicited by a metabolic stress response or brain ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of brain death on the cytokine content in the heart, liver, and kidney. In addition, the metabolic and hemodynamic response caused by brain death was carefully registered.

    Methods:

    Fourteen pigs (35–40 kg) were randomized into two groups (1) eight brain-dead pigs and (2) six pigs only sham operated. Brain death was induced by inflation of an epidurally placed balloon. Blood samples for insulin, glucose, catecholamine, free fatty acids (FAA), and glucagon were obtained during the experimental period of 360 min. At the conclusion of the experiment, biopsies were taken from the heart, liver, and kidney and were analyzed for cytokine mRNA and proteins [tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10).

    Results:

    We found a dramatic response to brain death on plasma levels of epinephrine (P=0.004), norepinephrine (P=0.02), FAA (P=0.0001), and glucagon (P=0.0003) compared with the sham group. There was no difference in cytokine content in any organ between the groups.

    Conclusion:

    In this porcine model, brain death induced a severe metabolic response in peripheral blood. At the organ level, however, there was no difference in the cytokine response between the groups.

  • 5.
    Bartha, Erzsebet
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Helleberg, Johan
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Ahlstrand, Rebecca
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Orebro, Sweden..
    Bell, Max
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Solna, Sweden..
    Bjorne, Hakan
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Solna, Sweden..
    Brattstrom, Olof
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Solna, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Lena
    Univ Hosp Linkoping, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Semenas, Egidijus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Wiklund, Andreas
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Solna, Sweden..
    Kalman, Sigridur
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Performance of prediction models of postoperative mortality in high-risk surgical patients in swedish university hospitals: Predictors, Risk factors and Outcome Following major Surgery study (PROFS study NCT02626546)2017Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 1056-1057Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6. Basnet, A.
    et al.
    Butler, Stephen
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Honore, P. H.
    Butler, M.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Gordh, Torsten E.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Kristensen, K.
    Bjerrum, O. J.
    Donepezil provides positive effects to patients treated with gabapentin for neuropathic pain: an exploratory study2014Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 61-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe first-line medication gabapentin and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil represent a new promising combination to improve treatment outcomes for patients with severe neuropathic pain. The drugs have previously shown synergism following co-administration in nerve-injured rats. MethodsThe clinical relevance of adding donepezil to existing gabapentin treatment in patients with post-traumatic neuropathic pain was explored in this open-label study. The study comprised two consecutive periods of minimum 6 weeks: (1) titration of gabapentin to the highest tolerable dose or maximum 2400mg daily, and (2) addition of donepezil 5mg once daily to the fixed gabapentin dose. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by ratings of pain intensity, questionnaires for pain and health-related quality of life, and reporting of adverse events. Pain scores were also analysed using mixed-effects analysis with the software NONMEM to account for intersubject variability. ResultsEight patients commenced treatment with donepezil, of which two withdrew because of adverse events. Addition of donepezil resulted in clinically relevant reductions of pain (>11 units on a 0-100 scale) and improved mental wellness in three of six patients. The remaining three patients had no obvious supplemental effect. Mixed-effects analysis revealed that pain scores were significantly lower during co-administration (P<0.0001 combination vs. monotherapy). ConclusionDonepezil may provide additional analgesia to neuropathic pain patients with insufficient pain relief from gabapentin as monotherapy. The promising results support controlled clinical trials of the drug combination. The usefulness of mixed-effects analysis in small-scale trials and/or for data with high intersubject variability was also demonstrated.

  • 7.
    Basu, Samar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Eriksson, A.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Lipid peroxidation induced by an early inflammatory response in endotoxaemia2000Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 17-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Endotoxaemic challenge promptly causes lipid peroxidation. Porcine endotoxaemia can be used to replicate severe human septic shock. This model was used to evaluate non-enzymatic [8-Iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso-PGF2alpha)] and enzymatic [15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin F2alpha (15-K-DH-PGF2alpha)] lipid peroxidation, respectively, in relation to survival. The aim of this study was to correlate, if possible, pathophysiologic events during endotoxaemia to the levels of these arachidonic acid metabolites.

    METHODS: Nineteen pigs were anaesthetised, monitored (circulatory and respiratory variables in relation to lipid peroxidation) and given a continuous 6 h E. coli endotoxin (10 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) infusion. All animals were mechanically ventilated at constant tidal volumes and the inspired oxygen fraction was kept constant during the experimental period.

    RESULTS: This endotoxin infusion caused expressed derangements in all pigs and death in 9 of them. The levels of 8-Iso-PGF2alpha, indicating oxidative injury, were different in time course, magnitude and fashion between survivors and non-survivors. The levels of 15-K-DH-PGF2alpha, indicating inflammatory response, showed a similar pattern. At 1 h the CO2 partial pressure in arterial blood was significantly higher in non-surviving pigs and correlated (r: 0.7; P<0.05) to the levels of 15-K-DH-PGF2alpha. Prostaglandin F2alpha is mainly metabolised in the lung. The lung weights were significantly (P<0.05) higher in non-surviving than in surviving animals. Both free radical and cyclooxygenase catalysed oxidative modification occurs during endotoxaemia.

    CONCLUSION: Increased metabolism and inflammation, as evaluated by 15-K-DH-PGF2alpha, in the group of non-survivors may mediate the increase in arterial CO2. Thus, increased lipid peroxidation seems to be associated with endotoxaemic organ dysfunction and increased mortality.

  • 8.
    Becriovic Agic, Mediha
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi.
    Jönsson, Sofia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi.
    Hultström, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Genetic association of oxidative stress and fluid accumulation makes Balb/CJ mice more sensitive to decompensated heart failure2017Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 963-964Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Bergquist, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Huss, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Plastikkirurgi.
    Hästbacka, Johanna
    Lindholm, Catharina
    Martijn, Cecile
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC.
    Rylander, Christian
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Fredén, Filip
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Glucocorticoid receptor expression and binding capacity in patients with burn injury2016Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 60, nr 2, s. 213-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Burn injuries are associated with strong inflammation and risk of secondary sepsis which both may affect the function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The aim of this study was to determine GR expression and binding capacity in leucocytes from patients admitted to a tertiary burn center.

    Methods

    Blood was sampled from 13 patients on admission and days 7, 14 and 21, and once from 16 healthy subjects. Patients were grouped according to the extent of burn and to any sepsis on day 7. Expression and binding capacity of GR were determined as arbitrary units using flow cytometry.

    Results

    GR expression and binding capacity were increased compared to healthy subjects in most circulating leucocyte subsets on admission irrespective of burn size. Patients with sepsis on day 7 displayed increased GR expression in T lymphocytes (51.8%, < 0.01) compared to admission. There was a negative correlation between GR binding capacity in neutrophils and burn size after 14 days (< 0.05).

    Conclusions

    GR expression and binding capacity are increased in most types of circulating leucocytes of severely burned patients on their admission to specialized burn care. If sepsis is present after 1 week, it is associated with higher GR expression in T lymphocytes and NK cells.

