uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 140
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1. Appelros, Peter
    et al.
    Terént, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Thrombolysis in acute stroke2015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 385, no 9976, 1394-1394 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Baigent, C
    et al.
    Blackwell, L
    Emberson, J
    Holland, LE
    Reith, C
    Bhala, N
    Peto, R
    Barnes , EH
    Keech, A
    Simes, J
    Collins, R
    Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomized trials2010In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 376, no 9753, 1670-1681 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Lowering of LDL cholesterol with standard statin regimens reduces the risk of occlusive vascular events in a wide range of individuals. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol with statin therapy.

    Methods

    We undertook meta-analyses of individual participant data from randomised trials involving at least 1000 participants and at least 2 years' treatment duration of more versus less intensive statin regimens (five trials; 39 612 individuals; median follow-up 5·1 years) and of statin versus control (21 trials; 129 526 individuals; median follow-up 4·8 years). For each type of trial, we calculated not only the average risk reduction, but also the average risk reduction per 1·0 mmol/L LDL cholesterol reduction at 1 year after randomisation.

    Findings

    In the trials of more versus less intensive statin therapy, the weighted mean further reduction in LDL cholesterol at 1 year was 0·51 mmol/L. Compared with less intensive regimens, more intensive regimens produced a highly significant 15% (95% CI 11–18; p<0·0001) further reduction in major vascular events, consisting of separately significant reductions in coronary death or non-fatal myocardial infarction of 13% (95% CI 7–19; p<0·0001), in coronary revascularisation of 19% (95% CI 15–24; p<0·0001), and in ischaemic stroke of 16% (95% CI 5–26; p=0·005). Per 1·0 mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol, these further reductions in risk were similar to the proportional reductions in the trials of statin versus control. When both types of trial were combined, similar proportional reductions in major vascular events per 1·0 mmol/L LDL cholesterol reduction were found in all types of patient studied (rate ratio [RR] 0·78, 95% CI 0·76–0·80; p<0·0001), including those with LDL cholesterol lower than 2 mmol/L on the less intensive or control regimen. Across all 26 trials, all-cause mortality was reduced by 10% per 1·0 mmol/L LDL reduction (RR 0·90, 95% CI 0·87–0·93; p<0·0001), largely reflecting significant reductions in deaths due to coronary heart disease (RR 0·80, 99% CI 0·74–0·87; p<0·0001) and other cardiac causes (RR 0·89, 99% CI 0·81–0·98; p=0·002), with no significant effect on deaths due to stroke (RR 0·96, 95% CI 0·84–1·09; p=0·5) or other vascular causes (RR 0·98, 99% CI 0·81–1·18; p=0·8). No significant effects were observed on deaths due to cancer or other non-vascular causes (RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·92–1·03; p=0·3) or on cancer incidence (RR 1·00, 95% CI 0·96–1·04; p=0·9), even at low LDL cholesterol concentrations.

    Interpretation

    Further reductions in LDL cholesterol safely produce definite further reductions in the incidence of heart attack, of revascularisation, and of ischaemic stroke, with each 1·0 mmol/L reduction reducing the annual rate of these major vascular events by just over a fifth. There was no evidence of any threshold within the cholesterol range studied, suggesting that reduction of LDL cholesterol by 2–3 mmol/L would reduce risk by about 40–50%.

    Funding

    UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, European Community Biomed Programme, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, and National Heart Foundation.

  • 3. Baigent, Colin
    et al.
    Landray, Martin J.
    Reith, Christina
    Emberson, Jonathan
    Wheeler, David C.
    Tomson, Charles
    Wanner, Christoph
    Krane, Vera
    Cass, Alan
    Craig, Jonathan
    Neal, Bruce
    Jiang, Lixin
    Hooi, Lai Seong
    Levin, Adeera
    Agodoa, Lawrence
    Gaziano, Mike
    Kasiske, Bertram
    Walker, Robert
    Massy, Ziad A.
    Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo
    Krairittichai, Udom
    Ophascharoensuk, Vuddidhej
    Fellström, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Holdaas, Hallvard
    Tesar, Vladimir
    Wiecek, Andrzej
    Grobbee, Diederick
    de Zeeuw, Dick
    Gronhagen-Riska, Carola
    Dasgupta, Tanaji
    Lewis, David
    Herrington, William
    Mafham, Marion
    Majoni, William
    Wallendszus, Karl
    Grimm, Richard
    Pedersen, Terje
    Tobert, Jonathan
    Armitage, Jane
    Baxter, Alex
    Bray, Christopher
    Chen, Yiping
    Chen, Zhengming
    Hill, Michael
    Knott, Carol
    Parish, Sarah
    Simpson, David
    Sleight, Peter
    Young, Alan
    Collins, Rory
    The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial2011In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 377, no 9784, 2181-2192 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Lowering LDL cholesterol with statin regimens reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and the need for coronary revascularisation in people without kidney disease, but its effects in people with moderate-to-severe kidney disease are uncertain. The SHARP trial aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the combination of simvastatin plus ezetimibe in such patients. Methods This randomised double-blind trial included 9270 patients with chronic kidney disease (3023 on dialysis and 6247 not) with no known history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularisation. Patients were randomly assigned to simvastatin 20 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg daily versus matching placebo. The key prespecified outcome was first major atherosclerotic event (non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death, non-haemorrhagic stroke, or any arterial revascularisation procedure). All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00125593, and I SRCTN54137607. Findings 4650 patients were assigned to receive simvastatin plus ezetimibe and 4620 to placebo. Allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe yielded an average LDL cholesterol difference of 0.85 mmol/L (SE 0.02; with about two-thirds compliance) during a median follow-up of 4.9 years and produced a 17% proportional reduction in major atherosclerotic events (526 [11.3%] simvastatin plus ezetimibe vs 619 [13.4%] placebo; rate ratio [RR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.94; log-rank p=0.0021). Non-significantly fewer patients allocated to simvastatin plus ezetimibe had a non-fatal myocardial infarction or died from coronary heart disease (213 [4.6%] vs 230 [5.0%]; RR 0.92,95% CI 0.76-1.11; p=0.37) and there were significant reductions in non-haemorrhagic stroke (131 [2.8%] vs 174 [3.8%]; RR 0.75,95% CI 0.60-0.94; p=0.01) and arterial revascularisation procedures (284 [6.1%] vs 352 [7.6%]; RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.93; p=0.0036). After weighting for subgroup-specific reductions in LDL cholesterol, there was no good evidence that the proportional effects on major atherosclerotic events differed from the summary rate ratio in any subgroup examined, and, in particular, they were similar in patients on dialysis and those who were not. The excess risk of myopathy was only two per 10 000 patients per year of treatment with this combination (9 [0.2%] vs 5 [0.1%]). There was no evidence of excess risks of hepatitis (21 [0.5%] vs 18 [0.4%]), gallstones (106 [2.3%] vs 106 [2.3%]), or cancer (438 [9.4%] vs 439 [9.5%], p=0.89) and there was no significant excess of death from any non-vascular cause (668 [14.4%] vs 612 [13.2%], p=0.13). Interpretation Reduction of LDL cholesterol with simvastatin 20 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg daily safely reduced the incidence of major atherosclerotic events in a wide range of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

  • 4. Barber, RM
    et al.
    Fullman, N
    Sorensen, RJD
    Bollyky, T
    McKee, M
    Nolte, E
    Abajobir, AA
    Abate, KH
    Abbafati, C
    Abbas, KM
    Abd-Allah, F
    Abdulle, AM
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Younis, MZ
    Yu, C
    Zaidi, Z
    El Sayed Zaki, M
    Zambrana-Torrelio, C
    Zapata, T
    Zenebe, ZM
    Zodpey, S
    Zoeckler, L
    Zuhlke, LJ
    Murray, CJL
    Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10091, 231-266 p., S0140-6736(17)30818-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015.

    METHODS: We mapped the most widely used list of causes amenable to personal health care developed by Nolte and McKee to 32 GBD causes. We accounted for variations in cause of death certification and misclassifications through the extensive data standardisation processes and redistribution algorithms developed for GBD. To isolate the effects of personal health-care access and quality, we risk-standardised cause-specific mortality rates for each geography-year by removing the joint effects of local environmental and behavioural risks, and adding back the global levels of risk exposure as estimated for GBD 2015. We employed principal component analysis to create a single, interpretable summary measure-the Healthcare Quality and Access (HAQ) Index-on a scale of 0 to 100. The HAQ Index showed strong convergence validity as compared with other health-system indicators, including health expenditure per capita (r=0·88), an index of 11 universal health coverage interventions (r=0·83), and human resources for health per 1000 (r=0·77). We used free disposal hull analysis with bootstrapping to produce a frontier based on the relationship between the HAQ Index and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a measure of overall development consisting of income per capita, average years of education, and total fertility rates. This frontier allowed us to better quantify the maximum levels of personal health-care access and quality achieved across the development spectrum, and pinpoint geographies where gaps between observed and potential levels have narrowed or widened over time.

    FINDINGS: Between 1990 and 2015, nearly all countries and territories saw their HAQ Index values improve; nonetheless, the difference between the highest and lowest observed HAQ Index was larger in 2015 than in 1990, ranging from 28·6 to 94·6. Of 195 geographies, 167 had statistically significant increases in HAQ Index levels since 1990, with South Korea, Turkey, Peru, China, and the Maldives recording among the largest gains by 2015. Performance on the HAQ Index and individual causes showed distinct patterns by region and level of development, yet substantial heterogeneities emerged for several causes, including cancers in highest-SDI countries; chronic kidney disease, diabetes, diarrhoeal diseases, and lower respiratory infections among middle-SDI countries; and measles and tetanus among lowest-SDI countries. While the global HAQ Index average rose from 40·7 (95% uncertainty interval, 39·0-42·8) in 1990 to 53·7 (52·2-55·4) in 2015, far less progress occurred in narrowing the gap between observed HAQ Index values and maximum levels achieved; at the global level, the difference between the observed and frontier HAQ Index only decreased from 21·2 in 1990 to 20·1 in 2015. If every country and territory had achieved the highest observed HAQ Index by their corresponding level of SDI, the global average would have been 73·8 in 2015. Several countries, particularly in eastern and western sub-Saharan Africa, reached HAQ Index values similar to or beyond their development levels, whereas others, namely in southern sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and south Asia, lagged behind what geographies of similar development attained between 1990 and 2015.

    INTERPRETATION: This novel extension of the GBD Study shows the untapped potential for personal health-care access and quality improvement across the development spectrum. Amid substantive advances in personal health care at the national level, heterogeneous patterns for individual causes in given countries or territories suggest that few places have consistently achieved optimal health-care access and quality across health-system functions and therapeutic areas. This is especially evident in middle-SDI countries, many of which have recently undergone or are currently experiencing epidemiological transitions. The HAQ Index, if paired with other measures of health-system characteristics such as intervention coverage, could provide a robust avenue for tracking progress on universal health coverage and identifying local priorities for strengthening personal health-care quality and access throughout the world.

    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • 5. Berney, Thierry
    et al.
    Benhamou, Pierre
    Brendel, Mathias
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy.
    Pipeleers, Daniel
    Pattou, Francois
    Secci, Antonio
    Beta-cell transplantation for diabetes therapy.2008In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 372, no 9632, 28-9; author reply 29 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Björck, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    The role of international bench-marking to improve outcome in treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.2014In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. march 15, no 383, 933-934 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Björck, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Mani, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Improving outcomes for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm2014In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 383, no 9921, 933-934 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Boggia, José
    et al.
    Li, Yan
    Thijs, Lutgarde
    Hansen, Tine W
    Kikuya, Masahiro
    Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina
    Richart, Tom
    Ohkubo, Takayoshi
    Kuznetsova, Tatiana
    Torp-Pedersen, Christian
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ibsen, Hans
    Imai, Yutaka
    Wang, Jiguang
    Sandoya, Edgardo
    O'Brien, Eoin
    Staessen, Jan A
    Prognostic accuracy of day versus night ambulatory blood pressure: a cohort study2007In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 370, no 9594, 1219-1229 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Few studies have formally compared the predictive value of the blood pressure at night over and beyond the daytime value. We investigated the prognostic significance of the ambulatory blood pressure during night and day and of the night-to-day blood pressure ratio. Methods We did 24-h blood pressure monitoring in 7458 people (mean age 56.8 years [SD 13.9]) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden, Uruguay, and China. We calculated multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for daytime and night-time blood pressure and the systolic night-to-day ratio, while adjusting for cohort and cardiovascular risk factors. Findings Median follow-up was 9.6 years (5th to 95th percentile 2.5-13.7). Adjusted for daytime blood pressure, night-time blood pressure predicted total (n=983; p<0.0001), cardiovascular (n=387; p<0.01), and non-cardiovascular (n=560; p<0.001) mortality. Conversely, adjusted for night-time blood pressure, daytime blood pressure predicted only non-cardiovascular mortality (p<0.05), with lower blood pressure levels being associated with increased risk. Both daytime and night-time blood pressure consistently predicted all cardiovascular events (n=943; p<0.05) and stroke (n=420; p<0.01). Adjusted for night-time blood pressure, daytime blood pressure lost prognostic significance only for cardiac events (n=525; p >= 0.07). Adjusted for the 24-h blood pressure, night-to-day ratio predicted mortality, but not fatal combined with non-fatal events. Antohypertensive drug treatment removed the significant association between cardiovascular events and the daytime blood pressure. Participants with systolic night-to-day ratio value of 1 or more were older, at higher risk of death, and died at an older age than those whose night-to-day ratio was normal (>= 0.80 to <0.90). Interpretation In contrast to commonly held views, daytime blood pressure adjusted for night-time blood pressure predicts fatal combined with non-fatal cardiovascular events, except in treated patients, in whom antihypertensive drugs might reduce blood pressure during the day, but not at night. The increased mortality in patients with higher night-time than daytime blood pressure probably indicates reverse causality. Our findings support recording the ambulatory blood pressure during the whole day.

  • 9.
    Bruhn, Jan G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    De Smet, Peter A. G. M.
    El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Beck, Olof
    Mescaline use for 5700 years2002In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 359, no 9320, 1866- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Archaeological investigations in northeast Mexico and Trans-Pecos, Texas have shown that the use of psychotropic drugs in this region goes back to around 8500 BC. The aboriginal inhabitants of this region used the mescal bean, Sophora secundiflora, and buttons from the peyote cactus, Lophophora williamsii1.

    From an archaeological site in Coahuila, Mexico, several peyote buttons were retrieved and radiocarbon-dated to AD 810–1070. Alkaloid analysis revealed the presence of mescaline and four related tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids2. We have, however, analysed two much older samples of peyote buttons. These samples are thought to have been found in Shumla Cave number five on the Rio Grande, TX, USA, and are in the collection of the Witte Museum in San Antonio3. Radiocarbon dating showed a mean age of 5700 years.

    Standard alkaloid extraction procedures done on the samples gave residues that were analysed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to identify mescaline in both samples, based on identical retention times and Rf values, and similar mass-to-charge ratios and fragmentation pattern. The detection of mescaline in two different samples, both analysed by two methods based on different principles, is reliable evidence for the presence of this psychotropic drug.

    Freshly prepared peyote buttons can contain up to 8% of total alkaloids. The previously studied 1000-year-old sample had a lower content, around 2·25%. In our analysis, alkaloid content had fallen to 2%, and mescaline was the only peyote alkaloid we could identify. There was no trace of any of the other tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids typical for peyote.

    Earlier, nicotine and caffeine had been identified in plant remains from a medicine man's tomb in Bolivia, aged 1600 years4. Morphine has been found in a 3500 year old ceramic container from Cyprus5.

    From a scientific perspective, the studied peyote material seems to be the oldest plant drug that yielded a major bioactive compound on chemical analysis. From a cultural point of view, our identification of mescaline strengthens the evidence that Native Americans already recognised and valued the psychotropic properties of peyote as long as 5700 years ago.

  • 10. Cannon, Christopher P.
    et al.
    Harrington, Robert A.
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Ardissino, Diego
    Becker, Richard C.
    Emanuelsson, Håkan
    Husted, Steen
    Katus, Hugo
    Keltai, Matyas
    Khurmi, Nardev S.
    Kontny, Frederic
    Lewis, Basil S.
    Steg, Philippe Gabriel
    Storey, Robert F.
    Wojdyla, Daniel
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Comparison of ticagrelor with clopidogrel in patients with a planned invasive strategy for acute coronary syndromes (PLATO): a randomised double-blind study2010In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 375, no 9711, 283-293 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Variation in and irreversibility of platelet inhibition with clopidogrel has led to controversy about its optimum dose and timing of administration in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We compared ticagrelor, a more potent reversible P2Y12 inhibitor with clopidogrel in such patients. METHODS: At randomisation, an invasive strategy was planned for 13 408 (72.0%) of 18 624 patients hospitalised for acute coronary syndromes (with or without ST elevation). In a double-blind, double-dummy study, patients were randomly assigned in a one-to-one ratio to ticagrelor and placebo (180 mg loading dose followed by 90 mg twice a day), or to clopidogrel and placebo (300-600 mg loading dose or continuation with maintenance dose followed by 75 mg per day) for 6-12 months. All patients were given aspirin. The primary composite endpoint was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00391872. FINDINGS: 6732 patients were assigned to ticagrelor and 6676 to clopidogrel. The primary composite endpoint occurred in fewer patients in the ticagrelor group than in the clopidogrel group (569 [event rate at 360 days 9.0%] vs 668 [10.7%], hazard ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.94; p=0.0025). There was no difference between clopidogrel and ticagrelor groups in the rates of total major bleeding (691 [11.6%] vs 689 [11.5%], 0.99 [0.89-1.10]; p=0.8803) or severe bleeding, as defined according to the Global Use of Strategies To Open occluded coronary arteries, (198 [3.2%] vs 185 [2.9%], 0.91 [0.74-1.12]; p=0.3785). INTERPRETATION: Ticagrelor seems to be a better option than clopidogrel for patients with acute coronary syndromes for whom an early invasive strategy is planned.

  • 11. Chung, Sheng-Chia
    et al.
    Gedeborg, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Nicholas, Owen
    James, Stefan K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Jeppsson, Anders
    Wolfe, Charles
    Heuschmann, Peter
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Deanfield, John
    Timmis, Adam
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Hemingway, Harry
    Acute myocardial infarction: a comparison of short-term survival in national outcome registries in Sweden and the UK2014In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 383, no 9925, 1305-1312 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background International research for acute myocardial infarction lacks comparisons of whole health systems. We assessed time trends for care and outcomes in Sweden and the UK. Methods We used data from national registries on consecutive patients registered between 2004 and 2010 in all hospitals providing care for acute coronary syndrome in Sweden and the UK. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality 30 days after admission. We compared effectiveness of treatment by indirect casemix standardisation. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01359033. Findings We assessed data for 119 786 patients in Sweden and 391 077 in the UK. 30-day mortality was 7.6% (95% CI 7.4-7.7) in Sweden and 10.5% (10.4-10.6) in the UK. Mortality was higher in the UK in clinically relevant subgroups defined by troponin concentration, ST-segment elevation, age, sex, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus status, and smoking status. In Sweden, compared with the UK, there was earlier and more extensive uptake of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (59% vs 22%) and more frequent use of beta blockers at discharge (89% vs 78%). After casemix standardisation the 30-day mortality ratio for UK versus Sweden was 1.37 (95% CI 1.30-1.45), which corresponds to 11 263 (95% CI 9620-12 827) excess deaths, but did decline over time (from 1.47, 95% CI 1.38-1.58 in 2004 to 1.20, 1.12-1.29 in 2010; p=0.01). Interpretation We found clinically important differences between countries in acute myocardial infarction care and outcomes. International comparisons research might help to improve health systems and prevent deaths.

  • 12.
    Claesson-Welsh, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Royal Swedish Acad Sci, POB 50005, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hansson, Goran K.
    Royal Swedish Acad Sci, POB 50005, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tracheobronchial transplantation: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences' concerns2016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 387, no 10022, 942-942 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Coleman, M P
    et al.
    Forman, D
    Bryant, H
    Butler, J
    Rachet, B
    Maringe, C
    Nur, U
    Tracey, E
    Coory, M
    Hatcher, J
    McGahan, C E
    Turner, D
    Marrett, L
    Gjerstorff, M L
    Johannesen, T B
    Adolfsson, J
    Lambe, M
    Lawrence, G
    Meechan, D
    Morris, E J
    Middleton, R
    Steward, J
    Richards, M A
    Cancer survival in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the UK, 1995-2007 (the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership): an analysis of population-based cancer registry data2011In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 377, no 9760, 127-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cancer survival is a key measure of the effectiveness of health-care systems. Persistent regional and international differences in survival represent many avoidable deaths. Differences in survival have prompted or guided cancer control strategies. This is the first study in a programme to investigate international survival disparities, with the aim of informing health policy to raise standards and reduce inequalities in survival.

    METHODS: Data from population-based cancer registries in 12 jurisdictions in six countries were provided for 2·4 million adults diagnosed with primary colorectal, lung, breast (women), or ovarian cancer during 1995-2007, with follow-up to Dec 31, 2007. Data quality control and analyses were done centrally with a common protocol, overseen by external experts. We estimated 1-year and 5-year relative survival, constructing 252 complete life tables to control for background mortality by age, sex, and calendar year. We report age-specific and age-standardised relative survival at 1 and 5 years, and 5-year survival conditional on survival to the first anniversary of diagnosis. We also examined incidence and mortality trends during 1985-2005.

