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  • 1.
    Aimo, Alberto
    et al.
    Scuola Super Sant Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Januzzi, James L
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Clin Res Inst, Boston, MA USA.
    Vergaro, Giuseppe
    Scuola Super Sant Anna, Pisa, Italy; Fdn Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa, Italy.
    Ripoli, Andrea
    Fdn Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa, Italy.
    Latini, Roberto
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Dept Cardiovasc Res, Milan, Italy.
    Masson, Serge
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Dept Cardiovasc Res, Milan, Italy.
    Magnoli, Michela
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Dept Cardiovasc Res, Milan, Italy.
    Anand, Inder S
    Univ Minnesota, Div Cardiovasc Med, Minneapolis, MN, USA; VA Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, Minneapolis, MN USA.
    Cohn, Jay N
    Univ Minnesota, Div Cardiovasc Med, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
    Tavazzi, Luigi
    ES Hlth Sci Fdn, GVM Hosp Care & Res, Cotignola, Italy.
    Tognoni, Gianni
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Dept Cardiovasc Res, Milan, Italy.
    Gravning, Jørgen
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Ulleval, Norway; Univ Oslo, Ctr Heart Failure Res, Oslo, Norway.
    Ueland, Thor
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Rikshosp, Internal Med Res Inst, Oslo, Norway; Univ Oslo, Fac Med, Oslo, Norway; Univ Tromso, Jebsen Thrombosis Res & Expertise Ctr, Tromso, Norway.
    Nymo, Ståle H
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Rikshosp, Internal Med Res Inst, Oslo, Norway.
    Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter
    Maastricht Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Bayes-Genis, Antoni
    Hosp Badalona Germans Trias & Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Lupón, Josep
    Hosp Badalona Germans Trias & Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain.
    de Boer, Rudolf A
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Yoshihisa, Akiomi
    Fukushima Med Univ, Dept Cardiovasc Med, Fukushima, Japan.
    Takeishi, Yasuchika
    Fukushima Med Univ, Dept Cardiovasc Med, Fukushima, Japan.
    Egstrup, Michael
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Cardiol, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gustafsson, Ida
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Cardiol, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gaggin, Hanna K
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Clin Res Inst, Boston, MA, USA.
    Eggers, Kai M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Huber, Kurt
    Wilhelminenspital Stadt Wien, Fac Internal Med, Vienna, Austria; Sigmund Freud Univ, Med Sch, Vienna, Austria.
    Tentzeris, Ioannis
    Wilhelminenspital Stadt Wien, Fac Internal Med, Vienna, Austria; Sigmund Freud Univ, Med Sch, Vienna, Austria.
    Tang, Wai H.W.
    Cleveland Clin, Inst Heart & Vasc, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Grodin, Justin
    Univ Texas Southwestern Med Ctr Dallas, Dept Internal Med, Dallas, TX USA.
    Passino, Claudio
    Scuola Super Sant Anna, Pisa, Italy; Fdn Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa, Italy.
    Emdin, Michele
    Scuola Super Sant Anna, Pisa, Italy; Fdn Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa, Italy.
    Prognostic Value of High-Sensitivity Troponin T in Chronic Heart Failure: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis2018In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 137, no 3, p. 286-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most patients with chronic heart failure have detectable troponin concentrations when evaluated by high-sensitivity assays. The prognostic relevance of this finding has not been clearly established so far. We aimed to assess high-sensitivity troponin assay for risk stratification in chronic heart failure through a meta-analysis approach.

    Methods: Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were searched in April 2017 by 2 independent authors. The terms were “troponin” AND “heart failure” OR “cardiac failure” OR “cardiac dysfunction” OR “cardiac insufficiency” OR “left ventricular dysfunction.” Inclusion criteria were English language, clinical stability, use of a high-sensitivity troponin assay, follow-up studies, and availability of individual patient data after request to authors. Data retrieved from articles and provided by authors were used in agreement with the PRISMA statement. The end points were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and hospitalization for cardiovascular cause.

    Results: Ten studies were included, reporting data on 11 cohorts and 9289 patients (age 66±12 years, 77% men, 60% ischemic heart failure, 85% with left ventricular ejection fraction <40%). High-sensitivity troponin T data were available for all patients, whereas only 209 patients also had high-sensitivity troponin I assayed. When added to a prognostic model including established risk markers (sex, age, ischemic versus nonischemic etiology, left ventricular ejection fraction, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and N-terminal fraction of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), high-sensitivity troponin T remained independently associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–1.55), cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.33–1.48), and cardiovascular hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–1.49), over a median 2.4-year follow-up (all P<0.001). High-sensitivity troponin T significantly improved risk prediction when added to a prognostic model including the variables above. It also displayed an independent prognostic value for all outcomes in almost all population subgroups. The area under the curve–derived 18 ng/L cutoff yielded independent prognostic value for the 3 end points in both men and women, patients with either ischemic or nonischemic etiology, and across categories of renal dysfunction.

    Conclusions: In chronic heart failure, high-sensitivity troponin T is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes, as well. This biomarker then represents an additional tool for prognostic stratification.

  • 2. Alexander, John H.
    et al.
    Becker, Richard C.
    Bhatt, Deepak L.
    Cools, Frank
    Crea, Filippo
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Fox, Keith A. A.
    Goodman, Shaun G.
    Harrington, Robert A.
    Huber, Kurt
    Husted, Steen
    Lewis, Basil S.
    Lopez-Sendon, Jose
    Mohan, Puneet
    Montalescot, Gilles
    Ruda, Mikhail
    Ruzyllo, Witold
    Verheugt, Freek
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Apixaban, an oral, direct, selective factor Xa inhibitor, in combination with antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome: results of the Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic and Safety Events (APPRAISE) trial2009In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 119, no 22, p. 2877-2885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: After an acute coronary syndrome, patients remain at risk of recurrent events. Apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, is a novel anticoagulant that may reduce these events but also poses a risk of bleeding. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic and Safety Events (APPRAISE) was a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study. Patients (n=1715) with recent ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome were randomized to 6 months of placebo (n=611) or 1 of 4 doses of apixaban: 2.5 mg twice daily (n=317), 10 mg once daily (n=318), 10 mg twice daily (n=248), or 20 mg once daily (n=221). Nearly all patients received aspirin; 76% received clopidogrel. The primary outcome was International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. A secondary outcome was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, severe recurrent ischemia, or ischemic stroke. At the recommendation of the Data Monitoring Committee, the 2 higher-dose apixaban arms were discontinued because of excess total bleeding. Compared with placebo, apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily (hazard ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 3.48; P=0.09) and 10 mg once daily (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 4.61; P=0.005) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 1.19; P=0.21) and 10 mg once daily (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 1.04; P=0.07) resulted in lower rates of ischemic events compared with placebo. The increase in bleeding was more pronounced and the reduction in ischemic events was less evident in patients taking aspirin plus clopidogrel than in those taking aspirin alone. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a dose-related increase in bleeding and a trend toward a reduction in ischemic events with the addition of apixaban to antiplatelet therapy in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome. The safety and efficacy of apixaban may vary depending on background antiplatelet therapy. Further testing of apixaban in patients at risk of recurrent ischemic events is warranted.

  • 3.
    Alexander, Karen P.
    et al.
    Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA.;Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27710 USA..
    Weisz, Giora
    Shaare Zedek Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel.;Cardiovasc Res Fdn, New York, NY USA..
    Prather, Kristi
    Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA.;Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27710 USA..
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Mark, Daniel B.
    Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA.;Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27710 USA..
    Anstrom, Kevin J.
    Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA.;Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27710 USA..
    Davidson-Ray, Linda
    Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA.;Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27710 USA..
    Witkowski, Adam
    Inst Cardiol, Dept Intervent Cardiol & Angiol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Mulkay, Angel J.
    Holy Name Med Ctr, Hackensack, NJ USA..
    Osmukhina, Anna
    Gilead Sci Inc, Foster City, CA 94404 USA..
    Farzaneh-Far, Ramin
    Gilead Sci Inc, Foster City, CA 94404 USA..
    Ben-Yehuda, Ori
    Cardiovasc Res Fdn, New York, NY USA.;Columbia Univ, Med Ctr, New York Presbyterian Hosp, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Stone, Gregg W.
    Columbia Univ, Med Ctr, New York Presbyterian Hosp, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Ohman, E. Magnus
    Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA.;Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27710 USA..
    Effects of Ranolazine on Angina and Quality of Life After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Incomplete Revascularization Results From the Ranolazine for Incomplete Vessel Revascularization (RIVER-PCI) Trial2016In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 133, no 1, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Angina often persists or returns in populations following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We hypothesized that ranolazine would be effective in reducing angina and improving quality of life (QOL) in incomplete revascularization (ICR) post-PCI patients. Methods and Results In RIVER-PCI, 2604 patients with a history of chronic angina who had ICR post-PCI were randomized 1:1 to oral ranolazine versus placebo; QOL analyses included 2389 randomized subjects. Angina and QOL questionnaires were collected at baseline and months 1, 6, and 12. Ranolazine patients were more likely than placebo to discontinue study drug by month 6 (20.4% versus 14.1%, P<0.001) and 12 (27.2% versus 21.3%, P<0.001). Following qualifying index PCI, the primary QOL outcome (Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ] angina frequency score) improved markedly, but similarly, in the ranolazine and placebo groups, respectively, from baseline (67.324.5 versus 69.724.0, P=0.01) to month 1 (86.6 +/- 18.1 versus 85.8 +/- 18.5, P=0.27) and month 12 (88.4 +/- 17.8 versus 88.5 +/- 17.8, P=0.94). SAQ angina frequency repeated measures did not differ in adjusted analysis between groups post baseline (mean difference 1.0; 95% CI -0.2, 2.2; P=0.11). Improvement in SAQ angina frequency was observed with ranolazine at month 6 among diabetics (mean difference 3.3; 95% CI 0.6, 6.1; P=0.02) and those with more angina (baseline SAQ angina frequency 60; mean difference 3.4; 95% CI 0.6, 6.2; P=0.02), but was not maintained at month 12. Conclusions Despite ICR following PCI, there was no incremental benefit in angina or QOL measures by adding ranolazine in this angiographically-identified population. These measures markedly improved within 1 month of PCI and persisted up to 1 year in both treatment arms. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01442038.

