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  • 1. Pinxten, Wim
    et al.
    Howard, Heidi Carmen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Ethical issues raised by whole genome sequencing2014In: Baillière's Best Practice & Research: Clinical Gastroenterology, ISSN 1521-6918, E-ISSN 1532-1916, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 269-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is ongoing discussion about the details of implementation of whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES), there appears to be a consensus amongst geneticists that the widespread use of these approaches is not only inevitable, but will also be beneficial [1]. However, at the present time, we are unable to anticipate the full range of uses, consequences and impact of implementing WGS and WES. Nevertheless, the already known ethical issues, both in research and in clinical practice are diverse and complex and should be addressed properly presently. Herein, we discuss the ethical aspects of WGS and WES by particularly focussing on three overlapping themes: (1) informed consent, (2) data handling, and (3) the return of results.

  • 2.
    Sundin, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology. Karolinska Institute and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Radiological and nuclear medicine imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours2012In: Baillière's Best Practice & Research: Clinical Gastroenterology, ISSN 1521-6918, E-ISSN 1532-1916, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 803-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with very varying clinical expression. A functioning NET, for instance in the pancreas, may be very small and yet give rise to severe endocrine symptoms whereas a patient with a small bowel tumour may present with diffuse symptoms and disseminated disease with a palpable bulky liver. Imaging of NETs is therefore challenging and the imaging needs in the various patients are diverse. The basic modalities for NET imaging are computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with somatostatin receptor imaging (SMI) by scintigraphy with 111In-labelled octreotide (OctreoScan) or more recently by positron emission tomography (PET) with 68Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues. In this review these various morphological and functional imaging modalities and important methodological aspects are described. Imaging requirements for the various types of NETs are discussed and typical image findings are illustrated.

  • 3.
    Öberg, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Biotherapies for GEP-NETs2012In: Baillière's Best Practice & Research: Clinical Gastroenterology, ISSN 1521-6918, E-ISSN 1532-1916, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 833-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological treatment for GI neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) includes treatment with somatostatin analogues and alpha interferons. Both of these therapies were developed in the early 1980's and initially for treatment of a carcinoid syndrome in patients with small intestinal NETs. Later on tumour biology studies indicated that well differentiated NETs (G1-tumours) benefit from treatment with somatostatin analogues and alpha interferons. Both agents give symptomatic improvement in patients with functioning tumours in 40-60% of the patients, biochemical responses in 50-70% of the patients and significant tumour shrinkage in 5-10% of the patients. Combination therapy with somatostatin analogues and alpha interferon has demonstrated some clinical benefit. In conclusion: Somatostatin analogues and alpha interferons are still playing an important role and considered to be first-line treatment in functioning and in non-functioning well-differentiated NETs, (G1-tumours) and somatostatin analogues might also be applied to control clinical symptoms in G2-tumours with higher proliferation.

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