    FINDINGS: Relative survival improved during 1995-2007 for all four cancers in all jurisdictions. Survival was persistently higher in Australia, Canada, and Sweden, intermediate in Norway, and lower in Denmark, England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, particularly in the first year after diagnosis and for patients aged 65 years and older. International differences narrowed at all ages for breast cancer, from about 9% to 5% at 1 year and from about 14% to 8% at 5 years, but less or not at all for the other cancers. For colorectal cancer, the international range narrowed only for patients aged 65 years and older, by 2-6% at 1 year and by 2-3% at 5 years.

    INTERPRETATION: Up-to-date survival trends show increases but persistent differences between countries. Trends in cancer incidence and mortality are broadly consistent with these trends in survival. Data quality and changes in classification are not likely explanations. The patterns are consistent with later diagnosis or differences in treatment, particularly in Denmark and the UK, and in patients aged 65 years and older.

    FUNDING: Department of Health, England; and Cancer Research UK.

  • 14. Corbacioglu, Selim
    et al.
    Cesaro, Simone
    Faraci, Maura
    Valteau-Couanet, Dominique
    Gruhn, Bernd
    Rovelli, Attilio
    Boelens, Jaap J.
    Hewitt, Annette
    Schrum, Johanna
    Schulz, Ansgar S.
    Mueller, Ingo
    Stein, Jerry
    Wynn, Robert
    Greil, Johann
    Sykora, Karl-Walter
    Matthes-Martin, Susanne
    Fuehrer, Monika
    O'Meara, Anne
    Toporski, Jacek
    Sedlacek, Petr
    Schlegel, Paul G.
    Ehlert, Karoline
    Fasth, Anders
    Winiarski, Jacek
    Arvidson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Mauz-Koerholz, Christine
    Ozsahin, Hulya
    Schrauder, Andre
    Bader, Peter
    Massaro, Joseph
    D'Agostino, Ralph
    Hoyle, Margaret
    Iacobelli, Massimo
    Debatin, Klaus-Michael
    Peters, Christina
    Dini, Giorgio
    Defibrotide for prophylaxis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease in paediatric haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation: an open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial2012In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 379, no 9823, 1301-1309 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Hepatic veno-occlusive disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We aimed to assess whether defibrotide can reduce the incidence of veno-occlusive disease in this setting. Methods In our phase 3 open-label, randomised controlled trial, we enrolled patients at 28 European university hospitals or academic medical centres. Eligible patients were younger than 18 years, had undergone myeloablative conditioning before allogeneic or autologous HSCT, and had one or more risk factor for veno-occlusive disease based on modified Seattle criteria. We centrally assigned eligible participants on the basis of a computer-generated randomisation sequence (1: 1), stratified by centre and presence of osteopetrosis, to receive intravenous defibrotide prophylaxis (treatment group) or not (control group). The primary endpoint was incidence of veno-occlusive disease by 30 days after HSCT, adjudicated by a masked, independent review committee, in eligible patients who consented to randomisation (intention-to-treat population), and was assessed with a competing risk approach. Patients in either group who developed veno-occlusive disease received defibrotide for treatment. We assessed adverse events to 180 days after HSCT in all patients who received allocated prophylaxis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00272948. Findings Between Jan 25, 2006, and Jan 29, 2009, we enrolled 356 eligible patients to the intention-to-treat population. 22 (12%) of 180 patients randomly allocated to the defibrotide group had veno-occlusive disease by 30 days after HSCT compared with 35 (20%) of 176 controls (risk difference -7.7%, 95% CI -15.3 to -0.1; Z test for competing risk analysis p=0.0488; log-rank test p=0.0507). 154 (87%) of 177 patients in the defibrotide group had adverse events by day 180 compared with 155 (88%) of 176 controls. Interpretation Defibrotide prophylaxis seems to reduce incidence of veno-occlusive disease and is well tolerated. Thus, such prophylaxis could present a useful clinical option for this serious complication of HSCT.

  • 15.
    Costa, Francesco
    et al.
    Univ Hosp Bern, Swiss Cardiovasc Ctr Bern, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland.;Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Messina, Policlin G Martino, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Messina, Italy..
    van Klaveren, David
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Tufts Med Ctr, Inst Clin Res & Hlth Policy Studies, Boston, MA USA..
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Heg, Dik
    Univ Bern, Inst Social & Prevent Med, Bern, Switzerland..
    Raber, Lorenz
    Univ Hosp Bern, Swiss Cardiovasc Ctr Bern, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland..
    Feres, Fausto
    Ist Dante Pazzanese Cardiol, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Pilgrim, Thomas
    Univ Hosp Bern, Swiss Cardiovasc Ctr Bern, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland..
    Hong, Myeong-Ki
    Yonsei Univ, Coll Med, Severance Cardiovasc Hosp, Seoul, South Korea.;Yonsei Univ, Coll Med, Severance Biomed Sci Inst, Seoul, South Korea..
    Kim, Hyo-Soo
    Seoul Natl Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Colombo, Antonio
    EMO GVM Ctr Cuore Columbus, Milan, Italy.;Ist Sci San Raffaele, Intervent Cardiol Dept, Milan, Italy..
    Steg, Philippe Gabriel
    Hop Xavier Bichat, AP HP, Dept Cardiol, Paris, France..
    Zanchin, Thomas
    Univ Hosp Bern, Swiss Cardiovasc Ctr Bern, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland..
    Palmerini, Tullio
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Cardiotoracovasc, Bologna, Italy..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Bhatt, Deepak L.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Heart & Vasc Ctr, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Stone, Gregg W.
    Columbia Univ, Med Ctr, New York Presbyterian Hosp, New York, NY USA.;Cardiovasc Res Fdn, New York, NY USA..
    Windecker, Stephan
    Univ Hosp Bern, Swiss Cardiovasc Ctr Bern, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland..
    Steyerberg, Ewout W.
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Valgimigli, Marco
    Univ Hosp Bern, Swiss Cardiovasc Ctr Bern, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland.;Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Derivation and validation of the predicting bleeding complications in patients undergoing stent implantation and subsequent dual antiplatelet therapy (PRECISE-DAPT) score: a pooled analysis of individual-patient datasets from clinical trials2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 389, no 10073, 1025-1034 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin plus a P2Y(12) inhibitor prevents ischaemic events after coronary stenting, but increases bleeding. Guidelines support weighting bleeding risk before the selection of treatment duration, but no standardised tool exists for this purpose.

    Methods: A total of 14 963 patients treated with DAPT after coronary stenting-largely consisting of aspirin and clopidogrel and without indication to oral anticoagulation-were pooled at a single-patient level from eight multicentre randomised clinical trials with independent adjudication of events. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we identified predictors of out-of-hospital Thrombosis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major or minor bleeding stratified by trial, and developed a numerical bleeding risk score. The predictive performance of the novel score was assessed in the derivation cohort and validated in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial (n=8595) and BernPCI registry (n=6172). The novel score was assessed within patients randomised to different DAPT durations (n=10 081) to identify the effect on bleeding and ischaemia of a long (12-24 months) or short (3-6 months) treatment in relation to baseline bleeding risk.

    Findings: The PRECISE-DAPT score (age, creatinine clearance, haemoglobin, white-blood-cell count, and previous spontaneous bleeding) showed a c-index for out-of-hospital TIMI major or minor bleeding of 0.73 (95% CI 0.61-0.85) in the derivation cohort, and 0.70 (0.65-0.74) in the PLATO trial validation cohort and 0.66 (0.61-0.71) in the BernPCI registry validation cohort. A longer DAPT duration significantly increased bleeding in patients at high risk (score >= 25), but not in those with lower risk profiles (p(interaction)=0.007), and exerted a significant ischaemic benefit only in this latter group.

    Interpretation: The PRECISE-DAPT score is a simple five-item risk score, which provides a standardised tool for the prediction of out-of-hospital bleeding during DAPT. In the context of a comprehensive clinical evaluation process, this tool can support clinical decision making for treatment duration.

  • 16. Davies, C
    et al.
    Godwin, J
    Gray, R
    Clarke, M
    Cutter, D
    Darby, S
    McGale, P
    Pan, H C
    Taylor, C
    Wang, Y C
    Dowsett, M
    Ingle, J
    Peto, R
    Relevance of breast cancer hormone receptors and other factors to the efficacy of adjuvant tamoxifen: patient-level meta-analysis of randomised trials2011In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 378, no 9793, 771-784 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As trials of 5 years of tamoxifen in early breast cancer mature, the relevance of hormone receptor measurements (and other patient characteristics) to long-term outcome can be assessed increasingly reliably. We report updated meta-analyses of the trials of 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen.

    METHODS: We undertook a collaborative meta-analysis of individual patient data from 20 trials (n=21,457) in early breast cancer of about 5 years of tamoxifen versus no adjuvant tamoxifen, with about 80% compliance. Recurrence and death rate ratios (RRs) were from log-rank analyses by allocated treatment.

    FINDINGS: In oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease (n=10,645), allocation to about 5 years of tamoxifen substantially reduced recurrence rates throughout the first 10 years (RR 0·53 [SE 0·03] during years 0-4 and RR 0·68 [0·06] during years 5-9 [both 2p<0·00001]; but RR 0·97 [0·10] during years 10-14, suggesting no further gain or loss after year 10). Even in marginally ER-positive disease (10-19 fmol/mg cytosol protein) the recurrence reduction was substantial (RR 0·67 [0·08]). In ER-positive disease, the RR was approximately independent of progesterone receptor status (or level), age, nodal status, or use of chemotherapy. Breast cancer mortality was reduced by about a third throughout the first 15 years (RR 0·71 [0·05] during years 0-4, 0·66 [0·05] during years 5-9, and 0·68 [0·08] during years 10-14; p<0·0001 for extra mortality reduction during each separate time period). Overall non-breast-cancer mortality was little affected, despite small absolute increases in thromboembolic and uterine cancer mortality (both only in women older than 55 years), so all-cause mortality was substantially reduced. In ER-negative disease, tamoxifen had little or no effect on breast cancer recurrence or mortality.

    INTERPRETATION: 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen safely reduces 15-year risks of breast cancer recurrence and death. ER status was the only recorded factor importantly predictive of the proportional reductions. Hence, the absolute risk reductions produced by tamoxifen depend on the absolute breast cancer risks (after any chemotherapy) without tamoxifen.

    FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, British Heart Foundation, and Medical Research Council.