  • 4.
    Angiolillo, Dominick J.
    et al.
    Univ Florida, Coll Med, Div Cardiol, Jacksonville, FL USA..
    Rollini, Fabiana
    Univ Florida, Coll Med, Div Cardiol, Jacksonville, FL USA..
    Storey, Robert F.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Infect Immun & Cardiovasc Dis, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Bhatt, Deepak L.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Harvard Med Sch, Heart & Vasc Ctr, Boston, MA USA..
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Schneider, David J.
    Univ Vermont, Cardiovasc Res Inst, Cardiol Unit, Dept Med, Burlington, VT 05405 USA..
    Sibbing, Dirk
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Dept Cardiol, Munich, Germany.;DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Berlin, Germany..
    So, Derek Y. F.
    Univ Ottawa, Heart Inst, Div Cardiol, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Trenk, Dietmar
    Univ Heart Ctr Freiburg Bad Krozingen, Dept Cardiol & Angiol 2, Freiberg, Germany..
    Alexopoulos, Dimitrios
    Natl & Capodistrian Univ Athens, Dept Cardiol 2, Attikon Univ Hosp, Athens, Greece..
    Gurbel, Paul A.
    Inova Heart & Vasc Inst, Inova Ctr Thrombosis Res & Drug Dev, Falls Church, VA USA..
    Hochholzer, Willibald
    Univ Heart Ctr Freiburg Bad Krozingen, Dept Cardiol & Angiol 2, Freiberg, Germany..
    De Luca, Leonardo
    San Giovanni Evangelista Hosp, Lab Intervent Cardiol, Div Cardiol, Tivoli Rome, Italy.;Mediterranean Acad Assoc Res & Studies Cardiol, Marseille, France.;Aix Marseille Univ, INSERM, UMRS 1076, Marseille, France..
    Bonello, Laurent
    Hop Nord Marseille, AP HP, Dept Cardiol, Marseille, France..
    Aradi, Daniel
    Heart Ctr Balatonfured, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ Budapest, Budapest, Hungary..
    Cuisset, Thomas
    CHU Timone, Dept Cardiol, Marseille, France.;Aix Marseille Univ, Fac Med, Marseille, France..
    Tantry, Udaya S.
    Inova Heart & Vasc Inst, Inova Ctr Thrombosis Res & Drug Dev, Falls Church, VA USA..
    Wang, Tracy Y.
    Duke Univ, Med Ctr, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA..
    Valgimigli, Marco
    Bern Univ Hosp, Swiss Cardiovasc Ctr Bern, Bern, Switzerland..
    Waksman, Ron
    MedStar Washington Hosp Ctr, Sect Intervent Cardiol, Washington, DC USA..
    Mehran, Roxana
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, New York, NY USA..
    Montalescot, Gilles
    Sorbonne Univ Paris 6, Hop Pitie Salpetriere, ACTION Study Grp, Paris, France..
    Franchi, Francesco
    Univ Florida, Coll Med, Div Cardiol, Jacksonville, FL USA..
    Price, Matthew J.
    Scripps Clin, Div Cardiovasc Dis, La Jolla, CA USA..
    International Expert Consensus on Switching Platelet P2Y(12) Receptor-Inhibiting Therapies2017In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 136, no 20, p. 1955-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y(12) inhibitor is the treatment of choice for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and for those undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. The availability of different oral P2Y(12) inhibitors (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) has enabled physicians to contemplate switching among therapies because of specific clinical scenarios. The recent introduction of an intravenous P2Y(12) inhibitor (cangrelor) further adds to the multitude of modalities and settings in which switching therapies may occur. In clinical practice, it is not uncommon to switch P2Y(12) inhibitor, and switching may be attributed to a variety of factors. However, concerns about the safety of switching between these agents have emerged. Practice guidelines have not fully elaborated on how to switch therapies, leaving clinicians with limited guidance on when and how to switch therapies when needed. This prompted the development of this expert consensus document by key leaders from North America and Europe with expertise in basic, translational, and clinical sciences in the field of antiplatelet therapy. This expert consensus provides an overview of the pharmacology of P2Y(12) inhibitors, different modalities and definitions of switching, and available literature and recommendations for switching between P2Y(12) inhibitors.

  • 5.
    Arefalk, Gabriel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Discontinuation of Smokeless Tobacco and Mortality Risk After Myocardial Infarction2014In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 325-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-Given the indications of increased risk for fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in people who use snus, a moist smokeless tobacco product, we hypothesized that discontinuation of snus use after an MI would reduce mortality risk. Methods and Results-All patients who were admitted to coronary care units for an MI in Sweden between 2005 and 2009 and were <75 years of age underwent a structured examination 2 months after discharge (the baseline of the present study). We investigated the risk of mortality in post-MI snus quitters (n=675) relative to post-MI continuing snus users (n=1799) using Cox proportional hazards analyses. During follow-up (mean 2.1 years), 83 participants died. The mortality rate was 9.7 (95% confidence interval, 5.7-16.3) per 1000 person-years at risk in post-MI snus quitters and 18.7 (14.8-23.6) per 1000 person-years at risk in post-MI continuing snus users. After adjustment for age and sex, post-MI snus quitters had half the mortality risk of post-MI continuing snus users (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.91). In a multivariable-adjusted model, the hazard ratio was 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.32-1.02). The corresponding estimate for people who quit smoking after MI versus post-MI continuing smokers was 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.69). Conclusions-In this study, discontinuation of snus use after an MI was associated with a nearly halved mortality risk, similar to the benefit associated with smoking cessation. These observations suggest that the use of snus after MI should be discouraged.

  • 6.
    Arefalk, Gabriel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Response to Letter Regarding Article, "Discontinuation of Smokeless Tobacco and Mortality Risk After Myocardial Infarction"2015In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 131, no 17, p. E423-E423Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Armaganijan, Luciana
    et al.
    Lopes, Renato
    Huang, Zhen
    Tricoci, Pierluigi
    Held, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Van de Werf, Frans
    Armstrong, Paul W.
    Aylward, Philip E.
    White, Harvey D.
    Moliterno, David J.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Chen, Edmond
    Harrington, Robert A.
    Strony, John
    Mahaffey, Kenneth W.
    Efficacy and Safety of Vorapaxar in Elderly Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: Insights From the TRACER Trial2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8. Armstrong, Paul W
    et al.
    Siha, Hany
    Fu, Yuling
    Westerhout, Cynthia M
    Steg, P Gabriel
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Storey, Robert F
    Horrow, Jay
    Katus, Hugo
    Clemmensen, Peter
    Harrington, Robert A
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes in PLATO: Insights from the ECG Substudy2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 514-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Ticagrelor, when compared with clopidogrel, reduced the 12-month risk of vascular death/myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (ST-E ACS) intended to undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. This pre-specified electrocardiogram (ECG) substudy explored whether ticagrelor's association with vascular death and MI within one year would be amplified by: 1) the extent of baseline ST shift; and 2) subsequently associated with less residual ST changes at hospital discharge.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    ECGs were evaluated centrally in a core laboratory in 3,122 ticagrelor- and 3,084 clopidogrel-assigned patients having at least 1mm ST-E in two contiguous leads as identified by site investigators on the qualifying ECG. Patients with greater ST-segment shift at baseline had higher rates of vascular death/MI within one year. Amongst those who also had an ECG at hospital discharge (n=4,798), patients with ≥50% ∑ST-deviation (∑ST-dev) resolution had higher event-free survival than those with incomplete resolution (6.4% vs. 8.8%, adjusted hazard ratio 0.69 (0.54-0.88), p=0.003). The extent of ∑ST-dev resolution was similar irrespective of treatment assignment. The benefit of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel on clinical events was consistent irrespective of the extent of baseline ∑ST-dev (p(interaction)=0.728). When stratified according to conventional times from symptom onset i.e. ≤3 hours, 3-6 hours, >6 hours, the extent of baseline ∑ST-dev declined progressively over time. As time from symptom onset increased beyond three hours, the benefit of ticagrelor appeared to be more pronounced; however, the interaction between time and treatment was not significant (p=0.175).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Ticagrelor did not modify ∑ST-dev resolution at discharge nor was its benefit affected by the extent of baseline ∑ST-dev. These hypothesis-generating observations suggest that the main effects of ticagrelor may not relate to the rapidity or the completeness of acute reperfusion, but rather the prevention of recurrent vascular events by more powerful platelet inhibition or other mechanisms.