  • 10. Bjoernaa, Elin
    et al.
    Hammer, Niels Risoer
    Pontén, Emma
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Valkonen, Heikki
    Current pediatric transfusion strategies in the Nordic countries2015Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 59, nr S121, s. 12-12, artikel-id O4-01Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Borges, João Batista
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet. Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Med, Hosp Clin, Pulm Div,Heart Inst Incor, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Porra, L.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Cent Hosp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Pellegrini, M.
    Univ Bari, Dept Emergency & Organ Transplant, I-70121 Bari, Italy..
    Tannoia, A.
    Univ Bari, Dept Emergency & Organ Transplant, I-70121 Bari, Italy..
    Derosa, S.
    Univ Bari, Dept Emergency & Organ Transplant, I-70121 Bari, Italy..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet.
    Bayat, S.
    Univ Picardie Jules Verne, CHU Amiens, INSERM, UMR1105, Amiens, France.;Univ Picardie Jules Verne, CHU Amiens, Pediat Lung Funct Lab, Amiens, France..
    Perchiazzi, Gaetano
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet. Univ Bari, Dept Emergency & Organ Transplant, I-70121 Bari, Italy..
    Hedenstierna, G.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet.
    Zero expiratory pressure and low oxygen concentration promote heterogeneity of regional ventilation and lung densities2016Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 60, nr 7, s. 958-968Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundIt is not well known what is the main mechanism causing lung heterogeneity in healthy lungs under mechanical ventilation. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms causing heterogeneity of regional ventilation and parenchymal densities in healthy lungs under anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. MethodsIn a small animal model, synchrotron imaging was used to measure lung aeration and regional-specific ventilation (sV.). Heterogeneity of ventilation was calculated as the coefficient of variation in sV. (CVsV.). The coefficient of variation in lung densities (CVD) was calculated for all lung tissue, and within hyperinflated, normally and poorly aerated areas. Three conditions were studied: zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) and FIO2 0.21; ZEEP and FIO2 1.0; PEEP 12 cmH(2)O and F(I)O(2)1.0 (Open Lung-PEEP = OLP). ResultsThe mean tissue density at OLP was lower than ZEEP-1.0 and ZEEP-0.21. There were larger subregions with low sV. and poor aeration at ZEEP-0.21 than at OLP: 12.9 9.0 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.4% in the non-dependent level, and 17.5 +/- 8.2 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.1% in the dependent one (P = 0.041). The CVsV. of the total imaged lung at PEEP 12 cmH(2)O was significantly lower than on ZEEP, regardless of FIO2, indicating more heterogeneity of ventilation during ZEEP (0.23 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.54 +/- 0.37, P = 0.049). CVD changed over the different mechanical ventilation settings (P = 0.011); predominantly, CVD increased during ZEEP. The spatial distribution of the CVD calculated for the poorly aerated density category changed with the mechanical ventilation settings, increasing in the dependent level during ZEEP. ConclusionZEEP together with low FIO2 promoted heterogeneity of ventilation and lung tissue densities, fostering a greater amount of airway closure and ventilation inhomogeneities in poorly aerated regions.

  • 12. Brink, M.
    et al.
    Hagberg, L.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Gedeborg, Rolf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Respiratory support during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic flu in Sweden2012Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 56, nr 8, s. 976-986Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Acute respiratory insufficiency characterised critically ill patients during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic 20092010. Detailed understanding of disease progression and outcome in relation to different respiratory support strategies is important.

    Methods Data collected between August 2009 and February 2010 for a national intensive care unit influenza registry were combined with cases identified by the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control.

    Results Clinical data was available for 95% (126/136) of the critically ill cases of influenza. Median age was 44 years, and major co-morbidities were present in 41%. Respiratory support strategies were studied among the 110 adult patients. Supplementary oxygen was sufficient in 15% (16), non-invasive ventilation (NIV) only was used in 20% (22), while transition from NIV to invasive ventilation (IV) was seen in 41% (45). IV was initiated directly in 24% (26). Patients initially treated with NIV had a higher arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of oxygen in inspired gas ratio compared with those primarily treated with IV. Major baseline characteristics and 28-day mortality were similar, but 90-day mortality was higher in patients initially treated with NIV 17/67 (25%) as compared with patients primarily treated with IV 3/26 (12%), relative risk 1.2 (95% confidence interval 0.34.0).

    Conclusions Critical illness because of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in Sweden was dominated by hypoxic respiratory failure. The majority of patients in need of respiratory support were initially treated with NIV. In spite of less severe initial hypoxemia, initiation of ventilatory support with NIV was not associated with improved outcome.

  • 13. Bythell, V
    et al.
    Bengtsson, M
    Hök, B
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    An infrered stethoscope for auscultatory monitoring during anaesthesia1987Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 32, nr suppl 86, s. 91-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14. Castrén, Maaret
    et al.
    Silfvast, T.
    Rubertsson, Sten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Niskanen, M.
    Valsson, F.
    Wanscher, M.
    Sunde, K.
    Scandinavian clinical practice guidelines for therapeutic hypothermia and post-resuscitation care after cardiac arrest2009Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 280-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sudden cardiac arrest survivors suffer from ischaemic brain injury that may lead to poor neurological outcome and death. The reperfusion injury that occurs is associated with damaging biochemical reactions, which are suppressed by mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH). In several studies MTH has been proven to be safe, with few complications and improved survival, and is recommended by the International Liaison of Committee on Resuscitation. The aim of this paper is to recommend clinical practice guidelines for MTH treatment after cardiac arrest from the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI). METHODS: Relevant studies were identified after two consensus meetings of the SSAI Task Force on Therapeutic Hypothermia (SSAITFTH) and via literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Medline. Evidence was assessed and consensus opinion was used when high-grade evidence (Grade of Recommendation, GOR) was unavailable. A management strategy was developed as a consensus from the evidence and the protocols in the participating countries. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Although proven beneficial only for patients with initial ventricular fibrillation (GOR A), the SSAITFTH also recommend MTH after restored spontaneous circulation, if active treatment is chosen, in patients with initial pulseless electrical activity and asystole (GOR D). Normal ethical considerations, premorbid status, total anoxia time and general condition should decide whether active treatment is required or not. MTH should be part of a standardized treatment protocol, and initiated as early as possible after indication and treatment have been decided (GOR E). There is insufficient evidence to make definitive recommendations among techniques to induce MTH, and we do not know the optimal target temperature, duration of cooling and rewarming time. New studies are needed to address the question as to how MTH affects, for example, prognostic factors.

  • 15.
    Colldén, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hultström, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Birgisdottir, Birgitta
    Akad Sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Case of subdural hematoma after labor epidural: implications for follow-up of post dural puncture head ache2017Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 985-985Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Covaciu, Lucian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Allers, M.
    Lunderquist, A.
    Rubertsson, Sten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Intranasal cooling with or without intravenous cold fluids during and after cardiac arrest in pigs2010Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 494-501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intranasal balloon catheters circulated with cold saline have previously been used for the induction and maintenance of selective brain cooling in pigs with normal circulation. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of therapeutic hypothermia initiation, maintenance and rewarming using such intranasal balloon catheters with or without addition of intravenous ice-cold fluids during and after cardiac arrest treatment in pigs. Material and methods: Cardiac arrest was induced in 20 anaesthetised pigs. Following 8 min of cardiac arrest and 1 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), cooling was initiated after randomisation with either intranasal cooling (N) or combined with intravenous ice-cold fluids (N+S). Hypothermia was maintained for 180 min, followed by 180 min of rewarming. Brain and oesophageal temperatures, haemodynamic variables and intracranial pressure (ICP) were recorded. Results: Brain temperatures reductions after cooling did not differ (3.8 +/- 0.7 degrees C in the N group and 4.3 +/- 1.5 degrees C in the N+S group; P=0.47). The corresponding body temperature reductions were 3.6 +/- 1.2 degrees C and 4.6 +/- 1.5 degrees C (P=0.1). The resuscitation outcome was similar in both groups. Mixed venous oxygen saturation was lower in the N group after cooling and rewarming (P=0.024 and 0.002, respectively) as compared with the N+S group. ICP was higher after rewarming in the N group (25.2 +/- 2.9 mmHg; P=0.01) than in the N+S group (15.7 +/- 3.3 mmHg). Conclusions: Intranasal balloon catheters can be used for therapeutic hypothermia initiation, maintenance and rewarming during CPR and after successful resuscitation in pigs.

  • 17.
    Edberg, M
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Furebring, Mia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Sjölin, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Neurointensive care of patients with severe community-acquired meningitis2011Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 732-739Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Reports about neurointensive care of severe community-acquired meningitis are few. The aims of this retrospective study were to review the acute clinical course, management and outcome in a series of bacterial meningitis patients receiving neurointensive care.