  • 17.
    Di Cesare, Mariachiara
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England.;Middlesex Univ, London N17 8HR, England..
    Bentham, James
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Stevens, Gretchen A.
    WHO, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Zhou, Bin
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Danaei, Goodarz
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Lu, Yuan
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Bixby, Honor
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Cowan, Melanie J.
    WHO, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Riley, Leanne M.
    WHO, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Hajifathalian, Kaveh
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Fortunato, Lea
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Taddei, Cristina
    Univ Florence, Florence, Italy..
    Bennett, James E.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Ikeda, Nayu
    Natl Inst Hlth & Nutr, Tokyo 162, Japan..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Kyobutungi, Catherine
    African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Laxmaiah, Avula
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Li, Yanping
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Lin, Hsien-Ho
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei 10764, Taiwan..
    Miranda, J. Jaime
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru..
    Mostafa, Aya
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt..
    Turley, Maria L.
    Minist Hlth, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Paciorek, Christopher J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Gunter, Marc
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Ezzati, Majid
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Abdeen, Ziad A.
    Al Quds Univ, Jerusalem, Israel..
    Hamid, Zargar Abdul
    Ctr Diabet & Endocrine Care, Bengaluru, India..
    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.
    Birzeit Univ, Bir Zayt, Israel..
    Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Rio Grande, Mexico..
    Adams, Robert
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Aekplakorn, Wichai
    Mahidol Univ, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
    Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Rio Grande, Mexico..
    Ahmadvand, Alireza
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Leibniz, Germany..
    Ali, Mohamed M.
    World Hlth Org Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Giza, Egypt..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Luxembourg, Luxembourg..
    Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar
    Ctr Res Environm Epidemiol, Madrid, Spain..
    Aly, Eman
    World Hlth Org Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Giza, Egypt..
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France..
    Amuzu, Antoinette
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Anderssen, Sigmund A.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Andrade, Dolores S.
    Univ Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador..
    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Tunis, Tunisia..
    Ariansen, Inger
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Aris, Tahir
    Minist Hlth, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Arlappa, Nimmathota
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Arveiler, Dominique
    Strasbourg Univ & Hosp, Strasbourg, France..
    Assah, Felix K.
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Avdicova, Maria
    Reg Author Publ Hlth, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia..
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Babu, Bontha V.
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Balakrishna, Nagalla
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Bandosz, Piotr
    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland..
    Banegas, Jose R.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Barbagallo, Carlo M.
    Univ Palermo, I-90133 Palermo, Italy..
    Barcelo, Alberto
    Pan Amer Hlth Org, El Paso, TX USA..
    Barkat, Amina
    Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco..
    Barros, Mauro V.
    Univ Pernambuco, Petrolina, PE, Brazil..
    Bata, Iqbal
    Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5, Canada..
    Batieha, Anwar M.
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Amman, Jordan..
    Batista, Rosangela L.
    Univ Fed Maranhao, Sao Luis, Brazil..
    Baur, Louise A.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Beaglehole, Robert
    Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Ben Romdhane, Habiba
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia..
    Benet, Mikhail
    Univ Med Sci, Havana, Cuba..
    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru..
    Bernotiene, Gailute
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Bettiol, Heloisa
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor
    BJ Med Coll, New Delhi, India..
    Bharadwaj, Sumit
    Chirayu Med Coll, Bhopal, India..
    Bhargava, Santosh K.
    Sunder Lal Jain Hosp, New Delhi, India..
    Bhatti, Zaid
    Aga Khan Univ, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Aga Khan Univ, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Bi, HongSheng
    Shandong Univ Tradit Chinese Med, Jinan, Peoples R China..
    Bi, Yufang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China..
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Bjertness, Espen
    Univ Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Bjertness, Marius B.
    Univ Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Bjorkelund, Cecilia
    Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Blake, Margaret
    NatCen Social Res, London, England..
    Blokstra, Anneke
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bo, Simona
    Univ Turin, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Bobak, Martin
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Boddy, Lynne M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Liverpool L3 5UX, Merseyside, England..
    Boehm, Bernhard O.
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    Boeing, Heiner
    German Inst Human Nutr, Berlin, Germany..
    Boissonnet, Carlos P.
    CEMIC, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Bongard, Vanina
    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, Toulouse, France..
    Bovet, Pascal
    Minist Hlth, Victoria, Seychelles.;Univ Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Braeckman, Lutgart
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Bragt, Marjolijn C. E.
    FrieslandCampina, Singapore, Singapore..
    Brajkovich, Imperia
    Cent Univ Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela..
    Branca, Francesco
    WHO, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Breckenkamp, Juergen
    Univ Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany..
    Brenner, Hermann
    German Canc Res Ctr, Berlin, Germany..
    Brewster, Lizzy M.
    Univ Amsterdam, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Brian, Garry R.
    Fred Hollows Fdn New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Bruno, Graziella
    Univ Turin, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as)
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bugge, Anna
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Burns, Con
    Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland..
    Cabrera de Leon, Antonio
    Univ La Laguna, E-38207 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Cacciottolo, Joseph
    Univ Malta, Msida, Malta..
    Cama, Tilema
    Minist Hlth, Nukualofa, Tonga..
    Cameron, Christine
    Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Camolas, Jose
    Hosp Santa Maria, CHLN, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Can, Gunay
    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Candido, Ana Paula C.
    Univ Fed Juiz de Fora, Juiz De Fora, Brazil..
    Capuano, Vincenzo
    Cardiol Mercato S Severino, Mercato San Severino, Italy..
    Cardoso, Viviane C.
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Carvalho, Maria J.
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Casanueva, Felipe F.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, Spain..
    Casas, Juan-Pablo
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Caserta, Carmelo A.
    Assoc Calabrese Epatol, Rome, Italy..
    Castetbon, Katia
    French Inst Hlth Surveillance, Lyon, France..
    Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
    India Diabet Res Fdn, New Delhi, India..
    Chan, Angelique W.
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Chan, Queenie
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.
    Natl Inst Med Stat, New Delhi, India..
    Chaturvedi, Nishi
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Chen, Chien-Jen
    Acad Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Chen, Fangfang
    Capital Inst Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Huashuai
    Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27706 USA..
    Chen, Shuohua
    Kailuan Gen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Zhengming
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Cheng, Ching-Yu
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Chetrit, Angela
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Chiolero, Arnaud
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Chiou, Shu-Ti
    Minist Hlth & Welf, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Chirita-Emandi, Adela
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm, Cluj Napoca, Romania..
    Cho, Yumi
    Korea Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Seoul, South Korea..
    Christensen, Kaare
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Chudek, Jerzy
    Med Univ Silesia, Katowice, Poland..
    Cifkova, Renata
    Charles Univ Prague, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Claessens, Frank
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Louvain, Belgium..
    Clays, Els
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Concin, Hans
    Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Vienna, Austria..
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England..
    Cooper, Rachel
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Coppinger, Tara C.
    Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland..
    Costanzo, Simona
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Rome, Italy..
    Cottel, Dominique
    Inst Pasteur, Lille, France..
    Cowell, Chris
    Westmead Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Craig, Cora L.
    Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Crujeiras, Ana B.
    CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain..
    D'Arrigo, Graziella
    CNR, Rome, Italy..
    d'Orsi, Eleonora
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Dallongeville, Jean
    Inst Pasteur, Lille, France..
    Damasceno, Albertino
    Eduardo Mondlane Univ, Maputo, Mozambique..
    Damsgaard, Camilla T.
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Dankner, Rachel
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Dauchet, Luc
    Lille Univ Hosp, Lille, France..
    De Backer, Guy
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    de Gaetano, Giovanni
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Rome, Italy..
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    De Smedt, Delphine
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Deepa, Mohan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Deev, Alexander D.
    Natl Res Ctr Prevent Med, Moscow, Russia..
    Dehghan, Abbas
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Delisle, Helene
    Univ Montreal, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada..
    Delpeuch, Francis
    Inst Rech Dev, Lyon, France..
    Dhana, Klodian
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Rome, Italy..
    Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares
    Univ Vale Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil..
    Diaz, Alejandro
    Natl Council Sci & Tech Res, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Do, Ha T. P.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Dobson, Annette J.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Donfrancesco, Chiara
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy..
    Doering, Angela
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Doua, Kouamelan
    Minist Sante & Lutte Sida, Yamoussoukro, Cote Ivoire..
    Drygas, Wojciech
    Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Egbagbe, Eruke E.
    Univ Benin, Coll Med Sci, Benin, Nigeria..
    Eggertsen, Robert
    Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    El Ati, Jalila
    Natl Inst Nutr & Food Technol, Tunis, Tunisia..
    Elliott, Paul
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Engle-Stone, Reina
    Univ Calif Davis, Davis, CA USA..
    Erasmus, Rajiv T.
    Univ Stellenbosch, ZA-7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa..
    Erem, Cihangir
    Karadeniz Tech Univ, Trabzon, Turkey..
    Eriksen, Louise
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Rio Grande, Mexico..
    Evans, Alun
    Queens Univ Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Faeh, David
    Univ Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Fall, Caroline H.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.
    Ferguson, Trevor S.
    Univ W Indies, Kingston, Jamaica..
    Fernandez-Berges, Daniel
    Ferrante, Daniel
    Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Ferrari, Marika
    Council Agr Res & Econ, Rome, Italy..
    Ferreccio, Catterina
    Ferrieres, Jean
    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, Toulouse, France..
    Finn, Joseph D.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Fischer, Krista
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia..
    Monterubio Flores, Eric
    Inst Nacl Salud Publ, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Foeger, Bernhard
    Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Vienna, Austria..
    Foo, Leng Huat
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Shah Alam, Malaysia..
    Forslund, Ann-Sofie
    Univ Lulea, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Fortmann, Stephen P.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Fouad, Heba M.
    Francis, Damian K.
    Franco, Maria do Carmo
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Frontera, Guillermo
    Fuchs, Flavio D.
    Fuchs, Sandra C.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, BR-90046900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Fujita, Yuki
    Kinki Univ, Fac Med, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577, Japan..
    Furusawa, Takuro
    Kyoto Univ, Kyoto 6068501, Japan..
    Gaciong, Zbigniew
    Med Univ Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland..
    Gafencu, Mihai
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm, Cluj Napoca, Romania..
    Gareta, Dickman
    Garnett, Sarah P.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Gaspoz, Jean-Michel
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Gasull, Magda
    Gates, Louise
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Ghasemian, Anoosheh
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Giampaoli, Simona
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy..
    Gianfagna, Francesco
    Univ Insubria, Varese, Italy..
    Giovannelli, Jonathan
    Lille Univ Hosp, Lille, France..
    Giwercman, Aleksander
    Lund Univ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Goldsmith, Rebecca A.
    Gonzalez Gross, Marcela
    Univ Politecn Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Gonzalez Rivas, Juan P.
    Andes Clin Cardiometab Studies, Caracas, Venezuela..
    Bonet Gorbea, Mariano
    Natl Inst Hyg Epidemiol & Microbiol, Havana, Cuba..
    Gottrand, Frederic
    Univ Lille 2, F-59800 Lille, France..
    -Iversen, Sidsel Graff
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Grafnetter, Dusan
    Inst Clin & Expt Med, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Grajda, Aneta
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Grammatikopoulou, Maria G.
    Alexander Technol Educ Inst, Athens, Greece..
    Gregor, Ronald D.
    Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5, Canada..
    Grodzicki, Tomasz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, PL-31007 Krakow, Poland..
    Grontved, Anders
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Gruden, Grabriella
    Univ Turin, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Grujic, Vera
    Inst Publ Hlth Vojvodina, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Gu, Dongfeng
    Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Guan, Ong Peng
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Iceland Heart Assoc, Kopavogur, Iceland..
    Guerrero, Ramiro
    Univ Icesi, Cali, Colombia..
    Guessous, Idris
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Guimaraes, Andre L.
    Gulliford, Martin C.
    Kings Coll London, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna
    Guo, Xiu H.
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Guo, Yin
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Gupta, Prakash C.
    Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, New Delhi, India..
    Gureje, Oye
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Gurzkowska, Beata
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Gutierrez, Laura
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Gutzwiller, Felix
    Univ Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Hardy, Rebecca
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Kumar, Rachakulla Hari
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Hayes, Alison J.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.;Tulane Univ, New Orleans, LA 70118 USA..
    He, Jiang
    Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Hernandez Cadena, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico..
    Heshmat, Ramin
    Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Ho, Sai Yin
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Ho, Suzanne C.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Hobbs, Michael
    Univ Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia..
    Hofman, Albert
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Hormiga, Claudia M.
    Horta, Bernardo L.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil..
    Houti, Leila
    Univ Oran 1, Oran, Algeria..
    Htay, Thein Thein
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Univ Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Htike, Maung Maung Than
    Minist Hlth, Naypyidaw, Myanmar..
    Hu, Yonghua
    Peking Univ, Hlth Sci Ctr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Hussieni, Abdullatif S.
    Birzeit Univ, Bir Zayt, Israel..
    Huu, Chinh Nguyen
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France..
    Hwalla, Nahla
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Iacoviello, Licia
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Rome, Italy..
    Iannone, Anna G.
    Cardiol Mercato S Severino, Mercato San Severino, Italy..
    Ibrahim, M. Mohsen
    Cairo Univ, Cairo, Egypt..
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Irazola, Vilma E.
    Islam, Muhammad
    Aga Khan Univ, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Iwasaki, Masanori
    Niigata Univ, Niigata 95021, Japan..
    Jackson, Rod T.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Jacobs, Jeremy M.
    Hadassah Univ, Med Ctr, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Jafar, Tazeen
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Jamil, Kazi M.
    Kuwait Inst Scientifi c Res, Kuwait, Kuwait..
    Jamrozik, Konrad
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Jasienska, Grazyna
    Jiang, Chao Qiang
    Guangzhou 12th Hosp, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Joffres, Michel
    Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada..
    Johansson, Mattias
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Joshi, Pradeep
    World Hlth Org Country Off, New Delhi, India..
    Juolevi, Anne
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Espoo, Finland..
    Jurak, Gregor
    Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana 61000, Slovenia..
    Juresa, Vesna
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    German Canc Res Ctr, Berlin, Germany..
    Kafatos, Anthony
    Univ Crete, Iraklion, Greece..
    Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Kapantais, Efthymios
    Hellen Med Assoc Obes, Iraklion, Greece..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Katz, Joanne
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Kaur, Prabhdeep
    Natl Inst Epidemiol, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Kavousi, Maryam
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Keil, Ulrich
    Univ Munster, Munster, Germany..
    Boker, Lital Keinan
    Univ Haifa, IL-31999 Haifa, Israel..
    Kelishadi, Roya
    Kemper, Han H. C. G.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Kengne, Andre P.
    South African Med Res Council, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kersting, Mathilde
    Res Inst Child Nutr FKE, Munich, Germany..
    Key, Timothy
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Amman, Jordan..
    Khalili, Davood
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Khaw, Kay-Tee H.
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England..
    Khouw, Ilse M. S. L.
    FrieslandCampina, Singapore, Singapore..
    Kiechl, Stefan
    Med Univ Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Killewo, Japhet
    Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Tanza, Tanzania..
    Kim, Jeongseon
    Natl Canc Ctr, Seoul, South Korea..
    Kiyohara, Yutaka
    Kyushu Univ, Fukuoka 812, Japan..
    Klimont, Jeannette
    Stat Austria, Vienna, Austria..
    Kolle, Elin
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Kolsteren, Patrick
    Inst Trop Med, Brussels, Belgium..
    Korrovits, Paul
    Tartu Univ Clin, Tartu, Estonia..
    Koskinen, Seppo
    Kouda, Katsuyasu
    Kinki Univ, Fac Med, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577, Japan..
    Koziel, Slawomir
    Polish Acad Sci, Anthropol Unit, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Kratzer, Wolfgang
    Univ Hosp Ulm, Ulm, Germany..
    Krokstad, Steinar
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Oslo, Norway..
    Kromhout, Daan
    Wageningen Univ, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Kruger, Herculina S.
    North West Univ, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kula, Krzysztof
    Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland..
    Kulaga, Zbigniew
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Kumar, R. Krishna
    Amrita Inst Med Sci, Kochi, India..
    Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi 110029, India..
    Kuulasmaa, Kari
    Laamiri, Fatima Zahra
    Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco..
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Lachat, Carl
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Laid, Youcef
    Lam, Tai Hing
    Landrove, Orlando
    Lanska, Vera
    Lappas, Georg
    Sahlgrens Acad, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laugsand, Lars E.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Oslo, Norway..
    Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen
    Le, Tuyen D.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Leclercq, Catherine
    Food & Agr Org, Rome, Italy..
    Lee, Jeannette
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore 117548, Singapore..
    Lee, Jeonghee
    Natl Canc Ctr, Seoul, South Korea..
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Tampere, Finland..
    Lekhraj, Rampal
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia..
    Leon-Munoz, Luz M.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Lim, Wei-Yen
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore 117548, Singapore..
    Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rene Rachou Res Inst, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Lin, Xu
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Linneberg, Allan
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Aalborg, Denmark..
    Lissner, Lauren
    Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Litwin, Mieczyslaw
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Lodz, Poland..
    Liu, Jing
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Anzhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lorbeer, Roberto
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany..
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Eugenio Lozano, Jose
    Consejeria Sanidad Junta Castilla & Leon, Leon, Spain..
    Luksiene, Dalia
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Lundqvist, Annamari
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Tampere, Finland..
    Lunet, Nuno
    Univ Porto, Sch Med, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Ma, Guansheng
    Peking Univ, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Machi, Suka
    Jikei Univ, Sch Med, Tokyo, Japan..
    Maggi, Stefania
    CNR, Pisa, Italy..
    Magliano, Dianna J.
    Baker IDI Heart & Diabet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Makdisse, Marcia
    Hosp Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Malhotra, Rahul
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Manios, Yannis
    Harokopio Univ Athens, Athens, Greece..
    Mann, Jim I.
    Univ Otago, Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan..
    Manzato, Enzo
    Univ Padua, I-35100 Padua, Italy..
    Margozzini, Paula
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile..
    Markey, Oonagh
    Univ Reading, Reading RG6 2AH, Berks, England..
    Marques-Vidal, Pedro
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Marrugat, Jaume
    Martin-Prevel, Yves
    Inst Rech Dev, Lyon, France..
    Martorell, Reynaldo
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Masoodi, Shariq R.
    Sherikashmir Inst Med Sci, Jammu, India..
    Matsha, Tandi E.
    Cape Peninsula Univ Technol, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Mazur, Artur
    Univ Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland..
    Mbanya, Jean Claude N.
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    McFarlane, Shelly R.
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Brown Univ, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    McKee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    McLachlan, Stela
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Midlothian, Scotland..
    McLean, Rachael M.
    McNulty, Breige A.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland..
    Yusof, Safiah Md
    Univ Teknol MARA, Serdang, Malaysia..
    Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia
    Meirhaeghe, Aline
    Meisinger, Christa
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Mendes, Larissa L.
    Univ Fed Juiz de Fora, Juiz De Fora, Brazil..
    Menezes, Ana Maria B.
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany..
    Meshram, Indrapal I.
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Metspalu, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Ulikooli 18, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia..
    Mi, Jie
    Capital Inst Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Michaelsen, Kim F.
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Mikkel, Kairit
    Univ Tartu, Ulikooli 18, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia..
    Miller, Jody C.
    Francisco Miquel, Juan
    Jaime Miranda, J.
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru..
    Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Mohamed, Mostafa K.
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt..
    Mohammad, Kazem
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Mohammadifard, Noushin
    Isfahan Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Esfahan, Iran..
    Mohan, Viswanathan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd
    Minist Hlth, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Molbo, Drude
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Moller, Niels C.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Molnar, Denes
    Univ Pecs, Pecs, Hungary..
    Mondo, Charles K.
    Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda..
    Monterrubio, Eric A.
    Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.
    Univ Limpopo, Limpopo, South Africa..
    Moreira, Leila B.
    Morejon, Alain
    Univ Med Sci, Havana, Cuba..
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Univ Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain..
    Morgan, Karen
    RCSI Dublin, Dublin, Ireland..
    Mortensen, Erik Lykke
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Moschonis, George
    Harokopio Univ Athens, Athens, Greece..
    Mossakowska, Malgorzata
    Mota, Jorge
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel
    Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Motta, Jorge
    Gorgas Mem Inst Publ Hlth, Panama City, Panama..
    Mu, Thet Thet
    Muiesan, Maria Lorenza
    Univ Brescia, I-25121 Brescia, Italy..
    Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Murphy, Neil
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Mursu, Jaakko
    Univ Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland..
    Murtagh, Elaine M.
    Mary Immaculate Coll, Limerick, Ireland..
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Kota Baharu, Malaysia..
    Musil, Vera
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Univ Ulm, D-89069 Ulm, Germany..
    Nakamura, Harunobu
    Namesna, Jana
    Reg Author Publ Hlth, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia..
    Nang, Ei Ei K.
    Nangia, Vinay B.
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Nankap, Martin
    Helen Keller Int, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Narake, Sameer
    Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva
    Nenko, Ilona
    Neovius, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nervi, Flavio
    Neuhauser, Hannelore K.
    Nguyen, Nguyen D.
    Univ Pharm & Med Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam..
    Nguyen, Quang Ngoc
    Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.
    Ning, Guang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China..
    Ninomiya, Toshiharu
    Nishtar, Sania
    Heartfile, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Noale, Marianna
    Norat, Teresa
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Noto, Davide
    Univ Palermo, I-90133 Palermo, Italy..
    Al Nsour, Mohannad
    Eastern Mediterranean Publ Hlth Network, Amman, Jordan..
    O'Reilly, Dermot
    Ochoa-Aviles, Angelica M.
    Univ Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador..
    Oh, Kyungwon
    Korea Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Seoul, South Korea..
    Olayan, Iman H.
    Kuwait Inst Sci Res, Kuwait, Kuwait..
    Anselmo Olinto, Maria Teresa
    Univ Vale Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil..
    Oltarzewski, Maciej
    Omar, Mohd A.
    Minist Hlth, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Ordunez, Pedro
    Pan Amer Hlth Org, El Paso, TX USA..
    Ortiz, Ana P.
    Univ Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR USA..
    Osler, Merete
    Osmond, Clive
    MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit, Southampton, Hants, England..
    Ostojic, Sergej M.
    Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia..
    Otero, Johanna A.
    Overvad, Kim
    Aarhus Univ, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Paccaud, Fred Michel
    Padez, Cristina
    Univ Coimbra, P-3000 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Pajak, Andrzej
    Palli, Domenico
    Palloni, Alberto
    Univ Madison Wisconsin, Madison, WI USA..
    Palmieri, Luigi
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy..
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Panza, Francesco
    Univ Bari, I-70121 Bari, Italy..
    Parnell, Winsome R.
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Pednekar, Mangesh S.
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Peixoto, Sergio Viana
    Pereira, Alexandre C.
    Heart Inst InCor, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Perez, Cynthia M.
    Peters, Annette
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Peykari, Niloofar
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Pham, Son Thai
    Pigeot, Iris
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Leibniz, Germany..
    Pikhart, Hynek
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Pilav, Aida
    Fed Minist Hlth, Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herceg..
    Pilotto, Lorenza
    Pistelli, Francesco
    Univ Hosp Pisa, Pisa, Italy..
    Pitakaka, Freda
    Univ New S Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Piwonska, Aleksandra
    Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Piwonski, Jerzy
    Plans-Rubio, Pedro
    Poh, Bee Koon
    Publ Hlth Agcy Catalonia, Catalonia, Spain..
    Porta, Miquel
    Portegies, Marileen L. P.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios
    Pradeepa, Rajendra
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Prashant, Mathur
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Price, Jacqueline F.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Puiu, Maria
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm, Cluj Napoca, Romania..
    Punab, Margus
    Tartu Univ Clin, Tartu, Estonia..
    Qasrawi, Radwan F.
    Al Quds Univ, Jerusalem, Israel..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Golestan, Iran..
    Bao, Tran Quoc
    Radic, Ivana
    Inst Publ Hlth Vojvodina, Vojvodina, Serbia..
    Radisauskas, Ricardas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Rahman, Mahmudur
    Inst Epidemiol Dis Control & Res, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Raitakari, Olli
    Turku Univ Hosp, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Raj, Manu
    Rao, Sudha Ramachandra
    Ramachandran, Ambady
    India Diabet Res Fdn, New Delhi, India..
    Ramke, Jacqueline
    Univ New S Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Ramos, Rafel
    Rampal, Sanjay
    Univ Malaya, Serdang, Malaysia..
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Redon, Josep
    Univ Valencia, E-46003 Valencia, Spain..
    Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.
    Univ Philippines, Quezon City 1101, Philippines..
    Ribeiro, Robespierre
    Riboli, Elio
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Rigo, Fernando
    Hlth Ctr San Agustin, Madrid, Spain..
    de Wit, Tobias Floris Rinke
    PharmAccess Fdn, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.
    Rivera, Juan A.
    Robinson, Sian M.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England..
    Robitaille, Cynthia
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Maria
    Canarian Hlth Serv, Madrid, Spain..
    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A.
    Univ Ind Santander, Santander, Colombia..
    Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba
    Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa
    Mahidol Univ, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Romaguera, Dora
    CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain..
    Ronkainen, Kimmo
    Rosengren, Annika
    Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rouse, Ian
    Fiji Natl Univ, Nasinu, Fiji..
    Rubinstein, Adolfo
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Ruehli, Frank J.
    Univ Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Rui, Ornelas
    Univ Madeira, Funchal, Portugal..
    Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Rio Grande, Mexico..
    Russo Horimoto, Andrea R. V.
    Rutkowski, Marcin
    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland..
    Sabanayagam, Charumathi
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Sachdev, Harshpal S.
    Sitaram Bhartia Inst Sci & Res, New Delhi, India..
    Saidi, Olfa
    Fac Med Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia..
    Salanave, Benoit
    French Inst Hlth Surveillance, Lyon, France..
    Salazar Martinez, Eduardo
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Salonen, Jukka T.
    Univ Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Salvetti, Massimo
    Univ Brescia, I-25121 Brescia, Italy..
    Sanchez-Abanto, Jose
    Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Sandjaja,
    Sans, Susana
    Catalan Dept Hlth, Madrid, Spain..
    Santos, Diana A.
    Univ Lisbon, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Santos, Osvaldo
    dos Santos, Renata Nunes
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Santos, Rute
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Univ Lisbon, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Saum, Kai-Uwe
    German Canc Res Ctr, Berlin, Germany..
    Savva, Savvas C.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Nicosia, Cyprus..
    Scazufca, Marcia
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath
    Schargrodsky, Herman
    Hosp Italiano Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Schienkiewitz, Anja
    Schmidt, Ida Maria
    Rigshosp, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Schneider, Ione J.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Schultsz, Constance
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    MRC North West Univ, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Sein, Aye Aye
    Minist Hlth, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Senbanjo, Idowu O.
    Lagos State Univ, Coll Med, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Shalnova, Svetlana A.
    Natl Res Ctr Prevent Med, Moscow, Russia..
    Shaw, Jonathan E.
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo 1138654, Japan..
    Shin, Youchan
    Shiri, Rahman
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Espoo, Finland..
    Siantar, Rosalynn
    Sibai, Abla M.
    Silva, Antonio M.
    Univ Fed Maranhao, Sao Luis, Brazil.;Univ Fed Santa Catarina, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Simon, Mary
    India Diabet Res Fdn, New Delhi, India..
    Simons, Judith
    St Vincents Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Simons, Leon A.
    Sjostrom, Michael
    Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta
    Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland..
    Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
    Smeeth, Liam
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Smith, Margaret C.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Snijder, Marieke B.
    So, Hung-Kwan
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Soderberg, Stefan
    Umea Univ, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Soekatri, Moesijanti Y. E.
    Hlth Polytech Inst, Bandung, Indonesia..
    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
    Univ Bari, I-70121 Bari, Italy..
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Lund Univ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Soric, Maroje
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Jerome, Charles Sossa
    Soumare, Aicha
    Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France..
    Staessen, Jan A.
    Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Starc, Gregor
    Stathopoulou, Maria G.
    INSERM, F-75654 Paris 13, France..
    Staub, Kaspar
    Univ Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Stavreski, Bill
    Heart Fdn, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Stehle, Peter
    Univ Bonn, Bonn, Germany..
    Stein, Aryeh D.
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Stergiou, George S.
    Sotiria Hosp, Athina, Greece..
    Stessman, Jochanan
    Stieber, Jutta
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Stoeckl, Doris
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Stocks, Tanja
    Stokwiszewski, Jakub
    Natl Inst Hyg, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Warsaw, Poland..
    Stratton, Gareth
    Swansea Univ, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    Strufaldi, Maria Wany
    Sun, Chien-An
    Fu Jen Catholic Univ, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Sung, Yn-Tz
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Ctr Res Environm Epidemiol, Madrid, Spain..
    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul
    Mahidol Univ, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Swinburn, Boyd A.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Sy, Rody G.
    Univ Philippines, Quezon City 1101, Philippines..
    Szponar, Lucjan
    Natl Food & Nutr Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Tai, E. Shyong
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore 117548, Singapore..
    Tammesoo, Mari-Liis
    Univ Tartu, Ulikooli 18, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia..
    Tamosiunas, Abdonas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Tang, Line
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Odense, Denmark..
    Tang, Xun
    Peking Univ, Hlth Sci Ctr, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Tanser, Frank
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa..
    Tao, Yong
    Peking Univ, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Tarp, Jakob
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.
    Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Taylor, Anne
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Tchibindat, Felicite
    UNICEF, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Thijs, Lutgarde
    Thuesen, Betina H.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Odense, Denmark..
    Tolonen, Hanna K.
    Tolstrup, Janne S.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Topbas, Murat
    Karadeniz Tech Univ, Ankara, Turkey..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, PL-31007 Krakow, Poland..
    Torrent, Maties
    Traissac, Pierre
    Inst Rech Dev, Lyon, France..
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Alexander Technol Educ Inst, Athens, Greece..
    Trinh, Oanh T. H.
    Trivedi, Atul
    Govt Med Coll, New Delhi, India..
    Tshepo, Lechaba
    Sefako Makgatho Hlth Sci Univ, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.
    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Dasman Diabet Inst, Kuwait, Kuwait. Minist Hlth, Hamilton, New Zealand..
    Tynelius, Per
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tzotzas, Themistoklis
    Hellen Med Assoc Obes, Athens, Greece..
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France..
    Ueda, Peter
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Ukoli, Flora A. M.
    Meharry Med Coll, Nashville, TN USA..
    Ulmer, Hanno
    Med Univ Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Unal, Belgin
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, TR-35210 Alsancak, Turkey..
    Valdivia, Gonzalo
    Vale, Susana
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Valvi, Damaskini
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Van Herck, Koen
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Minh, Hoang Van
    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Vanderschueren, Dirk
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Louvain, Belgium..
    Vanuzzo, Diego
    Ctr Prevenz Cardiovasc Udine, Udine, Italy..
    Vatten, Lars
    Vega, Tomas
    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Veronesi, Giovanni
    Univ Insubria, Varese, Italy..
    Verschuren, W. M. Monique
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Viegi, Giovanni
    Viet, Lucie
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Viikari-Juntura, Eira
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Vineis, Paolo
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Vioque, Jesus
    Univ Miguel Hernandez, Madrid, Spain..
    Virtanen, Jyrki K.
    Visvikis-Siest, Sophie
    INSERM, F-75654 Paris 13, France..
    Viswanathan, Bharathi
    Minist Hlth, Victoria, Seychelles..
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Voutilainen, Sari
    Vrijheid, Martine
    Ctr Res Environm Epidemiol, Madrid, Spain..
    Wade, Alisha N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Wagner, Aline
    Univ Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France..
    Walton, Janette
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland..
    Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan
    Inst Med Res, Serdang, Malaysia..
    Wang, Ming-Dong
    Wang, Qian
    Xinjiang Med Univ, Xinjiang, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Ya Xing
    Beijing Tongren Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wannamethee, S. Goya
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England..
    Weerasekera, Deepa
    Minist Hlth, Hamilton, New Zealand..
    Whincup, Peter H.
    Univ London, London WC1E 7HU, England..
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Med Univ Vienna, Vienna, Austria..
    Widyahening, Indah S.
    Univ Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia..
    Wiecek, Andrzej
    Med Univ Silesia, Katowice, Poland..
    Wilks, Rainford J.
    Willeit, Johann
    Med Univ Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Wong, Jyh Eiin
    Univ Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Malaysia..
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Woo, Jean
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Woodward, Mark
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.;Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Wu, Frederick C.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Wu, JianFeng
    Shandong Univ Tradit Chinese Med, Jinan, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Shou Ling
    Kailuan Gen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Haiquan
    Minist Agr, Inst Food & Nutr Dev, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Liang
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yamborisut, Uruwan
    Mahidol Univ, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Yan, Weili
    Fudan Univ, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiaoguang
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yardim, Nazan
    Minist Hlth, Ankara, Turkey..
    Ye, Xingwang
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.
    Cyprus Univ Technol, Limassol, Cyprus..
    Yoshihara, Akihiro
    Niigata Univ, Niigata 95021, Japan..
    You, Qi Sheng
    Younger-Coleman, Novie O.
    Yusoff, Ahmad F.
    Minist Hlth, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Zainuddin, Ahmad A.
    Univ Teknol MARA, Serdang, Malaysia..
    Zambon, Sabina
    Univ Padua, I-35100 Padua, Italy..
    Zdrojewski, Tomasz
    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland..
    Zeng, Yi
    Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27706 USA.;Peking Univ, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Dong
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Anzhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Wenhua
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zheng, Yingfeng
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Dan
    Inner Mongolia Med Univ, Inner Mongolia, Peoples R China..
    Zimmermann, Esther
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Frederiksberg, Denmark..
    Zuniga Cisneros, Julio
    Gorgas Mem Inst Publ Hlth, Panama City, Panama..
    Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants2016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 387, no 10026, 1377-1396 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries.

