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  • 1.
    Agnarsdóttir, Margrét
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Carlén, Birgitta
    Willén, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Malacoplakia and spermatic granuloma complicating vasectomy2006In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 227-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malacoplakia is a granulomatous disease with a histiocytic infiltrate containing calcified structures called Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. These structures are considered to represent an abnormal response to infection involving defective lysosomes and abnormal microbubular assembly. The disease most frequently involves urinary and genital tracts, but has also been described from most other organs. Here we present the first case of malacoplakia only involving the vas deferens.

  • 2.
    Agrawal, Sumit
    et al.
    Western Univ, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, London, ON, Canada.
    Schart-Moren, Nadine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Liu, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Ladak, Hanif M.
    Western Univ, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, London, ON, Canada;Western Univ, Dept Med Biophys, London, ON, Canada;Western Univ, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, London, ON, Canada.
    Rask-Andersen, Helge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Li, Hao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    The secondary spiral lamina and its relevance in cochlear implant surgery2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We used synchrotron radiation phase contrast imaging (SR-PCI) to study the 3D microanatomy of the basilar membrane (BM) and its attachment to the spiral ligament (SL) (with a conceivable secondary spiral lamina [SSL] or secondary spiral plate) at the round window membrane (RWM) in the human cochlea. The conception of this complex anatomy may be essential for accomplishing structural preservation at cochlear implant surgery.

    Material and methods: Sixteen freshly fixed human temporal bones were used to reproduce the BM, SL, primary and secondary osseous spiral laminae (OSL), and RWM using volume-rendering software. Confocal microscopy immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to analyze the molecular constituents.

    Results: SR-PCI reproduced the soft tissues including the RWM, Reissner's membrane (RM), and the BM attachment to the lateral wall (LW) in three dimensions. A variable SR-PCI contrast enhancement was recognized in the caudal part of the SL facing the scala tympani (ST). It seemed to represent a SSL allied to the basilar crest (BC). The SSL extended along the postero-superior margin of the round window (RW) and immunohistochemically expressed type II collagen.

    Conclusions: Unlike in several mammalian species, the human SSL is restricted to the most basal portion of the cochlea around the RW. It anchors the BM and may influence its hydro-mechanical properties. It could also help to shield the BM from the RW. The microanatomy should be considered at cochlear implant surgery.

  • 3. Ahn, Chul Min
    et al.
    Sandler, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Saldeen, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Decreased lung hyaluronan in a model of ARDS in the rat: Effect of an inhibitor of leukocyte elastase2012In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Hyaluronan (HA) is a component of the extracellular matrix in lung tissue and is normally present at low concentrations in blood. HA is rapidly cleared from blood by the liver. Increased concentrations of plasma HA have been found in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We investigated changes in HA levels in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung, and their relationship to pretreatment with a leukocyte elastase inhibitor in a rat model of ARDS.

    Methods. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control, thrombin, and thrombin plus elastase inhibitor. By use of a radiometric assay, HA was measured in lungs, BALF, and plasma. Tissue samples from the lungs were stained for HA and examined microscopically. Liver circulation and cardiac output were monitored using radiolabeled microspheres.

    Results. Infusion of thrombin produced a pronounced increase in wet weight to dry weight ratio, and relative lung water content. This increase was blunted by a leukocyte elastase inhibitor. A decrease in lung HA and increases in both BALF and plasma HA were found. The leukocyte elastase inhibitor counteracted not only the decrease in lung tissue HA, but also the increase in plasma HA. Histologically, there was decreased HA-staining of peribronchial and perivascular areas in the injured rat lung. Decreased liver perfusion was observed after infusion of thrombin.

    Conclusions. The decrease in lung HA may be involved in the development of pulmonary edema in this ARDS model, and leukocyte elastase may be one cause of this decrease. In addition, an elevated plasma HA level may be an indicator of lung injury.

  • 4.
    Ahn, Chut Min
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Sandler, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Wegener, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Saldeen, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Effect of indomethacin on thrombin-induced pulmonary edema in the rat1995In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preventive effect of indomethacin on thrombin-induced pulmonary edema was studied in rats. Administration of thrombin caused a significant increase in lung weight, wet weight to dry weight ratio (WW/DW), and relative lung water content. During infusion of thrombin, mean pulmonary artery pressure rose and mean systemic artery pressure fell, PaO2 decreased progressively and there was a continuous rise in pH and PaCO2.

    An inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, indomethacin, at a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight, induced a significant further increase in lung weight (p<0.05), and a tendency towards an increase in WW/DW and water content compared with animals given thrombin alone. Treatment with indomethacin, however, counteracted the elevated pulmonary artery pressure occurring in the early phase after thrombin infusion, but not that in the late phase. Systemic artery pressure was not affected by indomethacin. The increases in pH and PaCO2 after thrombin infusion were attenuated and remained stable almost at baseline level after indomethacin administration. Indomethacin did not prevent the hypoxemia induced by thrombin infusion.

    In conclusion, although indomethacin prevented the early increase in pulmonary artery pressure due to thrombin and the decrease in pH and the increase in PaCO2, it caused lung vascular permeability to protein to increase more than with thrombin alone.