    METHODS:

    Thirty patients (median age 51, range 1-81) admitted from a population of 2 million people during 7 years were studied. The neurointensive care protocol included escalated stepwise treatment with mild hyperventilation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, continuous thiopentotal infusion and decompressive craniectomy. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Glasgow outcome scale.

    RESULTS:

    Twenty-eight patients did not respond to commands on arrival, five were non-reacting and five had dilated pupils. Twenty-two patients had positive CSF cultures: Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=18), Neisseria meningitidis (n=2), β-streptococcus group A (n=1) and Staphylococcus aureus (n=1). Thirty-five patients were mechanically ventilated. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was monitored in 28 patients (intraventricular catheter=26, intracerebral transducers=2). CSF was drained in 15 patients. Three patients received thiopentothal. Increased ICP (>20 mmHg) was observed in 7/26 patients with available ICP data. Six patients died during neurointensive care: total brain infarction (n=4), cardiac arrest (n=1) and treatment withdrawal (n=1). Seven patients died after discharge, three due to meningitis complications. At follow-up, 14 patients showed good recovery, six moderate disability, two severe disability and 13 were dead.

    CONCLUSION:

    Patients judged to have severe meningitis should be admitted to neurointensive care units without delay for ICP monitoring and management according to modern neurointensive care principles.

  • 18.
    Edmark, Lennart
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Auner, U
    Lindbäck, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Enlund, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Post-operative atelectasis: a randomised trial investigating a ventilatory strategy and low oxygen fraction during recovery2014Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 58, nr 6, s. 681-688Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Atelectasis is common during and after general anaesthesia. We hypothesized that a ventilation strategy with a combination of 1) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and 2) a reduced end-expiratory oxygen concentration during recovery would reduce post-operative atelectasis.

    METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized into two groups. During anaesthesia induction, inspiratory oxygen fraction (FI O2 ) was 1.0, and depending on weight, CPAP 6, 7 or 8 cmH2 O was applied in both groups via facemask. During maintenance of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was used, and PEEP was 6-8 cmH2 O in both groups. Before removal of the LMA, FI O2 was set to 0.3 in the intervention group and 1.0 in the control group. Atelectasis was studied by computed tomography (CT) approximately 14 min post-operatively.

    RESULTS: In one patient in the group given an FI O2 of 0.3 before removal of the LMA a CT scan could not be performed so the patient was excluded. The area of atelectasis was 5.5, 0-16.9 cm(2) (median and range), and 6.8, 0-27.5 cm(2) in the groups given FI O2 0.3 or FI O2 1.0 before removal of the LMA, a difference that was not statistically significant (P = 0.48). Post-hoc analysis showed dependence of atelectasis on smoking (despite all were clinically lung healthy) and American Society of Anesthesiologists class (P = 0.038 and 0.015, respectively).

    CONCLUSION: Inducing anaesthesia with CPAP/PEEP and FI O2 1.0 and deliberately reducing FI O2 during recovery before removal of the LMA did not reduce post-operative atelectasis compared with FI O2 1.0 before removal of the LMA.

  • 19.
    Edmark, Lennart
    et al.
    Departments of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Auner, Udo
    Enlund, Mats
    Departments of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Östberg, Erland
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Oxygen concentration and characteristics of progressive atelectasis formation during anaesthesia2011Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 75-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Atelectasis is a common consequence of pre-oxygenation with 100% oxygen during induction of anaesthesia. Lowering the oxygen level during pre-oxygenation reduces atelectasis. Whether this effect is maintained during anaesthesia is unknown.

    Methods:

    During and after pre-oxygenation and induction of anaesthesia with 60%, 80% or 100% oxygen concentration, followed by anaesthesia with mechanical ventilation with 40% oxygen in nitrogen and positive end-expiratory pressure of 3 cmH2O, we used repeated computed tomography (CT) to investigate the early (0–14 min) vs. the later time course (14–45 min) of atelectasis formation.

    Results:

    In the early time course, atelectasis was studied awake, 4, 7 and 14 min after start of pre-oxygenation with 60%, 80% or 100% oxygen concentration. The differences in the area of atelectasis formation between awake and 7 min and between 7 and 14 min were significant, irrespective of oxygen concentration (P<0.05). During the late time course, studied after pre-oxygenation with 80% oxygen, the differences in the area of atelectasis formation between awake and 14 min, between 14 and 21 min, between 21 and 28 min and finally between 21 and 45 min were all significant (P<0.05).

    Conclusion:

    Formation of atelectasis after pre-oxygenation and induction of anaesthesia is oxygen and time dependent. The benefit of using 80% oxygen during induction of anaesthesia in order to reduce atelectasis diminished gradually with time.

  • 20.
    Edmark, Lennart
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Östberg, Erland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Scheer, H
    Wallquist, W
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Zetterström, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Preserved oxygenation in obese patients receiving protective ventilation during laparoscopic surgery: a randomized controlled study2016Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 26-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Venous admixture from atelectasis and airway closure impedes oxygenation during general anaesthesia. We tested the hypothesis that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during pre-oxygenation and reduced fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FIO2 ) during emergence from anaesthesia can improve oxygenation in patients with obesity undergoing laparoscopic surgery.

    METHODS: In the intervention group (n = 20, median BMI 41.9), a CPAP of 10 cmH2 O was used during pre-oxygenation and induction of anaesthesia, but no CPAP was used in the control group (n = 20, median BMI 38.1). During anaesthesia, all patients were ventilated in volume-controlled mode with an FIO2 of 0.4 and a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 10 cmH2 O. During emergence, before extubation, the control group was given an FIO2 of 1.0 and the intervention group was divided into two subgroups, which were given an FIO2 of 1.0 or 0.31. Oxygenation was assessed perioperatively by the estimated venous admixture (EVA).

    RESULTS: The median EVA before pre-oxygenation was about 8% in both groups. During anaesthesia after intubation, the median EVA was 8.2% in the intervention vs. 13.2% in the control group (P = 0.048). After CO2 pneumoperitoneum, the median EVA was 8.4% in the intervention vs. 9.9% in the control group (P > 0.05). One hour post-operatively, oxygenation had deteriorated in patients given an FIO2 of 1.0 during emergence but not in patients given an FIO2 of 0.31.

    CONCLUSIONS: A CPAP of 10 cmH2 O during pre-oxygenation and induction, followed by PEEP after intubation, seemed to preserve oxygenation during anaesthesia. Post-operative oxygenation depended on the FIO2 used during emergence.

  • 21.
    El-Dash, S. A.
    et al.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Hosp Clin, Heart Inst InCor, Div Pulm, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Borges, João Batista
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet. Univ Sao Paulo, Hosp Clin, Heart Inst InCor, Div Pulm, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Costa, E. L. V.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Hosp Clin, Heart Inst InCor, Div Pulm, Sao Paulo, Brazil.;Hosp Sirio Libanes, Res & Educ Inst, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Tucci, M. R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Hosp Clin, Heart Inst InCor, Div Pulm, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Ranzani, O. T.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Hosp Clin, Heart Inst InCor, Div Pulm, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Caramez, M. P.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Hosp Clin, Heart Inst InCor, Div Pulm, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Carvalho, C. R. R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Hosp Clin, Heart Inst InCor, Div Pulm, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Amato, M. B. P.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Hosp Clin, Heart Inst InCor, Div Pulm, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    There is no cephalocaudal gradient of computed tomography densities or lung behavior in supine patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome2016Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 767-779Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is debate whether pressure transmission within the lungs and alveolar collapse follow a hydrostatic pattern or the compression exerted by the weight of the heart and the diaphragm causes collapse localized in the areas adjacent to these structures. The second hypothesis proposes the existence of a cephalocaudal gradient in alveolar collapse. We aimed to define whether or not lung density and collapse follow a 'liquid-like' pattern with homogeneous isogravitational layers along the cephalocaudal axis in acute respiratory distress syndrome lungs.