    Methods We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI categories (<18.5 kg/m(2) [underweight], 18.5 kg/m(2) to <20 kg/m(2), 20 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2), 25 kg/m(2) to <30 kg/m(2), 30 kg/m(2) to <35 kg/m(2), 35 kg/m(2) to <40 kg/m(2), = 40 kg/m(2) [morbid obesity]), by sex in 200 countries and territories, organised in 21 regions. We calculated the posterior probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue.

    Findings We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19.2 million adult participants (9.9 million men and 9.3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates were made. Global age-standardised mean BMI increased from 21.7 kg/m(2) (95% credible interval 21.3-22.1) in 1975 to 24.2 kg/m(2) (24.0-24.4) in 2014 in men, and from 22.1 kg/m(2) (21.7-22.5) in 1975 to 24.4 kg/m(2) (24.2-24.6) in 2014 in women. Regional mean BMIs in 2014 for men ranged from 21.4 kg/m(2) in central Africa and south Asia to 29.2 kg/m(2) (28.6-29.8) in Polynesia and Micronesia; for women the range was from 21.8 kg/m(2) (21.4-22.3) in south Asia to 32.2 kg/m(2) (31.5-32.8) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Over these four decades, age-standardised global prevalence of underweight decreased from 13.8% (10.5-17.4) to 8.8% (7.4-10.3) in men and from 14.6% (11.6-17.9) to 9.7% (8.3-11.1) in women. South Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight in 2014, 23.4% (17.8-29.2) in men and 24.0% (18.9-29.3) in women. Age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 3.2% (2.4-4.1) in 1975 to 10.8% (9.7-12.0) in 2014 in men, and from 6.4% (5.1-7.8) to 14.9% (13.6-16.1) in women. 2.3% (2.0-2.7) of the world's men and 5.0% (4.4-5.6) of women were severely obese (ie, have BMI = 35 kg/m(2)). Globally, prevalence of morbid obesity was 0.64% (0.46-0.86) in men and 1.6% (1.3-1.9) in women.

    Interpretation If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. Nonetheless, underweight remains prevalent in the world's poorest regions, especially in south Asia.

  • 18. Dick, Katherine J.
    et al.
    Nelson, Christopher P.
    Tsaprouni, Loukia
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Aissi, Dylan
    Wahl, Simone
    Meduri, Eshwar
    Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel
    Gagnon, France
    Grallert, Harald
    Waldenberger, Melanie
    Peters, Annette
    Erdmann, Jeanette
    Hengstenberg, Christian
    Cambien, Francois
    Goodall, Alison H.
    Ouwehand, Willem H.
    Schunkert, Heribert
    Thompson, John R.
    Spector, Tim D.
    Gieger, Christian
    Tregout, David-Alexandre
    Deloukas, Panos
    Samani, Nilesh J.
    DNA methylation and body-mass index: a genome-wide analysis2014In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 383, no 9933, 1990-1998 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Obesity is a major health problem that is determined by interactions between lifestyle and environmental and genetic factors. Although associations between several genetic variants and body-mass index (BMI) have been identified, little is known about epigenetic changes related to BMI. We undertook a genome-wide analysis of methylation at CpG sites in relation to BMI. Methods 479 individuals of European origin recruited by the Cardiogenics Consortium formed our discovery cohort. We typed their whole-blood DNA with the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array. After quality control, methylation levels were tested for association with BMI. Methylation sites showing an association with BMI at a false discovery rate q value of 0.05 or less were taken forward for replication in a cohort of 339 unrelated white patients of northern European origin from the MARTHA cohort. Sites that remained significant in this primary replication cohort were tested in a second replication cohort of 1789 white patients of European origin from the KORA cohort. We examined whether methylation levels at identified sites also showed an association with BMI in DNA from adipose tissue (n=635) and skin (n=395) obtained from white female individuals participating in the MuTHER study. Finally, we examined the association of methylation at BMI-associated sites with genetic variants and with gene expression. Findings 20 individuals from the discovery cohort were excluded from analyses after quality-control checks, leaving 459 participants. After adjustment for covariates, we identified an association (q value <= 0.05) between methylation at five probes across three different genes and BMI. The associations with three of these probes-cg22891070, cg27146050, and cg16672562, all of which are in intron 1 of HIF3A-were confirmed in both the primary and second replication cohorts. For every 0.1 increase in methylation beta value at cg22891070, BMI was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4-4.9) higher in the discovery cohort, 2.7% (1.2-4.2) higher in the primary replication cohort, and 0.8% (0.2-1.4) higher in the second replication cohort. For the MuTHER cohort, methylation at cg22891070 was associated with BMI in adipose tissue (p=1.72 x 10(-5)) but not in skin (p=0.882). We observed a significant inverse correlation (p=0.005) between methylation at cg22891070 and expression of one HIF3A gene-expression probe in adipose tissue. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms-rs8102595 and rs3826795-had independent associations with methylation at cg22891070 in all cohorts. However, these single nucleotide polymorphisms were not significantly associated with BMI. Interpretation Increased BMI in adults of European origin is associated with increased methylation at the HIF3A locus in blood cells and in adipose tissue. Our findings suggest that perturbation of hypoxia inducible transcription factor pathways could have an important role in the response to increased weight in people.

  • 19. Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaboration, EBCTCG
    Effect of radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery on 10-year recurrence and 15-year breast cancer death: meta-analysis of individual patient data for 10,801 women in 17 randomised trials2011In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 378, no 9804, 1707-1716 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:After breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy reduces recurrence and breast cancer death, but it may do so more for some groups of women than for others. We describe the absolute magnitude of these reductions according to various prognostic and other patient characteristics, and relate the absolute reduction in 15-year risk of breast cancer death to the absolute reduction in 10-year recurrence risk. 

    Methods We undertook a meta-analysis of individual patient data for 10,801 women in 17 randomised trials of radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery, 8337 of whom had pathologically confirmed node-negative (pN0) or node-positive (pN+) disease. 

    Findings Overall, radiotherapy reduced the 10-year risk of any (ie, locoregional or distant) first recurrence from 35.0% to 19.3% (absolute reduction 15.7%, 95% CI 13.7-17.7, 2p<0.00001) and reduced the 15-year risk of breast cancer death from 25.2% to 21.4% (absolute reduction 3.8%, 1.6-6.0, 2p=0.00005). In women with pN0 disease (n=7287), radiotherapy reduced these risks from 31.0% to 15.6% (absolute recurrence reduction 15.4%, 13.2-17.6, 2p<0.00001) and from 20.5% to 17.2% (absolute mortality reduction 3.3%, 0.8-5.8, 2p=0.005), respectively. In these women with pN0 disease, the absolute recurrence reduction varied according to age, grade, oestrogen-receptor status, tamoxifen use, and extent of surgery, and these characteristics were used to predict large (>= 20%), intermediate (10-19%), or lower (<10%) absolute reductions in the 10-year recurrence risk. Absolute reductions in 15-year risk of breast cancer death in these three prediction categories were 7.8% (95% CI 3.1-12.5), 1.1% (-2.0 to 4.2), and 0.1% (-7.5 to 7.7) respectively (trend in absolute mortality reduction 2p=0.03). In the few women with pN+ disease (n=1050), radiotherapy reduced the 10-year recurrence risk from 63.7% to 42.5% (absolute reduction 21.2%, 95% CI 14.5-27.9, 2p<0.00001) and the 15-year risk of breast cancer death from 51.3% to 42.8% (absolute reduction 8.5%, 1.8-15.2, 2p=0.01). Overall, about one breast cancer death was avoided by year 15 for every four recurrences avoided by year 10, and the mortality reduction did not differ significantly from this overall relationship in any of the three prediction categories for pN0 disease or for pN+ disease. 

    Interpretation After breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy to the conserved breast halves the rate at which the disease recurs and reduces the breast cancer death rate by about a sixth. These proportional benefits vary little between different groups of women. By contrast, the absolute benefits from radiotherapy vary substantially according to the characteristics of the patient and they can be predicted at the time when treatment decisions need to be made.

  • 20. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group, EBCTCG
    Relevance of breast cancer hormone receptors and other factors to the efficacy of adjuvant tamoxifen: patient-level meta-analysis of randomised trials2011In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 378, 771-784 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background As trials of 5 years of tamoxifen in early breast cancer mature, the relevance of hormone receptor measurements (and other patient characteristics) to long-term outcome can be assessed increasingly reliably. We report updated meta-analyses of the trials of 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen.

    Methods We undertook a collaborative meta-analysis of individual patient data from 20 trials (n=21457) in early breast cancer of about 5 years of tamoxifen versus no adjuvant tamoxifen, with about 80% compliance. Recurrence and death rate ratios (RRs) were from log-rank analyses by allocated treatment. 

    Findings In oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease (n=10 645), allocation to about 5 years of tamoxifen substantially reduced recurrence rates throughout the first 10 years (RR 0.53 [SE 0.03] during years 0-4 and RR 0.68 [0.06] during years 5-9 [both 2p<0.00001]; but RR 0.97 [0.10] during years 10-14, suggesting no further gain or loss after year 10). Even in marginally ER-positive disease (10-19 fmol/mg cytosol protein) the recurrence reduction was substantial (RR 0.67 [0.08]). In ER-positive disease, the RR was approximately independent of progesterone receptor status (or level), age, nodal status, or use of chemotherapy. Breast cancer mortality was reduced by about a third throughout the first 15 years (RR 0.71 [0.05] during years 0-4, 0.66 [0.05] during years 5-9, and 0.68 [0.08] during years 10-14; p<0.0001 for extra mortality reduction during each separate time period). Overall non-breast-cancer mortality was little affected, despite small absolute increases in thromboembolic and uterine cancer mortality (both only in women older than 55 years), so all-cause mortality was substantially reduced. In ER-negative disease, tamoxifen had little or no effect on breast cancer recurrence or mortality. Interpretation 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen safely reduces 15-year risks of breast cancer recurrence and death. ER status was the only recorded factor importantly predictive of the proportional reductions. Hence, the absolute risk reductions produced by tamoxifen depend on the absolute breast cancer risks (after any chemotherapy) without tamoxifen.

  • 21. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Group, (EBCTCG)
    et al.
    Darby, S
    McGale, P
    Correa, C
    Taylor, C
    Arriagada, R
    Clarke, M
    Cutter, D
    Davie, C
    Ewertz, M
    Godwin, J
    Gray, R
    Pierce, L
    Whelan, T
    Wang, Y
    Peto, R
    Effect of radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery on 10-year recurrence and 15-year breast cancer death: meta-analysis of individual patient daga for 10,801 women in 17 randomised trials.2011In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 378, no 9804, 1707-1716 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background After breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy reduces recurrence and breast cancer death, but it may do so more for some groups of women than for others. We describe the absolute magnitude of these reductions according to various prognostic and other patient characteristics, and relate the absolute reduction in 15-year risk of breast cancer death to the absolute reduction in 10-year recurrence risk. Methods We undertook a meta-analysis of individual patient data for 10 801 women in 17 randomised trials of radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery, 8337 of whom had pathologically confirmed node-negative (pN0) or node-positive (pN+) disease. Findings Overall, radiotherapy reduced the 10-year risk of any (ie, locoregional or distant) first recurrence from 35.0% to 19.3% (absolute reduction 15.7%, 95% CI 13.7-17.7, 2p<0.00001) and reduced the 15-year risk of breast cancer death from 25.2% to 21.4% (absolute reduction 3.8%, 1.6-6.0, 2p=0.00005). In women with pN0 disease (n=7287), radiotherapy reduced these risks from 31.0% to 15.6% (absolute recurrence reduction 15.4%, 13.2-17.6, 2p<0.00001) and from 20.5% to 17.2% (absolute mortality reduction 3.3%, 0.8-5.8, 2p=0.005), respectively. In these women with pN0 disease, the absolute recurrence reduction varied according to age, grade, oestrogen-receptor status, tamoxifen use, and extent of surgery, and these characteristics were used to predict large (>= 20%), intermediate (10-19%), or lower (<10%) absolute reductions in the 10-year recurrence risk. Absolute reductions in 15-year risk of breast cancer death in these three prediction categories were 7.8% (95% CI 3.1-12.5), 1.1% (-2.0 to 4.2), and 0.1% (-7.5 to 7.7) respectively (trend in absolute mortality reduction 2p=0.03). In the few women with pN+ disease (n=1050), radiotherapy reduced the 10-year recurrence risk from 63.7% to 42.5% (absolute reduction 21.2%, 95% CI 14.5-27.9, 2p<0.00001) and the 15-year risk of breast cancer death from 51.3% to 42.8% (absolute reduction 8.5%, 1.8-15.2, 2p=0.01). Overall, about one breast cancer death was avoided by year 15 for every four recurrences avoided by year 10, and the mortality reduction did not differ significantly from this overall relationship in any of the three prediction categories for pN0 disease or for pN+ disease. Interpretation After breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy to the conserved breast halves the rate at which the disease recurs and reduces the breast cancer death rate by about a sixth. These proportional benefits vary little between different groups of women. By contrast, the absolute benefits from radiotherapy vary substantially according to the characteristics of the patient and they can be predicted at the time when treatment decisions need to be made.

  • 22.
    Ekman, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Mallmin, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Ljunghall, Sverker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    External hip protectors to prevent osteoporotic hip fractures1997In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 350, no 9077, 563-4 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Eriksson, Margaretha
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Tibblin, Gösta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Cnattingius, Sven
    Low birthweight and ischaemic heart disease1994In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 343, no 8899, 731-731 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Farooq, Vasim
    et al.
    van Klaveren, David
    Steyerberg, Ewout W.
    Meliga, Emanuele
    Vergouwe, Yvonne
    Chieffo, Alaide
    Kappetein, Arie Pieter
    Colombo, Antonio
    Holmes, David R., Jr.
    Mack, Michael
    Feldman, Ted
    Morice, Marie-Claude
    Ståhle, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Onuma, Yoshinobu
    Morel, Marie-angele
    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.
    van Es, Gerrit Anne
    Dawkins, Keith D.
    Mohr, Friedrich W.
    Serruys, Patrick W.
    Anatomical and clinical characteristics to guide decision making between coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention for individual patients: development and validation of SYNTAX score II2013In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 381, no 9867, 639-650 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The anatomical SYNTAX score is advocated in European and US guidelines as an instrument to help clinicians decide the optimum revascularisation method in patients with complex coronary artery disease. The absence of an individualised approach and of clinical variables to guide decision making between coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are limitations of the SYNTAX score. SYNTAX score II aimed to overcome these limitations. Methods SYNTAX score II was developed by applying a Cox proportional hazards model to results of the randomised all comers SYNTAX trial (n=1800). Baseline features with strong associations to 4-year mortality in either the CABG or the PCI settings (interactions), or in both (predictive accuracy), were added to the anatomical SYNTAX score. Comparisons of 4-year mortality predictions between CABG and PCI were made for each patient. Discriminatory performance was quantified by concordance statistics and internally validated with bootstrap resampling. External validation was done in the multinational all comers DELTA registry (n=2891), a heterogeneous population that included patients with three-vessel disease (26%) or complex coronary artery disease (anatomical SYNTAX score >= 33, 30%) who underwent CABG or PCI. The SYNTAX trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00114972. Findings SYNTAX score II contained eight predictors: anatomical SYNTAX score, age, creatinine clearance, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), presence of unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease, peripheral vascular disease, female sex, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SYNTAX score II significantly predicted a difference in 4-year mortality between patients undergoing CABG and those undergoing PCI (p(interaction) 0.0037). To achieve similar 4-year mortality after CABG or PCI, younger patients, women, and patients with reduced LVEF required lower anatomical SYNTAX scores, whereas older patients, patients with ULMCA disease, and those with COPD, required higher anatomical SYNTAX scores. Presence of diabetes was not important for decision making between CABG and PCI (p(interaction) 0.67). SYNTAX score II discriminated well in all patients who underwent CABG or PCI, with concordance indices for internal (SYNTAX trial) validation of 0.725 and for external (DELTA registry) validation of 0.716, which were substantially higher than for the anatomical SYNTAX score alone (concordance indices of 0.567 and 0.612, respectively). A nomogram was constructed that allowed for an accurate individualised prediction of 4-year mortality in patients proposing to undergo CABG or PCI. Interpretation Long-term (4-year) mortality in patients with complex coronary artery disease can be well predicted by a combination of anatomical and clinical factors in SYNTAX score II. SYNTAX score II can better guide decision making between CABG and PCI than the original anatomical SYNTAX score.

  • 25.
    Fellström, Bengt C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Renal Medicine.
    Barratt, Jonathan
    Univ Leicester, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Cook, Heather
    PharmaL Consulting AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Coppo, Rosanna
    Regina Margherita Hosp, Fdn Ric Molinette, Turin, Italy..
    Feehally, John
    Univ Leicester, Leicester, Leics, England..
    de Fijter, Johan W.
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Floege, Jürgen
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen, Germany..
    Hetzel, Gerd
    HeinrichHeine Univ, DaVita Renal Ctr, Dusseldorf, Germany..
    Jardine, Alan G.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Locatelli, Francesco
    Osped A Manzoni, Lecce, Italy..
    Maes, Bart D.
    AZ Delta, Roeselare, Belgium..
    Mercer, Alex
    Pharmalink AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ortiz, Fernanda
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Praga, Manuel
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Investigat Inst Hosp Octubre 12, Madrid, Spain..
    Sorensen, Soren S.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Tesar, Vladimir
    Charles Univ Prague, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Del Vecchio, Lucia
    Osped A Manzoni, Lecce, Italy..
    Targeted-release budesonide versus placebo in patients with IgA nephropathy (NEFIGAN): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 389, no 10084, 2117-2127 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: IgA nephropathy is thought to be associated with mucosal immune system dysfunction, which manifests as renal IgA deposition that leads to impairment and end-stage renal disease in 20-40% of patients within 10-20 years. In this trial (NEFIGAN) we aimed to assess safety and efficacy of a novel targeted-release formulation of budesonide (TRF-budesonide), designed to deliver the drug to the distal ileum in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Methods: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial, comprised of 6-month run-in, 9-month treatment, and 3-month follow-up phases at 62 nephrology clinics across ten European countries. We recruited patients aged at least 18 years with biopsy-confirmed primary IgA nephropathy and persistent proteinuria despite optimised renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. We randomly allocated patients with a computer algorithm, with a fixed block size of three, in a 1:1:1 ratio to 16 mg/day TRF-budesonide, 8 mg/day TRF-budesonide, or placebo, stratified by baseline urine protein creatinine ratio (UPCR). Patients self-administered masked capsules, once daily, 1 h before breakfast during the treatment phase. All patients continued optimised RAS blockade treatment throughout the trial. Our primary outcome was mean change from baseline in UPCR for the 9-month treatment phase, which was assessed in the full analysis set, defined as all randomised patients who took at least one dose of trial medication and had at least one post-dose efficacy measurement. Safety was assessed in all patients who received the intervention. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01738035.

    Findings: Between Dec 11, 2012, and June 25, 2015, 150 randomised patients were treated (safety set) and 149 patients were eligible for the full analysis set. Overall, at 9 months TRF-budesonide (16 mg/day plus 8 mg/day) was associated with a 24.4% (SEM 7.7%) decrease from baseline in mean UPCR (change in UPCR vs placebo 0.74; 95% CI 0.59-0.94; p=0.0066). At 9 months, mean UPCR had decreased by 27.3% in 48 patients who received 16 mg/day (0.71; 0.53-0.94; p=0.0092) and 21.5% in the 51 patients who received 8 mg/day (0.76; 0.58-1.01; p=0.0290); 50 patients who received placebo had an increase in mean UPCR of 2.7%. The effect was sustained throughout followup. Incidence of adverse events was similar in all groups (43 [88%] of 49 in the TRF-budesonide 16 mg/day group, 48 [94%] of 51 in the TRF-budesonide 8 mg/day, and 42 [84%] of 50 controls). Two of 13 serious adverse events were possibly associated with TRF-budesonide-deep vein thrombosis (16 mg/day) and unexplained deterioration in renal function in follow-up (patients were tapered from 16 mg/day to 8 mg/day over 2 weeks and follow-up was assessed 4 weeks later).

    Interpretation: TRF-budesonide 16 mg/day, added to optimised RAS blockade, reduced proteinuria in patients with IgA nephropathy. This effect is indicative of a reduced risk of future progression to end-stage renal disease. TRF-budesonide could become the first specific treatment for IgA nephropathy targeting intestinal mucosal immunity upstream of disease manifestation.