  • 9. Bagai, Akshay
    et al.
    Huang, Zhen
    Lokhnygina, Yuliya
    Harrington, Robert A.
    Armstrong, Paul W.
    Strony, John
    Chen, Edmond
    White, Harvey D.
    Held, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Van de Werf, Frans
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Tricoci, Pierluigi
    Mahaffey, Kenneth W.
    Differential Prognostic Implications of Peak Troponin Level in Acute Coronary Syndrome Treated With and Without Revascularization2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10. Beck, AW
    et al.
    Sedrakyan, A
    Mao, J
    Venermo, M
    Faizer, R
    Debus, S
    Behrendt, CA
    Scali, S
    Altreuther, M
    Schermerhorn, M
    Beiles, B
    Szeberin, Z
    Eldrup, N
    Danielsson, G
    Thomson, I
    Wigger, P
    Björck, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Cronenwett, JL
    Mani, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    International Consortium of Vascular Registries,
    Variations in abdominal aortic aneurysm care: a report from the International consortium of vascular registries2016In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This project by the ICVR (International Consortium of Vascular Registries), a collaboration of 11 vascular surgical quality registries, was designed to evaluate international variation in the contemporary management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with relation to recommended treatment guidelines from the Society for Vascular Surgery and the European Society for Vascular Surgery.

    Methods: Registry data for open and endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) during 2010 to 2013 were collected from 11 countries. Variations in patient selection and treatment were compared across countries and across centers within countries.

    Results: Among 51 153 patients, 86% were treated for intact AAA (iAAA) and 14% for ruptured AAA. Women constituted 18% of the entire cohort (range, 12% in Switzerland–21% in the United States; P<0.01). Intact AAAs were repaired at diameters smaller than recommended by guidelines in 31% of men (<5.5 cm; range, 6% in Iceland–41% in Germany; P<0.01) and 12% of women with iAAA (<5 cm; range, 0% in Iceland–16% in the United States; P<0.01). Overall, use of EVAR for iAAA varied from 28% in Hungary to 79% in the United States (P<0.01) and for ruptured AAA from 5% in Denmark to 52% in the United States (P<0.01). In addition to the between-country variations, significant variations were present between centers in each country in terms of EVAR use and rate of small AAA repair. Countries that more frequently treated small AAAs tended to use EVAR more frequently (trend: correlation coefficient, 0.51; P=0.14). Octogenarians made up 23% of all patients, ranging from 12% in Hungary to 29% in Australia (P<0.01). In countries with a fee-for-service reimbursement system (Australia, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States), the proportions of small AAA (33%) and octogenarians undergoing iAAA repair (25%) were higher compared with countries with a population-based reimbursement model (small AAA repair, 16%; octogenarians, 18%; P<0.01). In general, center-level variation within countries in the management of AAA was as important as variation between countries.

    Conclusions: Despite homogeneous guidelines from professional societies, significant variation exists in the management of AAA, most notably for iAAA diameter at repair, use of EVAR, and the treatment of elderly patients. ICVR provides an opportunity to study treatment variation across countries and to encourage optimal practice by sharing these results.

  • 11.
    Bekwelem, Wobo
    et al.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Med, Lillehei Heart Inst, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.;Univ Minnesota, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    McMaster Univ, Dept Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Halperin, Jonathan L.
    Mt Sinai Sch Med, New York, NY USA..
    Adabag, Selcuk
    Minneapolis Vet Adm Med Ctr, Div Cardiol, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Duval, Sue
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Med, Lillehei Heart Inst, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.;Univ Minnesota, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Chrolavicius, Susan
    McMaster Univ, Dept Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Pogue, Janice
    McMaster Univ, Dept Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Lankenau Inst Med Res, Wynnewood, PA USA..
    Eikelboom, John W.
    McMaster Univ, Dept Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Yusuf, Salim
    McMaster Univ, Dept Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Hirsch, Alan T.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Med, Lillehei Heart Inst, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.;Univ Minnesota, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Extracranial Systemic Embolic Events in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes2015In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 132, no 9, p. 796-803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is a major cause of thromboembolic events. In comparison with atrial fibrillation-related stroke, extracranial systemic embolic events (SEEs) remain poorly defined. Methods and Results All suspected SEEs reported among 37973 participants of 4 large contemporary randomized clinical trials of anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation were independently readjudicated for clinical and objective evidence of sudden loss of perfusion of a limb or organ. Over 91746 patient-years of follow-up, 221 SEEs occurred in 219 subjects. The SEE incidence was 0.24 of 100 and stroke incidence was 1.92 of 100 patient-years. In comparison with patients with stroke, those with SEE were more often female (56% versus 47%; P=0.01) and had comparable mean age (73.18.5 versus 73.5 +/- 8.8 years; P=0.57) and mean CHADS(2) scores (2.4 +/- 1.3 versus 2.5 +/- 1.2; P=0.33). SEEs more frequently involved the lower extremity (58%) than visceral-mesenteric (31%) or upper extremity (10%). SEE-related care involved clinic assessment alone in 5%, 30% were hospitalized without procedures, 60% underwent endovascular or surgical intervention, and 5% underwent amputation. Within 30 days, 54% of patients recovered fully, 20% survived with deficits, and 25% died. Thirty-day mortality was greater after visceral-mesenteric than lower- or upper-extremity SEE (55%, 17%, and 9%, respectively, P0.0001). The relative risk of death throughout follow-up was 4.33 (95% confidence interval, 3.29-5.70) after SEE versus 6.79 (95% confidence interval, 6.22-7.41) after stroke in comparison with patients without either event. Conclusions SEE constituted 11.5% of clinically recognized thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and was associated with high morbidity and mortality. SEE mortality was comparable to that of ischemic stroke and varied by anatomic site.

  • 12.
    Björklund, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Andrén, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lithell, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Different metabolic predictors of white-coat and sustained hypertension over a 20-year follow-up period: a population-based study of elderly men2002In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 63-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The clinical significance of white-coat hypertension is still unclear. Moreover, no study has examined metabolic predictors of white-coat versus sustained hypertension.

    Methods and Results We investigated men (n=602) in a longitudinal population-based cohort who at age 70 years were identified as normotensive, white-coat hypertensive (office blood pressure [BP] ≥140/90 and daytime ambulatory BP <135/85 mm Hg), and sustained hypertensive (office BP ≥140/90 and daytime ambulatory BP ≥135/85 mm Hg). At baseline, when the subjects were aged 50 years, blood glucose, insulin, lipids, and fatty acid composition of the serum cholesterol esters were analyzed. The investigations at age 70 years included determination of insulin sensitivity and target organ damage. At age 50 years, individuals who 20 years later were identified as white-coat hypertensive or sustained hypertensive showed significantly elevated BP, heart rate, and impaired glucose tolerance compared with normotensive subjects but white coat hypertensive subjects were leaner and had a more favorable serum cholesterol ester fatty acid profile than did sustained hypertensive subjects. At age 70 years, both white-coat and sustained hypertensive subjects showed an impaired insulin sensitivity, elevated blood glucose, and increased serum insulin and heart rate compared with normotensive subjects, but left ventricular mass and urinary albumin excretion were increased only in sustained hypertensive subjects.

    Conclusions These findings indicate that although metabolic abnormalities and elevated heart rate were consistent over time in both hypertensive groups, a lower body mass index and more favorable dietary fat composition predicted the development of white-coat as opposed to sustained hypertension over 20 years.

  • 13.
    Björklund, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Andrén, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lithell, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Isolated ambulatory hypertension predicts cardiovascular morbidity in elderly men2003In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 107, no 9, p. 1297-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background— Little is known about isolated ambulatory hypertension, a state with elevated ambulatory but normal office blood pressure (BP). This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of isolated ambulatory hypertension for cardiovascular morbidity in a population of elderly men.

    Methods and Results— At baseline, 24-hour ambulatory BP and metabolic and cardiac risk profiles were evaluated in 578 untreated 70-year-old men, participants of a population-based cohort. Subjects with isolated ambulatory hypertension (office BP <140/90 and daytime BP ≥135/85) and sustained hypertension (office BP ≥140/90 and daytime BP ≥135/85) had increased plasma glucose, body mass index, and echocardiographically determined left ventricular relative wall thickness compared with normotensive subjects (office BP <140/90 and daytime BP <135/85). Seventy-two cardiovascular morbid events (2.37 per 100 person-years at risk) occurred over 8.4 years of follow-up. The prognostic value of isolated ambulatory and sustained hypertension was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression. Multivariate models adjusting for serum cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes demonstrated that both isolated ambulatory hypertension (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% CI, 1.15 to 6.68) and sustained hypertension (HR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.49 to 5.82) were independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In a multivariate model with continuous BP variables, ambulatory daytime systolic BP (HR for 1 SD increase, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.97) was associated with an adverse outcome independently of office systolic BP.