    Methods: Acute respiratory distress syndrome patients were submitted to full lung computed tomography scans at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) zero (before) and 25 cmH(2)O after a maximum-recruitment maneuver. PEEP was then decreased by 2 cmH2O every 4 min, and a semi-complete scan performed at the end of each PEEP step.

    Results: Lung densities were homogeneous within each lung layer. Lung density increased along the ventrodorsal axis toward the dorsal region (beta = 0.49, P < 0.001), while there was no increase, but rather a slight decrease, toward the diaphragm along the cephalocaudal axis and toward the heart. Higher PEEP attenuated density gradients. At PEEP 18 cmH2O, dependent lung regions started to collapse massively, while best compliance was only reached at a lower PEEP.

    Conclusions: We could not detect cephalocaudal gradients in lung densities or in alveolar collapse. Likely, external pressures applied on the lung by the chest wall, organs, and effusions are transmitted throughout the lung in a hydrostatic pattern with homogeneous consequences at each isogravitational layer. A single cross-sectional image of the lung could fully represent the heterogeneous mechanical properties of dependent and non-dependent lung regions.

  • 22.
    Engström, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Bruno, E.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Reinius, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Fröjd, Camilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Jonsson, H.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Sannervik, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Physiological changes associated with routine nursing procedures in critically ill are common: an observational pilot study2017Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, nr 1, s. 62-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Nursing procedures that are routinely performed in the intensive care unit (ICU) are assumed to have minimal side effects. However, these procedures may sometimes cause physiological changes that negatively affect the patient. We hypothesized that physiological changes associated with routine nursing procedures in the ICU are common.

    METHODS: A clinical observational study of 16 critically ill patients in a nine-bed mixed university hospital ICU. All nursing procedures were observed, and physiological data were collected and subsequently analyzed. Minor physiological changes were defined as minimal changes in respiratory or circulatory variables, and major physiological changes were marked as hyper/hypotension, bradycardia/tachycardia, bradypnea/tachypnea, ventilatory distress, and peripheral blood oxygen desaturation.

    RESULTS: In the 16 patients, 668 procedures generated 158 major and 692 minor physiological changes during 187 observational hours. The most common procedure was patient position change, which also generated the majority of the physiological changes. The most common major physiological changes were blood oxygen desaturation, ventilatory distress, and hypotension, and the most common minor changes were arterial pressure alteration, coughing, and increase in respiratory rate.

    CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, we examined physiological changes in connection with all regular routine nursing procedures in the ICU. We found that physiological changes were common and sometimes severe.

  • 23.
    Enlund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Kietzmann, D.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Bouillon, T.
    Zuechner, K.
    Meineke, I.
    Population pharmacokinetics of sevoflurane in conjunction with the AnaConDa®: toward target-controlled infusion of volatiles into the breathing system2008Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 52, nr 4, s. 553-560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Anesthetic Conserving Device (AnaConDa (R)) uncouples delivery of a volatile anesthetic (VA) from fresh gas flow (FGF) using a continuous infusion of liquid volatile into a modified heat-moisture exchanger capable of adsorbing VA during expiration and releasing adsorbed VA during inspiration. It combines the simplicity and responsiveness of high FGF with low agent expenditures. We performed in vitro characterization of the device before developing a population pharmacokinetic model for sevoflurane administration with the AnaConDa (R), and retrospectively testing its performance (internal validation). Materials and methods: Eighteen females and 20 males, aged 31-87, BMI 20-38, were included. The end-tidal concentrations were varied and recorded together with the VA infusion rates into the device, ventilation and demographic data. The concentration-time course of sevoflurane was described using linear differential equations, and the most suitable structural model and typical parameter values were identified. The individual pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained and tested for covariate relationships. Prediction errors were calculated. Results: In vitro studies assessed the contribution of the device to the pharmacokinetic model. In vivo, the sevoflurane concentration-time courses on the patient side of the AnaConDa (R) were adequately described with a two-compartment model. The population median absolute prediction error was 27% (interquartile range 13-45%). Conclusion: The predictive performance of the two-compartment model was similar to that of models accepted for TCI administration of intravenous anesthetics, supporting open-loop administration of sevoflurane with the AnaConDa (R). Further studies will focus on prospective testing and external validation of the model implemented in a target-controlled infusion device.

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Nelson, D
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk kemi.
    Increased platelet microvesicle formation is associated with mortality ina porcine model of endotoxemia1998Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 551-557Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Gram-negative sepsis in humans and endotoxemia in pigs induce the formation of platelet microvesicles. These microvesicles are active in homeostasis and may thus contribute to the outcome in patients with activated coagulation and fibrinolysis. We decided to prospectively evaluate the effects of endotoxemia on microvesicle formation and some common physiologic variables against survival in a porcine model.

    Methods:

    Nineteen included pigs were anesthetized, monitored and subjected to an infusion of E. coli endotoxin. Microvesicle formation was determined by flow cytometry.

    Results:

    The formation of microvesicles was significantly increased in the 6 pigs that died during endotoxin exposure. This increased formation became significant from the 3rd hour of endotoxemia. Microvesicle formation did not increase in surviving endotoxemic pigs. Cardiac index, mean arterial blood pressure, base excess and systemic vascular resistance index were distinctly reduced in the animals that died as compared to those surviving the endotoxemic period.

    Conclusion:

    The increased formation of platelet microvesicles seems to be associated with poor prognosis in porcine endotoxemia. Since microvesicles are active in coagulation, they may contribute to the derangement of the coagulation system caused by endotoxemia. Different degrees of microvesicle formation may reflect inter-individual responses to a given challenge.

  • 25.
    Frykholm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Pikwer, A.
    Hammarskjold, F.
    Larsson, A. T.
    Lindgren, S.
    Lindwall, R.
    Taxbro, K.
    Oberg, F.
    Acosta, S.
    Akeson, J.
    Clinical guidelines on central venous catheterisation2014Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 58, nr 5, s. 508-524Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Safe and reliable venous access is mandatory in modern health care, but central venous catheters (CVCs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, This paper describes current Swedish guidelines for clinical management of CVCs The guidelines supply updated recommendations that may be useful in other countries as well. Literature retrieval in the Cochrane and Pubmed databases, of papers written in English or Swedish and pertaining to CVC management, was done by members of a task force of the Swedish Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine. Consensus meetings were held throughout the review process to allow all parts of the guidelines to be embraced by all contributors. All of the content was carefully scored according to criteria by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. We aimed at producing useful and reliable guidelines on bleeding diathesis, vascular approach, ultrasonic guidance, catheter tip positioning, prevention and management of associated trauma and infection, and specific training and follow-up. A structured patient history focused on bleeding should be taken prior to insertion of a CVCs. The right internal jugular vein should primarily be chosen for insertion of a wide-bore CVC. Catheter tip positioning in the right atrium or lower third of the superior caval vein should be verified for long-term use. Ultrasonic guidance should be used for catheterisation by the internal jugular or femoral veins and may also be used for insertion via the subclavian veins or the veins of the upper limb. The operator inserting a CVC should wear cap, mask, and sterile gown and gloves. For long-term intravenous access, tunnelled CVC or subcutaneous venous ports are preferred. Intravenous position of the catheter tip should be verified by clinical or radiological methods after insertion and before each use. Simulator-assisted training of CVC insertion should precede bedside training in patients. Units inserting and managing CVC should have quality assertion programmes for implementation and follow-up of routines, teaching, training and clinical outcome. Clinical guidelines on a wide range of relevant topics have been introduced, based on extensive literature retrieval, to facilitate effective and safe management of CVCs.