  • 26. Finucane, Mariel M
    et al.
    Stevens, Gretchen A
    Cowan, Melanie J
    Danaei, Goodarz
    Lin, John K
    Paciorek, Christopher J
    Singh, Gitanjali M
    Gutierrez, Hialy R
    Lu, Yuan
    Bahalim, Adil N
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Riley, Leanne M
    Ezzati, Majid
    National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9·1 million participants2011In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 377, no 9765, 557-567 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Excess bodyweight is a major public health concern. However, few worldwide comparative analyses of long-term trends of body-mass index (BMI) have been done, and none have used recent national health examination surveys. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean BMI.

    METHODS:

    We estimated trends and their uncertainties of mean BMI for adults 20 years and older in 199 countries and territories. We obtained data from published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiological studies (960 country-years and 9·1 million participants). For each sex, we used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean BMI by age, country, and year, accounting for whether a study was nationally representative.

    FINDINGS:

    Between 1980 and 2008, mean BMI worldwide increased by 0·4 kg/m(2) per decade (95% uncertainty interval 0·2-0·6, posterior probability of being a true increase >0·999) for men and 0·5 kg/m(2) per decade (0·3-0·7, posterior probability >0·999) for women. National BMI change for women ranged from non-significant decreases in 19 countries to increases of more than 2·0 kg/m(2) per decade (posterior probabilities >0·99) in nine countries in Oceania. Male BMI increased in all but eight countries, by more than 2 kg/m(2) per decade in Nauru and Cook Islands (posterior probabilities >0·999). Male and female BMIs in 2008 were highest in some Oceania countries, reaching 33·9 kg/m(2) (32·8-35·0) for men and 35·0 kg/m(2) (33·6-36·3) for women in Nauru. Female BMI was lowest in Bangladesh (20·5 kg/m(2), 19·8-21·3) and male BMI in Democratic Republic of the Congo 19·9 kg/m(2) (18·2-21·5), with BMI less than 21·5 kg/m(2) for both sexes in a few countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and east, south, and southeast Asia. The USA had the highest BMI of high-income countries. In 2008, an estimated 1·46 billion adults (1·41-1·51 billion) worldwide had BMI of 25 kg/m(2) or greater, of these 205 million men (193-217 million) and 297 million women (280-315 million) were obese.

    INTERPRETATION:

    Globally, mean BMI has increased since 1980. The trends since 1980, and mean population BMI in 2008, varied substantially between nations. Interventions and policies that can curb or reverse the increase, and mitigate the health effects of high BMI by targeting its metabolic mediators, are needed in most countries.

    FUNDING:

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and WHO.