    Conclusions— In the present study, isolated ambulatory hypertension as well as sustained hypertension predicted cardiovascular morbidity. The findings suggest that 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring may disclose important prognostic information also in subjects characterized as normotensive according to office BP.

  • 14. Bonamy, Anna-Karin Edstedt
    et al.
    Parikh, Nisha I
    Cnattingius, Sven
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Birth characteristics and subsequent risks of maternal cardiovascular disease: effects of gestational age and fetal growth2011In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 124, no 25, p. 2839-2846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prior studies showing an inverse relationship between low birth weight in offspring and maternal risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are limited by lack of information on gestational age and/or insufficient adjustment for confounders.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nationwide Swedish study, we included information on 923 686 women and their first singleton births between 1983 and 2005. Cox proportional hazards models were used to study associations between gestational length, fetal growth, and maternal incident hospitalization or death from CVD (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular events, and heart failure). Multivariable adjusted models accounted for birth year, income, education, country of birth, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and preeclampsia. The risk of maternal CVD increased with decreasing gestational age whereas the risk increase related to fetal growth appeared to be restricted to very small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Compared with mothers of non-SGA infants born at term, the hazard ratio of CVD ranged from 1.39 (95% confidence interval 1.22-1.58) to 2.57 (95% confidence interval 1.97-3.34) among mothers to moderately and very preterm infants, respectively. There was a significant interaction between preterm birth and fetal growth with respect to mothers' risk of CVD (P<0.001). Among mothers to very SGA infants, the hazard ratio of CVD ranged from 1.38 (95% confidence interval 1.15-1.65) to 3.40 (95% confidence interval 2.26-5.11) in mothers to term and very preterm infants, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Delivery of a preterm or SGA infant is associated with later life maternal hospitalization or death from CVD even after accounting for socioeconomic factors, smoking, and pregnancy-related complications.

  • 15. Calais, Fredrik
    et al.
    Frobert, Ole
    Rosenblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Hedberg, Pär O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Wachtell, Kristian
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leisure-time Physical Inactivity and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and All-cause Mortality: a Case-control Study2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16. Connolly, Stuart J.
    et al.
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Pogue, Janice
    Eikelboom, John
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Randomized Comparison of the Effects of Two Doses of Dabigatran Etexilate on Clinical Outcomes Over 4.3 Years: Results of the Rely-Able Double-Blind Randomized Trial2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 126, no 23, p. 2793-2793Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17. Connolly, Stuart J.
    et al.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Eikelboom, John
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Brueckmann, Martina
    Pogue, Janice
    Alings, Marco
    Amerena, John V.
    Avezum, Alvaro
    Baumgartner, Iris
    Budaj, Andrzej J.
    Chen, Jyh-Hong
    Dans, Antonio L.
    Darius, Harald
    Di Pasquale, Giuseppe
    Ferreira, Jorge
    Flaker, Greg C.
    Flather, Marcus D.
    Franzosi, Maria Grazia
    Golitsyn, Sergey P.
    Halon, David A.
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Huber, Kurt
    Jansky, Petr
    Kamensky, Gabriel
    Keltai, Matyas
    Kim, Sung Soon
    Lau, Chu-Pak
    Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves
    Lewis, Basil S.
    Liu, Lisheng
    Nanas, John
    Omar, Razali
    Pais, Prem
    Pedersen, Knud E.
    Piegas, Leopoldo S.
    Raev, Dimitar
    Smith, Pal J.
    Talajic, Mario
    Tan, Ru San
    Tanomsup, Supachai
    Toivonen, Lauri
    Vinereanu, Dragos
    Xavier, Denis
    Zhu, Jun
    Wang, Susan Q.
    Duffy, Christine O.
    Themeles, Ellison
    Yusuf, Salim
    The Long-Term Multicenter Observational Study of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (RELY-ABLE) Study2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 3, p. 237-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background During follow-up of between 1 and 3 years in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, 2 doses of dabigatran etexilate were shown to be effective and safe for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. There is a need for longer-term follow-up of patients on dabigatran and for further data comparing the 2 dabigatran doses. Methods and Results Patients randomly assigned to dabigatran in RE-LY were eligible for the Long-term Multicenter Extension of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (RELY-ABLE) trial if they had not permanently discontinued study medication at the time of their final RE-LY study visit. Enrolled patients continued to receive the double-blind dabigatran dose received in RE-LY, for up to 28 months of follow up after RE-LY (median follow-up, 2.3 years). There were 5851 patients enrolled, representing 48% of patients originally randomly assigned to receive dabigatran in RE-LY and 86% of RELY-ABLE-eligible patients. Rates of stroke or systemic embolism were 1.46% and 1.60%/y on dabigatran 150 and 110 mg twice daily, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-1.20). Rates of major hemorrhage were 3.74% and 2.99%/y on dabigatran 150 and 110 mg (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.53). Rates of death were 3.02% and 3.10%/y (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.19). Rates of hemorrhagic stroke were 0.13% and 0.14%/y. Conclusions During 2.3 years of continued treatment with dabigatran after RE-LY, there was a higher rate of major bleeding with dabigatran 150 mg twice daily in comparison with 110 mg, and similar rates of stroke and death. 

  • 18. Damman, Peter
    et al.
    de Winter, Robbert J
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Fox, Keith A
    Letter by Damman et al regarding articles, "Long-term cardiovascular mortality after procedure-related or spontaneous myocardial infarction in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: a collaborative analysis of individual patient data from the FRISC II, ICTUS, and RITA-3 Trials (FIR)" and "American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/World Heart Federation universal definition of myocardial infarction classification system and the risk of cardiovascular death: Observations From the TRITON-TIMI 38 Trial (Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38)”2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 126, no 9, p. E136-E137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Damman, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Fox, Keith A. A.
    Windhausen, Fons
    Hirsch, Alexander
    Clayton, Tim
    Pocock, Stuart J.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Tijssen, Jan G. P.
    de Winter, Robbert J.
    Long-Term Cardiovascular Mortality after Procedure-Related or Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Collaborative Analysis of Individual Patient Data from the FRISC II, ICTUS, and RITA-3 Trials (FIR)2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 125, no 4, p. 568-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    To investigate the long-term prognostic impact of procedure-related and spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) on cardiovascular mortality in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS).

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Five-year follow-up after procedure-related or spontaneous MI was investigated in the individual patient-pooled dataset of the FRISC-II, ICTUS and RITA-3 (FIR) NSTE-ACS trials. The principal outcome was cardiovascular death up to 5 years of follow-up. Cumulative event rates were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method, hazard ratios (HR) were calculated with time-dependent Cox proportional-hazards models. Adjustments were made for the variables associated with long-term outcomes. Of the 5467 patients, 212 endured a procedure-related MI within 6 months after enrolment. A spontaneous MI occurred in 236 patients within 6 months. The cumulative cardiovascular death rate was 5.2% in patients who endured a procedure-related MI and comparable to patients without a procedure-related MI (HR 0.66, 95%CI: 0.36-1.20, P=0.17). In patients who endured a spontaneous MI within 6 months, the cumulative cardiovascular death rate was 22.2% and higher than patients without a spontaneous MI (HR 4.52, 95%CI: 3.37-6.06, P<0.001). These HRs did not materially alter after risk adjustments.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Five-year follow-up of NSTE-ACS patients from the three FIR trials showed no association between a procedure-related MI and long-term cardiovascular mortality. In contrast there was a substantially raised long-term mortality after a spontaneous MI.

  • 20. Danad, Ibrahim
    et al.
    Raijmakers, Pieter G.
    Harms, Hendrik J.
    Heymans, Martijn W.
    van Royen, Niels
    Lammertsma, Adriaan A.
    Lubberink, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    van Rossum, Albert C.
    Knaapen, Paul
    The Relationship Between Anatomical and Functional Coronary Artery Disease Severity and Transmural Myocardial Blood Flow Distribution2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21. Dans, Antonio L
    et al.
    Connolly, Stuart J
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Yang, Sean
    Nakamya, Juliet
    Brueckmann, Martina
    Ezekowitz, Michael
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Eikelboom, John W
    Reilly, Paul A
    Yusuf, Salim
    Concomitant Use of Antiplatelet Therapy with Dabigatran or Warfarin in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY®) Trial2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 127, no 5, p. 634-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    RE-LY showed that dabigatran etexilate 150 mg bid (DE150) was superior, and 110 mg bid (DE110) non-inferior to warfarin in preventing stroke and systemic embolism (SSE) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In this subgroup analysis, we assess the efficacy and safety of dabigatran in patients who did and didn't receive concomitant antiplatelets METHODS AND RESULTS: All comparisons used a cox proportional hazards model with adjustments made for risk factors for bleeding. A time dependent analysis was performed when comparing patients with concomitant antiplatelets to those without. 6952 of 18,113 patients (38.4%) received concomitant ASA or clopidogrel at some time during the study. DE110 was non-inferior to warfarin in reducing SSE, whether patients received antiplatelets (HR=0.93; 95%CI: 0.70-1.25) or not (HR=0.87; 95%CI: 0.66-1.15; interaction p=0.738). There were less major bleeds than warfarin in both subgroups (HR=0.82; 95%CI: 0.67-1.00 for patients who used antiplatelets; HR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.64-0.96 for patients who didn't; interaction p=0.794). DE 150 reduced the primary outcome of SSE compared to warfarin. This effect seemed attenuated among patients who used antiplatelets (HR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.59-1.08) compared to those who didn't (HR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.38-0.72; p for interaction=0.058). Major bleeding was similar to warfarin regardless of antiplatelet use (HR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.76-1.12 for patients who used antiplatelets; HR=0.94, 95%CI: 0.78-1.15 for patients who didn't; p for interaction=0.875). In the time dependent analysis, concomitant use of a single antiplatelet seemed to increase the risk of major bleeding (HR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.42, 1.82). Dual antiplatelet seemed to increased this even more (HR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.79, 2.98). The absolute risks were lowest on DE110 compared to DE150 or warfarin.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Concomitant antiplatelet drugs appeared to increase the risk for major bleeding in RE-LY without affecting the advantages of dabigatran over warfarin. Choosing between DE110 and DE150 requires a careful assessment of characteristics that influence the balance between benefit and harm.