  • 26.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Commentary on: Lidocaine for spinal anesthesia. A study of the concentration in the spinal fluid2007Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 51, nr 8, s. 1016-1017Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Gudmundsson, M
    et al.
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Perchiazzi, G
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Pellegrini, Mariangela
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Vena, A
    Department of Emergency and Organ Transplant, Bari University, Bari, Italy.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet.
    Rylander, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Atelectasis is inversely proportional to transpulmonary pressure during weaning from ventilator support in a large animal model2018Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 62, nr 1, s. 94-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In mechanically ventilated, lung injured, patients without spontaneous breathing effort, atelectasis with shunt and desaturation may appear suddenly when ventilator pressures are decreased. It is not known how such a formation of atelectasis is related to transpulmonary pressure (PL) during weaning from mechanical ventilation when the spontaneous breathing effort is increased. If the relation between PL and atelectasis were known, monitoring of PL might help to avoid formation of atelectasis and cyclic collapse during weaning. The main purpose of this study was to determine the relation between PL and atelectasis in an experimental model representing weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    Methods

    Dynamic transverse computed tomography scans were acquired in ten anaesthetized, surfactant-depleted pigs with preserved spontaneous breathing, as ventilator support was lowered by sequentially reducing inspiratory pressure and positive end expiratory pressure in steps. The volumes of gas and atelectasis in the lungs were correlated with PL obtained using oesophageal pressure recordings. Work of breathing (WOB) was assessed from Campbell diagrams.

    Results

    Gradual decrease in PL in both end-expiration and end-inspiration caused a proportional increase in atelectasis and decrease in the gas content (linear mixed model with an autoregressive correlation matrix; P < 0.001) as the WOB increased. However, cyclic alveolar collapse during tidal ventilation did not increase significantly.

    Conclusion

    We found a proportional correlation between atelectasis and PL during the ‘weaning process’ in experimental mild lung injury. If confirmed in the clinical setting, a gradual tapering of ventilator support can be recommended for weaning without risk of sudden formation of atelectasis.

  • 28.
    Hedenstierna, G
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Santesson, J
    Norlander, O
    Airway closure and distribution of inspired gas in the extremely obese, breathing spontaneously and during anaesthesia with intermittent positive pressure ventilation.1976Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 334-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Airway closure (closing capacity, CC), FRC, total efficiency of ventilation (lung clearance index, LCI) and distribution of inspired gas (nitrogen washout declay percentage, NWOD) were determined by nitrogen washout techniques and arterial PO2and PCO2 measured by standard electrodes in 10 extremely obese subjects, prior to an during anaesthesia and artifical ventilation. CC was normal, but because of small FRC, airway closure occurred within a tidal breath in 9 out of 10 subjects during spontaneous breathing, when awake. PO2 was reduced, the hypoxaemia correlating to the magnitude of airway closure. LCI was normal, but NWOD was borderline. During anaesthesia, CC was unaltered by FRC was further reduced, so that in nine subjects sirway closure occurred above FRC and tidal volume together. A marked increase in relative hypoxaemia was recorded. LCI and NWOD rose, indicating less efficient and less even ventilation. It is concluded that airway closure reasonably explains the marked hypoxaemia in obese subjects during anaesthesia, and that it may also be the reason for the uneven distribution of inspired gas.

  • 29.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Nitric oxide and steroid: a good mix or not?2011Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 1-3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Oxygen and anesthesia: what lung do we deliver to the post-operative ward?2012Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 675-685Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anesthesia is safe in most patients. However, anesthetics reduce functional residual capacity (FRC) and promote airway closure. Oxygen is breathed during the induction of anesthesia, and increased concentration of oxygen (O2) is given during the surgery to reduce the risk of hypoxemia. However, oxygen is rapidly adsorbed behind closed airways, causing lung collapse (atelectasis) and shunt. Atelectasis may be a locus for infection and may cause pneumonia. Measures to prevent atelectasis and possibly reduce post-operative pulmonary complications are based on moderate use of oxygen and preservation or restoration of FRC. Pre-oxygenation with 100% O2 causes atelectasis and should be followed by a recruitment maneuver (inflation to an airway pressure of 40 cm H2O for 10 s and to higher airway pressures in patients with reduced abdominal compliance (obese and patients with abdominal disorders). Pre-oxygenation with 80% O2 may be sufficient in most patients with no anticipated difficulty in managing the airway, but time to hypoxemia during apnea decreases from mean 7 to 5 min. An alternative, possibly challenging, procedure is induction of anesthesia with continuous positive airway pressure/positive end-expiratory pressure to prevent fall in FRC enabling use of 100% O2. A continuous PEEP of 7–10 cm H2O may not necessarily improve oxygenation but should keep the lung open until the end of anesthesia. Inspired oxygen concentration of 30–40%, or even less, should suffice if the lung is kept open. The goal of the anesthetic regime should be to deliver a patient with no atelectasis to the post-operative ward and to keep the lung open.

  • 31.
    Hellevuo, H.
    et al.
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Intens Care Med, POB 2000, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Tampere, Finland..
    Sainio, M.
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Intens Care Med, POB 2000, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Tampere, Finland.;Univ Turku, Dept Emergency Med, Emergency Med Serv, Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Turku, Finland..
    Huhtala, H.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Olkkola, K. T.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Anaesthesiol Intens Care & Pain Med, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Tenhunen, Jyrki
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hoppu, S.
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Intens Care Med, POB 2000, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Tampere, Finland..
    Good quality of life before cardiac arrest predicts good quality of life after resuscitation2018Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 515-521Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The survival rate of cardiac arrest patients is increasing. Our aim was to compare the quality of life before and after cardiac arrest and analyse the factors associated with outcome.

    Methods. All adult cardiac arrest patients admitted to the Tampere University Hospital intensive care unit between 2009 and 2011 were included in a retrospective follow-up study if surviving to discharge and were asked to return a questionnaire after 6 months. Data on patient demographics and pre-arrest quality of life were retrieved from medical records. Data are given as means (SD) or medians [Q(1), Q(3)]. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with better quality of life after cardiac arrest.

    Results. Six months after cardiac arrest, 36% (79/222) were alive and 70% (55/79) of those patients completed the follow-up EuroQoL (EQ-5D) quality of life questionnaire. Median values for the EQ-5D before and after cardiac arrest were 0.89 [0.63, 1] and 0.89 [0.62, 1], respectively (P = 0.75). Only the EQ-5D prior to cardiac arrest was associated with better quality of life afterwards (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0-1.3; P = 0.02).

    Conclusions. Quality of life remained good after cardiac arrest especially in those patients who had good quality of life before cardiac arrest.

  • 32. Hellevuo, H
    et al.
    Sainio, M
    Huhtala, H
    Olkkola, K T
    Tenhunen, Jyrki
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hoppu, S
    The quality of manual chest compressions during transport: effect of the mattress assessed by dual accelerometers2014Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 323-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has an impact on survival. The quality may be impaired if the patient needs to be transported to the hospital with ongoing CPR. The aim of this study was to analyse whether the quality of CPR can be improved during transportation by using real-time audiovisual feedback. In addition, we sought to evaluate the real compression depths taking into account the mattress and stretcher effect.

    METHODS

    Paramedics (n = 24) performed standard CPR on a Resusci Anne Mannequin in a moving ambulance. Participants were instructed to perform CPR according to European Resuscitation Council Resuscitation guidelines 2010. Each pair acted as their own controls performing CPR first without and then with the feedback device. Compression depth, rate and no-flow fraction and also the mattress effect were recorded by using dual accelerometers by two Philips, HeartStart MRx Q-CPR defibrillators.