  • 27.
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Alexander, Lily T.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Anderson, H. Ross
    St Georges Univ London, Populat Hlth Res Inst, London, England..
    Bhutta, Zulficiar A.
    Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.;Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Biryukov, Stan
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Brauer, Michael
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Burnett, Richard
    Hlth Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Cercy, Kelly
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Charlson, Fiona J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Cohen, Aaron J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Hlth Effects Inst, Boston, MA USA..
    Dandona, Lalit
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Estep, Kara
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Ferrari, Alize J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Frostad, Joseph J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Fullman, Nancy
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gething, Peter W.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Oxford, England..
    Godwin, William W.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Griswold, Max
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Fac Hlth, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Kyu, Hmwe H.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Liu, Patrick Y.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Lozano, Rafael
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Marczak, Laurie
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, NIH, Bldg 10, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Iran Univ Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Neal, Bruce
    George Inst Global Hlth, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Royal Prince Alfred Hosp, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Reitsma, Marissa B.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Sur, Patrick J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Vos, Theo
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wagner, Joseph A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wang, Haidong
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Zhao, Yi
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy..
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA USA..
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Cairo Univ, Dept Neurol, Cairo, Egypt..
    Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
    New York Univ Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Abera, Semaw Ferede
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Coll Hlth Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Kilte Awlaelohlth & Demog Surveillance Site, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Univ Hohenheim, Food Secur & Inst Biol Chem & Nutr, Stuttgart, Germany..
    Abraham, Biju
    NM SM Govt Coll Kalpetta, Kalpetta, Kerala, India..
    Abu-Raddad, Laith J.
    Weill Cornell Med Coll Qatar, Infect Dis Epidemiol Grp, Doha, Qatar..
    Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi
    Univ Ibadan, Coll Med, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Univ Coll Hosp, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
    Olabisi Onabanjo Univ, Ago Iwoye, Nigeria..
    Ademi, Zanfina
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia. Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Natl Council Sci & Technol, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland..
    Adou, Arsene Kouablan
    Assoc Ivoirienne Bien Etre Familial, Abidjan, Cote Ivoire..
    Adsuar, Jose C.
    Univ Extremadura, Caceres, Spain..
    Agardh, Emilie Elisabet
    Inst Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Agarwal, Arnav
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Agrawal, Anurag
    CSIR Inst Genom & Integrat Biol, Delhi, India.;Baylor Coll Med, Dept Internal Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad
    Lund Univ, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Orthoped, Lund, Sweden.;Kerman Univ Med Sci, Inst Futures Studies Hlth, Hlth Serv Management Res Ctr, Kerman, Iran..
    Ajala, Oluremi N.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Univ Pittsburgh, Med Ctr, Mckeesport, PA USA..
    Akinyemiju, Tomi F.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, St Louis, MO USA..
    Alam, Khurshid
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia. Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Natl Council Sci & Technol, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Alam, Noore K. M.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Hlth, Herston, Qld, Australia..
    Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;King Fahad Med City, Dept Anesthesiol, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;King Fahad Med City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Aldridge, Robert William
    UCL, Ctr Publ Hlth Data Sci, Inst Hlth Informat, London, England..
    Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth LIH, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Alla, Francois
    Univ Lorraine, Sch Publ Hlth, Nancy, France..
    Allebeck, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alsharif, Ubai
    Charite, Berlin, Germany..
    Altirkawi, Khalid A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Alvarez Martin, Elena
    Govt Delegat Natl Plan Drugs, Minist Hlth, Spanish Observ Drugs, Social Policy & Equal, Madrid, Spain..
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena De Indias, Colombia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Bahir Dar Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Dignitas Int, Zomba, Malawi..
    Amegah, Adeladza Kofi
    Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Amini, Heresh
    Kurdistan Univ Med Sci, Environm Hlth Res Ctr, Sanandaj, Iran.;Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland..
    Ammar, Walid
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Amrock, Stephen Marc
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Andersen, Hjalte H.
    Aalborg Univ, Fac Med, Dept Hlth Sci & Technol, Ctr Sensory Motor Interact, Aalborg, Denmark..
    Anderson, Benjamin O.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Univ Philippines Manila, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Coll Publ Hlth, Manila, Philippines..
    Anwar, Palwasha
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden. Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Artaman, Al
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Sch Paramed, Dept Emergency Med, Qom, Iran..
    Asghar, Rana Jawad
    South Asian Publ Hlth Forum, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Assadi, Reza
    Mashhad Univ Med Sci, Mashhad, Iran..
    Atique, Suleman
    Taipei Med Univ, Grad Inst Biomed Informat, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
    Inst Rech Clin Benin, Cotonou, Benin.;Lab Etud & Rech Act Sante LERAS Afrique, Parakou, Benin..
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Sanjay Gandhi Postgrad Inst Med Sci, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala
    La Trobe Univ, Judith Lumley Ctr Mother Infant & Family Hlth Res, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Peruvian Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Azzopardi, Peter
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Wardliparingga Aboriginal Res Unit, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Bacha, Umar
    Univ Management & Technol, Sch Hlth Sci, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Badawi, Alaa
    Univ Toronto, Dept Nutr Sci, Fac Med, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Bahit, Maria C.
    INECO Neurociencias, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina..
    Balakrishnan, Kalpana
    Sri Ramachandra Univ, Dept Environm Hlth Engn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Barber, Ryan M.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Psychol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Baernighausen, Till
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Africa Hlth Res Inst, Mtubatuba, South Africa.;Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Barquera, Simon
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Barregard, Lars
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Occupat & Environm Hlth, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Barrero, Lope H.
    Pontificia Univ Javeriana, Sch Engn, Dept Ind Engn, Bogota, Colombia..
    Basu, Sanjay
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Bans, Carolina
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Charles R Drew Univ Med & Sci, Coll Med, 1621 E 120th St, Los Angeles, CA 90059 USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.;Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Beardsley, Justin
    Univ Oxford, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam..
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Coll Publ Hlth & Trop Med, Jazan, Saudi Arabia..
    Beghi, Ettore
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy..
    Bell, Michelle L.
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA..
    Bello, Aminu K.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Berhane, Adugnaw
    Debre Berhane Univ, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia..
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Kings Coll London, London, England. Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Betsu, Balem Demtsu
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Beyene, Addisu Shunu
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Bhala, Neeraj
    Queen Elizabeth Hosp Birmingham, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.;Univ Otago, Sch Med, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Bhansali, Anil
    Postgrad Inst Med Educ & Res, Chandigarh, India..
    Bhatt, Samir
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Independent Publ Hlth Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bikbov, Boris
    Acad VI Shumakov Fed Res Ctr Transplantol & Artif, Dept Nephrol Issues Transplanted Kidney, Moscow, Russia..
    Bisanzio, Donal
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England..
    Bjertness, Espen
    Univ Oslo, Dept Community Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Blore, Jed D.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Borschmann, Rohan
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia. Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Natl Council Sci & Technol, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Boufous, Soufiane
    Univ New South Wales, Transport & Rd Safety TARS Res, Kensington, NSW, Australia..
    Bourne, Rupert R. A.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, Vis & Eye Res Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Brainin, Michael
    Danube Univers Krems, Krems, Austria..
    Brazinova, Alexandra
    Trnava Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci & Social Work, Trnava, Slovakia.;Int Neurotrauma Res Org, Vienna, Austria..
    Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.
    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Brenner, Hermann
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Broday, David M.
    Technion, Haifa, Israel..
    Brugha, Traolach S.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Univ Utrecht, Inst Risk Assessment Sci, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Cahill, Leah E.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS, Canada..
    Calabria, Bianca
    Univ New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia.;Australian Natl Univ, Natl Ctr Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Ricardo Campos-Nonato, Ismael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Cardenas, Rosario
    Metropolitan Autonomous Univ, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Carpenter, David
    Univ Albany, Rensselaer, NY USA..
    Casey, Daniel C.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Castaneda-Oquela, Carlos A.
    Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Inst Nacl Salud, Bogota, Colombia.;Univ Nacl Colombia, Dept Publ Hlth, Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Evaluat Grp, Bogota, Colombia..
    Castillo Rivas, Jacqueline
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, San Pedro, Montes De Oca, Costa Rica..
    Estanislao Castro, Ruben
    Univ Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile..
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Univ Valencia, Dept Med, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Valencia, Spain.;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.;Ottawa Hosp, Res Inst, Clin Epidemiol Program, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Natl Taiwan Univ, Coll Med, Sch Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia
    Gold Coast Hlth, Clin Governance Unit, Southport, Qld, Australia..
    Chibalabala, Mirriam
    Crowd Watch Africa, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel
    Univ Occupat & Environm Hlth, Dept Environm Epidemiol, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan..
    Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chitheer, Abdulaal A.
    Minist Hlth, Baghdad, Iraq..
    Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine
    Seoul Natl Univ, Med Lib, Seoul, South Korea..
    Christensen, Hanne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Coates, Matthew M.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Colquhoun, Samantha M.
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia. Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Natl Council Sci & Technol, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Cooper, Leslie Trumbull
    Mayo Clin, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA. Mario Negri Inst Pharmacol Res, Milan, Italy..
    Cooperrider, Kimberly
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Cortinovis, Monica
    Crump, John A.
    Univ Otago, Ctr Int Hlth, Dunedin Sch Med, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Damasceno, Albertino
    Eduardo Mondlane Univ, Fac Med, Maputo, Mozambique..
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Darby, Sarah C.
    Univ Oxford, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England..
    Dargan, Paul I.
    Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, London, England..
    das Neves, Jose
    Univ Porto, Inst Invest & Inovacao Saude i3S, Oporto, Portugal.;Univ Porto, INEB Inst Engn Biomed, Oporto, Portugal..
    Davis, Adrian C.
    Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Davletov, Kairat
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan..
    Filipa de Castro, E.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    De Leo, Diego
    Griffith Univ, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Degenhardt, Louisa
    Univ New South Wales, Natl Drug & Alcohol Res Ctr, Kensington, NSW, Australia..
    Del Gobbo, Liana C.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    del Pozo-Cruz, Borja
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Dellavalle, Robert P.
    Univ Colorado, Sch Med, Aurora, CO USA.;Colorado Sch Publ Hlth, Aurora, CO USA..
    Deribew, Amare
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England.;KEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, Kenya..
    Des Jarlais, Don C.
    Mt Sinai Beth Israel, New York, NY USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Fac Med, Dept Community Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
    Dhillon, Preet K.
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Diaz-Tome, Cesar
    Hosp Santa Creu & Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain..
    Dicker, Daniel
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Ding, Eric L.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Dorsey, E. Ray
    Univ Rochester, Med Ctr, Rochester, NY 14642 USA..
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    RMIT Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia..
    Driscoll, Tim R.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney Sch Publ Hlth, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Duan, Leilei
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Dubey, Manisha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.;Univ Nouth Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC USA..
    Elyazar, Iqbal
    Eijkman Oxford Clin Res Unit, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Arba Minch Univ, Arba Minch, Ethiopia..
    Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Social & Econ Studies Populat, Moscow, Russia.;Minist Hlth Russian Federat, Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia..
    Erskine, Holly E.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Eshrati, Babak
    Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran.;Arak Univ Med Sci, Arak, Iran..
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Fahimi, Saman
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Aquino Faraon, Emerito Jose
    Univ Philippines Manila, Coll Publ Hlth, Manila, Philippines.;Dept Hlth, Manila, Philippines..
    Farid, Talha A.
    Univ Louisville, Louisville, KY USA..
    Sofia E Sa Farinha, Carla
    DGS Directorate Gen Hlth, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Aberta, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Faro, Andre
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil..
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mongan Inst Hlth Policy, Harvard MGH Ctr Genom Vulnerable Populat & Hlth D, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol, Care Sci & Soc NVS, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fernandes, Jefferson G.
    German Hosp Oswaldo Cruz, Inst Educ & Sci, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Fischer, Florian
    Univ Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany..
    Fitchett, Joseph R. A.
    Harvard Univ, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Fleming, Tom
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Foigt, Nataliya
    Acad Med Sci, Inst Gerontol, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Foreman, Kyle
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Fowkes, F. Gerry R.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Franklin, Richard C.
    James Cook Univ, Townsville, Qld, Australia..
    Fuerst, Thomas
    Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.;Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland..
    Futran, Neal D.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.
    Manhica Hlth Res Ctr, Manhica, Mozambique.;Barcelona Inst Global Hlth, Barcelona, Spain..
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia.;Univ Munich, Munich, Germany..
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ, Div Human Nutr, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Gessner, Bradford D.
    Agence Med Prevent, Paris, France..
    Giref, Ababi Zergaw
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Giroud, Maurice
    Univ Hosp Dijon, Dijon, France. Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Kersa Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Goenka, Shifalika
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Mari
    Univ Valencia, Valencia, Spain.;INCLIVA Biomed Res Inst, Valencia, Spain..
    Gomez-Dantes, Hector
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Gona, Philimon
    Univ Massachusetts, Boston, MA 02125 USA..
    Goodridge, Amador
    Inst Invest Cient & Servicios Alta Tecnol INDICAS, Ciudad Del Saber, Panama..
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Govt Federated States Micronesia, Dept Hlth & Social Affairs, Palikir, Micronesia..
    Gotay, Carolyn C.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Goto, Atsushi
    Natl Canc Ctr, Div Epidemiol, Ctr Publ Hlth Sci, Tokyo, Japan..
    Gouda, Hebe N.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Gugnani, Harish Chander
    St James Sch Med, Dept Microbiol, The Quarter, Anguilla, Scotland.;St James Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, The Quarter, Anguilla, Scotland. West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA. Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Guillemin, Francis
    Univ Lorraine, Sch Publ Hlth, Nancy, France..
    Guo, Yuming
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Gupta, Rahul
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Gutierrez, Reyna A.
    Natl Inst Psychiat Ramon Fuente, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Haagsma, Juanita A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Med Ctr, Erasmus MC, Dept Publ Hlth, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Haile, Demewoz
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Kilte Awlaelo Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Halasa, Yara A.
    Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA USA..
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Manama, Bahrain..
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Dubai, U Arab Emirates..
    Handal, Alexis J.
    Univ New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA..
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Med & Pharmacol, Perth, WA, Australia.;Harry Perkins Inst Med Res, Nedlands, WA, Australia.;Western Australian Neurosci Res Inst, Nedlands, WA, Australia..
    Hao, Yuantao
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Trivandrum, Kerala, India..
    Maria Haro, Josep
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan Deu CIBERSAM, St Boi De Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.;Univ Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Ctr Air Pollut Res, Inst Environm Res, Tehran, Iran..
    Hassen, Tahir Ahmed
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Beatriz Heredia-Pi, Ileana
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Francisco Hernandez-Llanes, Norberto
    Comis Nacl Adicc, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Heydarpour, Pouria
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Multiple Sclerosis Res Ctr, Neurosci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Hoek, Hans W.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands.;Columbia Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Mailman Sch Publ Hlth, New York, NY USA..
    Hoffman, Howard J.
    Natl Inst Deafness & Other Commun Disorders, Epidemiol & Stat Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD USA..
    Horino, Masako
    Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Nevada Div Publ & Behav Hlth, Carson City, NV USA..
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Yokohama City Univ, Dept Pulmonol, Grad Sch Med, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Hoy, Damian G.
    Pacific Community, Publ Hlth Div, Noumea, New Caledonia..
    Hsairi, Mohamed
    Salah Azaiz Inst, Dept Epidemiol, Tunis, Tunisia..
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.;Minist Hlth, Int Relat Div, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar..
    Hu, Guoqing
    Cent S Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Stat, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Huang, John J.
    Husseini, Abdullatif
    Birzeit Univ, Birzeit, Israel..
    Hutchings, Sally J.
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Int Agcy Res Canc IARC, Lyon, France.;Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium..
    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Idrisov, Bulat T.
    Boston Univ, Boston Med Ctr, Boston, MA 02215 USA..
    Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Inoue, Manami
    Natl Canc Ctr, Tokyo, Japan.;Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Med, Tokyo, Japan..
    Jacobs, Troy A.
    HIDN, USAID Global Hlth Bur, MCH Div, Washington, DC USA..
    Jacobsen, Kathryn H.
    George Mason Univ, Dept Global & Community Hlth, Fairfax, VA USA..
    Jahanmehr, Nader
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Tehran, Iran..
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.
    Univ Kragujevac, Fac Med Sci, Kragujevac, Serbia..
    Jansen, Henrica A. F. M.
    UNFPA Asia & Pacific Reg Off, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Jassal, Simerjot K.
    Univ Calif San Diego, VA San Diego, San Diego, CA 92103 USA..
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Univ Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
    Postgrad Inst Med, Colombo, Sri Lanka.;Inst Violence & Injury Prevent, Colombo, Sri Lanka..
    Jee, Sun Ha
    Yonsei Univ, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Seoul, South Korea..
    Jeemon, Panniyammakal
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, New Delhi, India.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, Gurgaon, India.;Ctr Chron Dis Control, New Delhi, India..
    Jha, Vivekanand
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.;George Inst Global Hlth India, New Delhi, India..
    Jiang, Ying
    Univ Occupat & Environm Hlth, Dept Hlth Dev, Inst Ind Ecol Sci, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan..
    Jibat, Tariku
    Wageningen Univ, Wageningen, Netherlands.;Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Univ Addis Ababa, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia..
    Jin, Ye
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Johnson, Catherine O.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Mannheim, Germany..
    Kabir, Zubair
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland..
    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
    Soc Educ Act & Res Community Hlth, Gadchiroli, India..
    Kamal, Ritul
    CSIR Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Kan, Haidong
    Fudan Univ, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Karch, Andre
    Helmholtz Ctr Infect Res, Epidemiol & Stat Methods Res Grp, Braunschweig, Germany.;German Ctr Infect Res, Hannover Braunschweig Site, Braunschweig, Germany..
    Karema, Corine Kakizi
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland.;Qual & Equity Hlth Care, Kigali, Rwanda..
    Karimkhani, Chante
    Case Western Univ Hosp, Cleveland, OH USA..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Kaul, Anil
    Oklahoma State Univ, Tulsa, OK USA..
    Kawakami, Norito
    Univ Tokyo, Sch Publ Hlth, Tokyo, Japan..
    Kazi, Dhruv S.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA..
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Inst Trop & Infect Dis, Nairobi, Kenya.;Sch Continuing & Distance Educ, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kemp, Andrew Haddon
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Swansea Univ, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    South African Med Researcil, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Keren, Andre
    Assuta Hosp, Assuta Hashalom, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan..
    Khan, Abdur Rahman
    Univ Louisville, Louisville, KY USA..
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Hlth Serv Acad, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Khan, Gulfaraz
    United Arab Emirates Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Al Ain, U Arab Emirates..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khatibzadeh, Shahab
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Khera, Sahil
    New York Med Coll, Valhalla, NY 10595 USA..
    Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer
    Execut Board Hlth Ministers Council Cooperat Coun, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kieling, Christian
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.;Hosp Clin Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Korea Hlth Ind Dev Inst, Cheongju, South Korea..
    Kim, Cho-il
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Simmons Coll, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kissoon, Niranjan
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Knibbs, Luke D.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Natl Cerebral & Cardiovasc Ctr, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Suita, Osaka, Japan..
    Kopec, Jacek A.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Sherikashmir Inst Med Sci, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari St Joan Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, Barcelona, Spain..
    Kravchenko, Michael
    Res Ctr Neurol, Moscow, Russia..
    Kromhout, Hans
    Univ Utrecht, Inst Risk Assessment Sci, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Krueger, Hans
    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Ku, Tiffany
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Publ Hlth Res Inst, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Kuchenbecker, Ricardo S.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Graduat Studies Epidemiol, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Hacettepe Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey..
    Kuipers, Ernst J.
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Kwan, Gene F.
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02118 USA..
    Lal, Dharmesh Kumar
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Univ Queensland, Sch Dent, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Lallukka, Tea
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Work Disabil Prevent, Work Org, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Med, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lan, Qing
    NCI, Rockville, MD USA..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Latif, Asma Abdul
    Women Univ, Lahore Coll, Dept Zool, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Beatriz Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena
    Inst Nacl Epidemiol Dr Juan H Jara, Mar Del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Leasher, Janet L.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Coll Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33314 USA..
    Leigh, James
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Leung, Janni
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Levi, Miriam
    Tuscany Reg Ctr Occupat Injuries & Dis, Florence, Italy..
    Li, Xiaohong
    Natl Ctr Birth Defects Monitoring China, Chengdu, Peoples R China..
    Li, Yichong
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Liang, Juan
    Sichuan Univ, West China Univ Hosp 2, Natl Off Maternal & Child Hlth Surveillance, Chengdu, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Shiwei
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lloyd, Belinda K.
    Monash Univ, Eastern Hlth Clin Sch, Fitzroy, Vic, Australia.;Eastern Hlth, Turning Point, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Aintree Univ, Hosp Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.;Univ Liverpool, Sch Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Maclntyre, Michael
    Mahdavi, Mandi
    Social Secur Org Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Majdan, Marek
    Trnava Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci & Social Work, Trnava, Slovakia..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Manamo, Wondimu Ayele Ayele
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mapoma, Chabila C.
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Marcenes, Wagner
    Kings Coll London, Inst Dent, Div Populat & Patient Hlth, London, England..
    Martin, Randall V.
    Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS, Canada..
    Martinez-Raga, Jose
    Univ Valencia, Univ Hosp Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain.;CEU Cardenal Herrera Univ, Moncada, Valencia, Spain..
    Masiye, Felix
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Matsushita, Kunihiro
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Matzopoulos, Richard
    South African Med Researcil, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Sch Publ Hlth & Family Med, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Mayosi, Bongani M.
    McGrath, John J.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    McKee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Meaney, Peter A.
    Univ Penn, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.;Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Medina, Catalina
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Mehari, Alem
    Howard Univ, Coll Med, Washington, DC 20059 USA..
    Mena-Rodriguez, Fabiola
    Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Melaku, Yohannes Adama
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Saudi Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Alfaisal Univ, Coll Med, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Mendoza, Walter
    United Nations Populat Fund, Lima, Peru..
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany..
    Meretoja, Atte
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, Helsinki, Finland..
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Breast Surg Unit, Helsinki, Finland..
    Mesfin, Yonatan Moges
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary
    Ifakara Hlth Inst, Bagamoyo, Tanzania..
    Miller, Ted R.
    Pacific Inst Res & Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA.;Curtin Univ, Ctr Populat Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Mills, Edward J.
    Univ Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Mirarefin, Mojde
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Misganaw, Awoke
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Mock, Charles N.
    Univ Washington, Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mohammadi, Alireza
    Baqiyatallah Univ Med Sci, Neurosci Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.;Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Mola, Glen Liddell D.
    Univ Papua New Guinea, Boroko, Papua N Guinea..
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Montico, Marcella
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Morawska, Lidia
    Queensland Univ Technol, Int Lab Air Qual & Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Mori, Rintaro
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Tokyo, Japan..
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Mullany, Erin
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Mumford, John Everett
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Gurgaon, India..
    Nachega, Jean B.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA.;Univ Pittsburgh, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Pittsburgh, PA USA.;Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Naheed, Aliya
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Bangladesh Icddr B, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Nangia, Vinay
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Nassiri, Nariman
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Detroit, MI USA..
    Newton, John N.
    Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Ng, Marie
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Nguyen, Quyen Le
    Nisar, Muhammad Imran
    Aga Khan Univ, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Pete, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie
    Inst Res Socioecon Dev & Commun, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Norheim, Ole F.
    Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Norman, Rosana E.
    Queensland Univ Technol, Inst Hlth & Biomed Innovat, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Norrving, Bo
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Dept Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Nyakarahuka, Luke
    Makerere Univ, Kampala, Uganda..
    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
    Amer Univ Beirut, Fac Hlth Sci, Ctr Res Populat & Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Univ Western Sydney, Ctr Hlth Res, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Oladimeji, Olanrewaju
    Human Sci Res Council, Durban, South Africa.;Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa. Univ Autonoma Chile, Talca, Chile..
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Olsen, Helen
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Ctr Hlth Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
    Ctr Hlth Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Opio, John Nelson
    Lira Municipal Council, Lira Dist Local Govt, Lira, Uganda..
    Oren, Eyal
    Univ Arizona, Tucson, AZ USA..
    Orozco, Ricardo
    Natl Inst Psychiat Ramon Fuente, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Ortiz, Alberto
    II S Fdn Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain..
    Ota, Erika
    St Lukes Int Univ, Tokyo, Japan..
    Mahesh, P. A.
    JSS Univ, JSS Med Coll, Mysore, Karnataka, India. Kosin Univ, Coll Med, Dept Med Human & Social Med, Busan, South Korea..
    Pana, Adrian
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Parry, Charles D.
    South African Med Researcil, Alcohol Tobacco & Other Drug Res Unit, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Stellenbosch, Dept Psychiat, Cape Town, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Alcohol Tobacco & Other Drug Res Unit, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Sch Publ Hlth, Tehran, Iran..
    Patel, Tejas
    Mt Sinai Hlth Syst, New York, NY USA..
    Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina
    Univ Pittsburgh, Publ Hlth Dynam Lab, Pittsburgh, PA USA.;Univ Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia..
    Patil, Snehal T.
    Deemed Univ, Krishan Inst Med Sci, Sch Dent Sci, Karad, India..
    Patten, Scott B.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Community Hlth Sci, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Pearce, Neil
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Pereira, David M.
    Univ Porto, Fac Farm, Dept Quim, REQUIMTE LAQV,Lab Farmacognosia, Oporto, Portugal..
    Perico, Norberto
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy..
    Pesudovs, Konrad
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Petzold, Max
    Univ Gothenburg, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Phillips, Michael Robert
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China.;Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Piel, Frederic B.
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Sch Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Pillay, Julian David
    Durban Univ Technol, Durban, South Africa..
    Plass, Dietrich
    German Environm Agcy, Exposure Assessment & Environm Hlth Indicators, Berlin, Germany..
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Pond, Constance D.
    Univ Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia..
    Pope, C. Arden
    Brigham Young Univ, Provo, UT 84602 USA..
    Pope, Daniel
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Publ Hlth & Policy, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Popova, Svetlana
    Univ Toronto, Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Poulton, Richie G.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Prasad, Noela M.
    Fred Hollows Fdn, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Ctr Eye Res Australia, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Karaj, Iran..
    Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Radfar, Amir
    AT Still Univ, Kirksville, MO USA..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Rahman, Sajjad Ur
    Hamad Med Corp, Doha, Qatar..
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India..
    Rajsic, Sasa
    Univ Hlth Sci Med Informat & Technol, ERAWEB Program, Hall In Tirol, Australia..
    Raju, Murugesan
    Univ Missouri, Columbia, MO USA..
    Ram, Usha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan.;Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Ranganathan, Kavitha
    Univ Michigan Hlth Syst, Ann Arbor, MI USA..
    Rao, Puja
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Razo Garcia, Christian Aspacia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Refaat, Amany H.
    Walden Univ, Minneapolis, MN USA.;Suez Canal Univ, Ismailia, Egypt..
    Rehm, Colin D.
    Montefiore Med Ctr, 111 E 210th St, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Rehm, Jurgen
    Univ Toronto, Dalla Lana Sch Publ Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Reinig, Nikolas
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy.;Azienda Osped Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.;Univ Milan, Dept Biomed & Clin Sci L Sacco, Milan, Italy..
    Resnikoff, Serge
    Univ New South Wales, Brien Holden Vision Inst, Kensington, NSW, Australia..
    Ribeiro, Antonio L.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Rivera, Juan A.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Rolm, Hirbo Shore
    Rodriguez, Anna
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Sch Publ Hlth, London, England.;Lincoln Univ, Sch Psychol, Lincoln, England..
    Rodriguez-Ramirez, Sonia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Rojas-Rueda, David
    Inst Salud Global Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain..
    Roman, Yesenia
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Ronfani, Luca
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran..
    Rothenbacher, Dietrich
    Univ Ulm, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany..
    Roy, Ambuj
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad
    Dev Res & Projects Ctr, Abuja, Nigeria..
    Sanabria, Juan R.
    Marshall Univ, J Edwards Sch Med, Huntington, WV USA. Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria
    II S Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain..
    Sanchez-Pimienta, Tania G.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Sandar, Logan
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Santomauro, Damian F.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
    Univ Ciencias Aplicadas & Ambient, Bogota, Colombia..
    Sartorius, Benn
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa. Univ Autonoma Chile, Talca, Chile..
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Savic, Miloje
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Marshall Univ, Huntington, WV USA..
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Food & Agr Org, Global Perspect Studies Unit, Rome, Italy..
    Schmidt, Maria Ines
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Schoettker, Ben
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany.;FOM Univ, Inst Hlth Care & Social Sci, Essen, Germany..
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    North West Univ, Hypertens Africa Res Team HART, Potchefstroom, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwebel, David C.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Scott, James G.
    Univ Queensland, Clin Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Seedat, Soraya
    Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Servan-Mori, Edson E.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Shaheen, Amira
    Shahraz, Saeid
    An Najah Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Nablus, Israel..
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Tufts Med Ctr, Boston, MA USA.;Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Levy, Teresa Shamah
    Sharma, Rajesh
    Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Rupnagar, India..
    She, Jun
    Fudan Univ, Dept Pulm Med, Zhongshan Hosp, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Shen, Jiabin
    Ohio State Univ, Coll Med, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Nationwide Childrens Hosp, Res Inst, Columbus, OH USA..
    Sheth, Kevin N.
    Yale Univ, Sch Med, New Haven, CT USA..
    Shi, Peilin
    Tufts Univ, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan..
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Natl Inst Infect Dis, Tokyo, Japan.;Sandia Natl Labs, Albuquerque, NM USA. Korea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Grad Sch, Seoul, South Korea. Korea Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Shiri, Rahman
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Work Disabil Prevent, Work Org, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shishani, Kawkab
    Washington State Univ, Spokane, WA USA..
    Shiue, Ivy
    Univ Edinburgh, Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Res Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Northumbria Univ, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Shrime, Mark G.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
    Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele
    Univ Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Silverberg, Jonathan I.
    Northwestern Univ, Feinberg Sch Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA..
    Simard, Edgar P.
    Emory Univ, Rollins Sch Publ Hlth, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Sindi, Shireen
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Singh, Abhishek
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Singh, Prashant Kumar
    Inst Human Dev, New Delhi, India..
    Slepak, Erica Leigh
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Soljak, Michael
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Soneji, Samir
    Dartmouth Coll, Hanover, NH 03755 USA..
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Sposato, Luciano A.
    Western Univ, Dept Clin Neurol Sci, London, ON, Canada..
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
    Int Med Univ, Dept Community Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Stathopoulou, Vasiliki
    Attikon Univ Hosp, Athens, Greece..
    Steckling, Nadine
    Univ Hosp Munich, Inst & Outpatient Clin Occupat Social & Environm, Munich, Germany..
    Steel, Nicholas
    Publ Hlth England, London, England.;Univ East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, England..
    Stein, Dan J.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat, Cape Town, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council Unit Anxiety & Stre, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Stein, Murray B.
    Univ Calif San Diego, San Diego, CA 92103 USA..
    Stockl, Heidi
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Stranges, Saverio
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos
    Alexandra Gen Hosp Athens, Athens, Greece.;Ctr Hosp Publ Cotentin, Cherbourg, France..
    Sunguya, Bruno F.
    Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Criminol, Irvine, CA USA.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Law & Soc, Irvine, CA USA.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Sociol, Irvine, CA USA.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Publ Hlth, Irvine, CA USA..
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Univ Melbourne, Inst Hlth & Ageing, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, Dept Med, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Valencia, Spain.;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain..
    Takahashi, Ken
    Univ Occupat & Environm Hlth, Inst Ind Ecol Sci, Dept Environm Epidemiol, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan..
    Talongwa, Roberto Tchio
    MINSANTE, Minist Hlth, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Landon, Nikhil
    Tanne, David
    Chaim Sheba Med Ctr, Tel Hashomer, Israel.;Tel Aviv Univ, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Tavakkoli, Mohammad
    Taye, Belaynew Wasie
    Bahir Dar Univ, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Taylor, Hugh R.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia. Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Natl Council Sci & Technol, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Tedla, Bemnet Amare
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.;James Cook Univ, Cairns, Qld, Australia..
    Tefera, Worku Mekonnen
    Univ Addis Ababa, Coll Hlth Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Tekle, Dejen Yemane
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
    King Fahad Med City, Dept Anesthesiol, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Univ Virginia, Dept Anesthesiol, Charlottesville, VA USA.;Cleveland Clin, Outcomes Res Consortium, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Thakur, J. S.
    Post Grad Inst Med Educ & Res, Sch Publ Hlth, Chandigarh, India. Univ Bath, Bath, Avon, England..
    Thomas, Bernadette A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Thomas, Matthew Lloyd
    Thomson, Alan J.
    Adapt Knowledge Management, Victoria, BC, Canada..
    Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;WorldFish, George Town, Malaysia..
    Thrift, Amanda G.
    Monash Univ, Sch Clin Sci Monash Hlth, Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Thurston, George D.
    New York Univ, Sch Med, Nelson Inst Environm Med, Tuxedo Pk, NY USA..
    Tillmann, Taavi
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tobollik, Myriam
    German Environm Agcy, Berlin, Germany..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, Fac Hlth Sci, Inst Publ Hlth, Krakow, Poland.;Wroclaw Med Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Topouzis, Fotis
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Towbin, Jeffrey Allen
    Le Bonheur Childrens Hosp, Memphis, TN USA.;Univ Tennessee, Hlth Sci Ctr, Memphis, TN USA.;St Jude Childrens Res Hosp, 332 N Lauderdale St, Memphis, TN 38105 USA..
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala
    Univ Kinshasa, Fac Econ & Management, Dept Populat Sci & Dev, Kinshasa, Congo.;African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Tsilimparis, Nikolaos
    Univ Heart Ctr Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany..
    Tura, Abera Kenay
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Tuzcu, Emin Murat
    Cleveland Clin, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Univ Barcelona, CIBERSAM, Fundacio St Joan De Deu, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan De Deu, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Undurraga, Eduardo A.
    Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA USA..
    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse
    Ebonyi State Univ, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    van Donkelaar, Aaron
    Dalhousie Univ, Dept Phys & Atmospher Sci, Halifax, NS, Canada..
    van Os, Jim
    Maastricht Univ, Med Ctr, Maastricht, Netherlands..
    Varakin, Yuri Y.
    Res Ctr Neurol, Moscow, Russia..
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Inst Hlth Promot Res, Tampere, Finland..
    Veerman, J. Lennert
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Raffles Hosp, Raffles Neurosci Ctr, Singapore, Singapore..
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Univ Bologna, Bologna, Italy..
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Dis Burden, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway..
    Wagner, Gregory R.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Natl Inst Occupat Safety & Hlth, Washington, DC USA..
    Waller, Stephen G.
    Uniformed Serv Univ Hlth Sci, Bethesda, MD 20814 USA..
    Wang, JianLi
    Univ Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Wang, Linhong
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Yanping
    Natl Off Maternal & Child Hlth Surveillance, Chengdu, Peoples R China..
    Weichenthal, Scott
    McGill Univ, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Inst Populat Based Canc Res, Dept Res, Canc Registry Norway, Oslo, Norway.;Arctic Univ Norway, Univ Tromso, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Community Med, Tromso, Norway.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Weintraub, Robert G.
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia. Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Natl Council Sci & Technol, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up German Natl Cohor, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Westerman, Ronny
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany.;German Natl Cohort Consortium, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Western Hlth, Footscray, Vic, Australia. Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, Comprehens Biomed Res Ctr, Natl Inst Hlth Res, London, England. Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    South African Med Researcil, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Wolfe, Charles D. A.
    Kings Coll London, Div Hlth & Social Care Res, London, England..
    Won, Sungho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Seoul, South Korea..
    Woolf, Anthony D.
    Royal Cornwall Hosp, Truro, England..
    Wubshet, Mamo
    St Pauls Hosp, Millennium Med Coll, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Xavier, Denis
    St Johns Med Coll & Res Inst, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Xu, Gelin
    Nanjing Univ, Sch Med, Jinling Hosp, Dept Neurol, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yadav, Ajit Kumar
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Yakob, Bereket
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Discipline Publ Hlth Med, Durban, South Africa..
    Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA..
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.;Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Ye, Pengpeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yip, Paul
    Univ Hong Kong, Social Work & Social Adm Dept, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.;Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong Jockey Club Ctr Suicide Res & Prevent, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan..
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Jackson, MS USA..
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Wuhan Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Sch Publ Hlth, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;Wuhan Univ, Global Hlth Inst, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Univ Hosp, Setif, Algeria..
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Mansoura Univ, Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt..
    Zhu, Jun
    Natl Off MCH Surveillance China, Chengdu, Peoples R China..
    Zipkin, Ben
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna
    Red Cross War Mem Childrens Hosp, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10053, 1659-1724 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015. This study included 388 risk-outcome pairs that met World Cancer Research Fund-defined criteria for convincing or probable evidence. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. We developed a metric that allows comparisons of exposure across risk factors-the summary exposure value. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk level, we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We decomposed trends in attributable burden into contributions from population growth, population age structure, risk exposure, and risk-deleted cause-specific DALY rates. We characterised risk exposure in relation to a Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Findings Between 1990 and 2015, global exposure to unsafe sanitation, household air pollution, childhood underweight, childhood stunting, and smoking each decreased by more than 25%. Global exposure for several occupational risks, high body-mass index (BMI), and drug use increased by more than 25% over the same period. All risks jointly evaluated in 2015 accounted for 57.8% (95% CI 56.6-58.8) of global deaths and 41.2% (39.8-42.8) of DALYs. In 2015, the ten largest contributors to global DALYs among Level 3 risks were high systolic blood pressure (211.8 million [192.7 million to 231.1 million] global DALYs), smoking (148.6 million [134.2 million to 163.1 million]), high fasting plasma glucose (143.1 million [125.1 million to 163.5 million]), high BMI (120.1 million [83.8 million to 158.4 million]), childhood undernutrition (113.3 million [103.9 million to 123.4 million]), ambient particulate matter (103.1 million [90.8 million to 115.1 million]), high total cholesterol (88.7 million [74.6 million to 105.7 million]), household air pollution (85.6 million [66.7 million to 106.1 million]), alcohol use (85.0 million [77.2 million to 93.0 million]), and diets high in sodium (83.0 million [49.3 million to 127.5 million]). From 1990 to 2015, attributable DALYs declined for micronutrient deficiencies, childhood undernutrition, unsafe sanitation and water, and household air pollution; reductions in risk-deleted DALY rates rather than reductions in exposure drove these declines. Rising exposure contributed to notable increases in attributable DALYs from high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, occupational carcinogens, and drug use. Environmental risks and childhood undernutrition declined steadily with SDI; low physical activity, high BMI, and high fasting plasma glucose increased with SDI. In 119 countries, metabolic risks, such as high BMI and fasting plasma glucose, contributed the most attributable DALYs in 2015. Regionally, smoking still ranked among the leading five risk factors for attributable DALYs in 109 countries; childhood underweight and unsafe sex remained primary drivers of early death and disability in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Interpretation Declines in some key environmental risks have contributed to declines in critical infectious diseases. Some risks appear to be invariant to SDI. Increasing risks, including high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, drug use, and some occupational exposures, contribute to rising burden from some conditions, but also provide opportunities for intervention. Some highly preventable risks, such as smoking, remain major causes of attributable DALYs, even as exposure is declining. Public policy makers need to pay attention to the risks that are increasingly major contributors to global burden. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 28. Forouzanfar, Mohammad H
    et al.
    Alexander, Lily
    Anderson, H Ross
    Bachman, Victoria F
    Biryukov, Stan
    Brauer, Michael
    Burnett, Richard
    Casey, Daniel
    Coates, Matthew M
    Cohen, Aaron
    Delwiche, Kristen
    Estep, Kara
    Frostad, Joseph J
    Kc, Astha
    Kyu, Hmwe H
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Ng, Marie
    Slepak, Erica Leigh
    Thomas, Bernadette A
    Wagner, Joseph
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abera, Semaw F
    Aboyans, Victor
    Abraham, Biju
    Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal
    Abubakar, Ibrahim
    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E
    Aburto, Tania C
    Achoki, Tom
    Adelekan, Ademola
    Adofo, Koranteng
    Adou, Arsène K
    Adsuar, José C
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Agardh, Emilie E
    Al Khabouri, Mazin J
    Al Lami, Faris H
    Alam, Sayed Saidul
    Alasfoor, Deena
    Albittar, Mohammed I
    Alegretti, Miguel A
    Aleman, Alicia V
    Alemu, Zewdie A
    Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael
    Alhabib, Samia
    Ali, Raghib
    Ali, Mohammed K
    Alla, François
    Allebeck, Peter
    Allen, Peter J
    Alsharif, Ubai
    Alvarez, Elena
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Amankwaa, Adansi A
    Amare, Azmeraw T
    Ameh, Emmanuel A
    Ameli, Omid
    Amini, Heresh
    Ammar, Walid
    Anderson, Benjamin O
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
    Anwari, Palwasha
    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic
    Artaman, Al
    Asghar, Rana J
    Assadi, Reza
    Atkins, Lydia S
    Atkinson, Charles
    Avila, Marco A
    Awuah, Baffour
    Badawi, Alaa
    Bahit, Maria C
    Bakfalouni, Talal
    Balakrishnan, Kalpana
    Balalla, Shivanthi
    Balu, Ravi Kumar
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Barber, Ryan M
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
    Barquera, Simon
    Barregard, Lars
    Barrero, Lope H
    Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh
    Basto-Abreu, Ana C
    Basu, Arindam
    Basu, Sanjay
    Basulaiman, Mohammed O
    Ruvalcaba, Carolina Batis
    Beardsley, Justin
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Bekele, Tolesa
    Bell, Michelle L
    Benjet, Corina
    Bennett, Derrick A
    Benzian, Habib
    Bernabé, Eduardo
    Beyene, Tariku J
    Bhala, Neeraj
    Bhalla, Ashish
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
    Bikbov, Boris
    Abdulhak, Aref A Bin
    Blore, Jed D
    Blyth, Fiona M
    Bohensky, Megan A
    Başara, Berrak Bora
    Borges, Guilherme
    Bornstein, Natan M
    Bose, Dipan
    Boufous, Soufiane
    Bourne, Rupert R
    Brainin, Michael
    Brazinova, Alexandra
    Breitborde, Nicholas J
    Brenner, Hermann
    Briggs, Adam D M
    Broday, David M
    Brooks, Peter M
    Bruce, Nigel G
    Brugha, Traolach S
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Buchbinder, Rachelle
    Bui, Linh N
    Bukhman, Gene
    Bulloch, Andrew G
    Burch, Michael
    Burney, Peter G J
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael R
    Campuzano, Julio C
    Cantoral, Alejandra J
    Caravanos, Jack
    Cárdenas, Rosario
    Cardis, Elisabeth
    Carpenter, David O
    Caso, Valeria
    Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A
    Castro, Ruben E
    Catalá-López, Ferrán
    Cavalleri, Fiorella
    Çavlin, Alanur
    Chadha, Vineet K
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Charlson, Fiona J
    Chen, Honglei
    Chen, Wanqing
    Chen, Zhengming
    Chiang, Peggy P
    Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Christophi, Costas A
    Chuang, Ting-Wu
    Chugh, Sumeet S
    Cirillo, Massimo
    Claßen, Thomas Kd
    Colistro, Valentina
    Colomar, Mercedes
    Colquhoun, Samantha M
    Contreras, Alejandra G
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Cooperrider, Kimberly
    Cooper, Leslie T
    Coresh, Josef
    Courville, Karen J
    Criqui, Michael H
    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia
    Damsere-Derry, James
    Danawi, Hadi
    Dandona, Lalit
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Dargan, Paul I
    Davis, Adrian
    Davitoiu, Dragos V
    Dayama, Anand
    de Castro, E Filipa
    De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa
    De Leo, Diego
    de Lima, Graça
    Degenhardt, Louisa
    Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja
    Dellavalle, Robert P
    Deribe, Kebede
    Derrett, Sarah
    Jarlais, Don C Des
    Dessalegn, Muluken
    deVeber, Gabrielle A
    Devries, Karen M
    Dharmaratne, Samath D
    Dherani, Mukesh K
    Dicker, Daniel
    Ding, Eric L
    Dokova, Klara
    Dorsey, E Ray
    Driscoll, Tim R
    Duan, Leilei
    Durrani, Adnan M
    Ebel, Beth E
    Ellenbogen, Richard G
    Elshrek, Yousef M
    Endres, Matthias
    Ermakov, Sergey P
    Erskine, Holly E
    Eshrati, Babak
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Fahimi, Saman
    Faraon, Emerito Jose A
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Fay, Derek F J
    Feigin, Valery L
    Feigl, Andrea B
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Ferrari, Alize J
    Ferri, Cleusa P
    Flaxman, Abraham D
    Fleming, Thomas D
    Foigt, Nataliya
    Foreman, Kyle J
    Paleo, Urbano Fra
    Franklin, Richard C
    Gabbe, Belinda
    Gaffikin, Lynne
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Gamkrelidze, Amiran
    Gankpé, Fortuné G
    Gansevoort, Ron T
    García-Guerra, Francisco A
    Gasana, Evariste
    Geleijnse, Johanna M
    Gessner, Bradford D
    Gething, Pete
    Gibney, Katherine B
    Gillum, Richard F
    Ginawi, Ibrahim A M
    Giroud, Maurice
    Giussani, Giorgia
    Goenka, Shifalika
    Goginashvili, Ketevan
    Dantes, Hector Gomez
    Gona, Philimon
    de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez
    González-Castell, Dinorah
    Gotay, Carolyn C
    Goto, Atsushi
    Gouda, Hebe N
    Guerrant, Richard L
    Gugnani, Harish C
    Guillemin, Francis
    Gunnell, David
    Gupta, Rahul
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Gutiérrez, Reyna A
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Hagan, Holly
    Hagstromer, Maria
    Halasa, Yara A
    Hamadeh, Randah R
    Hammami, Mouhanad
    Hankey, Graeme J
    Hao, Yuantao
    Harb, Hilda L
    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Hay, Simon I
    Hedayati, Mohammad T
    Heredia-Pi, Ileana B
    Hernandez, Lucia
    Heuton, Kyle R
    Heydarpour, Pouria
    Hijar, Martha
    Hoek, Hans W
    Hoffman, Howard J
    Hornberger, John C
    Hosgood, H Dean
    Hoy, Damian G
    Hsairi, Mohamed
    Hu, Guoqing
    Hu, Howard
    Huang, Cheng
    Huang, John J
    Hubbell, Bryan J
    Huiart, Laetitia
    Husseini, Abdullatif
    Iannarone, Marissa L
    Iburg, Kim M
    Idrisov, Bulat T
    Ikeda, Nayu
    Innos, Kaire
    Inoue, Manami
    Islami, Farhad
    Ismayilova, Samaya
    Jacobsen, Kathryn H
    Jansen, Henrica A
    Jarvis, Deborah L
    Jassal, Simerjot K
    Jauregui, Alejandra
    Jayaraman, Sudha
    Jeemon, Panniyammakal
    Jensen, Paul N
    Jha, Vivekanand
    Jiang, Fan
    Jiang, Guohong
    Jiang, Ying
    Jonas, Jost B
    Juel, Knud
    Kan, Haidong
    Roseline, Sidibe S Kany
    Karam, Nadim E
    Karch, André
    Karema, Corine K
    Karthikeyan, Ganesan
    Kaul, Anil
    Kawakami, Norito
    Kazi, Dhruv S
    Kemp, Andrew H
    Kengne, Andre P
    Keren, Andre
    Khader, Yousef S
    Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan
    Khan, Ejaz A
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khatibzadeh, Shahab
    Khonelidze, Irma
    Kieling, Christian
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Sungroul
    Kim, Yunjin
    Kimokoti, Ruth W
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Kinge, Jonas M
    Kissela, Brett M
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Knibbs, Luke D
    Knudsen, Ann Kristin
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Kose, M Rifat
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Kraemer, Alexander
    Kravchenko, Michael
    Krishnaswami, Sanjay
    Kromhout, Hans
    Ku, Tiffany
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Kuipers, Ernst J
    Kulkarni, Chanda
    Kulkarni, Veena S
    Kumar, G Anil
    Kwan, Gene F
    Lai, Taavi
    Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Lallukka, Tea
    Lam, Hilton
    Lan, Qing
    Lansingh, Van C
    Larson, Heidi J
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Laryea, Dennis O
    Lavados, Pablo M
    Lawrynowicz, Alicia E
    Leasher, Janet L
    Lee, Jong-Tae
    Leigh, James
    Leung, Ricky
    Levi, Miriam
    Li, Yichong
    Li, Yongmei
    Liang, Juan
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Lim, Stephen S
    Lindsay, M Patrice
    Lipshultz, Steven E
    Liu, Shiwei
    Liu, Yang
    Lloyd, Belinda K
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    London, Stephanie J
    Lopez, Nancy
    Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie
    Lotufo, Paulo A
    Lozano, Rafael
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Ma, Jixiang
    Ma, Stefan
    Machado, Vasco M P
    MacIntyre, Michael F
    Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos
    Mahdi, Abbas A
    Majdan, Marek
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Mangalam, Srikanth
    Mapoma, Christopher C
    Marape, Marape
    Marcenes, Wagner
    Margolis, David J
    Margono, Christopher
    Marks, Guy B
    Martin, Randall V
    Marzan, Melvin B
    Mashal, Mohammad T
    Masiye, Felix
    Mason-Jones, Amanda J
    Matsushita, Kunihiro
    Matzopoulos, Richard
    Mayosi, Bongani M
    Mazorodze, Tasara T
    McKay, Abigail C
    McKee, Martin
    McLain, Abigail
    Meaney, Peter A
    Medina, Catalina
    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan
    Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola
    Mekonnen, Wubegzier
    Melaku, Yohannes A
    Meltzer, Michele
    Memish, Ziad A
    Mendoza, Walter
    Mensah, George A
    Meretoja, Atte
    Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary
    Micha, Renata
    Miller, Ted R
    Mills, Edward J
    Misganaw, Awoke
    Mishra, Santosh
    Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed
    Mohammad, Karzan A
    Mokdad, Ali H
    Mola, Glen L
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    Hernandez, Julio C Montañez
    Montico, Marcella
    Moore, Ami R
    Morawska, Lidia
    Mori, Rintaro
    Moschandreas, Joanna
    Moturi, Wilkister N
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Mueller, Ulrich O
    Mukaigawara, Mitsuru
    Mullany, Erin C
    Murthy, Kinnari S
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Nahas, Ziad
    Naheed, Aliya
    Naidoo, Kovin S
    Naldi, Luigi
    Nand, Devina
    Nangia, Vinay
    Narayan, Km Venkat
    Nash, Denis
    Neal, Bruce
    Nejjari, Chakib
    Neupane, Sudan P
    Newton, Charles R
    Ngalesoni, Frida N
    de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean
    Nguyen, Grant
    Nguyen, Nhung T
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
    Nisar, Muhammad I
    Nogueira, José R
    Nolla, Joan M
    Nolte, Sandra
    Norheim, Ole F
    Norman, Rosana E
    Norrving, Bo
    Nyakarahuka, Luke
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Ohkubo, Takayoshi
    Olusanya, Bolajoko O
    Omer, Saad B
    Opio, John Nelson
    Orozco, Ricardo
    Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S
    Pain, Amanda W
    Pandian, Jeyaraj D
    Panelo, Carlo Irwin A
    Papachristou, Christina
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Parry, Charles D
    Caicedo, Angel J Paternina
    Patten, Scott B
    Paul, Vinod K
    Pavlin, Boris I
    Pearce, Neil
    Pedraza, Lilia S
    Pedroza, Andrea
    Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin
    Pekericli, Ayfer
    Pereira, David M
    Perez-Padilla, Rogelio
    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando
    Perico, Norberto
    Perry, Samuel A L
    Pervaiz, Aslam
    Pesudovs, Konrad
    Peterson, Carrie B
    Petzold, Max
    Phillips, Michael R
    Phua, Hwee Pin
    Plass, Dietrich
    Poenaru, Dan
    Polanczyk, Guilherme V
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Pond, Constance D
    Pope, C Arden
    Pope, Daniel
    Popova, Svetlana
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Powles, John
    Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
    Prasad, Noela M
    Qato, Dima M
    Quezada, Amado D
    Quistberg, D Alex A
    Racapé, Lionel
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rahimi, Kazem
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Rahman, Sajjad Ur
    Raju, Murugesan
    Rakovac, Ivo
    Rana, Saleem M
    Rao, Mayuree
    Razavi, Homie
    Reddy, K Srinath
    Refaat, Amany H
    Rehm, Jürgen
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    Ribeiro, Antonio L
    Riccio, Patricia M
    Richardson, Lee
    Riederer, Anne
    Robinson, Margaret
    Roca, Anna
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Rojas-Rueda, David
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Ronfani, Luca
    Room, Robin
    Roy, Nobhojit
    Ruhago, George M
    Rushton, Lesley
    Sabin, Nsanzimana
    Sacco, Ralph L
    Saha, Sukanta
    Sahathevan, Ramesh
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Salomon, Joshua A
    Salvo, Deborah
    Sampson, Uchechukwu K
    Sanabria, Juan R
    Sanchez, Luz Maria
    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G
    Sanchez-Riera, Lidia
    Sandar, Logan
    Santos, Itamar S
    Sapkota, Amir
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Saunders, James E
    Sawhney, Monika
    Saylan, Mete I
    Scarborough, Peter
    Schmidt, Jürgen C
    Schneider, Ione J C
    Schöttker, Ben
    Schwebel, David C
    Scott, James G
    Seedat, Soraya
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G
    Serdar, Berrin
    Servan-Mori, Edson E
    Shaddick, Gavin
    Shahraz, Saeid
    Levy, Teresa Shamah
    Shangguan, Siyi
    She, Jun
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Shin, Hwashin H
    Shinohara, Yukito
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shishani, Kawkab
    Shiue, Ivy
    Sigfusdottir, Inga D
    Silberberg, Donald H
    Simard, Edgar P
    Sindi, Shireen
    Singh, Abhishek
    Singh, Gitanjali M
    Singh, Jasvinder A
    Skirbekk, Vegard
    Sliwa, Karen
    Soljak, Michael
    Soneji, Samir
    Søreide, Kjetil
    Soshnikov, Sergey
    Sposato, Luciano A
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T
    Stapelberg, Nicolas J C
    Stathopoulou, Vasiliki
    Steckling, Nadine
    Stein, Dan J
    Stein, Murray B
    Stephens, Natalie
    Stöckl, Heidi
    Straif, Kurt
    Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos
    Sturua, Lela
    Sunguya, Bruno F
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Swaroop, Mamta
    Sykes, Bryan L
    Tabb, Karen M
    Takahashi, Ken
    Talongwa, Roberto T
    Tandon, Nikhil
    Tanne, David
    Tanner, Marcel
    Tavakkoli, Mohammad
    Te Ao, Braden J
    Teixeira, Carolina M
    Téllez Rojo, Martha M
    Terkawi, Abdullah S
    Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis
    Thackway, Sarah V
    Thomson, Blake
    Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L
    Thrift, Amanda G
    Thurston, George D
    Tillmann, Taavi
    Tobollik, Myriam
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Topouzis, Fotis
    Towbin, Jeffrey A
    Toyoshima, Hideaki
    Traebert, Jefferson
    Tran, Bach X
    Trasande, Leonardo
    Trillini, Matias
    Trujillo, Ulises
    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala
    Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis
    Tuzcu, Emin Murat
    Uchendu, Uche S
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N
    Uzun, Selen B
    van de Vijver, Steven
    Van Dingenen, Rita
    van Gool, Coen H
    van Os, Jim
    Varakin, Yuri Y
    Vasankari, Tommi J
    Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N
    Vavilala, Monica S
    Veerman, Lennert J
    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
    Venketasubramanian, N
    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi
    Villalpando, Salvador
    Violante, Francesco S
    Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Wagner, Gregory R
    Waller, Stephen G
    Wallin, Mitchell T
    Wan, Xia
    Wang, Haidong
    Wang, JianLi
    Wang, Linhong
    Wang, Wenzhi
    Wang, Yanping
    Warouw, Tati S
    Watts, Charlotte H
    Weichenthal, Scott
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Weintraub, Robert G
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Wessells, K Ryan
    Westerman, Ronny
    Whiteford, Harvey A
    Wilkinson, James D
    Williams, Hywel C
    Williams, Thomas N
    Woldeyohannes, Solomon M
    Wolfe, Charles D A
    Wong, John Q
    Woolf, Anthony D
    Wright, Jonathan L
    Wurtz, Brittany
    Xu, Gelin
    Yan, Lijing L
    Yang, Gonghuan
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Ye, Pengpeng
    Yenesew, Muluken
    Yentür, Gökalp K
    Yip, Paul
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Younis, Mustafa Z
    Younoussi, Zourkaleini
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Zaki, Maysaa E
    Zhao, Yong
    Zheng, Yingfeng
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Zhu, Jun
    Zhu, Shankuan
    Zou, Xiaonong
    Zunt, Joseph R
    Lopez, Alan D
    Vos, Theo
    Murray, Christopher J
    Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.2015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 386, no 10010, 2287-2323 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.