  • 22. Dery, Jean-Pierre P.
    et al.
    Mahaffey, Kenneth
    Tricoci, Pierluigi
    White, Harvey
    Podder, Mohua
    Moliterno, David
    Harrington, Robert
    Chen, Edmond
    Strony, John
    Van de Werf, Frans
    Ziada, Khaled M.
    Held, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Aylward, Philip
    Armstrong, Paul W.
    Rao, Sunil
    Arterial Access Site and Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With and Without Vorapaxar2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Eggers, Kai
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Venge, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Persistent cardiac troponin I elevation in stabilized patients after an episode of acute coronary syndrome predicts long-term mortality2007In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 116, no 17, p. 1907-1914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND - In patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, any troponin elevation is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. However, the prevalence and prognostic importance of persistent troponin elevation in stabilized patients after an episode of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome are unknown and were therefore assessed in this study. METHODS AND RESULTS - Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was measured in 1092 stabilized patients at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months after enrollment in the FRagmin and Fast Revascularization during InStability in Coronary artery disease (FRISC-II) trial. cTnI was analyzed with the Access AccuTnI assay with the application of different prognostic cutoffs. Outcomes were assessed through 5 years. Elevated cTnI levels >0.01 μg/L were found in 48% of the study patients at 6 weeks, in 36% at 6 months, and in 26% at all 3 measurements. cTnI elevation was associated with increased age and other cardiovascular high-risk features. The lowest tested cTnI cutoff (0.01 μg/L) was prognostically most useful and was independently predictive of mortality (hazard ratio, 2.1 [95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 3.3]; P=0.001) on multivariable analysis adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors and randomization to an invasive versus noninvasive treatment strategy, whereas it was related to myocardial infarction only on univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS - Persistent minor cTnI elevation can be detected frequently in patients stabilized after an episode of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome with the use of a sensitive assay. Elevated cTnI levels >0.01 μg/L predict mortality during long-term follow-up. Our results emphasize the importance of further troponin testing in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients after hospital discharge.

  • 24. Eikelboom, John W.
    et al.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Healey, Jeff S.
    Yang, Sean
    Yusuf, Salim
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Ezekowitz, Mike
    Alings, Marco
    Kaatz, Scott
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Diener, Hans-Christoph
    Franzosi, Maria Grazia
    Huber, Kurt
    Reilly, Paul
    Varrone, Jeanne
    Reply to Letters Regarding Article: "Risk of Bleeding With 2 Doses of Dabigatran Compared With Warfarin in Older and Younger Patients With Atrial Fibrillation : An Analysis of the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy (RE-LY) Trial"2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 125, no 3, p. E293-E294Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Eikelboom, John W.
    et al.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Ezekowitz, Mike
    Healey, Jeff S.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Yang, Sean
    Alings, Marco
    Kaatz, Scott
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Diener, Hans-Christoph
    Franzosi, Maria Grazia
    Huber, Kurt
    Reilly, Paul
    Varrone, Jeanne
    Yusuf, Salim
    Risk of Bleeding With 2 Doses of Dabigatran Compared With Warfarin in Older and Younger Patients With Atrial Fibrillation An Analysis of the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy (RE-LY) Trial2011In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 123, no 21, p. 2363-2372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-Dabigatran 150 and 110 mg twice a day and warfarin are effective for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this study was to compare their risks of bleeding in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy (RE-LY) trial. Methods and Results-The RE-LY trial randomized 18 113 patients to receive dabigatran 110 or 150 mg twice a day or warfarin dose adjusted to an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 for a median follow-up of 2.0 years. Compared with warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg twice a day was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding (2.87% versus 3.57%; P=0.002), whereas dabigatran 150 mg twice a day was associated with a similar risk of major bleeding (3.31% versus 3.57%; P=0.32). There was a significant treatment-by-age interaction, such that dabigatran 110 mg twice a day compared with warfarin was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding in patients aged = 75 years (4.43% versus 4.37%; P=0.89; P for interaction = 75 years (5.10% versus 4.37%; P=0.07; P for interaction = 75 years, intracranial bleeding risk is lower but extracranial bleeding risk is similar or higher with both doses of dabigatran compared with warfarin.

  • 26. Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    et al.
    Kent, Anthony P.
    Pogue, Janice
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Brueckmann, Martina
    Clemens, Andreas
    Yusuf, Salim
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    RE-LY and RELY-ABLE: Long-term Follow-up of Patients With Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Dabigatran Etexilate for Up to 6.7 Years2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    et al.
    Thomas Jefferson Univ, Sidney Kimmel Med Coll, Philadelphia, PA 19107 USA.;Cardiovasc Res Fdn, New York, NY USA..
    Nagarakanti, Rangadham
    Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Med Sch, Piscataway, NJ USA.;Electrophysiol Res Fdn, Warren, NJ USA..
    Noack, Herbert
    Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany..
    Brueckmann, Martina
    Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, Fac Med Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany..
    Litherland, Claire
    Cardiovasc Res Fdn, New York, NY USA..
    Jacobs, Mark
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, New York, NY USA..
    Clemens, Andreas
    Univ Med Ctr Mainz, Ctr Thrombosis & Hemostasis, Mainz, Germany..
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceut Inc, 90 E Ridge POB 368, Ridgefield, CT 06877 USA..
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Yusuf, Salim
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Comparison of Dabigatran and Warfarin in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Valvular Heart Disease The RE-LY Trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy)2016In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 134, no 8, p. 589-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The RE-LY trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy) compared dabigatran 150 and 110 mg twice daily with warfarin in 18 113 patients with atrial fibrillation. Those with prosthetic heart valves, significant mitral stenosis, and valvular heart disease (VHD) requiring intervention were excluded. Others with VHD were included. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the RE-LY trial. RESULTS: There were 3950 patients with any VHD: 3101 had mitral regurgitation, 1179 with tricuspid regurgitation, 817 had aortic regurgitation, 471 with aortic stenosis, and 193 with mild mitral stenosis. At baseline, patients with any VHD had more heart failure, coronary disease, renal impairment, and persistent atrial fibrillation. Patients with any VHD had higher rates of major bleeds (hazard ratio [HR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.5) but similar stroke or systemic embolism event rates (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88-1.33). For patients receiving dabigatran 110 mg, major bleed rates were lower than for patients taking warfarin (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.95 with VHD; HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99 without VHD), and major bleed rates for dabigatran 150 mg were similar to those for warfarin in patients with VHD (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.64-1.06) or without VHD (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.83-1.15). For dabigatran 150 mg, stroke/systemic embolic event rates were lower compared with warfarin in those with VHD (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37-0.93) and those without VHD (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.86), and stroke/systemic embolic event rates were similar for warfarin and dabigatran 110 mg regardless of the presence of VHD (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.65-1.45; and HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.70-1.10). Intracranial bleeds and death rates for dabigatran 150 and 110 mg were lower compared with warfarin independently of the presence of VHD. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of any VHD did not influence the comparison of dabigatran with warfarin.

  • 28. Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    et al.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Parekh, Amit
    Chernick, Michael R.
    Pogue, Janice
    Aikens, Timothy H.
    Yang, Sean
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Lip, Gregory Y. H.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Dabigatran and Warfarin in Vitamin K Antagonist-Naive and -Experienced Cohorts With Atrial Fibrillation2010In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 122, no 22, p. 2246-2253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-The comparison of anticoagulants dabigatran and warfarin might be most equitable in vitamin K antagonist (VKA)-naive patients. Methods and Results-Warfarin and 2 doses of dabigatran-110 mg BID (D110) and 150 mg BID (D150)-were compared in a balanced population of VKA-naive (<= 62 days of lifetime VKA exposure, with 33% never prescribed a VKA) and VKA-experienced patients with atrial fibrillation (n=18 113). For VKA-naive and -experienced patients assigned warfarin, the time in therapeutic range (international normalized ratio 2.0 to 3.0) was 62% and 67%, respectively, and 61% and 66% for those never and ever prescribed a VKA. In VKA-naive patients, stroke and systemic embolism rates were 1.57%, 1.07%, and 1.69% per year for D110, D150, and warfarin, respectively. D110 was similar to warfarin (P=0.65); D150 was superior (P=0.005). Major bleeding rates were 3.11%, 3.34%, and 3.57% per year, respectively. D110 and D150 were similar to warfarin (P=0.19 and P=0.55). Intracranial bleeding rates were 0.19%, 0.33%, and 0.73% per year, respectively. D110 and D150 were lower than warfarin (P<0.001 and P=0.005). In VKA-experienced patients, stroke and systemic embolism rates were 1.51%, 1.15%, and 1.74% per year for D110, D150, and warfarin, respectively. D110 was similar to warfarin (P=0.32); D150 was superior (P=0.007). Major bleeding rates were 2.66%, 3.30%, and 3.57% per year, respectively. D110 was lower than warfarin (P=0.003); D150 was similar (P=0.41). Intracranial bleeding rates were 0.26%, 0.32%, and 0.79% per year, respectively. D110 and D150 were lower than warfarin (P<0.001 for both). Results were similar for patients never on a VKA. Conclusions-Previous VKA exposure does not influence the benefits of dabigatran at either dose compared with warfarin.

  • 29. Farooq, Vasim
    et al.
    Serruys, Patrick W.
    Bourantas, Christos V.
    Zhang, Yaojun
    Muramatsu, Takashi
    Feldman, Ted
    Holmes, David R.
    Mack, Michael
    Morice, Marie Claude
    Ståhle, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Colombo, Antonio
    de Vries, Ton
    Morel, Marie-angele
    Dawkins, Keith D.
    Kappetein, Arie Pieter
    Mohr, Friedrich W.
    Response to Letter Regarding Article, " Quantification of Incomplete Revascularization and Its Association With Five- Year Mortality in the Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery ( SYNTAX) Trial: Validation of the Residual SYNTAX Score"2014In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 129, no 8, p. E355-E356Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30. Farooq, Vasim
    et al.
    Serruys, Patrick W.
    Bourantas, Christos V.
    Zhang, Yaojun
    Muramatsu, Takashi
    Feldman, Ted
    Holmes, David R.
    Mack, Michael
    Morice, Marie Claude
    Ståhle, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Colombo, Antonio
    de Vries, Ton
    Morel, Marie-angele
    Dawkins, Keith D.
    Kappetein, Arie-Pieter
    Mohr, Friedrich W.
    Quantification of Incomplete Revascularization and its Association With Five-Year Mortality in the Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) Trial Validation of the Residual SYNTAX Score2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 2, p. 141-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The residual Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) Score is an objective measure of the degree and complexity of residual stenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and Results In the randomized PCI cohort of the SYNTAX Trial (n=903), the baseline and residual SYNTAX Scores were calculated. Subjects with a residual SYNTAX Score of 0 were defined as having undergone complete revascularization (CR), and a residual SYNTAX Score >0 as incomplete revascularization (ICR). Five-year clinical outcomes were stratified by CR and ICR (tertiles of the residual SYNTAX Score: >0-4, >4-8, and >8). In the PCI cohort, the mean baseline and residual SYNTAX Scores were 28.4 +/- 11.5 and 4.5 +/- 6.9, respectively. The mean SYNTAX Score (representative of the burden of disease removed by PCI) was 23.8 +/- 10.9. The residual SYNTAX Score was distributed as follows: CR, 0 (n=386, 42.7%); ICR, >0 to 4 (n=184, 20.4%), >4 to 8 (n=167, 18.5%), >8 (n=153, 16.9%). A progressively higher residual SYNTAX Score was shown to be a surrogate marker of increasing clinical comorbidity and anatomic complexity. Subjects with CR or residual SYNTAX Scores 8 had comparable 5-year mortality (CR, 8.5%; residual SYNTAX Score >0-4, 8.7%; >4-8, 11.4%; P=0.60). A residual SYNTAX Score >8 was associated with 35.3% all-cause mortality at 5-years (P<0.001). Stratified analyses in the predefined medical treated diabetic and left main subgroups yielded similar results. Conclusions The residual SYNTAX Score was shown to be a powerful indicator of 5-year mortality in the SYNTAX Trial. The residual SYNTAX Score may aid in determining a reasonable level of revascularization.

  • 31.
    Fohlman, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Pauksen, Karlis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hyypiä, T.
    Eggertsen, G.
    Ehrnst, A.
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Friman, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Antiviral treatment with WIN 54954 reduces mortality in murine Coxsackie virus B3 myocarditis1996In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 94, no 9, p. 2254-2259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Coxsackieviruses B (CBVs) are dominant causative agents in myocarditis and are associated with pathogenesis is some cases of dilated cardiomyopathy, a clinical entity with a poor survival without heart transplantation.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro, the antiviral agent WIN 54 954 was shown to inhibit replication of CBV3 at a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 0.02 mg/L. Administration of WIN 54 954, 100 mg/kg BID PO, beginning on the day of infection resulted in complete protection from enteroviral mortality (P < .01). WIN 54 954 treatment did not abrogate the inflammatory reaction in the myocardium. No difference was found in the expression of surface lymphocyte subset markers. At 3 weeks, macrophages seemed to dominate the inflammatory reaction, regardless of treatment. There was no difference in CBV3 antibody titers, indicating that WIN 54 954 does not interfere with the development of protective immunity. Complement factors C3 and B were synthesized at a higher level during infection and correlated well with the degree of inflammatory reaction.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results show that WIN 54 954 is a potent antiviral agent with a highly significant effect on survival in CBV-induced myocarditis in the A/J mouse if treatment is started early. It is suggested that the reduction in mortality seen with WIN 54 954 administration is due to an inhibitory effect on virus replication in affected organs that does not interfere with cellular or humoral immunity.

  • 32. Galaup, Ariane
    et al.
    Gomez, Elisa
    Souktani, Rachid
    Durand, Melanie
    Cazes, Aurelie
    Monnot, Catherine
    Teillon, Jeremie
    Le Jan, Sébastien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Bouleti, Claire
    Briois, Gaelle
    Philippe, Josette
    Pons, Sandrine
    Martin, Valerie
    Assaly, Rana
    Bonnin, Philippe
    Ratajczak, Philippe
    Janin, Anne
    Thurston, Gavin
    Valenzuela, David M.
    Murphy, Andrew J.
    Yancopoulos, George D.
    Tissier, Renaud
    Berdeaux, Alain
    Ghaleh, Bijan
    Germain, Stephane
    Protection Against Myocardial Infarction and No-Reflow Through Preservation of Vascular Integrity by Angiopoietin-Like 42012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 125, no 1, p. 140-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-Increased permeability, predominantly controlled by endothelial junction stability, is an early event in the deterioration of vascular integrity in ischemic disorders. Hemorrhage, edema, and inflammation are the main features of reperfusion injuries, as observed in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Thus, preservation of vascular integrity is fundamental in ischemic heart disease. Angiopoietins are pivotal modulators of cell-cell junctions and vascular integrity. We hypothesized that hypoxic induction of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) might modulate vascular damage, infarct size, and no-reflow during AMI. Methods and Results-We showed that vascular permeability, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, and infarct severity were increased in angptl4-deficient mice. We determined that decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and VE-cadherin expression and increase in Src kinase phosphorylation downstream of VEGFR2 were accentuated after ischemia-reperfusion in the coronary microcirculation of angptl4-deficient mice. Both events led to altered VEGFR2/VE-cadherin complexes and to disrupted adherens junctions in the endothelial cells of angptl4-deficient mice that correlated with increased no-reflow. In vivo injection of recombinant human ANGPTL4 protected VEGF-driven dissociation of the VEGFR2/VE-cadherin complex, reduced myocardial infarct size, and the extent of no-reflow in mice and rabbits. Conclusions-These data showed that ANGPTL4 might constitute a relevant target for therapeutic vasculoprotection aimed at counteracting the effects of VEGF, thus being crucial for preventing no-reflow and conferring secondary cardioprotection during AMI.

  • 33. Ganna, Andrea
    et al.
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine Levels are Related to Obesity and Several Markers of Subclinical CV Disease and its Biosynthesis is Associated With Genetic Variants in the 9p21 Region2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34. Goepfert, C
    et al.
    Sundberg, Christian
    Sevigny, J
    Enjyoji, K
    Hoshi, T
    Csizmadia, E
    Robson, S
    Disordered cellular migration and angiogenesis in cd39-null mice2001In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 104, no 25, p. 3109-3115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1)/CD39 is the major ectonucleotidase of endothelial cells and monocytes and catalyzes phosphohydrolysis of extracellular nucleoside diphosphates (NDP) and triphosphates (NTP, eg, ATP and UTP). Deletion of cd39 causes perturbations in the hydrolysis of NTP and NDP in the vasculature. Activation of P2 receptors appears to influence endothelial cell chemotactic and mitogenic responses in vitro. Therefore, aberrant regulation of nucleotide P2 receptors may influence angiogenesis in cd39-null mice. Methods and Results- In control mice, implanted Matrigel plugs containing growth factors were rapidly populated by monocyte/macrophages, endothelial cells, and pericytes, with the development of new vessels over days. In cd39-null mice, migrating cells were completely confined to the tissue-Matrigel interface in a clearly stratified manner. Absolute failure of new vessel ingrowth was consistently observed in the mutant mice. Linked to these findings, chemotaxis of cd39-null monocyte/macrophages to nucleotides was impaired in vitro. This abnormality was associated with desensitization of nucleotide receptor P2Y-mediated signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a role for NTPDase1 and phosphohydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides in the regulation of the cellular infiltration and new vessel growth in a model of angiogenesis.