    RESULTS

    In the feedback phase, the mean compression depth increased from 51 (10) to 56 (5) mm (P < 0.001), and the percentage of compression fractions with adequate depth was 60% vs. 89% (P < 0.001). However, taking account of the mattress effect, the real depth was only 41 (8) vs. 44 (5) mm without and with feedback, respectively (P < 0.001). The values for compression rate did not differ.

    CONCLUSIONS

    CPR quality was good during transportation in general. However, the results suggest that the feedback system improves CPR quality. Dual accelerometer measurements show, on the other hand, that the mattress effect may be a clinically relevant impediment to high quality CPR.

  • 33.
    Horst, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Kawati, Rafael
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Rasmusson, J
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Gävle County Hospital, Gävle, Sweden.
    Pikwer, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Castegren, M
    Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital and CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lipcsey, Miklós
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet.
    Impact of resuscitation fluid bag size availability on volume of fluid administration in the intensive care unit2018Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 62, nr 9, s. 1261-1266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic fluid overload is associated with increased mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Decisions on fluid therapy may, at times, be based on other factors than physiological endpoints. We hypothesized that because of psychological factors volume of available fluid bags would affect the amount of resuscitation fluid administered to ICU patients.

    METHODS: We performed a prospective intervention cross-over study at 3 Swedish ICUs by replacing the standard resuscitation fluid bag of Ringer's Acetate 1000 mL with 500 mL bags (intervention group) for 5 separate months and then compared it with the standard bag size for 5 months (control group). Primary endpoint was the amount of Ringer's Acetate per patient during ICU stay. Secondary endpoints were differences between the groups in cumulative fluid balance and change in body weight, hemoglobin and creatinine levels, urine output, acute kidney failure (measured as the need for renal replacement therapy, RRT) and 90-day mortality.

    RESULTS: Six hundred and thirty-five ICU patients were included (291 in the intervention group, 344 in the control group). There was no difference in the amount of resuscitation fluid per patient during the ICU stay (2200 mL [1000-4500 median IQR] vs 2245 mL [1000-5630 median IQR]), RRT rate (11 vs 9%), 90-day mortality (11 vs 10%) or total fluid balance between the groups. The daily amount of Ringer's acetate administered per day was lower in the intervention group (1040 (280-2000) vs 1520 (460-3000) mL; P = .03).

    CONCLUSIONS: The amount of resuscitation fluid administered to ICU patients was not affected by the size of the available fluid bags. However, altering fluid bag size could have influenced fluid prescription behavior.

  • 34.
    Hultström, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    In-common molecular pathway for six different etiologies of acute kidney injury2017Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 1041-1041Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Höstman, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Engström, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Intensive buffering can keep pH above 7.2 for over 4 h during apnea: an experimental porcine study2013Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 57, nr 1, s. 63-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Ventilation with low tidal volumes reduces mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. A further reduction of tidal volumes might be beneficial, and it is known that apneic oxygenation (no tidal volumes) with arteriovenous CO(2) removal can keep acid-base balance and oxygenation normal for at least 7 h in an acute lung injury model. We hypothesized that adequate buffering might be another approach and tested whether tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane (THAM) alone could keep pH at a physiological level during apneic oxygenation for 4 h.

    METHODS:

    Six pigs were anesthetized, muscle relaxed, and normoventilated. The lungs were recruited, and apneic oxygenation as well as administration of THAM, 20 mmol/kg/h, was initiated. The experiment ended after 270 min, except one that was studied for 6 h.

    RESULTS:

    Two animals died before the end of the experiment. Arterial pH and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2) ) changed from 7.5 (7.5, 7.5) to 7.3 (7.2, 7.3) kPa, P < 0.001 at 270 min, and from 4.5 (4.3, 4.7) to 25 (22, 28) kPa, P < 0.001, respectively. Base excess increased from 5 (3, 6) to 54 (51, 57) mM, P < 0.001. Cardiac output and arterial pressure were well maintained. The pig, which was studied for 6 h, had pH 7.27 and PaCO(2) 27 kPa at that time.

    CONCLUSION:

    With intensive buffering using THAM, pH can be kept in a physiologically acceptable range for 4 h during apnea.

  • 36.
    Höstman, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Engström, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Sellgren, Fredrik
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Non-toxic alveolar oxygen concentration without hypoxemia during apnoeic oxygenation: an experimental study2011Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, nr 9, s. 1078-1084Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Oxygenation without tidal breathing, i.e. apnoeic oxygenation in combination with extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal, might be an option in the treatment of acute respiratory failure. However, ventilation with 100% O(2), which is potentially toxic, is considered a prerequisite to ensure acceptable oxygenation. We hypothesized that trapping nitrogen (N(2)) in the lungs before the start of apnoeic oxygenation would keep the alveolar O(2) at a non-toxic level and still maintain normoxaemia. The aim was to test whether a predicted N(2) concentration would agree with a measured concentration at the end of an apnoeic period. Methods: Seven anaesthetized, muscle relaxed, endotracheally intubated pigs (22-27 kg) were ventilated in a randomized order with an inspired fraction of O(2) 0.6 and 0.8 at two positive end-expiratory pressure levels (5 cm and 10 cm H(2)O) before being connected to continuous positive airway pressure using 100% O(2) for apnoeic oxygenation. N(2) was measured before the start of and at the end of the 10-min apnoeic period. The predicted N(2) concentration was calculated from the initial N(2) concentration, the end-expiratory lung volume, and the anatomical dead space. Results: The mean difference and standard deviation between measured and predicted N(2) concentration was -0.5 +/- 2%, P = 0.587. No significant difference in the agreement between measured and predicted N(2) concentrations was seen in the four settings. Conclusions: This study indicates that it is possible to predict and keep alveolar N(2) concentration at a desired level and, thus, alveolar O(2) concentration at a non-toxic level during apnoeic oxygenation.

  • 37.
    Höstman, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet.
    Kawati, Rafael
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Perchiazzi, Gaetano
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet.
    THAM administration reduces pulmonary carbon dioxide elimination in hypercapnia: an experimental porcine study2018Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 62, nr 6, s. 820-828Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In a previous study, we found a rebound of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) after stopping THAM buffer administration. We hypothesized that this was due to reduced pulmonary CO2 elimination during THAM administration. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis in an experimental porcine hypercapnic model.

    Methods: In seven, initially normoventilated, anesthetized pigs (22-27 kg) minute ventilation was reduced by 66% for 7 h. Two hours after commencing hypoventilation, THAM was infused IV for 3 h in a dose targeting a pH of 7.35 followed by a 2 h observation period. Acid-base status, blood-gas content and exhaled CO2 were measured.

    Results: THAM raised pH (7.07 0.04 to 7.41 +/- 0.04, P < 0.05) and lowered PaCO2 (15.2 +/- 1.4 to 12.2 +/- 1.1 kPa, P < 0.05). After the infusion, pH decreased and PaCO2 increased again. At the end of the observation period, pH and PaCO2 were 7.24 +/- 0.03 and 16.6 +/- 1.2 kPa, respectively (P < 0.05). Pulmonary CO2 excretion decreased from 109 +/- 12 to 74 +/- 12 ml/min (P < 0.05) during the THAM infusion but returned at the end of the observation period to 111 +/- 15 ml/min (P < 0.05). The estimated reduction of pulmonary CO2 elimination during the infusion was 5800 ml.

    Conclusions: In this respiratory acidosis model, THAM reduced PaCO2, but seemed not to increase the total CO2 elimination due to decreased pulmonary CO2 excretion(,) suggesting only cautious use of THAM in hypercapnic acidosis.

  • 38.
    Jersenius, Ulf
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Fors, Diddi
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Rubertsson, Sten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Arvidsson, Dag
    Karolinska institutet.
    The effects of experimental venous carbon dioxide embolization on hemodynamic and respiratory variables2006Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 156-162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Laparoscopic liver resection is a relatively new surgical procedure. Carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum and laparoscopic liver dissection are recognized as risk factors for CO2 embolism to the pulmonary circulation. The embolization can be difficult to detect and can theoretically increase peri-operative morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects in a pig model during a time period of 4 h after an experimental CO2 embolization.