    METHODS: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol.

    FINDINGS: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa.

    INTERPRETATION: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.

  • 29. Fox, Caroline S
    et al.
    Matsushita, Kunihiro
    Woodward, Mark
    Bilo, Henk J G
    Chalmers, John
    Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers
    Lee, Brian J
    Perkins, Robert M
    Rossing, Peter
    Sairenchi, Toshimi
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Vassalotti, Joseph A
    Yamagishi, Kazumasa
    Coresh, Josef
    de Jong, Paul E
    Wen, Chi-Pang
    Nelson, Robert G
    Associations of kidney disease measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease in individuals with and without diabetes: a meta-analysis.2012In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 380, no 9854, 1662-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is characterised by low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high albuminuria, and is associated with adverse outcomes. Whether these risks are modified by diabetes is unknown.

    METHODS: We did a meta-analysis of studies selected according to Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium criteria. Data transfer and analyses were done between March, 2011, and June, 2012. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) associated with eGFR and albuminuria in individuals with and without diabetes.

    FINDINGS: We analysed data for 1,024,977 participants (128,505 with diabetes) from 30 general population and high-risk cardiovascular cohorts and 13 chronic kidney disease cohorts. In the combined general population and high-risk cohorts with data for all-cause mortality, 75,306 deaths occurred during a mean follow-up of 8·5 years (SD 5·0). In the 23 studies with data for cardiovascular mortality, 21,237 deaths occurred from cardiovascular disease during a mean follow-up of 9·2 years (SD 4·9). In the general and high-risk cohorts, mortality risks were 1·2-1·9 times higher for participants with diabetes than for those without diabetes across the ranges of eGFR and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). With fixed eGFR and ACR reference points in the diabetes and no diabetes groups, HR of mortality outcomes according to lower eGFR and higher ACR were much the same in participants with and without diabetes (eg, for all-cause mortality at eGFR 45 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) [vs 95 mL/min per 1·73 m(2)], HR 1·35; 95% CI 1·18-1·55; vs 1·33; 1·19-1·48 and at ACR 30 mg/g [vs 5 mg/g], 1·50; 1·35-1·65 vs 1·52; 1·38-1·67). The overall interactions were not significant. We identified much the same findings for ESRD in the chronic kidney disease cohorts.

    INTERPRETATION: Despite higher risks for mortality and ESRD in diabetes, the relative risks of these outcomes by eGFR and ACR are much the same irrespective of the presence or absence of diabetes, emphasising the importance of kidney disease as a predictor of clinical outcomes.

    FUNDING: US National Kidney Foundation.

  • 30. Freyschuss, Bo
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Östen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Saaf, Maria
    Mellstrom, Dan
    Avenell, Allison
    Calcium and vitamin D for prevention of osteoporotic fractures2007In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 370, no 9605, 2098-2099 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Frobert, Ole
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Fac Hlth, Dept Cardiol, S-70185 Orebro, Sweden..
    James, Stefan K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Coronary thrombus aspiration: a lesson for clinical medicine2016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 387, no 10014, 97-98 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32. Fullman, N
    et al.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Murray, Christopher J L
    Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, 1423-1459 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of "leaving no one behind". Understanding today's gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016), we measured 37 of the 50 health-related SDG indicators over the period 1990-2016 for 188 countries, and then on the basis of these past trends, we projected indicators to 2030.

    METHODS: We used standardised GBD 2016 methods to measure 37 health-related indicators from 1990 to 2016, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2015. We substantially revised the universal health coverage (UHC) measure, which focuses on coverage of essential health services, to also represent personal health-care access and quality for several non-communicable diseases. We transformed each indicator on a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the 2·5th percentile estimated between 1990 and 2030, and 100 as the 97·5th percentile during that time. An index representing all 37 health-related SDG indicators was constructed by taking the geometric mean of scaled indicators by target. On the basis of past trends, we produced projections of indicator values, using a weighted average of the indicator and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2016 with weights for each annual rate of change based on out-of-sample validity. 24 of the currently measured health-related SDG indicators have defined SDG targets, against which we assessed attainment.

    FINDINGS: Globally, the median health-related SDG index was 56·7 (IQR 31·9-66·8) in 2016 and country-level performance markedly varied, with Singapore (86·8, 95% uncertainty interval 84·6-88·9), Iceland (86·0, 84·1-87·6), and Sweden (85·6, 81·8-87·8) having the highest levels in 2016 and Afghanistan (10·9, 9·6-11·9), the Central African Republic (11·0, 8·8-13·8), and Somalia (11·3, 9·5-13·1) recording the lowest. Between 2000 and 2016, notable improvements in the UHC index were achieved by several countries, including Cambodia, Rwanda, Equatorial Guinea, Laos, Turkey, and China; however, a number of countries, such as Lesotho and the Central African Republic, but also high-income countries, such as the USA, showed minimal gains. Based on projections of past trends, the median number of SDG targets attained in 2030 was five (IQR 2-8) of the 24 defined targets currently measured. Globally, projected target attainment considerably varied by SDG indicator, ranging from more than 60% of countries projected to reach targets for under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria, to less than 5% of countries projected to achieve targets linked to 11 indicator targets, including those for childhood overweight, tuberculosis, and road injury mortality. For several of the health-related SDGs, meeting defined targets hinges upon substantially faster progress than what most countries have achieved in the past.