  • 35. Goodman, Shaun G.
    et al.
    Clare, Robert
    Pieper, Karen S.
    Mahaffey, Kenneth W.
    Harrington, Robert A.
    Nicolau, Jose C.
    Storey, Robert F.
    Cantor, Warren J.
    Angiolillo, Dominick J.
    Husted, Steen
    Cannon, Christopher P.
    James, Stefan K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Kilhamn, Jan
    Steg, Ph. Gabriel
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Response to Letter Regarding Article, "Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor Use on Cardiovascular Outcomes With Clopidogrel and Ticagrelor: Insights From PLATO"2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 126, no 11, p. E171-E172Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Goodman, Shaun G.
    et al.
    Clare, Robert
    Pieper, Karen S.
    Nicolau, Jose C.
    Storey, Robert F.
    Cantor, Warren J.
    Mahaffey, Kenneth W.
    Angiolillo, Dominick J.
    Husted, Steen
    Cannon, Christopher P.
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Kilhamn, Jan
    Steg, P. Gabriel
    Harrington, Robert A.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor Use on Cardiovascular Outcomes With Clopidogrel and Ticagrelor: Outcomes With Clopidogrel and Ticagrelor2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 125, no 8, p. 978-986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-The clinical significance of the interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remains unclear. Methods and Results-We examined the relationship between PPI use and 1-year cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) in patients with acute coronary syndrome randomized to clopidogrel or ticagrelor in a prespecified, nonrandomized subgroup analysis of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. The primary end point rates were higher for individuals on a PPI (n = 6539) compared with those not on a PPI (n = 12 060) at randomization in both the clopidogrel (13.0% versus 10.9%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 -1.38) and ticagrelor (11.0% versus 9.2%; HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07-1.45) groups. Patients on non-PPI gastrointestinal drugs had similar primary end point rates compared with those on a PPI (PPI versus non-PPI gastrointestinal treatment: clopidogrel, HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.79-1.23; ticagrelor, HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73-1.10). In contrast, patients on no gastric therapy had a significantly lower primary end point rate (PPI versus no gastrointestinal treatment: clopidogrel, HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12-1.49; ticagrelor, HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14-1.49). Conclusions-The use of a PPI was independently associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome receiving clopidogrel. However, a similar association was observed between cardiovascular events and PPI use during ticagrelor treatment and with other non-PPI gastrointestinal treatment. Therefore, in the PLATO trial, the association between PPI use and adverse events may be due to confounding, with PPI use more of a marker for, than a cause of, higher rates of cardiovascular events.

  • 37. Greinacher, A
    et al.
    Lubenow, Norbert
    Recombinant hirudin in clinical practice: focus on lepirudin.2001In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 103, no 10, p. 1479-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical applications for recombinant hirudins have been investigated for the past 10 years. The first indication for which a hirudin-lepirudin-has been approved is treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Also, the recently completed trials for use of lepirudin in unstable angina indicate a potentially new indication. This review describes pharmacology and clinical applications of lepirudin with an emphasis on HIT and unstable angina. An overview of usage of lepirudin in acute coronary syndromes is given, as well as a summary of rare indications for lepirudin, such as extracorporeal circulation, for which comprehensive data are lacking.

  • 38. Greinacher, A
    et al.
    Lubenow, Norbert
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Greifswald University, Germany.
    Eichler, P
    Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions associated with lepirudin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.2003In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 108, no 17, p. 2062-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Lepirudin (Refludan) is a hirudin derivative. It is a direct thrombin inhibitor obtained by recombinant technology from the medicinal leech and is approved for treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia complicated by thrombosis. Because 3 cases of fatal anaphylaxis possibly associated with use of lepirudin have been reported, we initiated an investigation of putative lepirudin-associated anaphylaxis.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Aided by the manufacturer (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), we used the lepirudin study databases to identify all patients in whom possible anaphylaxis/severe allergy was recorded from 1994 to September 2002. The 26 possible cases identified were reviewed independently by 2 investigators. After excluding patients with mild skin reactions, reactions likely caused by concomitant medications, poorly documented cases, and reactions that did not correspond temporally with lepirudin use, there remained 9 patients judged to have had severe anaphylaxis in close temporal association with lepirudin. All reactions occurred within minutes of intravenous lepirudin administration, with 4 fatal outcomes (3 acute cardiorespiratory arrests, 1 hypotension-induced myocardial infarction). In these 4 cases, a previous uneventful treatment course with lepirudin was identified (1 to 12 weeks earlier). We recorded high-titer IgG-anti-lepirudin antibodies in an additional patient with anaphylaxis. Because lepirudin has been used in approximately 35 000 patients, the risk of anaphylaxis is approximately 0.015% (5 of 32 500) on first exposure and 0.16% (4 of 2500) in reexposed patients (7.5% estimated reexposures).

    CONCLUSIONS: Lepirudin can cause fatal anaphylaxis, particularly in patients who are treated within 3 months of a previous exposure. The overall risk/benefit assessment of lepirudin as a treatment for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia remains favorable.

  • 39.
    Hagström, Emil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Eriksson, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Bertilsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Barratt, Bryan J.
    Becker, Richard C.
    Himmelmann, Anders
    James, Stefan K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Katus, Hugo A.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Coagulation and inflammation science.
    Steg, Philippe G.
    Storey, Robert F.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Varenhorst, Christoph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Åkerblom, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Are There Any Causal Relations Between Growth Differentiation Factor 15 and Outcomes in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome?: - A Report From the Plato Gwas Study2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Hagström, Emil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Larsson, Tobias E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Berglund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Held, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Plasma parathyroid hormone and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the community2009In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 119, no 21, p. 2765-2771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Diseases with elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) such as primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism are associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and death. However, data on the prospective association between circulating PTH levels and cardiovascular mortality in the community are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM), a community-based cohort of elderly men (mean age, 71 years; n=958), was used to investigate the association between plasma PTH and cardiovascular mortality. During follow-up (median, 9.7 years), 117 participants died of cardiovascular causes. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for established cardiovascular risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antihypertensive treatment, lipid-lowering treatment, and history of cardiovascular disease), higher plasma PTH was associated with higher risk for cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio for 1-SD increase in PTH, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.60; P<0.001). This association remained essentially unaltered in participants without previous cardiovascular disease and in participants with normal PTH (<6.8 pmol/L) with no other signs of a disturbed mineral metabolism (normal serum calcium, 2.2 to 2.6 mmol/L; normal glomerular filtration rate, >50 mL . min(-1) . 1.73 m(-2) and without vitamin D deficiency, plasma 25-OH vitamin D >37.5 nmol/L). Interestingly, elevated plasma PTH (>5.27 pmol/L) accounted for 20% (95% confidence interval, 10 to 26) of the population-attributable risk proportion for cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma PTH levels predict cardiovascular mortality in the community, even in individuals with PTH within the normal range. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical implications of measuring PTH in cardiovascular risk prediction and to elucidate whether PTH is a modifiable risk factor.

  • 41. Hambraeus, Kristina
    et al.
    Jensevik, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Long-Term Outcome of Incomplete Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42. Healey, Jeff S.
    et al.
    Eikelboom, John
    Douketis, James
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Yang, Sean
    Themeles, Ellison
    Heidbuchle, Hein
    Avezum, Alvaro
    Reilly, Paul
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Ezekowitz, Michael
    Periprocedural Bleeding and Thromboembolic Events With Dabigatran Compared With Warfarin Results From the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) Randomized Trial2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 126, no 3, p. 343-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-Dabigatran reduces ischemic stroke in comparison with warfarin; however, given the lack of antidote, there is concern that it might increase bleeding when surgery or invasive procedures are required.

    Methods and Results-The current analysis was undertaken to compare the periprocedural bleeding risk of patients in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial treated with dabigatran and warfarin. Bleeding rates were evaluated from 7 days before until 30 days after invasive procedures, considering only the first procedure for each patient. A total of 4591 patients underwent at least 1 invasive procedure: 24.7% of patients received dabigatran 110 mg, 25.4% received dabigatran 150 mg, and 25.9% received warfarin, P=0.34. Procedures included: pacemaker/defibrillator insertion (10.3%), dental procedures (10.0%), diagnostic procedures (10.0%), cataract removal (9.3%), colonoscopy (8.6%), and joint replacement (6.2%). Among patients assigned to either dabigatran dose, the last dose of study drug was given 49 (35-85) hours before the procedure on comparison with 114 (87-144) hours in patients receiving warfarin, P<0.001. There was no significant difference in the rates of periprocedural major bleeding between patients receiving dabigatran 110 mg (3.8%) or dabigatran 150 mg (5.1%) or warfarin (4.6%); dabigatran 110 mg versus warfarin: relative risk, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.17; P=0.28; dabigatran 150 mg versus warfarin: relative risk, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.49; P=0.58. Among patients having urgent surgery, major bleeding occurred in 17.8% with dabigatran 110 mg, 17.7% with dabigatran 150 mg, and 21.6% with warfarin: dabigatran 110 mg; relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.41; P=0.47; dabigatran 150 mg: relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.35; P=0.44.