    Methods:  Eleven piglets were anesthesized. Nine were embolized with a single intravenous injection of 0.4 ml/kg CO2 and two served as controls. Respiratory and cardiovascular variables, including pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac output, were monitored for 4 h after embolization, and arterial blood gases were monitored on-line.

    Results:  The embolized piglets had an increase in ventilatory dead space, pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure and a decrease in cardiac output that lasted throughout the 4-h observation time. The mean arterial pressure and heart rate were unchanged. An early sign of embolization was a rapid fall in end-tidal CO2 and Pao2 and a rise in Paco2.

    Conclusion:  Negative changes in cardiopulmonary physiology persisted for at least 4 h after a single intravenous CO2 injection, in spite of this gas being highly soluble in blood. This is a more prolonged influence of CO2 embolization than previously described. Extensive monitoring for early detection of an embolization may be recommended to limit morbidity in patients undergoing laparoscopic liver surgery.

  • 39.
    Johansson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hammerby, Rutger
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiologi.
    Rubertsson, Sten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Gedeborg, Rolf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Adrenaline administration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: poor adherence to clinical guidelines2004Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 48, nr 7, s. 909-913Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adrenaline does not appear to improve the outcome after cardiac arrest in clinical trials in spite of beneficial effects in experimental studies. The objective of this study was to determine whether adrenaline was administered in accordance with advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines during adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: From 15 January to 31 December 2000, all patients at Uppsala University Hospital in whom CPR was attempted were registered prospectively. The duration of CPR was documented in the register and the total dose of adrenaline was retrieved retrospectively from patient records. From these data the average interval between adrenaline doses was calculated. RESULTS: Data for evaluation of the between-dose interval of adrenaline was available in 53 of 107 registered cardiac arrests. In 68% (36/53) the average between-dose interval was longer than the 3-5 min recommended in the guidelines, and 8% (4/53) received no adrenaline. The median interval between adrenaline doses during CPR was 6.5 min (25th-75th percentile: 5.1-10.4). Adherence to guidelines was lower in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest than in in-hospital cardiac arrest (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of cases adrenaline did not appear to be administered according to current ACLS guidelines.

  • 40.
    Jönsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Melville, Jacqueline
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi.
    Hultström, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi.
    Norepinephrine effects are not affected by Losartan in rats after resuscitated haemorrhage2017Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 963-963Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Kalliomäki, Maija-L
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Sandblom, Gabriel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Gastrointestinalkirurgi.
    Gunnarsson, U.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kolorektalkirurgi.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Persistent pain after groin hernia surgery: a qualitative analysis of pain and its consequences for quality of life2009Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 236-246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a high prevalence of persistent groin pain after hernia repair, the specific nature of the pain and its clinical manifestation are poorly known. The aim of this study was to determine the type of post-herniorrhaphy pain and its influence on daily life. In order to assess long-term pain qualitatively and to explore how it affects quality of life, 100 individuals with persisting pain, identified in a cohort study of patients operated for groin hernia, were neurologically examined, along with 100 pain-free controls matched for age, gender and type of operation. The patients were asked to answer the SF-36 questionnaire, the hospital anxiety and depression scale, the Swedish Scales of Personality (SSP) and a standardised questionnaire for assessing everyday life coping. The patients were approached approximately 4.9 years after surgery. Twenty-two patients from the pain group had become pain free by the time of examination, whereas 76 patients still had pain, of whom 47 (68%) suffered from neuropathic pain and 11 from nociceptive pain. The remaining patients suffered from mixed pain, neuropathic and nociceptive, or were found to have another reason for pain. All dimensions of SF-36 were poorer for the pain group than the control group. Persistent post-herniorrhaphy pain is mainly neuropathic and has a substantial impact on health-related quality of life.

  • 42.
    Kalman, Sigridur
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Wiklund, Andreas
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Solna, Sweden..
    Semenas, Egidijus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Brattstrom, Olof
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bjorne, Hakan
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bell, Max
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ahlstrand, Rebecca
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Orebro, Sweden..
    Bartha, Erzsebet
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Postoperative complications in high-risk surgical patients - predictors, risk factors, and outcomes following major surgery study (PROFS study NCT02626546): validation of three prediction models2017Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 1056-1056Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43.
    Karimian, N.
    et al.
    McGill Univ, Expt Surg, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Moustafa, M.
    McGill Univ, Dept Anesthesia, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Mata, J.
    McGill Univ, Dept Surg, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Al-Saffar, Anas K.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Gastroenterologi/hepatologi.
    Hellström, Per M.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Gastroenterologi/hepatologi.
    Feldman, L. S.
    McGill Univ, Dept Surg, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Carli, F.
    McGill Univ, Dept Anesthesia, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    The effects of added whey protein to a pre-operative carbohydrate drink on glucose and insulin response2018Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 62, nr 5, s. 620-627Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Pre-operative complex carbohydrate (CHO) drinks are recommended to attenuate post-operative insulin resistance. However, many institutions use simple CHO drinks, which while convenient, may have less metabolic effects. Whey protein may enhance insulin release when added to complex CHO. The aim of this study was to compare the insulin response to simple CHO vs. simple CHO supplemented with whey protein.

    Methods

    Twelve healthy volunteers participated in this double-blinded, within subject, cross-over design study investigating insulin response to simple CHO drink vs. simple CHO+whey (CHO+W) drink. The primary outcome was the accumulated insulin response during 180min after ingestion of the drinks (Area under the curve, AUC). Secondary outcomes included plasma glucose and ghrelin levels, and gastric emptying rate estimated by acetaminophen absorption technique. Data presented as mean (SD).

    Results

    There was no differences in accumulated insulin response after the CHO or CHO+W drinks [AUC: 15 (8) vs. 20 (14)nmol/l, P=0.27]. Insulin and glucose levels peaked between 30 and 60min and reached 215 (95)pmol/l and 7 (1)mmol/l after the CHO drink and to 264 (232)pmol/l and 6.5 (1)mmol/l after the CHO+W drink. There were no differences in glucose or ghrelin levels or gastric emptying with the addition of whey.

    Conclusion

    The addition of whey protein to a simple CHO drink did not change the insulin response in healthy individuals. The peak insulin responses to simple CHO with or without whey protein were lower than that previously reported with complex CHO drinks. The impact of simple carbohydrate drinks with lower insulin response on peri-operative insulin sensitivity requires further study.

  • 44.
    Kawati, R
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Rubertsson, S
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Malpositioning of fine bore feeding tube: a serious complication2005Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 58-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feeding tubes are used frequently in the intensive care unit to provide enteral nutrition. For critically ill patients, enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral in terms of cost, complication and gut mucosal maintenance. Fine bore feeding tubes are always preferred because their soft, flexible construction and narrow diameter enables these tubes to be well tolerated by patients and they rarely contribute to sinus infections or obstruction of breathing. On the other hand it is not uncommon that these tubes are misplaced in the tracheobronchial tree or the pleural cavity, especially in high-risk patients, i.e. sedated patients, patients with weak cough reflex, endotracheally intubated patients and agitated patients (1–3). Malpositioning in the peritoneal cavity or the mediastinum through gastric or esophageal perforation is also possible ( 1, 4–7); even intravascular ( 8, 9) and intracranial misplacement have been reported (10–13). The incidence of misplacement of a feeding tube is difficult to estimate because few studies have been performed. The largest study of 1100 such tubes revealed an overall malposition rate of 1.3% ( 1), but it should be mentioned that this study included only radiographically detected misplacements. Other researchers estimate the occurrence of accidental misplacement and migration out of position as high as 13% to 20% in high-risk patients ( 14, 15).

  • 45. Klarin, B
    et al.
    Wullt, M
    Palmquist, I
    Molin, G
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Jeppsson, B
    Lactobacillus plantarum 299v reduces colonisation of Clostridium difficile in critically ill patients treated with antibiotics.2008Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 52, nr 8, s. 1096-1102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in hospitalised patients is increasing. Critically ill patients are often treated with antibiotics and are at a high risk of developing CDAD. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v) has been found to reduce recurrence of CDAD. We investigated intensive care unit (ICU) patients with respect to the impact of Lp299v on C. difficile colonisation and on gut permeability and parameters of inflammation and infection in that context.

    Methods: Twenty-two ICU patients were given a fermented oatmeal gruel containing Lp299v, and 22 received an equivalent product without the bacteria. Faecal samples for analyses of C. difficile and Lp299v were taken at inclusion and then twice a week during the ICU stay. Other cultures were performed on clinical indication. Infection and inflammation parameters were analysed daily. Gut permeability was assessed using a sugar probe technique.

    Results: Colonisation with C. difficile was detected in 19% (4/21) of controls but in none of the Lp299v-treated patients (P<0.05).

    Conclusions: Enteral administration of the probiotic bacterium Lp299v to critically ill patients treated with antibiotics reduced colonisation with C. difficile.

  • 46.
    Knudsen, Kati
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Pöder, Ulrika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper, Örebro Universitet .
    Högman, Marieann
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Larsson, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Anaesthesiologists understanding of algorithms for management of the difficult airway- a qualitative interview studyIngår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 47. Koefoed-Nielsen, J
    et al.
    Andersen, G
    Barklin, A
    Bach, A
    Lunde, S
    Tønnesen, E
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Maximal hysteresis: a new method to set positive end-expiratory pressure in acute lung injury?2008Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 641-649Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: No methods are superior when setting positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in acute lung injury (ALI). In ALI, the vertical distance (hysteresis) between the inspiratory and expiratory limbs of a static pressure–volume (PV) loop mainly indicates lung recruitment. We hypothesized that PEEP set at the pressure where hysteresis is 90% of its maximum (90%MH) would give similar oxygenation, but less cardiovascular depression than PEEP set at the pressure at lower inflection point (LIP) on the inspiratory limb or at the point of maximal curvature (PMC) on the expiratory limb in ALI.

    Methods: In 12 mechanically ventilated pigs, ALI was induced in a randomized fashion by lung lavage, lung lavage plus injurious ventilation, or by oleic acid. From a static PV loop obtained by an interrupted low-flow method, the pressures at LIP [25 (25, 25) cmH2O, mean and 25, 75 percentiles], at PMC [24 (20, 24) cmH2O], and at 90% MH [19 (18, 19) cmH2O] were determined and used for the PEEP-settings. We measured lung inflation (by computed tomography), end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), airway pressures, compliance of the respiratory system (Crs), blood gases, cardiac output and arterial blood pressure.

    Results: There were no differences between the PEEP settings in EELV or oxygenation, but the 90%MH setting gave lower end-inspiratory pause pressure (P<0.025), higher Crs (P<0.025), less hyper-aeration (P<0.025) and better maintained hemodynamics.

    Conclusion: In this porcine lung injury model, PEEP set at 90% MH gave better lung mechanics and hemodynamics, than PEEP set at PMC or LIP.

  • 48.
    Kostic, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Lo Mauro, Antonella
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Politecn Milan, TBM Lab, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, Pzza L da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Frykholm, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Aliverti, A
    Politecn Milan, TBM Lab, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, Pzza L da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Specific anesthesia-induced lung volume changes from induction to emergence: a pilot study.2018Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 62, nr 3, s. 282-292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies aimed at maintaining intraoperative lung volume to reduce post-operative pulmonary complications have been inconclusive because they mixed up the effect of general anesthesia and the surgical procedure. Our aims were to study: (1) lung volume during the entire course of anesthesia without the confounding effects of surgical procedures; (2) the combination of three interventions to maintain lung volume; and (3) the emergence phase with focus on the restored activation of the respiratory muscles.

    METHODS: Eighteen ASA I-II patients undergoing ENT surgery under general anesthesia without muscle relaxants were randomized to an intervention group, receiving lung recruitment maneuver (LRM) after induction, 7 cmH2 O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during anesthesia and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during emergence with 0.4 inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2 ) or a control group, ventilated without LRM, with 0 cmH2 O PEEP, and 1.0 FiO2 during emergence without CPAP application. End-expiratory lung volume (EELV) was continuously estimated by opto-electronic plethysmography. Inspiratory and expiratory ribcage muscles electromyography was measured in a subset of seven patients.

    RESULTS: End-expiratory lung volume decreased after induction in both groups. It remained low in the control group and further decreased at emergence, because of active expiratory muscle contraction. In the intervention group, EELV increased after LRM and remained high after extubation.

    CONCLUSION: A combined intervention consisting of LRM, PEEP and CPAP during emergence may effectively maintain EELV during anesthesia and even after extubation. An unexpected finding was that the activation of the expiratory muscles may contribute to EELV reduction during the emergence phase.

  • 49.
    Kvarnström, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Karlsten, Rolf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Quiding, Hans
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    The analgesic effect of intravenous ketamine and lidocaine on pain after spinal cord injury2004Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 498-506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) is a therapeutic challenge. Only a few treatments have been assessed in randomized, controlled trials. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the analgesic effect of ketamine and lidocaine in a group of patients with neuropathic pain below the level of spinal cord injury. We also wanted to assess sensory abnormalities to see if this could help us to identify responders and if treatments resulted in changes of sensibility.

    Methods:  Ten patients with spinal cord injury and neuropathic pain below the level of injury were included. The analgesic effect of ketamine 0.4 mg kg−1 and lidocaine 2.5 mg kg−1 was investigated. Saline was used as placebo. The drugs were infused over 40 min. A randomized, double-blind, three-period, three-treatment, cross-over design was used. Systemic plasma concentrations of ketamine and lidocaine were assessed. Pain rating was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Sensory function was assessed with a combination of traditional sensory tests and quantitative measurement of temperature thresholds.

    Results:  Response to treatment, defined as 50% reduction in VAS-score during infusion, was recorded in 5/10 in the ketamine, 1/10 in the lidocaine and 0/10 in the placebo groups. Neither ketamine nor lidocaine changed temperature thresholds or assessments of mechanical; dynamic and static sensibility. Nor could these sensory assessments predict response to treatment in this setting. Lidocaine and particularly ketamine were associated with frequent side-effects.

    Conclusion:  Ketamine but not lidocaine showed a significant analgesic effect in patients with neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury. The pain relief was not associated with altered temperature thresholds or other changes of sensory function.

  • 50.
    Laake, J. H.
    et al.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Crit Care & Emergencies, Dept Anaesthesiol, Oslo, Norway.
    Tonnessen, T. I.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Crit Care & Emergencies, Dept Anaesthesiol, Oslo, Norway.
    Chew, M. S.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Anaesthesia & Intens Care, Med & Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lipcsey, Miklós
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet.
    Hjelmqvist, H.
    Orebro Univ, Sch Med Sci, Dept Anaesthesia & Intens Care, Orebro, Sweden;Univ Hosp, Orebro, Sweden.
    Wilkman, E.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Anaesthesiol Intens Care & Pain Med, Helsinki, Finland;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pettilae, V.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Anaesthesiol Intens Care & Pain Med, Helsinki, Finland;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hoffmann-Petersen, J.
    Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care, Odense, Denmark.
    Moller, M. H.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshospi, Dept Intens Care, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The SSAI fully supports the suspension of hydroxyethyl-starch solutions commissioned by the European Medicines Agency2018Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 62, nr 6, s. 874-875Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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