  • 5.
    Almqvist, C.M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Crona, L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Öberg, P.A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    A method for temperature variation and control of an isolated heart muscle bath, using Peltier effect semiconductors1972In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 136-139Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Anderberg, Leif
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Aldskogius, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Holtz, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Spinal cord injury: scientific challenges for the unknown future2007In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 259-288Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The history of spinal cord injuries starts with the ancient Egyptian medical papyrus known as the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. The papyrus, written about 2500 B. C. by the physician and architect of the Sakkara pyramids Imhotep, describes "crushed vertebra in his neck" as well as symptoms of neurological deterioration. An ailment not to be treated was the massage to the patients at that time. This fatalistic attitude remained until the end of World War II when the first rehabilitation centre focused on the rehabilitation of spinal cord injured patients was opened. Our knowledge of the pathophysiological processes, both the primary as well as the secondary, has increased tremendously. However, all this knowledge has only led to improved medical care but not to any therapeutic method to restore, even partially, the neurological function. Neuroprotection is defined as measures to counteract secondary injury mechanisms and/or limit the extent of damage caused by self-destructive cellular and tissue processes. The co-existence of several distinctly different injury mechanisms after trauma has provided opportunities to explore a large number of potentially neuroprotective agents in animal experiments such as methylprednisolone sodium succinate. The results of this research have been very discouraging and pharmacological neuroprotection for patients with spinal cord injury has fallen short of the expectations created by the extensive research and promising observations in animal experiments. The focus of research has now, instead, been transformed to the field of neural regeneration. This field includes the discovery of regenerating obstacles in the nerve cell and/or environmental factors but also various regeneration strategies such as bridging the gap at the site of injury as well as transplantation of foetal tissue and stem cells. The purpose of this review is to highlight selected experimental and clinical studies that form the basis for undertaking future challenges in the research field of spinal cord injury. We will focus our discussion on methods either preventing the consequences of secondary injury in the acute period ( neuroprotection) and/or various techniques of neural regeneration in the sub-acute and chronic phase and finally expose some thoughts about future avenues within this scientific field.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Börjesson, Joey Lau
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Operating in an era of impact factor mania2015In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 120, no 2, p. 124-131Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Lau Börjesson, Joey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Scholarly publishing threatened?2016In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    A substantial increase of the impact factor2012In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 353-354Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Lessons from the recent Journal Citation Report figures2010In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 161-162Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Henriksen, E.
    Damm, S.
    Jonason, T.
    Niklasson, U.
    Wesslén, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Nyström-Rosander, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Maripuu, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ringqvist, I.
    Rolf, C.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Friman, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Thallium-201 Myocardial Imaging at Rest in Male Orienteers and Other Endurance Athletes2001In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the period 1979 to 1992, 16 sudden unexpected cardiac deaths were known to have occurred in young Swedish orienteers. Autopsy indicated myocarditis to be the most frequent finding, most often combined with extensive myocardial fibrosis. The aim of the present investigation was to explore whether young male orienteers show a higher frequency than other young elite endurance athletes (controls) in the occurrence of Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects at rest, suggestive of fibrosis evoked by myocarditis. Thallium-201 perfusion abnormalities at rest were more frequently found in the controls than in the orienteers (26% vs. 12%, p=0.03). Uneven Tl-201 perfusion was associated with left ventricular mass (r=0.32, r=0.24, p<0.01, p=0.02) and body weight (r=0.30, r=0.31, p<0.01, p=0.03) in orienteers and controls, respectively. Echocardiographic left ventricular wall motion abnormalities were found in 11 athletes (9 orienteers and 2 controls) but only two displayed an abnormal Thallium-201 perfusion scan at rest. Perfusion abnormalities at rest did not occur more frequently in the orienteers but were commonly found in both groups of apparently healthy athletes making it futile to discern abnormals from normals. Thallium-201 perfusion aberrations were not associated with left ventricular wall motion abnormalities obtained by echocardiography.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden.;Texas A&M Univ, Dept Vet Integrat Biosci, College Stn, TX USA..
    Domestic animals as models for biomedical research2016In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 1-11Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestic animals are unique models for biomedical research due to their long history (thousands of years) of strong phenotypic selection. This process has enriched for novel mutations that have contributed to phenotype evolution in domestic animals. The characterization of such mutations provides insights in gene function and biological mechanisms. This review summarizes genetic dissection of about 50 genetic variants affecting pigmentation, behaviour, metabolic regulation, and the pattern of locomotion. The variants are controlled by mutations in about 30 different genes, and for 10 of these our group was the first to report an association between the gene and a phenotype. Almost half of the reported mutations occur in non-coding sequences, suggesting that this is the most common type of polymorphism underlying phenotypic variation since this is a biased list where the proportion of coding mutations are inflated as they are easier to find. The review documents that structural changes (duplications, deletions, and inversions) have contributed significantly to the evolution of phenotypic diversity in domestic animals. Finally, we describe five examples of evolution of alleles, which means that alleles have evolved by the accumulation of several consecutive mutations affecting the function of the same gene.

  • 13.
    Antonodimitrakis, Pantelis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Wassberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Gerovasileiou, Spyridon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Back, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Hallgren, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Fulminant hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to a reactivated EBV infection: A case report2013In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 42-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an aggressive inflammatory syndrome that results from inappropriate activation of the immune system. HLH has a high mortality if not treated. We describe a case of a fulminant HLH, associated with a reactivation of an EBV infection. The patient responded well to steroid treatment.

  • 14.
    Anvari, Ebrahim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wang, Xuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sandler, Stellan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Welsh, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    The H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine ameliorates high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance in male C57BL/6 mice, but not diabetes outcome in female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice2015In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 40-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. It has been proposed that the histamine 1-receptor (H1-receptor) not only promotes allergic reactions, but also modulates innate immunity and autoimmune reactions. In line with this, we have recently reported that the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine partially counteracts cytokine-induced beta-cell signaling and destruction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether cetirizine affects diabetes in NOD mice, a model for human type 1 diabetes, and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet C57BL/6 mice, a model for human glucose intolerance. Methods. Female NOD mice were treated with cetirizine in the drinking water (25 mg/kg body weight) from 9 until 30 weeks of age during which precipitation of diabetes was followed. Male C57BL/6 mice were given a high-fat diet from 5 weeks of age. When the mice were 12 weeks of age cetirizine was given for 2 weeks in the drinking water. The effects of cetirizine were analyzed by blood glucose determinations, glucose tolerance tests, and insulin sensitivity tests. Results. Cetirizine did not affect diabetes development in NOD mice. On the other hand, cetirizine treatment for 1 week protected against high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia. The glucose tolerance after 2 weeks of cetirizine treatment was improved in high-fat diet mice. We observed no effect of cetirizine on the insulin sensitivity of high-fat diet mice. Conclusion. Our results suggest a protective effect of cetirizine against high-fat diet-induced beta-cell dysfunction, but not against autoimmune beta-cell destruction.

  • 15.
    Aquilonius, Sten-Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Development of new levodopa treatment strategies in Parkinson’s disease – from bedside to bench to bedside2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 71-77Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review will illustrate the process of moving from an idea through preclinical research and Galenic developments into clinical investigations and finally to approval by regulatory agencies within the European Union. The two new treatment strategies described, levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel and levodopa/carbidopa microtablets, for advanced Parkinson's disease, have been developed in collaborative research within departments at Uppsala University. With this historical approach, reference priority is given to reports considered to be of special importance for this more than two decades long process from bedside to bench to bedside'.

  • 16.
    Aust, Rudolf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Drettner, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Investigation of Oxygen Exchange in Human Paranasal Sinuses with a Small PO2-Electrode1972In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 208-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method has been elaborated for the continuous recording of the oxygen content in the human maxillary sinus by using a small PO2-electrode (Ø 1 mm) which, placed in a cannula, is introduced into the sinus. Model experiment at different PO2 and different temperatures showed that the electrode has satisfactory stability. The response time is 3 seconds. The stability is not changed by introducing the cannula with the electrode through a 2 mm rubber membrane, simulating the perforation of the medial bony wall of maxillary sinus. Measurements in fluid and in gas give almost identical values. Thin layers of albumin or nasal mucus on the electrode do not disturb the results. The presented method has several advantages in comparison with those previously used, but a difficulty sometimes encountered is to get a smooth tight Teflon membrane around the tip of the electrode

  • 17. Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Nälsén, Cecilia
    Warensjö, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. National Food Agency.
    Öhrvik, Veronica
    Dietary habits, nutrient intake and biomarkers for folate, vitamin D, iodine and iron status among women of childbearing age in Sweden2016In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 271-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary intake and nutritional status are important for pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Dietary advice on folate, targeted to women of childbearing age, aims at preventing neural tube defects in the offspring.

    AIM: To describe food and nutrient intake and nutritional status among women of childbearing age in Sweden in relation to current nutrition recommendations.

    METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed using a web-based four-day consecutive food record among adults aged 18-80 years-'Riksmaten 2010-11 adults'. In a subsample, biomarkers of folate, vitamin D, iodine, and iron status were assessed.

    RESULTS: Women of childbearing age had lower intakes of fruit and vegetables, fish, and whole grains, but higher intakes of soft drinks. Macronutrient composition was generally in line with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, except for a lower intake of fibre, a higher intake of saturated fatty acids, and added sugars. Mean intakes of vitamin D, folate, and iron were below recommended intakes (RI). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 74 μg/L, 20% had insufficient vitamin D status, and 3% low folate concentrations with no age differences. Furthermore, 29% of women 18-44 years of age had depleted iron stores.

    CONCLUSIONS: The dietary pattern among women of childbearing age (18-44 years) was less favourable compared to older women. Intakes of some micronutrients were below RI, but no differences in vitamin D, folate, or iodine status between age groups were observed. However, improvements of folate and iodine status among women of childbearing age are warranted. This can be achieved by following dietary guidelines including use of folic acid-containing supplements.

  • 18.
    Beckman-Sundh, Ulla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Ek, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zetterqvist, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Ek, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    A screening method for phosphohistidine phosphatase 1 activity2011In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 116, no 3, p. 161-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Research in the field of protein-bound phosphohistidine phosphorylation has been hampered by the difficulties in analysis and detection of phosphohistidine. Therefore a screening method was developed primarily for the analysis of phosphohistidine phosphatase 1 (PHPT1) activity. Methods. A highly positively charged substrate, Ac-Val-Arg-Leu-Lys-His-Arg-Lys-Leu-Arg-pNA, containing the peptide surrounding the phosphorylated histidine in ion channel KCa3.1 was chemically phosphorylated using phosphoramidate. Excess phosphoramidate was removed by anion exchange chromatography using a micro spin column. After incubation of the eluate with PHPT1, the removed phosphate was bound on a consecutive anion exchange spin column. The eluate was assayed in a micro plate format for remaining phosphate in the substrate Ac-Val-Arg-Leu-Lys-His(P)-Arg-Lys-Leu-Arg-pNA. Histone H4, also highly positive in charge, was subjected to the same procedure to explore the possibility to use other substrates to PHPT1 in this assay format. Results. It was found that Ac-Val-Arg-Leu-Lys-His(P)-Arg-Lys-Leu-Arg-pNA and phosphohistone H4 were dephosphorylated by PHPT1. The apparent K(m) for Ac-Val-Arg-Leu-Lys-His(P)-Arg-Lys-Leu-Arg-pNA was in the order of 10 mu M. Using this method, phosphohistidine phosphatase activity was detected in mouse liver cell sap with Ac-Val-Arg-Leu-Lys-His(P)-Arg-Lys-Leu-Arg-pNA as substrate. Discussion. The described method for determination of PHPT1 activity is comparably much easier and faster than presently used methods for detection of phosphohistidine phosphatase activity. It is also sensitive, since the lower activity limit was 5 pmol phosphate released per min. It has the potential to be used both for more rapid screening for inhibitors and activators to phosphohistidine phosphatases and for screening of histidine kinases.

  • 19.
    Belachew, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Eurenius, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Axelsson, Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Placental location, postpartum hemorrhage and retained placenta in women with a previous cesarean section delivery: a prospective cohort study2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 185-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Women previously giving birth with cesarean section have an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and retained placenta. The objective of this study was to determine if anterior placental location increased the risk of PPH and retained placenta in such women.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study on 400 women with cesarean section delivery in a previous pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations were performed at gestational week 28-30, and placental location, myometrial thickness, and three-dimensional vascularization index (VI) were recorded. Data on maternal age, parity, BMI, smoking, gestational week at delivery, induction, delivery mode, oxytocin, preeclampsia, PPH, retained placenta, and birth weight were obtained for all women. Outcome measures were PPH (≥1,000 mL) and retained placenta.

    RESULTS: The overall incidence of PPH was 11.0% and of retained placenta 3.5%. Twenty-three women (11.8%) with anterior placenta had PPH compared to 12 (6.9%) with posterior or fundal locations. The odds ratio was 1.94, but it did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant risk increase for retained placenta in women with anterior placentae. Seven of eight women with placenta previa had PPH, and four had retained placenta.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall risk of PPH and retained placenta was high for women with previous cesarean section. Anterior location of the placenta in such women tended to impose an increased risk for PPH but no risk increase of retained placenta. Placenta previa in women with previous cesarean section is associated with a high risk for PPH and retained placenta.

  • 20.
    Berglund, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, National Centre for Knowledge on Men.
    Lindmark, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Preconception health and care (PHC)a strategy for improved maternal and child health2016In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 216-221Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal health status before pregnancy is a decisive factor for pregnancy outcomes and for risk for maternal and infant complications. Still, maternity care does not start until the pregnancy is established and in most low-income settings not until more than half of the pregnancy has passed, which often is too late to impact outcomes. In Western societies preconception care (PCC) is widely recognized as a way to optimize women's health through biomedical and behavioural changes prior to conception with the aim of improving pregnancy outcomes. But the content of PCC is inconsistent and limited to single interventions or preconception counselling to women with chronic illnesses. It has been suggested that PCC should be extended to preconception health and care (PHC), including interventions prior to pregnancy in order to optimize women's health in general, and thereby subsequent pregnancy outcomes, the well-being of the family, and the health of the future child. With this definition, almost every activity that can improve the health of girls and women can be included in the concept. In the World Health Report of 2005 a longitudinal approach to women's wellness and reproductive health was highlighted, and the World Health Organization has proposed a more comprehensive maternal and child health care, also including psychosocial issues and intimate partner violence. The present article gives an overview of the recent literature and discusses contents and delivery of PCC/PHC in Western as well as low-income countries. The article puts special emphasis on why violence against women is an issue for PHC.

  • 21.
    Berglund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Regression dilution bias: Tools for correction methods and sample size calculation2012In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 117, no 3, p. 279-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Random errors in measurement of a risk factor will introduce downward bias of an estimated association to a disease or a disease marker. This phenomenon is called regression dilution bias. A bias correction may be made with data from a validity study or a reliability study.

    Aims and methods. In this article we give a non-technical description of designs of reliability studies with emphasis on selection of individuals for a repeated measurement, assumptions of measurement error models, and correction methods for the slope in a simple linear regression model where the dependent variable is a continuous variable. Also, we describe situations where correction for regression dilution bias is not appropriate.

    Results. The methods are illustrated with the association between insulin sensitivity measured with the euglycaemic insulin clamp technique and fasting insulin, where measurement of the latter variable carries noticeable random error. We provide software tools for estimation of a corrected slope in a simple linear regression model assuming data for a continuous dependent variable and a continuous risk factor from a main study and an additional measurement of the risk factor in a reliability study. Also, we supply programs for estimation of the number of individuals needed in the reliability study and for choice of its design.

    Conclusions. Our conclusion is that correction for regression dilution bias is seldom applied in epidemiological studies. This may cause important effects of risk factors with large measurement errors to be neglected.

  • 22.
    Berglund, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Berne, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Svärdsudd, Kurt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Garmo, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Seasonal variations of insulin sensitivity from a euglycemic insulin clamp in elderly men2012In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 35-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Seasonal variations in hemoglobin-A1c have been reported in diabetic patients, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated.

    Aims

    To study if insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and fasting plasma glucose showed seasonal variations in a Swedish population-based cohort of elderly men.

    Methods

    Altogether 1117 men were investigated with a euglycemic insulin clamp and measurements of fasting plasma glucose and insulin secretion after an oral glucose tolerance test. Values were analyzed in linear regression models with an indicator variable for winter/summer season and outdoor temperature as predictors.

    Results

     During winter, insulin sensitivity (M/I, unit = 100 × mg × min-1 × kg-1/(mU × L-1)) was 11.0% lower (4.84 versus 5.44, P = 0.0003), incremental area under the insulin curve was 16.4% higher (1167 versus 1003 mU/L, P = 0.007). Fasting plasma glucose was, however, not statistically significantly different (5.80 versus 5.71 mmol/L, P = 0.28) compared to the summer season. There was an association between outdoor temperature and M/I (0.57 units increase (95% CI 0.29–0.82, P < 0.0001) per 10°C increase of outdoor temperature) independent of winter/summer season. Adjustment for life-style factors, type 2 diabetes, and medication did not alter these results.Read More:http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03009734.2011.628422

    Conclusions

    Insulin sensitivity showed seasonal variations with lower values during the winter and higher during the summer season. Inverse compensatory variations of insulin secretion resulted in only minor variations of fasting plasma glucose. Insulin sensitivity was associated with outdoor temperature. These phenomena should be further investigated in diabetic patients.

  • 23.
    Bergqvist, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Aneurysms: from traumatology to screening2010In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with aneurysmal disease, primarily when localized in the abdominal aorta. It is based on the Olof Rudbeck lecture 2009. Aneurysm is a localized widening of an artery, and its definition has become an important issue today when the disease is in focus for screening programmes. Aetiology and pathogenesis are still poorly understood, but a genetic component determining the strength of the aortic wall is important, and there is a strong male dominance. Historically, several attempts have been made to treat the disease, but reconstructive treatment has been possible only since 1951, in an increasing number of cases performed endovascularly. By early detection through screening, and thereby the possibility to treat before rupture, it has now become possible to decrease the total mortality from the disease in the population.

  • 24.
    Bergström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Numerical Analysis of the Vestibular Nerve in Man: A Preliminary Report1972In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 205-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    11 vestibular nerves from individuals of various ages ranging from birth to 85 years have been studied with regard to the numbers of nerve fibers. In this study it has been shown that young children have between 18 773 and 20 212 myelinated vestibular nerve fibers and that there is a clear and statistically significant reduction in number of fibers occurring with increasing age. The reduction averages 40% in the old age group. The study has included a separate investigation of all vestibular branches and the major reduction is found in the ampullary nerve fibers. This part of the observations will be separately published.

  • 25.
    Bergström, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer and Vascular Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer and Vascular Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Neural stem cells: Brain building blocks and beyond2012In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 132-142Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neural stem cells are the origins of neurons and glia and generate all the differentiated neural cells of the mammalian central nervous system via the formation of intermediate precursors. Although less frequent, neural stem cells persevere in the postnatal brain where they generate neurons and glia. Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in a few limited brain regions. Regulation of neural stem cell number during central nervous system development and in adult life is associated with rigorous control. Failure in this regulation may lead to e. g. brain malformation, impaired learning and memory, or tumor development. Signaling pathways that are perturbed in glioma are the same that are important for neural stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, survival, and migration. The heterogeneity of human gliomas has impeded efficient treatment, but detailed molecular characterization together with novel stem cell-like glioma cell models that reflect the original tumor gives opportunities for research into new therapies. The observation that neural stem cells can be isolated and expanded in vitro has opened new avenues for medical research, with the hope that they could be used to compensate the loss of cells that features in several severe neurological diseases. Multipotent neural stem cells can be isolated from the embryonic and adult brain and maintained in culture in a defined medium. In addition, neural stem cells can be derived from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells by in vitro differentiation, thus adding to available models to study stem cells in health and disease.

  • 26.
    Biglarnia, Ali-Reza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Transplantation Surgery.
    Wadström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Transplantation Surgery.
    Tufveson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Transplantation Surgery.
    Eriksson, Britt-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Pulmonary Nocardiosis with Brain Abscess in a Sensitized Kidney Transplant Recipient with a History of Repeated Graft Loss and HLA-Antibody Depletion Treatment: A case report2008In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 111-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection with unfavourable prognosis and is predominantly seen in immunocompromised patients. We here present a kidney transplant recipient with a history of two early graft losses who subsequently developed Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-antibodies and underwent a desensitization treatment with plasmapheresis and monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody application. However, 3 months after a third HLA-identical kidney transplantation he developed Nocardiosis with pulmonary and asymptomatic brain manifestation. The present case report exemplifies this opportunistic infection and gives an overview of the literature.

  • 27.
    Bjuhr, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Berne, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    External quality assessment of HbA(1c) for point of care testing2006In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To evaluate the long term total imprecision of HbA(1c) testing within the county of Uppsala in relation to the Swedish analytical goal of coefficient of variation (CV) < 3% for HbA(1c) and to study the cost of an external quality assurance program for point-of-care HbA(1c) The county uses Bayer DCA 2000 (TM) for point-of care HbA(1c) testing currently having 23 of these instruments.

    Methods. Method imprecision was assessed by analysis of patient samples performed as split samples during a 3 year period (2002-2004) as part of the quality assurance program for point-of-care HbA(1c) testing. The samples were first analysed on a Bayer DCA 2000 (TM) and the samples were then sent to the centralised laboratory for reanalysis with an HPLC system (Variant II (TM), Biorad). The testing was performed approximately 8 times per year with each instrument.

    Results. The median CV between the HPLC method and the point-of-care instruments for each unit was slightly higher than 3%.

    Conclusion. The DCA 2000 (TM) systems have an acceptable imprecision and agreement with the central laboratory. The test results show acceptable agreements within the county regardless where the patient is tested. The cost of the external quality assurance program is calculated to be approximately SEK 1340 (Euro 150) per instrument.

  • 28.
    Bodin, Maja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Käll, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Tydén, Tanja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Stern, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Sophiahemmet Univ, Dept Hlth Promot, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Drevin, Jennifer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Exploring men's pregnancy-planning behaviour and fertility knowledge: a survey among fathers in Sweden2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Research about pregnancy-planning behaviour mostly focuses on women, even though pregnancy planning usually also concerns men. The purpose of this study was to investigate how men plan for family, and to measure their fertility knowledge after having become fathers. Material and methods: Data were collected in 2014 as part of a Swedish longitudinal pregnancy-planning study. Men were recruited through their female partner one year after childbirth. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire about pregnancy planning, lifestyles, and fertility. Results: Of the 796 participants, 646 (81%) stated that the pregnancy had been very or fairly planned, and 17% (n=128) had made a lifestyle adjustment before pregnancy to improve health and fertility. The most common adjustments were to reduce/quit the consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, or snuff, and to exercise more. First-time fathers and those who had used assisted reproductive technology to become pregnant were more likely to have made an adjustment. Fertility knowledge varied greatly. Men with university education had better fertility knowledge than men without university education. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that there is variation in how men plan and prepare for pregnancy. Most men did not adjust their lifestyle to improve health and fertility, while some made several changes. Both pregnancy-planning behaviour and fertility knowledge seem to be related to level of education and mode of conception. To gain deeper understanding of behaviour and underlying factors, more research is needed.

  • 29.
    Bogefeldt, Johan P
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Grunnesjö, Marie I
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Svärdsudd, Kurt F
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Blomberg, Stefan I E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Diagnostic differences between general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons in low back pain patients2007In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 112, no 2, p. 199-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. There is a growing consensus on low back pain treatment. However, whether this extends to diagnostic labelling is still largely unknown. The aim of this report was to compare the diagnostic assessment of low back pain patients between general practitioners trained in manual therapy and orthopaedic surgeons. Methods. Population-based randomized controlled trial in which 160 patients with acute or sub-acute low back pain were assessed and treated by general practitioners or orthopaedic surgeons. Information on diagnoses and use of diagnostic imaging was obtained from medical records and physician questionnaires covering the ten-week treatment period. The Quebec Task Force classification and free text analysis were used to group diagnostic labels. Results: At baseline there were no significant differences in medical history, findings at physical examination and distribution of the Quebec Task Force diagnostic classification between the patient groups, indicating that they were similar. However, there were significant differences in physicians' use of diagnostic labels for local pain and their characterisation of radiating pain. General practitioners used more terms from manual medicine and reported more pseudoradicular pain than orthopaedic surgeons, who used non-specific pain labels, reported more true radicular pain and used more x-ray examinations. Differences were found at all times from first visit to ten week follow-up. Conclusions: There were significant differences in diagnostic assessment and use of diagnostic radiology between general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons.

  • 30.
    Bohman, Hannes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Päären, Aivar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Olsson, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Long term follow up of adolescent depression: a population based study2010In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent depression is common. Earlier studies indicate that relapses and recurrences are common. But many questions are still unanswered. The aim of the present study has been to follow subjects with adolescent depressions, identified in a population-based study, over a 15-year period. Subjects with adolescent depression (n = 362) and a comparison group (n = 250) were followed in the National Swedish registers.

    The formerly depressed females had significantly more out-patient visits, and a significantly higher proportion (78.4% versus 69.6%) had at least one out-patient visit. Among the males, no significant differences were found as concerns out-patient visits. The formerly depressed females had significantly more in-patient stays (3.6 versus 2.4) and a significantly higher total number of in-patient days (27.4 versus 10.1). A significantly higher proportion had in-patient days due to mental disorders (9.5% versus 4.6%), in particular anxiety disorders (4.9% versus 1.0%). As concerns the males, a significantly higher proportion had in-patient days due to mental disorders (16.5% versus 1.8%), in particular alcohol and drug abuse (7.6% versus 0%).

    Among the formerly depressed females there were no significant differences against the comparison group as concerns the proportion of being a mother, number of children per woman, or age at first child. However, a significantly higher proportion of the formerly depressed females had had different, usually mild, disorders related to pregnancy (8.6% versus 0.6%). The children of the women with adolescent depressions were not affected.

  • 31. Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Järhult, Josef D
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Antibiotic resistance in wild birds2014In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 113-116Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance.

  • 32. Borjesson, A.
    et al.
    Grundmark, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Olaisson, H.
    Waldenlind, L.
    Is there a link between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and treatment with TNF-alpha inhibitors?2013In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 118, no 3, p. 199-200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Borowiec, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Thelin, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Bagge, L
    van der Linden, J
    Thörnö, E
    Hansson, H E
    Heparin-coated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits and 25% reduction of heparin dose in coronary artery surgery: a clinical study1992In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiopulmonary bypass with systemic heparinization causes trauma to blood cells and coagulation defects. Artificial surfaces could be coated by end-linkage binding of heparin (Carmeda Bioactive Surface, CBAS). Use of such surfaces during cardiopulmonary bypass in animals resulted in less postoperative blood loss and better preservation of blood cells. In this study heparin-coated circuits were employed during coronary artery grafting in 7 patients (Group HC). Concomitantly, the heparin dose was reduced by 25% and an activated clotting time (ACT) of 300 sec was accepted. Additional 7 patients were operated with standard circuits (Group C), requiring ACT above 400 sec with normal doses of heparin. There were no thromboembolic complications in Group HC. The postoperative bleeding was generally low and without significant intergroup differences. Coagulation parameters displayed significantly lower ACT and anti-Factor Xa during bypass in Group HC. A tendency towards less blood cell trauma was observed with heparin-coated circuits. The protamine dose could be reduced by 50%, which significantly reduced the protamine/heparin quotient. This study indicates that routine cardiopulmonary bypass could be performed safely with heparin-coated circuits and reduced intravenous doses of heparin and protamine. It is suggested that the use of heparin-coated circuits may lead to less blood cell trauma.

  • 34.
    Branth, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Piehl-Aulin, Karin
    Department of Caring Science, Division for Biomedicine, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Olsson, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Metabolic stress-like condition can be induced by prolonged strenuous exercise in athletes2009In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 12-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined energy metabolism during prolonged, strenuous exercise. We wanted therefore to investigate energy metabolic consequences of a prolonged period of continuous strenuous work with very high energy expenditure. Twelve endurance-trained athletes (6 males and 6 females) were recruited. They performed a 7-h bike race on high work-load intensity. Physiological, biochemical, endocrinological, and anthropometric muscular compartment variables were monitored before, during, and after the race. The energy expenditure was high, being 5557 kcal. Work-load intensity (% of VO2 peak) was higher in females (77.7%) than in men (69.9%). Muscular glycogen utilization was pronounced, especially in type I fibres (>90%). Additionally, muscular triglyceride lipolysis was considerably accelerated. Plasma glucose levels were increased concomitantly with an unchanged serum insulin concentration which might reflect an insulin resistance state in addition to proteolytic glyconeogenesis. Increased reactive oxygen species (malondialdehyde (MDA)) were additional signs of metabolic stress. MDA levels correlated with glycogen utilization rate. A relative deficiency of energy substrate on a cellular level was indicated by increased intracellular water of the leg muscle concomitantly with increased extracellular levels of the osmoregulatory amino acid taurine. A kindred nature of a presumed insulin-resistant state with less intracellular availability of glucose for erythrocytes was also indicated by the findings of decreased MCV together with increased MCHC (haemoconcentration) after the race. This strenuous energy-demanding work created a metabolic stress-like condition including signs of insulin resistance and deteriorated intracellular glucose availability leading to compromised fuelling of ion pumps, culminating in a disturbed cellular osmoregulation indicated by taurine efflux and cellular swelling.

  • 35.
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Smedje, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Mallon, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Hetta, Jerker
    The Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS): A brief measure of sleeping difficulties2008In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 131-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate basic psychometric properties and obtain normative values for a novel 3-item scale, the Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS), a sleep questionnaire was sent out to a randomly selected sample of the general population, aged 20-64 years. Responses were obtained from 1075 subjects corresponding to a response rate of 78%. Results showed that MISS possessed satisfactory reliability and validity. Women scored significantly higher than men while there was no age relationship. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that MISS was able to distinguish subjects with a clinical insomnia according to ICD-10 research criteria. The main advantage of MISS over other insomnia instruments is its brevity and ease of use. Evidence was provided for the utility of MISS in epidemiological settings. MISS also showed promise as a convenient ultra-short screening measure of insomnia in health care settings.

  • 36.
    Burström, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Engström, Marie-Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Castrén, Maaret
    Wiklund, Tony
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Enlund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Improved quality and efficiency after the introduction of physician-led team triage in an emergency department.2016In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 38-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Overcrowding in the emergency department (ED) may negatively affect patient outcomes, so different triage models have been introduced to improve performance. Physician-led team triage obtains better results than other triage models. We compared efficiency and quality measures before and after reorganization of the triage model in the ED at our county hospital.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively compared two study periods with different triage models: nurse triage in 2008 (baseline) and physician-led team triage in 2012 (follow-up). Physician-led team triage was in use during day-time and early evenings on weekdays. Data were collected from electronic medical charts and the National Mortality Register.

    RESULTS: We included 20,073 attendances in 2008 and 23,765 in 2012. The time from registration to physician presentation decreased from 80 to 33 min (P < 0.001), and the length of stay decreased from 219 to 185 min (P < 0.001) from 2008 to 2012, respectively. All of the quality variables differed significantly between the two periods, with better results in 2012. The odds ratio for patients who left before being seen or before treatment was completed was 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.54-0.72). The corresponding result for unscheduled returns was 0.36 (0.32-0.40), and for the mortality rates within 7 and 30 days 0.72 (0.59-0.88) and 0.84 (0.73-0.97), respectively. The admission rate was 37% at baseline and 32% at follow-up (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Physician-led team triage improved the efficiency and quality in EDs.

  • 37. Byström, Per
    et al.
    Björkegren, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Berglund, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Oncology.
    Serum vitamin B12 and folate status among patients with chemotherapy treatment for advanced colorectal cancer2009In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 160-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There are conflicting results on the role of cobalamin and folate for epidemiology and carcinogenesis in colorectal cancer patients and the need of supplementation for prevention of chemotherapy toxicity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum cobalamin, folate, and homocysteine were analysed before and during the treatment of 93 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (ACRC) with first-line chemotherapy treatment. This cohort was compared with a healthy control group of 224 individuals. RESULTS: Patients with ACRC had similar cobalamin, folate, and homocysteine values as the healthy control group. There were no correlations between serum cobalamin, folate, and homocysteine values and objective response. There were no correlations to anaemia or other severe toxicity for cobalamin and homocysteine. A total of 12 patients had folate deficiency, and 10 of those suffered from severe toxicity (grade 3 or more). All patients had markedly increased folate values after 2 months of treatment. Folate and homocysteine did not predict patient outcome; however, patients with subclinically low cobalamin values (<300 pmol/L) had significant better overall survival and time to progression than patients with normal or high cobalamin values. CONCLUSION: Patients with ACRC seem to have fairly adequate cobalamin and folate status before and during chemotherapy treatment. This study indicates that ACRC patients receiving chemotherapy do not need supplementation with vitamin B12 and folate. A minor portion of the patients had folate deficiency, and most of those patients had severe toxicity. Patients with subclinically low cobalamin values had surprisingly better survival.

  • 38.
    Carlander, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Avian Antibodies Can Eliminate Interference Due To Complement Activation In ELISA2002In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 189-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibodies derived from egg yolk offer many advantages over mammalian antibodies in several aspects. Chicken antibodies do not activate the human complement system and are sometimes a more suitable choice in designing solid-phase immunometric assays than mammalian antibodies. The material often recommended for immunological assays is serum. A freshly drawn serum sample contains an active complement system, which is inactivated during storage. Mammalian antibodies used in most immunological assays may activate the human complement system. Activated complement components will bind to the antibodies thereby partly block the antibody binding epitopes. We show that an active complement system in undiluted samples reduce the absorbance values by approximately 50 % when using goat antibodies but not when using chicken antibodies. This difference will cause erroneous test results that will vary depending on the handling of the samples. Chicken antibodies can be used to eliminate this interference problem.

  • 39.
    Carlbom, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Caballero-Corbalán, José
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Granberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sörensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Whole-body MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI compared with 5-HTP PET/CT in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 1, p. 43-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: We wanted to explore if whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted (DW) and liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging could be valuable in lesion detection of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). [11C]-5-Hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography/computed tomography (5-HTP PET/CT) was used for comparison.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with NET were investigated with whole-body MRI, including DW imaging (DWI) and contrast-enhanced imaging of the liver, and whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. Seven additional patients underwent upper abdomen MRI including DWI, liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging, and 5-HTP PET/CT.

    RESULTS: There was a patient-based concordance of 61% and a lesion-based concordance of 53% between the modalities. MRI showed good concordance with PET in detecting bone metastases but was less sensitive in detecting metastases in mediastinal lymph nodes. MRI detected more liver metastases than 5-HTP PET/CT.

    CONCLUSION: Whole-body MRI with DWI did not detect all NET lesions found with whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. Our findings indicate that MRI of the liver including liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging and DWI could be a useful complement to whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT.

  • 40.
    Carlsson, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Lindman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Oncology.
    Elevated levels of thymidine kinase 1 peptide in serum from patients with breast cancer2009In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 116-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Thymidine kinase (TK) has an important role in DNA synthesis and is thus related to cell proliferation and turn-over. Traditionally, TK has been measured by enzymatic activity or radioimmunoassays. These assays are difficult to adapt to random access instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new immunological sandwich assay for detection of TK peptides in serum from breast cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum samples were collected from patients with breast cancer and stored frozen at -70 degrees C. The samples were collected after surgery, after metastatic tumor recurrence and after chemotherapy due to tumour recurrence. Patients' serum samples were analysed by the TK enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses of TK1 for diagnosis of breast cancer, the area under the curve (AUC) collected four weeks after surgery was 0.56 (95% CI 0.47-0.65), for samples collected postsurgically after tumour recurrence 0.73 (95% CI 0.65-0.80), and after chemotherapy 0.64 (95% CI 0.56-0.72). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the tumour proliferation marker TK has a potential as a serum marker in breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to verify this observation.

  • 41.
    Carlsson, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Lennartsson, Lena
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Sten
    Nilsson, Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Mode of growth determines differential expression of prostasomes in cultures of prostate cancer cell lines and opens for studies of prostasome gene expression2006In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 293-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exocrine secretion of the acinar gland cells in the human prostate consists of, among other components, a serous secretion and prostasomes. The prostasomes are functionally associated with both reproduction and prostate cancer development and are capable to raise autoantibodies at various pathologies. Therefore, we are trying to characterize prostasome antigens by analysing prostasome- producing cell lines of prostate cancers with the cDNA microarray technique. To obtain one state with synthesis of prostasomes and another state without synthesis, we checked whether the prostasome differentiation was influenced by the mode of growing the cells, that is, whether the cells had been growing on a solid support or on a flexible one.

    We studied the expression of prostasomes in the cell lines PC3, DU145 and LNCaP. We grew the cells with the following methods: Monocellular layers on microbeads, multicellular spheroids, single cells in suspension cultures, and xenotransplants in nude rats. The presence of prostasomes was examined by ELISA, immunocytochemistry or electron microscopy.

    The results showed that growing the cells on microbeads (solid support) produced a differentiation of prostasomes, while growing the cells in multicellular spheroids (flexible support) did not. Thus it should be possible to apply cDNA microarray analyses for characterizing the genes which are active at the cellular expression of prostasomes and then deduce the prostasome antigens.

  • 42.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Influence of microenvironment on engraftment of transplanted beta-cells2011In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 116, no 1, p. 1-7Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic islet transplantation into the liver provides a possibility to treat selected patients with brittle type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, massive early beta beta-cell death increases the number of islets needed to restore glucose homeostasis. Moreover, late dysfunction and death contribute to the poor long-term results of islet transplantation on insulin independence. Studies in recent years have identified early and late challenges for transplanted pancreatic islets, including an instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction when exposing human islets to the blood microenvironment in the portal vein and the low oxygenated milieu of islets transplanted into the liver. Poor revascularization of remaining intact islets combined with severe changes in the gene expression of islets transplanted into the liver contributes to late dysfunction. Strategies to overcome these hurdles have been developed, and some of these interventions are now even tested in clinical trials providing a hope to improve results in clinical islet transplantation. In parallel, experimental and clinical studies have, based on the identified problems with the liver site, evaluated the possibility of change of implantation organ in order to improve the results. Site-specific differences clearly exist in the engraftment of transplanted islets, and a more thorough characterization of alternative locations is needed. New strategies with modifications of islet microenvironment with cells and growth factors adhered to the islet surface or in a surrounding matrix could be designed to intervene with site-specific hurdles and provide possibilities to improve future results of islet transplantation.

  • 43.
    Cars, Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Securing access to effective antibiotics for current and future generations. Whose responsibility?2014In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 209-214Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 44. Carter, Nicholas
    et al.
    Lönnerholm, Gudmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Meyerson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Wistrand, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Androgen-linked control of carbonic anhydrase III expression occurs in rat perivenous hepatocytes:  an immunocytochemical study2001In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes CAII and CAIII were assayed by a radioimmunosorbent technique in liver cytosolic fractions and in isolated hepatocytes of adult male and female rats. Male livers contained 0.16 mg of CAII and 57 mg of CAIII per g cytosolic protein. Corresponding values for female livers were 0.34 mg CAII and 4 mg CAIII. Similar values and differences between CAII and III were found in isolated hepatocytes. Neonatal and adult castration of males reduced the CAIII levels to those of the females. Treatment with testosterone for three weeks restored the copulatory behaviour in the males castrated at adult age, but restored only partially the levels of CAIII. No significant effects of the endocrine manipulations were seen on CAII. Oophorectomy, with or without testosterone substitution, had no significant effect on CAII and CAIII levels in female rats. Immunohistochemistry and histochemistry showed that the regulation of CAIII is confined to perivenous hepatocytes. CAIII can therefore serve as a useful marker in the separation of these cells. CAIII appears to belong to the proteins and enzymes of the rat liver, known to be regulated via the hypothalamo-pituitary-liver axis. It may be used as a model of gene regulation in perivenous hepatocytes.

  • 45.
    Cherif, Honar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology.
    Combination treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent and intravenous iron alleviates anaemia in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia2014In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 119, no 4, p. 350-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) suffer from recurrent epistaxis and bleeding from gastrointestinal telangiectasias that occur despite otherwise normal haemostasis and result in iron deficiency anaemia with increasing severity. In advanced disease, anaemia may be severe, be irresponsive to iron supplementation, and may lead to red blood cell transfusion dependency.

    Methods

    We conducted a retrospective study at our Centre for Osler's Disease to evaluate the effectiveness of adding an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) to intravenous iron supplementation in the management of anaemic HHT patients. Blood values and treatment parameters were collected for nine months before combination therapy (iron supplementation only) and 12 months during combination therapy (iron supplementation plus ESA).

    Results

    Four patients received intravenous iron and an ESA with mean weekly doses of 126 mg and 17,300 units (U), respectively. Mean haemoglobin improved significantly during combination therapy, from 106 g/L to 119 g/L (p < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Anaemia can be alleviated in patients with HHT who are irresponsive to intravenous iron supplementation, by addition of an ESA. The proposed mechanism behind the iron irresponsiveness is that the anaemia is caused by a combination of recurrent haemorrhage and anaemia of chronic disease.

  • 46.
    Christersson, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Berglund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    The utility of coagulation activity for prediction of risk of mortality and cardiovascular events in guideline-treated myocardial infarction patients2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 224-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite improved treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), real-world patients still suffer substantial risk for subsequent cardiovascular events. Little is known about coagulation activity shortly after MI and whether coagulation activity markers may identify patients at increased risk despite contemporary treatment.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate D-dimer concentration and thrombin generation potential shortly after discharge after MI and evaluate if these markers could predict the risk of future cardiovascular and bleeding events.

    METHODS: Unselected MI patients (n = 421) were included in the observational REBUS study (NCT01102933) and followed for two years. D-dimer concentrations, thrombin peak, and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were analyzed at inclusion (3-5 days after MI) and at early follow-up (after 2-3 weeks).

    RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (17.8%) experienced the composite endpoint (all-cause death, MI, congestive heart failure, or all-cause stroke), and 31 patients (7.4%) experienced a clinically relevant bleeding event. D-dimer concentrations at early follow-up were associated with the composite endpoint (HR [per SD increase] 1.51 [95% CI 1.22-1.87]) and with clinically relevant bleeding (HR [per SD increase] 1.80 [95% CI 1.32-2.44]). Thrombin generation potential was not significantly associated with either the composite endpoint or with clinically relevant bleeding. Higher thrombin peak and ETP at early follow-up were both inversely associated with stroke (HR [per SD increase] 0.50 [95% CI 0.30-0.81] and 0.43 [95% CI 0.22-0.83], respectively).

    CONCLUSION: In unselected MI patients treated according to contemporary guidelines, D-dimer measurements may identify patients at increased risk of new cardiovascular and bleeding events. The inverse association of thrombin generation potential and risk of stroke has to be further investigated.

  • 47.
    Claesson-Welsh, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer and Vascular Biology.
    Blood vessels as targets in tumor therapy2012In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 178-186Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The landmark papers published by Judah Folkman in the early 1970s on tumor angiogenesis and therapeutic implications promoted the rapid development of a very dynamic field where basic scientists, oncologists, and pharmaceutical industry joined forces to determine the molecular mechanisms in blood vessel formation and find means to exploit this knowledge in suppressing tumor vascularization and growth. A wealth of information has been collected on angiogenic growth factors, and in 2004 the first specific blood vessel-targeted cancer therapy was introduced: a neutralizing antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Now (2011) we know that suppression of tumor angiogenesis may be a double-edged sword and that the therapy needs to be further refined and individualized. This review describes the hallmarks of tumor vessels, how different angiogenic growth factors exert their function, and the perspectives for future development of anti-angiogenic therapy.

  • 48.
    Claesson-Welsh, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Vascular permeability - the essentials2015In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 135-143Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vasculature, composed of vessels of different morphology and function, distributes blood to all tissues and maintains physiological tissue homeostasis. In pathologies, the vasculature is often affected by, and engaged in, the disease process. This may result in excessive formation of new, unstable, and hyperpermeable vessels with poor blood flow, which further promotes hypoxia and disease propagation. Chronic vessel permeability may also facilitate metastatic spread of cancer. Thus, there is a strong incentive to learn more about an important aspect of vessel biology in health and disease: the regulation of vessel permeability. The current review aims to summarize current insights into different mechanisms of vascular permeability, its regulatory factors, and the consequences for disease.

  • 49.
    Comasco, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Nordquist, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Göktürk, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Hallman, Jarmila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    The clock gene PER2 and sleep problems: association with alcohol consumption among Swedish adolescents2010In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with sleep problems, which are often linked to circadian rhythm disturbances. Previous studies have separately examined the effects of mutations in the clock gene PER2 on alcohol consumption and sleep problems. Here we hypothesized that an allelic variation in the PER2 gene is associated with alcohol consumption in interaction with sleep problems among adolescents. METHODS: The Survey of Adolescent Life and Health in Västmanland 2006, a Swedish county, including 1254 students 17-18 years old, was used as a population-representative sample of adolescents. We investigated the PER2 Single Nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 10870 (A/G) in the cohort together with an assessment of alcohol consumption according to the AUDIT-C questionnaire, and sleep problems using a survey consisting of 18 items. Furthermore, we carried out an exploratory analysis on the PER2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism 10870 polymorphism in a group of severely alcoholic females. RESULTS: We found a significant association of the SNP 10870 in adolescent boys, where the genotype AA, in the presence of several and frequent sleep problems, was associated with increased alcohol consumption. Among adolescent girls, only sleep problems were related to alcohol consumption. A non-significant trend was observed among the severely alcoholic females, with the G allele being over-represented in the severely alcoholic females group in comparision to the control females. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that PER2 gene variation is associated with alcohol consumption in interaction with sleep problems among Swedish adolescent boys.

  • 50.
    Dahlgren, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Selking, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Motility of the Human Digestive Tract under Resting Conditions and After Ingestion of Food1972In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The motility of the digestive tract in healthy persons was studied by means of pressure-sensitive endoradiosondes, under resting conditions during the night and after ingestion of food. In the stomach, slow pressure waves were observed with a frequency of 3–5 contractions per min and pressures of up to 10 cm H2O, as well as activity in the form of relatively rapid pressure increases of up to about 25 cm H2O—so-called type II waves. These waves were observed especially in the antrum. After ingestion of food increased activity was recorded in the form of a higher frequency of type II waves. In the small intestine waves of both type I and type II were recorded. Immediately following ingestion of food the intensity of both type I and type II waves increased. In the colon, waves of types I, III and IV were recorded. After ingestion of food the intensity of the type III and IV waves was increased. Activity during the night was considerably reduced in relation to that during the daytime. However, activity was recorded in all subjects; this was usually of type I, though bursts of type III waves were also recorded.

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