    Conclusions-Dabigatran and warfarin were associated with similar rates of periprocedural bleeding, including patients having urgent surgery. Dabigatran facilitated a shorter interruption of oral anticoagulation.

  • 43. Healey, Jeff S.
    et al.
    Eikelboom, John
    Yang, Sean
    Themeles, Ellison
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Douketis, James
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    Avezum, Alvaro
    Reilly, Paul
    Ezekowitz, Michael
    "Periprocedural Bleeding and Thromboembolic Events With Dabigatran Compared With Warfarin: Results From the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) Randomized Trial" Response2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 127, no 11, p. E506-E506Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Healey, Jeff S
    et al.
    Eikelboom, John
    Yang, Sean
    Themeles, Ellison
    Connolly, Stuart J
    Yusuf, Salim
    Douketis, James
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    Avezum, Alvaro
    Reilly, Paul
    Ezekowitz, Michael
    Response to letters regarding article: “Periprocedural bleeding and thromboembolic events with dabigatran compared with warfarin results from the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) Randomized Trial"2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 127, no 11, article id e506Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Held, C
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gerstein, H C
    Yusuf, S
    Zhao, F
    Hilbrich, L
    Anderson, C
    Sleight, P
    Teo, K
    Glucose levels predict hospitalization for congestive heart failure in patients at high cardiovascular risk2007In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 115, no 11, p. 1371-1375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background— Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at high risk of developing congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the relationships between glucose levels and CHF in people with or without a history of DM have not been well characterized.

    Methods and Results— We evaluated the associations between fasting plasma glucose and risk of hospitalization for CHF during follow-up in patients at high cardiovascular risk and without CHF enrolled in a large-scale clinical trials program. Baseline fasting plasma glucose levels were assessed in 31 546 high-risk subjects with 1 coronary, peripheral, or cerebrovascular disease or DM with end-organ damage who are participating in 2 ongoing parallel trials evaluating the effects of telmisartan, ramipril, or their combination (Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial [ONTARGET]; n=25 620) and the effects of telmisartan against placebo in angiotensin-converting enzyme–intolerant patients (Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects With Cardiovascular Disease [TRANSCEND]; n=5926). Interim analyses blinded for randomized treatment were performed to compare baseline fasting plasma glucose with the adjusted CHF event rate at a mean follow-up of 886 days. Multivariable Cox regression models were performed, and associations were reported as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Among all subjects (mean age, 67 years; 69% men), of whom 11 708 (37%) had known DM and 1006 (3.2%) had newly diagnosed DM at baseline, 668 patients were hospitalized for CHF during follow-up. After adjustment for age and sex, a 1-mmol/L-higher fasting plasma glucose was associated with a 1.10-fold-increased risk of CHF hospitalization (95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.12; P<0.0001). The association persisted after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, previous myocardial infarction, hypertension, waist-to-hip ratio, creatinine, DM, and use of aspirin, ß-blockers, or statins (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.08; P<0.001).

    Conclusions— Fasting plasma glucose is an independent predictor of hospitalization for CHF in high-risk subjects. These data provide theoretical support for potential direct beneficial effects of glucose lowering in reducing the risk of CHF and suggests the need for specific studies targeted at this issue.

  • 46.
    Held, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Johanson, Per
    Edberg, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Mattsson, Eva
    Sterner, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Trends in Reperfusion Strategy 1995-2011 in Sweden. Results From the SWEDEHEART Registry2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Helmersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Association of type 2 diabetes with cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress in an elderly population2004In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 109, no 14, p. 1729-1734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated inflammation in type 2 diabetes has not been studied, and the association between cytokine-mediated inflammation and diabetes is not fully clarified.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: 15-Keto-dihydro-prostaglandin F2alpha (a metabolite of prostaglandin F2alpha and an indicator of COX-mediated inflammation), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid protein A (SAA), 8-iso-PGF2alpha (a nonenzymatic, free radical product of arachidonic acid and an indicator of oxidative stress), and alpha-tocopherol were measured in a population-based sample of 77-year-old men (n=765), in which 112 men had type 2 diabetes. The inflammatory indicators were increased in men with diabetes (urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha, P<0.001, CRP and SAA, P<0.05). However, when adjusted for body mass index, waist circumference, or fasting insulin, no association was found between diabetes and CRP or SAA. The oxidative stress indicator 8-iso-PGF2alpha in urine was increased (P<0.01) in men with diabetes. Patients who were newly diagnosed with diabetes (<7 years since diagnosis) had increased urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha and decreased alpha-tocopherol, but 8-iso-PGF2alpha was unaltered.

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that type 2 diabetes in elderly men is related to COX-mediated inflammation, reflected by enhanced prostaglandin formation. The high levels of cytokine-mediated acute-phase proteins observed in men with diabetes appear to be related to obesity and increased fasting insulin. The results further suggest that the appearance of chronic inflammation is an early process in the pathogenesis of diabetes, whereas oxidative injury may be a later process, possibly related to inflammation.

  • 48.
    Hijazi, Ziad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Eikelboom, John W.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Coagulation and inflammation science.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Efficacy and Safety of Dabigatran Compared With Warfarin in Relation to Baseline Renal Function in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation A RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy) Trial Analysis2014In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 129, no 9, p. 961-970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Renal impairment increases the risk of stroke and bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation. In the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy (RELY) trial, dabigatran, with approximate to 80% renal elimination, displayed superiority over warfarin for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in the 150-mg dose and significantly less major bleeding in the 110-mg dose in 18 113 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. This prespecified study investigated these outcomes in relation to renal function. Methods and Results Glomerular filtration rate was estimated with the Cockcroft-Gault, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations in all randomized patients with available creatinine at baseline (n=17 951), and cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate was estimated in a subpopulation with measurements available (n=6190). A glomerular filtration rate 80, 50 to <80, and <50 mL/min was estimated in 32.6%, 47.6%, and 19.8% and in 21.6%, 59.6%, and 18.8% of patients based on Cockcroft-Gault and CKD-EPI, respectively. Rates of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality increased as renal function decreased. The rates of stroke or systemic embolism were lower with dabigatran 150 mg and similar with 110 mg twice daily compared with warfarin, without significant heterogeneity in subgroups defined by renal function (interaction P>0.1 for all). For the outcome of major bleeding, there were significant interactions between treatment and renal function according to CKD-EPI and MDRD equations, respectively (P<0.05). The relative reduction in major bleeding with either dabigatran dose compared with warfarin was greater in patients with glomerular filtration rate 80 mL/min. Conclusions The efficacy of both dosages of dabigatran was consistent with the overall trial irrespective of renal function. However, with the CKD-EPI and MDRD equations, both dabigatran dosages displayed significantly lower rates of major bleeding in patients with glomerular filtration rate 80 mL/min. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00262600.

  • 49.
    Hijazi, Ziad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Eikelboom, John W.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Response to Letter Regarding Article, "Efficacy and Safety of Dabigatran Compared With Warfarin in Relation to Baseline Renal Function in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy) Trial Analysis"2014In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 130, no 22, p. E195-E195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Hijazi, Ziad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Vinereanu, Dragos
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Cardiac Biomarkers Are Associated With an Increased Risk of Stroke and Death in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) Substudy2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 125, no 13, p. 1605-1616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background—Cardiac biomarkers are strong predictors of adverse outcomes in several patient populations. We evaluated the prevalence of elevated troponin I and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and their association to cardiovascular events in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial.

    Methods and Results—Biomarkers at randomization were analyzed in 6189 patients. Outcomes were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for established cardiovascular risk factors and the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc risk scores. Patients were stratified based on troponin I concentrations: <0.010 μg/L, n=2663; 0.010 to 0.019 μg/L, n=2006; 0.020 to 0.039 μg/L, n=1023; ≥0.040 μg/L, n=497; and on NT-proBNP concentration quartiles: <387; 387 to 800; 801 to 1402; >1402 ng/L. Rates of stroke were independently related to levels of troponin I with 2.09%/year in the highest and 0.84%/year in the lowest troponin I group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.99 [95% CI, 1.17–3.39]; P=0.0040), and to NT-proBNP with 2.30%/year versus 0.92% in the highest versus lowest NT-proBNP quartile groups, (HR, 2.40 [95% CI, 1.41–4.07]; P=0.0014). Vascular mortality was also independently related to biomarker levels with 6.56%/year in the highest and 1.04%/year the lowest troponin I group (HR, 4.38 [95% CI, 3.05–6.29]; P<0.0001), and 5.00%/year in the highest and 0.61%/year in the lowest NT-proBNP quartile groups (HR, 6.73 [3.95–11.49]; P<0.0001). Biomarkers increased the C-statistic from 0.68 to 0.72, P<0.0001, for a composite of thromboembolic events.

    Conclusions—Elevations of troponin I and NT-proBNP are common in patients with AF and independently related to increased risks of stroke and mortality. Cardiac biomarkers seem useful for improving risk prediction in AF beyond currently used clinical variables.

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