    INTERPRETATION: GBD 2016 provides an updated and expanded evidence base on where the world currently stands in terms of the health-related SDGs. Our improved measure of UHC offers a basis to monitor the expansion of health services necessary to meet the SDGs. Based on past rates of progress, many places are facing challenges in meeting defined health-related SDG targets, particularly among countries that are the worst off. In view of the early stages of SDG implementation, however, opportunity remains to take actions to accelerate progress, as shown by the catalytic effects of adopting the Millennium Development Goals after 2000. With the SDGs' broader, bolder development agenda, multisectoral commitments and investments are vital to make the health-related SDGs within reach of all populations.

  • 33. Gabay, Cem
    et al.
    Emery, Paul
    van Vollenhoven, Ronald
    Dikranian, Ara
    Alten, Rieke
    Pavelka, Karel
    Klearman, Micki
    Musselman, David
    Agarwal, Sunil
    Green, Jennifer
    Kavanaugh, Arthur
    Tocilizumab monotherapy versus adalimumab monotherapy for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (ADACTA): a randomised, double-blind, controlled phase 4 trial.2013In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 381, no 9877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Roughly a third of patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological treatments receive them as monotherapy. Tocilizumab--an inhibitor of interleukin 6 receptor signalling--has been studied as monotherapy in several clinical trials. We assessed the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab monotherapy compared with adalimumab monotherapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    METHODS: We did this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 4 superiority study in 76 centres in 15 countries in North and South America, Australasia, and Europe. We enrolled patients who were aged at least 18 years, had severe rheumatoid arthritis for 6 months or more, and were intolerant to methotrexate or were inappropriate for continued methotrexate treatment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1; block size of four) to receive tocilizumab 8 mg per kg bodyweight intravenously every 4 weeks plus placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks or adalimumab 40 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks plus placebo intravenously every 4 weeks for 24 weeks. Investigators, patients, and sponsor personnel were masked to assignment. The primary endpoint was change in disease activity score using 28 joints (DAS28) from baseline to week 24. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01119859.

    FINDINGS: We screened 452 patients and enrolled 326 patients. The intention-to-treat population contained 325 patients (163 assigned to tocilizumab, 162 assigned to adalimumab). Week 24 mean change from baseline in DAS28 was significantly greater in the tocilizumab group (-3·3) than in the adalimumab group (-1·8) patients (difference -1·5, 95% CI -1·8 to -1·1; p<0·0001). 16 of 162 (10%) patients in the adalimumab group versus 19 of 162 (12%) in the tocilizumab group had serious adverse events. More patients in the tocilizumab group than in the adalimumab group had increased LDL-cholesterol, increased alanine aminotransferase concentrations, and reduced platelet and neutrophil counts.

    INTERPRETATION: Tocilizumab monotherapy was superior to adalimumab monotherapy for reduction of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in patients for whom methotrexate was deemed inappropriate. The adverse event profiles of tocilizumab and adalimumab were consistent with previous findings.

    FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.

  • 34. Gabay, Cem
    et al.
    Emery, Paul
    van Vollenhoven, Ronald
    Dikranian, Ara
    Alten, Rieke
    Pavelka, Karel
    Klearman, Micki
    Musselman, David
    Agarwal, Sunil
    Green, Jennifer
    Kavanaugh, Arthur
    Baecklund, Eva
    Tocilizumab monotherapy versus adalimumab monotherapy for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (ADACTA): a randomised, double-blind, controlled phase 4 trial.2013In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 381, no 9877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Roughly a third of patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological treatments receive them as monotherapy. Tocilizumab--an inhibitor of interleukin 6 receptor signalling--has been studied as monotherapy in several clinical trials. We assessed the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab monotherapy compared with adalimumab monotherapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    METHODS: We did this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 4 superiority study in 76 centres in 15 countries in North and South America, Australasia, and Europe. We enrolled patients who were aged at least 18 years, had severe rheumatoid arthritis for 6 months or more, and were intolerant to methotrexate or were inappropriate for continued methotrexate treatment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1; block size of four) to receive tocilizumab 8 mg per kg bodyweight intravenously every 4 weeks plus placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks or adalimumab 40 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks plus placebo intravenously every 4 weeks for 24 weeks. Investigators, patients, and sponsor personnel were masked to assignment. The primary endpoint was change in disease activity score using 28 joints (DAS28) from baseline to week 24. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01119859.

    FINDINGS: We screened 452 patients and enrolled 326 patients. The intention-to-treat population contained 325 patients (163 assigned to tocilizumab, 162 assigned to adalimumab). Week 24 mean change from baseline in DAS28 was significantly greater in the tocilizumab group (-3·3) than in the adalimumab group (-1·8) patients (difference -1·5, 95% CI -1·8 to -1·1; p<0·0001). 16 of 162 (10%) patients in the adalimumab group versus 19 of 162 (12%) in the tocilizumab group had serious adverse events. More patients in the tocilizumab group than in the adalimumab group had increased LDL-cholesterol, increased alanine aminotransferase concentrations, and reduced platelet and neutrophil counts.

    INTERPRETATION: Tocilizumab monotherapy was superior to adalimumab monotherapy for reduction of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in patients for whom methotrexate was deemed inappropriate. The adverse event profiles of tocilizumab and adalimumab were consistent with previous findings.

    FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.

  • 35. Gakidou, E
    et al.
    Afshin, A
    Abajobir, AA
    Abate, KH
    Abbafati, C
    Abbas, KM
    Abd-Allah, A
    Abdulle, AM
    Abera, F
    Aboyans, v
    Abu-Raddad, LJ
    Abu-Rmeileh, NME
    Abyu, GY
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Artaman, A
    Aryal, KK
    Asayesh, H
    Zhang, X
    Zimsen ., SRM
    Zipkin, B,
    Zodpey, S
    Lim, SS
    Murray, CJL
    Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, 1345-1422 p., S0140-6736(17)32366-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context.

    METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined.

    FINDINGS: Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124·1 million DALYs [95% UI 111·2 million to 137·0 million]), high systolic blood pressure (122·2 million DALYs [110·3 million to 133·3 million], and low birthweight and short gestation (83·0 million DALYs [78·3 million to 87·7 million]), and for women, were high systolic blood pressure (89·9 million DALYs [80·9 million to 98·2 million]), high body-mass index (64·8 million DALYs [44·4 million to 87·6 million]), and high fasting plasma glucose (63·8 million DALYs [53·2 million to 76·3 million]). In 2016 in 113 countries, the leading risk factor in terms of attributable DALYs was a metabolic risk factor. Smoking remained among the leading five risk factors for DALYs for 109 countries, while low birthweight and short gestation was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 38 countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In terms of important drivers of change in trends of burden attributable to risk factors, between 2006 and 2016 exposure to risks explains an 9·3% (6·9-11·6) decline in deaths and a 10·8% (8·3-13·1) decrease in DALYs at the global level, while population ageing accounts for 14·9% (12·7-17·5) of deaths and 6·2% (3·9-8·7) of DALYs, and population growth for 12·4% (10·1-14·9) of deaths and 12·4% (10·1-14·9) of DALYs. The largest contribution of trends in risk exposure to disease burden is seen between ages 1 year and 4 years, where a decline of 27·3% (24·9-29·7) of the change in DALYs between 2006 and 2016 can be attributed to declines in exposure to risks.

    INTERPRETATION: Increasingly detailed understanding of the trends in risk exposure and the RRs for each risk-outcome pair provide insights into both the magnitude of health loss attributable to risks and how modification of risk exposure has contributed to health trends. Metabolic risks warrant particular policy attention, due to their large contribution to global disease burden, increasing trends, and variable patterns across countries at the same level of development. GBD 2016 findings show that, while it has huge potential to improve health, risk modification has played a relatively small part in the past decade.

    FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Bloomberg Philanthropies.

  • 36.
    Ganna, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    5 year mortality predictors in 498 103 UK Biobank participants: a prospective population-based study2015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 386, no 9993, 533-540 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background To our knowledge, a systematic comparison of predictors of mortality in middle-aged to elderly individuals has not yet been done. We investigated predictors of mortality in UK Biobank participants during a 5 year period. We aimed to investigate the associations between most of the available measurements and 5 year all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and to develop and validate a prediction score for 5 year mortality using only self-reported information. Methods Participants were enrolled in the UK Biobank from April, 2007, to July, 2010, from 21 assessment centres across England, Wales, and Scotland with standardised procedures. In this prospective population-based study, we assessed sex-specific associations of 655 measurements of demographics, health, and lifestyle with all-cause mortality and six cause-specific mortality categories in UK Biobank participants using the Cox proportional hazard model. We excluded variables that were missing in more than 80% of the participants and all cardiorespiratory fitness test measurements because summary data were not available. Validation of the prediction score was done in participants enrolled at the Scottish centres. UK life tables and census information were used to calibrate the score to the overall UK population. Findings About 500 000 participants were included in the UK Biobank. We excluded participants with more than 80% variables missing (n=746). Of 498 103 UK Biobank participants included (54% of whom were women) aged 37-73 years, 8532 (39% of whom were women) died during a median follow-up of 4.9 years (IQR 4.33-5.22). Self-reported health (C-index including age 0.74 [95% CI 0.73-0.75]) was the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality in men and a previous cancer diagnosis (0.73 [0.72-0.74]) was the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality in women. When excluding individuals with major diseases or disorders (Charlson comorbidity index >0; n=355 043), measures of smoking habits were the strongest predictors of all-cause mortality. The prognostic score including 13 self-reported predictors for men and 11 for women achieved good discrimination (0.80 [0.77-0.83] for men and 0.79 [0.76-0.83] for women) and significantly outperformed the Charlson comorbidity index (p<0.0001 in men and p=0.0007 in women). A dedicated website allows the interactive exploration of all results along with calculation of individual risk through an online questionnaire. Interpretation Measures that can simply be obtained by questionnaires and without physical examination were the strongest predictors of all-cause mortality in the UK Biobank population. The prediction score we have developed accurately predicts 5 year all-cause mortality and can be used by individuals to improve health awareness, and by health professionals and organisations to identify high-risk individuals and guide public policy.

  • 37. García Rodrígues, LA
    et al.
    Mannino, S
    Wallander, Mari-Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Ocular safety of antiulcer drugs.1995In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 345, no 8956, 1059-1060 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Graf, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery.
    Mellgren, Anders
    Matzel, Klaus E.
    Hull, Tracy
    Johansson, Claes
    Bernstein, Mitch
    Efficacy of dextranomer in stabilised hyaluronic acid for treatment of faecal incontinence: a randomised, sham-controlled trial2011In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 377, no 9770, 997-1003 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Injection of a bulking agent in the anal canal is an increasingly used treatment for faecal incontinence, but efficacy has not been shown in a controlled trial. We aimed to assess the efficacy of injection of dextranomer in stabilised hyaluronic acid (NASHA Dx) for treatment of faecal incontinence. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled trial, patients aged 18-75 years from centres in USA and Europe were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either transanal submucosal injections of NASHA Dx or sham injections. Randomisation was stratified by sex and region in blocks of six, and managed with a computer generated, real-time, web-based system. Patients and investigators were masked to assignment for 6 months when the effect on severity of faecal incontinence and quality of life was assessed with a 2-week diary and clinical assessments. The primary endpoint was response to treatment based on the number of incontinence episodes. A response to treatment was defined as a reduction in number of episodes by 50% or more. Patients in the active treatment group are still being followed up. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00605826. Findings 278 patients were screened for inclusion, of whom 206 were randomised assigned to receive NASHA Dx (n=136) or sham treatment (n=70). 71 patients who received NASHA Dx (52%) had a 50% or more reduction in the number of incontinence episode, compared with 22 patients who received sham treatment (31%; odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.24-4.47, p=0.0089). We recorded 128 treatment-related adverse events, of which two were serious (1 rectal abscess and 1 prostatic abscess). Interpretation Anal injection of NASHA Dx is an effective treatment for faecal incontinence. A refinement of selection criteria for patients, optimum injected dose, ideal site of injection, and long-term results might further increase the acceptance of this minimally invasive treatment.

  • 39.
    Göthlin, Gustaf F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    When is capillary fragility a sign of vitamin-C subnutrition in man?1937In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 2, 703-705 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Gülen, Theo
    et al.
    Hägglund, Hans
    Department of Hematology, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlén, Sven-Erik
    Sander, Birgitta
    Dahlén, Barbro
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    Clinical Immunology and Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flushing, fatigue, and recurrent anaphylaxis: a delayed diagnosis of mastocytosis2014In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 383, no 9928, 1608- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Hagelin, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine.
    Carlsson, Hans-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine.
    Hau, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine.
    Increased efficiency in use of laboratory animals1999In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 353, no 9159, 1191-1192 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Hallberg, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Digitalis intoxication induced by paroxetine co-administration2006In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 368, no 9551, 1963- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Hallberg, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Schwan, Sofie
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Liraglutide for weight loss in obese people2010In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 375, no 9714, 551-551 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Halliday, Alison
    et al.
    Harrison, Michael
    Hayter, Elizabeth
    Kong, Xiangling
    Mansfield, Averil
    Marro, Joanna
    Pan, Hongchao
    Peto, Richard
    Potter, John
    Rahimi, Kazem
    Rau, Angela
    Robertson, Steven
    Streifler, Jonathan
    Thomas, Dafydd
    10-year stroke prevention after successful carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis (ACST-1): a multicentre randomised trial2010In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 376, no 9746, 1074-1084 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    If carotid artery narrowing remains asymptomatic (ie, has caused no recent stroke or other neurological symptoms), successful carotid endarterectomy (CEA) reduces stroke incidence for some years. We assessed the long-term effects of successful CEA.

    METHODS:

    Between 1993 and 2003, 3120 asymptomatic patients from 126 centres in 30 countries were allocated equally, by blinded minimised randomisation, to immediate CEA (median delay 1 month, IQR 0·3-2·5) or to indefinite deferral of any carotid procedure, and were followed up until death or for a median among survivors of 9 years (IQR 6-11). The primary outcomes were perioperative mortality and morbidity (death or stroke within 30 days) and non-perioperative stroke. Kaplan-Meier percentages and logrank p values are from intention-to-treat analyses. This study is registered, number ISRCTN26156392.

    FINDINGS:

    1560 patients were allocated immediate CEA versus 1560 allocated deferral of any carotid procedure. The proportions operated on while still asymptomatic were 89·7% versus 4·8% at 1 year (and 92·1%vs 16·5% at 5 years). Perioperative risk of stroke or death within 30 days was 3·0% (95% CI 2·4-3·9; 26 non-disabling strokes plus 34 disabling or fatal perioperative events in 1979 CEAs). Excluding perioperative events and non-stroke mortality, stroke risks (immediate vs deferred CEA) were 4·1% versus 10·0% at 5 years (gain 5·9%, 95% CI 4·0-7·8) and 10·8% versus 16·9% at 10 years (gain 6·1%, 2·7-9·4); ratio of stroke incidence rates 0·54, 95% CI 0·43-0·68, p<0·0001. 62 versus 104 had a disabling or fatal stroke, and 37 versus 84 others had a non-disabling stroke. Combining perioperative events and strokes, net risks were 6·9% versus 10·9% at 5 years (gain 4·1%, 2·0-6·2) and 13·4% versus 17·9% at 10 years (gain 4·6%, 1·2-7·9). Medication was similar in both groups; throughout the study, most were on antithrombotic and antihypertensive therapy. Net benefits were significant both for those on lipid-lowering therapy and for those not, and both for men and for women up to 75 years of age at entry (although not for older patients).

    INTERPRETATION:

    Successful CEA for asymptomatic patients younger than 75 years of age reduces 10-year stroke risks. Half this reduction is in disabling or fatal strokes. Net benefit in future patients will depend on their risks from unoperated carotid lesions (which will be reduced by medication), on future surgical risks (which might differ from those in trials), and on whether life expectancy exceeds 10 years.

    FUNDING:

    UK Medical Research Council, BUPA Foundation, Stroke Association.

  • 45.
    Hanson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Cardiotocography and ST analysis for intrapartum fetal monitoring2011In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 378, no 9797, 1137-1138 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Green space, psychological restoration, and health inequality2008In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 372, no 9650, 1614-1615 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Hartig, Terry
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Cooper Marcus, Clare
    Healing gardens - Places for nature in healthcare /invited essay/2006In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 368, no Supplement 1 December, S36-S37 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48. Hay, SI
    et al.
    Abajobir, AA
    Abate, KH
    Abbafati, C
    Abbas, KM
    Abd-Allah, F
    Abdulkader, RS
    Abdulle, AM
    Abebo, TA
    Abera, SF
    Aboyans, V
    Abu-Raddad, LJ
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Zaki, MES
    Zegeye, EA
    Zenebe, ZM
    Zhang, X
    Zheng, Y
    Zhou, M
    Zipkin, B
    Zodpey, S
    Zoeckler, L
    Zuhlke, LJ
    Murray, CJL
    Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, 1260-1344 p., S0140-6736(17)32130-XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared with expected trends on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI).

    METHODS: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate.

    FINDINGS: The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95% uncertainty interval 71·9-78·6) for females and 72·0 years (68·8-75·1) for males. The lowest for females was in the Central African Republic (45·6 years [42·0-49·5]) and for males was in Lesotho (41·5 years [39·0-44·0]). From 1990 to 2016, global HALE increased by an average of 6·24 years (5·97-6·48) for both sexes combined. Global HALE increased by 6·04 years (5·74-6·27) for males and 6·49 years (6·08-6·77) for females, whereas HALE at age 65 years increased by 1·78 years (1·61-1·93) for males and 1·96 years (1·69-2·13) for females. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2016 (-2·3% [-5·9 to 0·9]), with decreases in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The exemplars, calculated as the five lowest ratios of observed to expected age-standardised DALY rates in 2016, were Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Maldives, Peru, and Israel. The leading three causes of DALYs globally were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lower respiratory infections, comprising 16·1% of all DALYs. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most CMNN causes decreased from 1990 to 2016. Conversely, the total DALY burden rose for most NCDs; however, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined globally.

    INTERPRETATION: At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements. At the same time, we observe that many populations are facing growing functional health loss. Rising SDI was associated with increases in cumulative years of life lived with disability and decreases in CMNN DALYs offset by increased NCD DALYs. Relative compression of morbidity highlights the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. The analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework with which to benchmark location-specific health performance. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform health policies, health system improvement initiatives, targeted prevention efforts, and development assistance for health, including financial and research investments for all countries, regardless of their level of sociodemographic development. The presence of countries that substantially outperform others suggests the need for increased scrutiny for proven examples of best practices, which can help to extend gains, whereas the presence of underperforming countries suggests the need for devotion of extra attention to health systems that need more robust support.

    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • 49. Heddini, Andreas
    et al.
    Cars, Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Qiang, Sun
    Tomson, Göran
    Antibiotic resistance in China: a major future challenge2009In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 373, no 9657, 30-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Hemmes, Sabrine N. T.
    et al.
    de Abreu, Marcelo Gama
    Pelosi, Paolo
    Schultz, Marcus J.
    Severgnini, Paolo
    Hollmann, Markus W.
    Binnekade, Jan M.
    Wrigge, Hermann
    Canet, Jaume
    Hiesmayr, Michael
    Schmid, Werner
    Jaber, Samir
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Putensen, Christian
    High versus low positive end-expiratory pressure during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery (PROVHILO trial): a multicentre randomised controlled trial2014In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 384, no 9942, 495-503 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The role of positive end-expiratory pressure in mechanical ventilation during general anaesthesia for surgery remains uncertain. Levels of pressure higher than 0 cm H2O might protect against postoperative pulmonary complications but could also cause intraoperative circulatory depression and lung injury from overdistension. We tested the hypothesis that a high level of positive end-expiratory pressure with recruitment manoeuvres protects against postoperative pulmonary complications in patients at risk of complications who are receiving mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery. Methods In this randomised controlled trial at 30 centres in Europe and North and South America, we recruited 900 patients at risk for postoperative pulmonary complications who were planned for open abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia and ventilation at tidal volumes of 8 mL/kg. We randomly allocated patients to either a high level of positive end-expiratory pressure (12 cm H2O) with recruitment manoeuvres (higher PEEP group) or a low level of pressure (<= 2 cm H2O) without recruitment manoeuvres (lower PEEP group). We used a centralised computer-generated randomisation system. Patients and outcome assessors were masked to the intervention. Primary endpoint was a composite of postoperative pulmonary complications by postoperative day 5. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. The study is registered at Controlled-Trials. com, number ISRCTN70332574. Findings From February, 2011, to January, 2013, 447 patients were randomly allocated to the higher PEEP group and 453 to the lower PEEP group. Six patients were excluded from the analysis, four because they withdrew consent and two for violation of inclusion criteria. Median levels of positive end-expiratory pressure were 12 cm H2O (IQR 12-12) in the higher PEEP group and 2 cm H2O (0-2) in the lower PEEP group. Postoperative pulmonary complications were reported in 174 (40%) of 445 patients in the higher PEEP group versus 172 (39%) of 449 patients in the lower PEEP group (relative risk 1.01; 95% CI 0.86-1.20; p = 0.86). Compared with patients in the lower PEEP group, those in the higher PEEP group developed intraoperative hypotension and needed more vasoactive drugs. Interpretation A strategy with a high level of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment manoeuvres during open abdominal surgery does not protect against postoperative pulmonary complications. An intraoperative protective ventilation strategy should include a low tidal volume and low positive end-expiratory pressure, without recruitment manoeuvres.

123 1 - 50 of 140
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf