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  • 1. Alfredsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Swahn, Ewa
    Gender differences in management and outcome in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome2007In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 93, no 11, p. 1357-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study gender differences in management and outcome in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: Cohort study of 53 781 consecutive patients (37% women) from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions (RIKS-HIA), with a diagnosis of either unstable angina pectoris or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. All patients were admitted to intensive coronary care units in Sweden, between 1998 and 2002, and followed for 1 year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Treatment intensity and in-hospital, 30-day and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: Women were older (73 vs 69 years, p<0.001) and more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes, but less likely to have a history of myocardial infarction or revascularisation. After adjustment, there were no major differences in acute pharmacological treatment or prophylactic medication at discharge. Revascularisation was, however, even after adjustment, performed more often in men (OR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.21). After adjustment, there was no significant difference in in-hospital (OR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.13) or 30-days (OR 1.07; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.15) mortality, but at 1 year being male was associated with higher mortality (OR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.19). CONCLUSION: Although women are somewhat less intensively treated, especially regarding invasive procedures, after adjustment for differences in background characteristics, they have better long-term outcomes than men.

  • 2.
    Bahit, M. Cecilia
    et al.
    INECO, Neurociencias Orono Rosario, Santa Fe, NM, Argentina..
    Lopes, Renato D.
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA..
    Wojdyla, Daniel M.
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA..
    Held, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Hanna, Michael
    Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ USA..
    Vinereanu, Dragos
    Univ Med & Pharm Carol Davila, Bucharest, Romania..
    Hylek, Elaine M.
    Boston Univ, Med Ctr, Boston, MA USA..
    Verheugt, Freek
    Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis OLVG, Heartctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Goto, Shinya
    Tokai Univ, Sch Med, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Alexander, John H.
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Granger, Christopher B.
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA..
    Non-major bleeding with apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation2017In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 103, no 8, p. 623-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective We describe the incidence, location and management of non-major bleeding, and assess the association between non-major bleeding and clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving anticoagulation therapy enrolled in Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE). Methods We included patients who received >= 1 dose of study drug (n= 18 140). Non-major bleeding was defined as the first bleeding event considered to be clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) or minor bleeding, and not preceded by a major bleeding event. Results Non-major bleeding was three times more common than major bleeding (12.1% vs 3.8%). Like major bleeding, non-major bleeding was less frequent with apixaban (6.4 per 100 patient-years) than warfarin (9.4 per 100 patient-years) (adjusted HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.75). The most frequent sites of non-major bleeding were haematuria (16.4%), epistaxis (14.8%), gastrointestinal (13.3%), haematoma (11.5%) and bruising/ecchymosis (10.1%). Medical or surgical intervention was similar among patients with non-major bleeding on warfarin versus apixaban (24.7% vs 24.5%). A change in antithrombotic therapy (58.6% vs 50.0%) and permanent study drug discontinuation (5.1% (61) vs 3.6% (30), p=0.10) was numerically higher with warfarin than apixaban. CRNM bleeding was independently associated with an increased risk of overall death (adjusted HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.18) and subsequent major bleeding (adjusted HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.04). Conclusions In ARISTOTLE, non-major bleeding was common and substantially less frequent with apixaban than with warfarin. CRNM bleeding was independently associated with a higher risk of death and subsequent major bleeding. Our results highlight the importance of any severity of bleeding in patients with AF treated with anticoagulation therapy and suggest that non-major bleeding, including minor bleeding, might not be minor.

  • 3.
    Baron, Tomasz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Erlinge, David
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Type 2 myocardial infarction in clinical practice2015In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 101-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective We aimed to assess differences in incidence, clinical features, current treatment strategies and outcome in patients with type 2 vs. type 1 acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and results All 20 138 hospitalisations in Sweden with a diagnosis of AMI registered during 2011 in the Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies were classified into types 1-5 in accordance with the universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) from 2007. Type 1 AMI was present in 88.5% of the cases while 7.1% were classified as type 2 AMI. Higher age, female sex, comorbidities, impaired renal function, anaemia and smaller extent of myocardial necrosis characterised patients with type 2 AMI. While normal coronary arteries were more frequently seen (42.4% vs. 7.4%), an invasive treatment was less common, and antiplatelet medications were less prescribed in patients with type 2 AMI compared with type 1 AMI. The group with type 2 AMI had significantly higher crude 1-year mortality compared with the group with type 1 AMI (24.7% vs. 13.5%, p< 0.001). However, after adjustment, the HR for 1-year mortality in patients with type 2 AMI was 1.03 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.23). Conclusions In this real-life study, 7.1% of myocardial infarctions were classified as type 2 AMI. These patients were older, predominantly women and had more comorbidities. Invasive treatment strategies and cardioprotective medications were less used. Patients with type 2 AMI had higher crude mortality compared with type 1 patients with MI. However, after adjustment, the 1-year mortality was similar.

  • 4. Bartnik,
    et al.
    Rydén,
    Malmberg,
    Öhrvik, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Pyörälä,
    Standl,
    Ferrari,
    Simoons,
    Soler-Soler,
    Oral glucose tolerance test is needed for appropriate classification of glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on Diabetes and the Heart.2007In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 72-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) are at high risk for subsequent cardiovascular events, underlining the importance of accurate glucometabolic assessment in clinical practice. Objective: To investigate different methods to identify glucose disturbances among patients with acute and stable coronary heart disease. Methods: Consecutive patients referred to cardiologists were prospectively enrolled at 110 centres in 25 countries (n=4961). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycaemia 2 h after a 75-g glucose load were requested in patients without known glucose abnormalities (n=3362). Glucose metabolism was classified according to the World Health Organization and American Diabetes Association (ADA; 1997, 2004) criteria as normal, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes. Results: Data on FPG and 2-h post-load glycaemia were available for 1867 patients, of whom 870 (47%) had normal glucose regulation, 87 (5%) had IFG, 591 (32%) had IGT and 319 (17%) had diabetes. If classification had been based on the ADA criterion from 1997, the proportion of misclassified (underdiagnosed) patients would have been 39%. The ADA 2004 criterion would have overdiagnosed 8% and underdiagnosed 33% of the patients, resulting in a total misclassification rate of 41%. For ethical concerns and practical reasons, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was not conducted in 1495 of eligible patients. These patients were more often women, had higher age and waist circumference, and were therefore more likely to have AGR than those who were included. A model based on easily available clinical and laboratory variables, including FPG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, age and the logarithm of glycated haemoglobin A1c, misclassified 44% of the patients, of whom 18% were overdiagnosed and 26% were underdiagnosed. Conclusion: An OGTT is still the most appropriate method for the clinical assessment of glucometabolic status in patients with coronary heart disease.

  • 5.
    Batra, Gorav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Held, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johanson, Per
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.;AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    All types of atrial fibrillation in the setting of myocardial infarction are associated with impaired outcome2016In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 102, no 12, p. 926-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate 90-day cardiovascular outcome in patients after myocardial infarction (MI) in relation to different subtypes of atrial fibrillation (AF) and MI. Methods We studied 155 071 hospital survivors of MI between 2000 and 2009 in Swedish registries. AF subtypes were defined according to history of AF and in-hospital ECG recordings. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with multivariable Cox models. Results AF was documented in 24 023 (15.5%) cases. The AF subtypes were new-onset AF with sinus rhythm at discharge (3.7%), new-onset AF with AF at discharge (3.9%), paroxysmal AF (4.9%) and chronic AF (3.0%). The event rate per 100 person-years for the composite cardiovascular outcome (all-cause mortality, MI or ischaemic stroke) was 90.9 in patients with any type of AF versus 45.2 in patients with sinus rhythm, adjusted hazard ratio with 95% CI (HR) 1.28 (1.19 to 1.37). There were no significant differences in the composite cardiovascular outcome between AF subtypes. AF was associated with higher risk of mortality, HR 1.59 (1.41 to 1.80), reinfarction, HR 1.14 (1.05 to 1.24), and ischaemic stroke, HR 2.29 (1.92 to 2.74), respectively. In subgroup analysis, AF was associated with a higher risk of composite cardiovascular outcome in the non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and STelevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) cohort, HR 1.24 (1.13 to 1.36) and HR 1.34 (1.21 to 1.48), respectively, with p value for interaction= 0.23. Conclusions AF is common in the setting of MI and is associated with a higher risk of composite cardiovascular outcome and the individual components; mortality, reinfarction and ischaemic stroke, respectively. No major difference in outcome was observed between AF subtypes. No difference in outcome for AF was observed between the NSTEMI and STEMI cohort.

  • 6. Berglund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Sörensson, Peder
    Christersson, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Nielsen, Niels-Eric
    Rinnström, Daniel
    Thilén, Ulf
    High incidence of infective endocarditis in adults with congenital ventricular septal defect2016In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 102, no 22, p. 1835-1839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Ventricular septal defects (VSDs), if haemodynamically important, are closed whereas small shunts are left without intervention. The long-term prognosis in congenital VSD is good but patients are still at risk for long-term complications. The aim of this study was to clarify the incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) in adults with VSD.

    METHODS: The Swedish registry for congenital heart disease (SWEDCON) was searched for adults with VSD. 779 patients were identified, 531 with small shunts and 248 who had the VSD previously closed. The National Patient Register was then searched for hospitalisations due to IE in adults during a 10-year period.

    RESULTS: Sixteen (2%) patients were treated for IE, 6 men and 10 women, with a mean age of 46.3±12.2 years. The incidence of IE was 1.7-2.7/1000 years in patients without previous intervention, 20-30 times the risk in the general population. Thirteen had small shunts without previous intervention. There was no mortality in these 13 cases. Two patients had undergone repair of their VSD and also aortic valve replacement before the episode of endocarditis and a third patient with repaired VSD had a bicuspid aortic valve, all of these three patients needed reoperation because of their IE and one patient died. No patient with isolated and operated VSD was diagnosed with IE.

    CONCLUSIONS: A small unoperated VSD in adults carries a substantially increased risk of IE but is associated with a low risk of mortality.

  • 7. Björck, Lena
    et al.
    Rosengren, A.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Stenestrand, U.
    Smoking in relation to ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction: findings from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions2009In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 95, no 12, p. 1006-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: In the past few decades, clinical presentation in AMI has been reported to be changing, with milder cases and less ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the most serious form of AMI. The better outcome may be due to improved medical and interventional management, as well as more sensitive methods for detecting AMI. However, changes in risk factors have also been documented, especially lower tobacco-smoking rates. Therefore, the relation between smoking and ST-elevation AMI in a large observational cohort was analysed. METHODS: Data were derived from 93 416 consecutive patients aged 25 to 84 years and admitted to hospital between 1996 and 2004 with a first AMI. RESULTS: Tobacco smoking was more prevalent in younger patients (ie, <65 years). More than 50% of younger patients presenting with STEMI were smokers at the time of hospitalisation. After multiple="multiple" adjustments, smoking was found to be an independent determinant for presenting with STEMI compared with non-STEMI. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) associated with smoking was 2.01 (99% CI 1.75 to 2.30) in younger women and 1.33 (99% CI 1.22 to 1.43) in younger men, with a significant interaction between smoking and gender. In older women and men (> or =65 years), the corresponding ORs were 1.33 (99% CI 1.20 to 1.48) and 1.14 (99% CI 1.04 to 1.25), respectively. CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoking is a major determinant for presenting with STEMI compared with non-STEMI, particularly among younger patients and among women. These results indicate that smoking is one of the major risk factors for presenting with more severe AMIs.

  • 8.
    Björklund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Jernberg, T.
    Johanson, P.
    Venge, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Dellborg, M.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research center.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research center.
    Admission N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and its interaction with admission troponin T and ST segment resolution for early risk stratification in ST elevation myocardial infarction2006In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 735-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the long term prognostic value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) on admission and its prognostic interaction with both admission troponin T (TnT) concentrations and resolution of ST segment elevation in fibrinolytic treated ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

    Design and setting: Substudy of the ASSENT (assessment of the safety and efficacy of a new thrombolytic) -2 and ASSENT-PLUS trials.

    Patients: NT-proBNP and TnT concentrations were determined on admission in 782 patients. According to NT-proBNP concentrations, patients were divided into three groups: normal concentration (for patients ≤ 65 years, ≤ 184 ng/l and ≤ 268 ng/l and for those > 65 years, ≤ 269 ng/l and ≤ 391 ng/l in men and women, respectively); higher than normal but less than the median concentration (742 ng/l); and above the median concentration. For TnT, a cut off of 0.1 μg/l was used. Of the 782 patients, 456 had ST segment resolution (< 50% or ≥ 50%) at 60 minutes calculated from ST monitoring.

    Main outcome measures: All cause one year mortality.

    Results: One year mortality increased stepwise according to increasing concentrations of NT-proBNP (3.4%, 6.5%, and 23.5%, respectively, p < 0.001). In receiver operating characteristic analysis, NT-proBNP strongly trended to be associated more with mortality than TnT and time to 50% ST resolution (area under the curve 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.9, 0.67, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.79, and 0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.77, respectively). In a multivariable analysis adjusted for baseline risk factors and TnT, both raised NT-proBNP and ST resolution < 50% were independently associated with higher one year mortality, whereas raised TnT contributed independently only before information on ST resolution was added to the model.

    Conclusion: Admission NT-proBNP is a strong independent predictor of mortality and gives, together with 50% ST resolution at 60 minutes, important prognostic information even after adjustment for TnT and baseline characteristics in STEMI.

  • 9.
    Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine.
    Drug treatment of supraventricular tachycardia2009In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 95, no 21, p. 1803-1807Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Karolinska Inst, Div Family Med, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Li, Xinjun
    Lund Univ, Ctr Primary Hlth Care Res, Malmo, Sweden..
    Holzmann, Martin J.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Emergency Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Internal Med, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wändell, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Div Family Med, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Gasevic, Danijela
    Univ Edinburgh, Coll Med & Vet Med, Ctr Populat Hlth Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Sundquist, Jan
    Lund Univ, Ctr Primary Hlth Care Res, Malmo, Sweden..
    Sundquist, Kristina
    Lund Univ, Ctr Primary Hlth Care Res, Malmo, Sweden..
    Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease in individuals between 40 and 50 years2016In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 102, no 10, p. 775-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has decreased in general but not among younger middle-aged adults. We performed a cohort study of the association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) at the age of 40 and risk of MI before the age of 50 years.

    Methods All individuals in Sweden were included in the year of their 40th birthday, if it occurred between 1998 and 2010. National registers were used to categorise neighbourhood SES into high, middle and low, and to retrieve information on incident MI and coronary heart disease (CHD). Cox regression models, adjusted for marital status, education level, immigrant status and region of residence, provided an estimate of the HRs and 95% CIs for MI or CHD.

    Results Out of 587 933 men and 563 719 women, incident MI occurred in 2877 (0.48%) men and 932 (0.17%) women; and CHD occurred in 4400 (0.74%) men and 1756 (0.31%) women during a mean follow-up of 5.5 years. Using individuals living in middle-SES neighbourhoods as referents, living in high-SES neighbourhoods was associated with lower risk of MI in both sexes (HR (95% CI): men: 0.72 (0.64 to 0.82), women: 0.66 (0.53 to 0.81)); living in low-SES neighbourhoods was associated with a higher risk of MI (HR (95% CI): men: 1.31 (1.20 to 1.44), women: 1.28 (1.08 to 1.50)). Similar risk estimates for CHD were found.

    Conclusions The results of our study suggest an increased risk of MI and CHD among residents from low-SES neighbourhoods and a lower risk in those from high-SES neighbourhoods compared with residents in middle-SES neighbourhoods.

  • 11. Carlsson, Jörg
    et al.
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ståhle, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Höfer, Sebastian
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention in hospitals with and without on-site cardiac surgery standby2007In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 335-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To compare characteristics and outcome of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinics with (WSB) or without (NOSB) on-site cardiac surgery backup. DESIGN: Analysis according to hospital, type of prospectively collected data of all patients who underwent PCI during 2000-3. SETTING: The Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry covers all PCI procedures performed in Sweden. PATIENTS: 34,363 patients underwent PCI between January 2000 and December 2003. 8838 procedures were performed in NOSB (mean age of patients was 64.5 years) hospitals and 25,525 in WSB (mean age of patients was 64.1 years) hospitals (p = 0.002). RESULTS: More patients in NOSB hospitals had diabetes (17.8% vs 16.8%; p = 0.03). Other clinical characteristics (previous infarct, previous coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)) also showed a tendency towards worse patients being treated in NOSB hospitals. However, there was a higher percentage of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (18% vs 9.7%; p<0.01) in WSB hospitals. After adjusting for differences in baseline risk no significant differences regarding outcome (30-day mortality, 1-year mortality, stroke and emergency CABG) were observable between WSB and NOSB hospitals. This applied to elective and non-elective procedures. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these data it does not seem warranted to recommend against percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in NOSB hospitals.

  • 12.
    Christersson, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Alexander, John H
    Alings, Marco
    De Caterina, Raffaele
    Gersh, Bernard J
    Granger, Christopher B
    Halvorsen, Sigrun
    Hanna, Michael
    Huber, Kurt
    Hylek, Elaine M
    Lopes, Renato D
    Oh, Byung-Hee
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Effect of apixaban compared with warfarin on coagulation markers in atrial fibrillation.2019In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 235-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Compare the effect of apixaban and warfarin on coagulation and primary haemostasis biomarkers in atrial fibrillation (AF).

    METHODS: The biomarker substudy from the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation trial included 4850 patients with AF randomised to treatment with apixaban or warfarin. Sixty per cent of patients used vitamin K antagonist (VKA) within 7 days before randomisation. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), D-dimer, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen were analysed at randomisation and after 2 months of study treatment.

    RESULTS: In patients not on VKA treatment at randomisation, F1+2 and D-dimer levels were decreased by 25% and 23%, respectively, with apixaban, and by 59% and 38%, respectively, with warfarin (p<0.0001 for treatment differences for both). In patients on VKA at randomisation, F1+2 and D-dimer levels increased by 41% and 10%, respectively, with apixaban and decreased by 37% and 11%, respectively, with warfarin (p<0.0001 for treatment differences for both). sCD40L levels were slightly increased at 2 months, regardless of VKA or randomised treatment. Apixaban and warfarin also both reduced vWF antigen regardless of VKA treatment. The efficacy (stroke) and safety (bleeding) of apixaban compared with warfarin was similar irrespectively of biomarker levels at 2 months.

    CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with apixaban compared with warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with AF was associated with less reduction in thrombin generation and fibrin turnover. This effect of apixaban could contribute to the clinical results where apixaban was superior to warfarin both in stroke prevention and in reducing bleeding risk.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00412984.

  • 13.
    Collinson, Paul
    et al.
    St George Hosp, Dept Clin Blood Sci, London SW17 0RE, England.;St George Hosp, Dept Cardiol, London SW17 0RE, England.;Sch Med, London, England..
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Type 2 myocardial infarction: the chimaera of cardiology?2015In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 101, no 21, p. 1697-1703Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term type 2 myocardial infarction first appeared as part of the universal definition of myocardial infarction. It was introduced to cover a group of patients who had elevation of cardiac troponin but did not meet the traditional criteria for acute myocardial infarction although they were considered to have an underlying ischaemic aetiology for the myocardial damage observed. Since first inception, the term type 2 myocardial infarction has always been vague. Although attempts have been made to produce a systematic definition of what constitutes a type 2 myocardial infarction, it has been more often characterised by what it is not rather than what it is. Clinical studies that have used type 2 myocardial infarction as a diagnostic criterion have produced disparate incidence figures. The range of associated clinical conditions differs from study to study. Additionally, there are no agreed or evidence-based treatment strategies for type 2 myocardial infarction. The authors believe that the term type 2 myocardial infarction is confusing and not evidence-based. They consider that there is good reason to stop using this term and consider instead the concept of secondary myocardial injury that relates to the underlying pathophysiology of the primary clinical condition.

  • 14. Damman, Peter
    et al.
    Clayton, Tim
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Fox, Keith A A
    Hirsch, Alexander
    Windhausen, Fons
    Swahn, Eva
    Pocock, Stuart J
    Tijssen, Jan G P
    de Winter, Robbert J
    Effects of age on long-term outcomes after a routine invasive or selective invasive strategy in patients presenting with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: a collaborative analysis of individual data from the FRISC II - ICTUS - RITA-3 (FIR) trials2012In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 207-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To perform a patient-pooled analysis of a routine invasive versus a selective invasive strategy in elderly patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Methods

    A meta-analysis was performed of patient-pooled data from the FRISC II-ICTUS-RITA-3 (FIR) studies. (Un)adjusted HRs were calculated by Cox regression, with adjustments for variables associated with age and outcomes. The main outcome was 5-year cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (MI) following routine invasive versus selective invasive management.

    Results

    Regarding the 5-year composite of cardiovascular death or MI, the routine invasive strategy was associated with a lower hazard in patients aged 65-74 years (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.90) and those aged ≥75 years (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.91), but not in those aged <65 years (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.38), p=0.001 for interaction between treatment strategy and age. The interaction was driven by an excess of early MIs in patients <65 years of age; there was no heterogeneity between age groups concerning cardiovascular death. The benefits were smaller for women than for men (p=0.009 for interaction). After adjustment for other clinical risk factors the HRs remained similar.

    Conclusion

    The current analysis of the FIR dataset shows that the long-term benefit of the routine invasive strategy over the selective invasive strategy is attenuated in younger patients aged <65 years and in women by the increased risk of early events which seem to have no consequences for long-term cardiovascular mortality. No other clinical risk factors were able to identify patients with differential responses to a routine invasive strategy.

  • 15.
    De Silva, Kalpa
    et al.
    Kings Coll Hosp London, Dept Cardiol, London, England..
    Myat, Aung
    Brighton & Sussex Univ Hosp NHS Trust, Sussex Cardiac Ctr, Brighton, E Sussex, England.;Brighton & Sussex Med Sch, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Cotton, James
    Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Dept Cardiol, Heart & Lung Ctr, Wolverhampton, W Midlands, England..
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Gershlick, Anthony
    Univ Leicester, Dept Cardiol, Leicester, Leics, England.;NIHR Leicester Cardiovasc Biomed Res Ctr, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Stone, Gregg W.
    Columbia Univ, New York Presbyterian Hosp, Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, 161 First Washington Ave,Herbert Irving Pavil, New York, NY 10032 USA..
    Bleeding associated with the management of acute coronary syndromes2017In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 103, no 7, p. 546-562Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Edfors, Robert
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sahlen, Anders
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden;Natl Heart Ctr, Singapore, Singapore.
    Szummer, Karolina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Renlund, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Evans, Marie
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Div Renal Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carrero, Juan-Jesus
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spaak, Jonas
    Karolinska Inst, Danderyd Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Varenhorst, Christoph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Karolinska Inst, Danderyd Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Outcomes in patients treated with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel after acute myocardial infarction stratified by renal function2018In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 104, no 19, p. 1575-1582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives We aimed to analyse outcomes of ticagrelor and clopidogrel stratified by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a large unselected cohort of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods We used follow-up data in MI survivors discharged on ticagrelor or clopidogrel enrolled in the Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies registry. The association between ticagrelor versus clopidogrel and the primary composite outcome of death, MI or stroke and the secondary outcome rehospitalisation with bleeding diagnosis at 1year, was studied using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, stratifying after eGFR levels. Results In total, 45 206 patients with MI discharged on clopidogrel (n=33472) or ticagrelor (n=11734) were included. The unadjusted 1-year event rate for the composite endpoint of death, MI or stroke was 7.0%, 18.0% and 48.0% for ticagrelor treatment and 11.0%, 33.0% and 64.0% for clopidogrel treatment in patients with eGFR(>60) (n=33668), eGFR(30-60) (n=9803) and eGFR(<30) (n=1735), respectively. After adjustment, ticagrelor as compared with clopidogrel was associated with a lower 1-year risk of the composite outcome (eGFR(>60): HR 0.87, 95%CI 0.76 to 99, eGFR(30-60): 0.82 (0.70 to 0.97), eGFR(<30): 0.95 (0.69 to 1.29), P for interaction=0.55) and a higher risk of bleeding (eGFR(>60): HR 1.10, 95%CI 0.90 to 1.35, eGFR(30-60): 1.13 (0.84 to 1.51), eGFR(<30): 1.79 (1.00 to 3.21), P for interaction=0.30) across the eGFR strata. Conclusions Treatment with ticagrelor as compared with clopidogrel in patients with MI was associated with lower risk for the composite of death, MI or stroke and a higher bleeding risk across all strata of eGFR. Of caution, bleeding events were more abundant in patients with eGFR(<30).

  • 17.
    Flachskampf, Frank
    et al.
    Med.Klinik 2, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Daniel, Werner G.
    Cardiac imaging in the patient with chest pain: echocardiography2010In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 96, p. 1063-1072Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Gard, Anton
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Batra, Gorav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Hadziosmanovic, Nermin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Hjort, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Szummer, Karolina Elisabeth
    Baron, Tomasz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Interphysician agreement on subclassification of myocardial infarction.2018In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 104, no 15, p. 1284-1291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) differentiates MI due to oxygen supply/demand mismatch (type 2) from MI due to plaque rupture (type 1) as well as from myocardial injuries of non-ischaemic or multifactorial nature. The purpose of this study was to investigate how often physicians agree in this classification and what factors lead to agreement or disagreement.

    METHODS: A total of 1328 patients diagnosed with MI at eight different Swedish hospitals 2011 were included. All patients were retrospectively reclassified into different MI or myocardial injury subtypes by two independent specially trained physicians, strictly adhering to the third universal definition of MI.

    RESULTS: Overall, there was a moderate interobserver agreement with a kappa coefficient (κ) of 0.55 in this classification. There was substantial agreement when distinguishing type 1 MI (κ: 0.61), compared with moderate agreement when distinguishing type 2 MI (κ: 0.54). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, ST elevation MI (P<0.001), performed coronary angiography (P<0.001) and larger changes in troponin levels (P=0.023) independently made the physicians agree significantly more often, while they disagreed more often with symptoms of dyspnoea (P<0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (P=0.001) and higher C reactive protein levels on admission (P=0.016).

    CONCLUSION: Distinguishing MI types is challenging also for trained adjudicators. Although strictly adhering to the third universal definition of MI, differentiation between type 1 MI, type 2 MI and myocardial injury only gave a moderate rate of interobserver agreement. More precise and clinically applicable criteria for the current classification, particularly for type 2 MI diagnosis, are urgently needed.

  • 19. Glover, Benedict M
    et al.
    Hong, Kathryn L
    Dagres, Nikolaos
    Arbelo, Elena
    Laroche, Cécile
    Riahi, Sam
    Bertini, Matteo
    Mikhaylov, Evgeny N
    Galvin, Joseph
    Kiliszek, Marek
    Pokushalov, Evgeny
    Kautzner, Josef
    Calvo, Naiara
    Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Brugada, Josep
    Impact of body mass index on the outcome of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.2018In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 244-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The association between obesity and atrial fibrillation (AF) is well-established. We aimed to evaluate the impact of index body mass index (BMI) on AF recurrence at 12 months following catheter ablation using propensity-weighted analysis. In addition, periprocedural complications and fluoroscopy details were examined to assess overall safety in relationship to increasing BMI ranges.

    METHODS: Baseline, periprocedural and follow-up data were collected on consecutive patients scheduled for AF ablation. There were no specific exclusion criteria. Patients were categorised according to baseline BMI in order to assess the outcomes for each category.

    RESULTS: Among 3333 patients, 728 (21.8%) were classified as normal (BMI <25.0 kg/m2), 1537 (46.1%) as overweight (BMI 25.5-29.0 kg/m2) and 1068 (32.0%) as obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2). Procedural duration and radiation dose were higher for overweight and obese patients compared with those with a normal BMI (p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). An index BMI ≥30 kg/m2 led to a 1.2-fold increased likelihood of experiencing recurrent AF at 12-months follow-up as compared with overweight patients (HR 1.223; 95% CI 1.047 to 1.429; p=0.011), while no significant correlation was found between overweight and normal BMI groups (HR 0.954; 95% CI 0.798 to 1.140; p=0.605) and obese versus normal BMI (HR 1.16; 95% CI 0.965 to 1.412; p=0.112).

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a baseline BMI ≥30 kg/m2 have a higher recurrence rate of AF following catheter ablation and therefore lifestyle modification to target obesity preprocedure should be considered in these patients.

  • 20.
    Grzymala-Lubanski, Bartosz
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Svensson, Peter J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Coagulat Disorders, Malmo, Sweden..
    Renlund, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Jeppsson, Anders
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiothorac Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Mol & Clin Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Själänder, Anders
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Warfarin treatment quality and prognosis in patients with mechanical heart valve prosthesis2017In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 103, no 3, p. 198-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To study the impact of time in therapeutic range (TTR) and international normalised ratio (INR) variability on the risk of thromboembolic events, major bleeding complications and death after mechanical heart valve (MHV) implantation. Additionally, the importance of different target INR levels was elucidated. Methods A retrospective, non-randomised multicentre cohort study including all patients with mechanical heart valve (MVH) prosthesis registered in the Swedish National Quality Registry Auricula from 2006 to 2011. Data were merged with the Swedish National Patient Registry, SWEDEHEART and Cause of Death Registry. Results In total 4687 ordination periods, corresponding to 18 022 patient-years on warfarin, were included. High INR variability (above mean >= 0.40) or lower TTR (<= 70%) was associated with a higher risk of bleeding (rate per 100 years 4.33 (95% CI 3.87 to 4.82) vs 2.08 (1.78 to 2.41); HR 2.15 (1.75 to 2.61) and 5.13 (4.51 to 5.82) vs 2.30 (2.03 to 2.60); HR 2.43 (2.02 to 2.89)), respectively. High variability and low TTR combined was associated with an even higher risk of bleedings (rate per 100 years 4.12 (95% CI 3.68 to 4.51) vs 2.02 (1.71 to 2.30); HR 2.16 (1.71 to 2.58) and 4.99 (4.38 to 5.52) vs 2.36 (2.06 to 2.60); HR 2.38 (2.05 to 2.85)) compared with the best group. Higher treatment intensity (mean INR 2.8-3.2 vs 2.2-2.7) was associated with higher rate of bleedings (2.92 (2.39 to 3.47) vs 2.48 (2.21 to 2.77); HR 1.29 (1.06 to 1.58)), death (3.36 (2.79 to 4.02) vs 1.89 (1.64 to 2.17), HR 1.65 (1.31 to 2.06)) and complications in total (6.61 (5.74 to 7.46) vs 5.65 (5.20 to 6.06); HR 1.24 (1.06 to 1.41)) after adjustment for MHV position, age and comorbidity. Conclusions A high warfarin treatment quality improves outcome after MHV implantation, both measured with TTR and INR variability. No benefit was found with higher treatment intensity (mean INR 2.8-3.2 vs 2.2-2.7).

  • 21.
    Hakulinen, Christian
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Dept Psychol & Logoped, Helsinki, Finland; Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pulkki-Råback, Laura
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Dept Psychol & Logoped, Helsinki, Finland.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jokela, Markus
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Dept Psychol & Logoped, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England; Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Clinicum, Helsinki, Finland.
    Elovainio, Marko
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Dept Psychol & Logoped, Helsinki, Finland; Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Social isolation and loneliness as risk factors for myocardial infarction, stroke and mortality: UK Biobank cohort study of 479 054 men and women2018In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 104, no 18, p. 1536-1542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine whether social isolation and loneliness (1) predict acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke among those with no history of AMI or stroke, (2) are related to mortality risk among those with a history of AMI or stroke, and (3) the extent to which these associations are explained by known risk factors or pre-existing chronic conditions.

    Methods: Participants were 479 054 individuals from the UK Biobank. The exposures were self-reported social isolation and loneliness. AMI, stroke and mortality were the outcomes.

    Results: Over 7.1 years, 5731 had first AMI, and 3471 had first stroke. In model adjusted for demographics, social isolation was associated with higher risk of AMI (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.3 to –1.55) and stroke (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.54). When adjusted for all the other risk factors, the HR for AMI was attenuated by 84% to 1.07 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.16) and the HR for stroke was attenuated by 83% to 1.06 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.19). Loneliness was associated with higher risk of AMI before (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.64) but attenuated considerably with adjustments (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.17). This was also the case for stroke (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.55 before and HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.19 after adjustments). Social isolation, but not loneliness, was associated with increased mortality in participants with a history of AMI (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.51) or stroke (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.61) in the fully adjusted model.

    Conclusions: Isolated and lonely persons are at increased risk of AMI and stroke, and, among those with a history of AMI or stroke, increased risk of death. Most of this risk was explained by conventional risk factors.

  • 22.
    Hedberg, P
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Öhrvik, J
    Lönnberg, I
    Nilsson, G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Augmented blood pressure response to exercise is associated with improved long-term survival in older people2009In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 95, no 13, p. 1072-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Studies on the prognostic importance of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) response during exercise report ambiguous results. Most research focuses on younger and middle-aged selected patient groups and rarely includes women. We investigated the prognostic value of SBP response during exercise testing in 75-year-olds. Design: Prospective observational cohort study. Setting: A community-based random sample of 75-yearold men and women (n = 382). Main outcome measures: The prognostic value of SBP change from rest to peak exercise during a symptom-limited cycle test was evaluated for the endpoints all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality during long-term follow-up. Results: After a median follow-up of 10.6 years, 140 (37%) of the participants had died, 64 (17%) from cardiovascular causes. The all-cause mortalities for exercise SBP changes of <= 30 mm Hg, 31-55 mm Hg and > 55 mm Hg were 5.1, 4.2 and 2.6 per 100 person-years, respectively (logrank 9.6; p = 0.008). For every 10 mm Hg increase in SBP during exercise the relative hazard for all-cause mortality was reduced by 13% (p = 0.030) and for cardiovascular mortality by 26% (p = 0.004) after adjustment for sex, smoking, waist circumference, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, prevalent ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular medication, pre-exercise SBP, exercise capacity, resting left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular mass index. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that an augmented SBP response during exercise is associated with an improved long-term survival among community-living 75-year-old individuals.

  • 23.
    Hedberg, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Vastmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, SE-72189 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Selmeryd, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Vastmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, SE-72189 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Henriksen, Egil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Vastmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, SE-72189 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Long-term prognostic impact of left atrial volumes and emptying fraction in a community-based cohort2017In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 103, no 9, p. 687-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We hypothesised that left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF) would predict long-term cardiovascular outcome in the general population and better so than left atrial (LA) volumes.

    Methods: A community-based sample (n=740) in sinus rhythm prospectively underwent clinical evaluation, echocardiography and blood analyses including N terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP). The LA maximum (LAVmax) and minimum volumes (LAVmin) were indexed to body surface area (LAVImax and LAVImin, respectively). LAEF was calculated as LAVmaxLAVmin divided by LAVmax. The participants were followed for a median of 4.9 years regarding incident cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death or hospitalisation because of myocardial infarction, heart failure or stroke). Cox regression models were used to evaluate the associations of LA volumes and LAEF with the outcome.

    Results: In a multivariable beta regression model, including clinical and echocardiographic baseline characteristics, higher plasma levels of NTproBNP, higher E/e' and left ventricular systolic dysfunction remained as independent determinants of a lower LAEF. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, including NTproBNP levels, LAEF (HR for 1 SD decrease 1.33, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.70, p=0.022), but not LAVImax (HR for 1 SD increase 0.88, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.10, p=0.25) or LAVImin (HR for 1 SD increase 1.02, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.27, p=0.83) remained independently associated with outcome.

    Conclusions: In this community-based cohort, LAEF was a powerful predictor of incident cardiovascular events and its predictive ability was stronger than for LA volumes. Our findings suggest that LA dysfunction may represent a more advanced state of LA remodelling than LA enlargement.

  • 24. Hernández, Adrián V.
    et al.
    Westerhout, Cynthia M.
    Steyerberg, Ewout W.
    Ioannidis, John P. A.
    Bueno, Héctor
    White, Harvey
    Theroux, Pierre
    Moliterno, David J.
    Armstrong, Paul W.
    Califf, Robert M.
    Wallentin, Lars C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Simoons, Maarten L.
    Boersma, Eric
    Effects of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockers in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: benefit and harm in different age subgroups2007In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 450-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the beneficial and harmful effects of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockers in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) depend on age. METHODS: A meta-analysis of six trials of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockers in patients with NSTE-ACS (PRISM, PRISM-PLUS, PARAGON-A, PURSUIT, PARAGON-B, GUSTO IV-ACS; n = 31 402) was performed. We applied multivariable logistic regression analyses to evaluate the drug effects on death or non-fatal myocardial infarction at 30 days, and on major bleeding, by age subgroups (<60, 60-69, 70-79, > or =80 years). We quantified the reduction of death or myocardial infarction as the number needed to treat (NNT), and the increase of major bleeding as the number needed to harm (NNH). RESULTS: Subgroups had 11 155 (35%), 9727 (31%), 8468 (27%) and 2049 (7%) patients, respectively. The relative benefit of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockers did not differ significantly (p = 0.5) between age subgroups (OR (95% CI) for death or myocardial infarction: 0.86 (0.74 to 0.99), 0.90 (0.80 to 1.02), 0.97 (0.86 to 1.10), 0.90 (0.73 to 1.16); overall 0.91 (0.86 to 0.99). ORs for major bleeding were 1.9 (1.3 to 2.8), 1.9 (1.4 to 2.7), 1.6 (1.2 to 2.1) and 2.5 (1.5-4.1). Overall NNT was 105, and overall NNH was 90. The oldest patients had larger absolute increases in major bleeding, but also had the largest absolute reductions of death or myocardial infarction. Patients > or =80 years had half of the NNT and a third of the NNH of patients <60 years. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NSTE-ACS, the relative reduction of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction with platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockers was independent of patient age. Larger absolute outcome reductions were seen in older patients, but with a higher risk of major bleeding. Close monitoring of these patients is warranted.

  • 25.
    Hijazi, Ziad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Aulin, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Alexander, John H.
    Duke Univ, Med Ctr, Durham, NC USA..
    Gersh, Bernard
    Mayo Clin, Coll Med, Rochester, MN USA..
    Granger, Christopher B.
    Duke Univ, Med Ctr, Durham, NC USA..
    Hanna, Michael
    Bristol Myers Squibb Co, Princeton, NJ USA..
    Horowitz, John
    Univ Adelaide, Cardiol Dept, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Hylek, Elaine M.
    Boston Univ, Med Ctr, Boston, MA USA..
    Lopes, Renato D.
    Duke Univ, Med Ctr, Durham, NC USA..
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Univ Uppsala Hosp, Clin Chem, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Biomarkers of inflammation and risk of cardiovascular events in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation2016In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 102, no 7, p. 508-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a risk factor for stroke and mortality and the prothrombotic state has been linked to inflammation. In this study we evaluated the relationship between inflammatory biomarkers at baseline and future risk of cardiovascular events in the Apixaban for Reduction In Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial.

    Methods: The ARISTOTLE trial randomised 18 201 patients with AF to apixaban or warfarin. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C reactive protein (CRP) were analysed in plasma obtained at randomisation from 14 954 participants, and median follow-up was 1.9 years. Association between quartile groups of IL-6 and CRP and outcomes were analysed by Cox regression adjusted for clinical risk factors and other cardiovascular biomarkers (NT-proBNP, troponin, GDF-15, cystatin C).

    Results: The IL-6 median level was 2.3 ng/L (IQR 1.5-3.9), median CRP level was 2.2 mg/L (1.0-4.8). IL-6 and CRP were significantly associated with all-cause mortality independent of clinical risk factors and other biomarkers (HR (95% CI) 1.93 (1.57 to 2.37) and 1.49 (1.24 to 1.79), respectively, Q4 vs Q1). IL-6 was associated with myocardial infarction, cardiovascular mortality, and major bleeding beyond clinical risk factors but not in the presence of cardiovascular biomarkers (NT-proBNP, troponin, GDF-15, cystatin C). Neither inflammatory biomarker was associated with stroke/systemic embolism. Risk prediction for stroke, death and major bleeding was not improved by IL-6 or CRP when added to clinical risk factors and the other cardiovascular biomarkers (NT-proBNP, troponin, GDF-15, cystatin C).

    Conclusions: In patients with AF on anticoagulation, after accounting for clinical risk factors and other biomarkers, biomarkers of inflammation were significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality. However, there were no associations with the risk of stroke or major bleeding.

  • 26.
    Hijazi, Ziad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Coagulation and inflammation science.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Importance of Persistent Elevation of Cardiac Biomarkers in Atrial Fibrillation: a RE-LY Substudy2014In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 100, no 15, p. 1193-1200Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate the prognostic importance of transient or persistent elevations of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) and N-terminal-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Plasma samples were obtained at randomisation and after 3 months in 2514 patients with AF in the RE-LY trial; median follow-up was 2.0 years. Patients were grouped based on levels at the two time points according to detectable cTnI levels (>= 0.01 mu g/L) or NT-proBNP levels above median (>= 778 ng/L). These groups were related to occurrence of stroke or cardiovascular events evaluated with Cox models adjusting for established risk factors. Results The proportion of patients with detectable cTnI levels at both time points was 48.5%, at one time point 28.5% and at neither time point 21.0%. Patients with detectable cTnI at both time points had substantially higher rates of stroke compared with those with transient elevations and those with no elevation at either time point (p<0.005, effect of cTnI). Persistent elevation of either or both cardiac biomarkers at baseline and 3 months was associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular events and mortality (p<0.0001). Prognostic prediction improved most with the use of repeated measurements of both cardiac biomarkers simultaneously (p<0.05) and achieved C-statistic 0.644 for stroke compared with 0.611 for CHADS2-score. Conclusions Persistent elevation of troponin and NT-proBNP indicates a worse prognosis than transient elevations or no elevations of either marker. Prognostication of stroke, death and thromboembolic events is improved by the use of repeated determinations of cardiac biomarkers.

  • 27.
    Hijazi, Ziad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Natriuretic peptide should be used as a routine tool for evaluation of patients with atrial fibrillation2018In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 105, no 5, p. 353-354Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Arnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Metabolic syndrome and risk for heart failure in middle-aged men2006In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 92, no 10, p. 1409-1413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore metabolic syndrome as a possible risk factor for development of heart failure (HF).

    Design: Community-based cohort study.

    Setting: Uppsala, Sweden.

    Participants: 2314 50-year-old men free from HF, myocardial infarction and valvular disease at baseline were enrolled between 1970 and 1974 and were followed up until the age of 70. A modified National Cholesterol Education Program definition of metabolic syndrome was used with body mass index in the place of waist circumference.

    Main outcome measure: First hospitalisation for HF.

    Results: In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for established risk factors for HF (hypertension, diabetes, ECG left ventricular hypertrophy, smoking and body mass index), the presence at baseline of metabolic syndrome (hazard ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 2.70) was a predictor of subsequent HF. This relation was even stronger after adjustment for the presence of an acute myocardial infarction during follow up in addition to the other established risk factors for HF (hazard ratio 1.80, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.91).

    Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome was a significant predictor of HF, independent of established risk factors for HF including an interim myocardial infarction, during two decades of follow up in a community-based sample of middle-aged men. This implies that metabolic syndrome provides important risk information beyond that of established risk factors for HF.

  • 29.
    James, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Cardiovascular registries: a novel platform for randomised clinical trials2012In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 98, no 18, p. 1329-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Janszky, I
    et al.
    Ericson, M
    Blom, M
    Georgiades, A
    Magnusson, J-O
    Alinagizadeh, H
    Ahnve, S
    Wine drinking is associated with increased heart rate variability in women with coronary heart disease.2005In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 91, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alcohol consumption is positively related to heart rate variability (HRV) in women with coronary heart disease (CHD) and therefore that cardiac autonomic activity is potentially implicated in the mediation of the favourable effects of moderate drinking.

    DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PATIENTS: Cross sectional study of female patients who survived hospitalisation for acute myocardial infarction or underwent a revascularisation procedure, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass grafting.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ambulatory 24 hour ECG was recorded during normal activities. The mean of the standard deviations of all normal to normal intervals for all five minute segments of the entire recording (SDNNI) and the following frequency domain parameters were assessed: total power, high frequency power, low frequency power, and very low frequency power. A standardised questionnaire evaluated self reported consumption of individual alcoholic beverage types: beer, wine, and spirits. Other clinical characteristics, such as age, body mass index, smoking habits, history of diabetes mellitus, menopausal status, educational status, and treatment, were also assessed.

    RESULTS: Wine intake was associated with increased HRV in both time and frequency domains independently of other clinical covariates (for example, ln SDNNI was 3.89 among wine drinkers v 3.59 among wine non-drinkers in the multivariate model; p = 0.014). In contrast, consumption of beer and spirits and the total amount of alcohol consumed did not relate significantly to any of the HRV parameters.

    CONCLUSION: Intake of wine, but not of spirits or beer, is positively and independently associated with HRV in women with CHD. These results may contribute to the understanding of the complex relation between alcohol consumption and CHD.

  • 31. Janzon, M.
    et al.
    James, Stefan K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Cannon, C. P.
    Storey, R. F.
    Mellstrom, C.
    Nicolau, J. C.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Henriksson, M.
    Health economic analysis of ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndromes intended for non-invasive therapy2015In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate the cost effectiveness of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) study who were scheduled for non-invasive management. Methods A previously developed cost effectiveness model was used to estimate long-term costs and outcomes for patients scheduled for non-invasive management. Healthcare costs, event rates and health-related quality of life under treatment with either ticagrelor or clopidogrel over 12 months were estimated from the PLATO study. Long-term costs and health outcomes were estimated based on data from PLATO and published literature sources. To investigate the importance of different healthcare cost structures and life expectancy for the results, the analysis was carried out from the perspectives of the Swedish, UK, German and Brazilian public healthcare systems. Results Ticagrelor was associated with lifetime quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gains of 0.17 in Sweden, 0.16 in the UK, 0.17 in Germany and 0.13 in Brazil compared with generic clopidogrel, with increased healthcare costs of (sic)467, (sic)551, (sic)739 and (sic)574, respectively. The cost per QALY gained with ticagrelor was (sic)2747, (sic)3395, (sic)4419 and (sic)4471 from a Swedish, UK, German and Brazilian public healthcare system perspective, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated that the cost per QALY gained with ticagrelor was below conventional threshold values of cost effectiveness with a high probability. Conclusions Treatment of patients with ACS scheduled for 12 months' non-invasive management with ticagrelor is associated with a cost per QALY gained below conventional threshold values of cost effectiveness compared with generic clopidogrel.

  • 32. Jernberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Attebring, Mona F.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Ivert, Torbjorn
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Jeppsson, Anders
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    The Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART)2010In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 96, no 20, p. 1617-1621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims The aims of the Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART) are to support the improvement of care and evidence-based development of therapy of coronary artery disease (CAD). Interventions To provide users with online interactive reports monitoring the processes of care and outcomes and allowing direct comparisons over time and with other hospitals. National, regional and county-based reports are publicly presented on a yearly basis. Setting Every hospital (n=74) in Sweden providing the relevant services participates. Launched in 2009 after merging four national registries on CAD. Population Consecutive acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, and patients undergoing coronary angiography/angioplasty or heart surgery. Includes approximately 80 000 new cases each year. Startpoints On admission in ACS patients, at coronary angiography in patients with stable CAD. Baseline data 106 variables for patients with ACS, another 75 variables regarding secondary prevention after 12-14 months, 150 variables for patients undergoing coronary angiography/angioplasty, 100 variables for patients undergoing heart surgery. Data capture Web-based registry with all data registered online directly by the caregiver. Data quality A monitor visits approximately 20 hospitals each year. In 2007, there was a 96% agreement. Endpoints and linkages to other data Merged with the National Cause of Death Register, including information about vital status of all Swedish citizens, the National Patient Registry, containing diagnoses at discharge for all hospital stays in Sweden and the National Registry of Drug prescriptions recording all drug prescriptions in Sweden. Access to data Available for research by application to the SWEDEHEART steering group.

  • 33.
    Joseph, Philip
    et al.
    McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Pare, Guillaume
    McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Connolly, Stuart
    McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Yusuf, Salim
    McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Wang, Jia
    McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Ezekowitz, Michael
    Jefferson Med Coll, Wynnewood, PA USA..
    Eikelboom, John
    McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Coagulation and inflammation science.
    Reilly, Paul
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceut, Dept Clin Dev & Clin Biostat, Ridgefield, CT USA..
    Themeles, Ellison
    McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Dabigatran etexilate and reduction in serum apolipoprotein B2016In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 57-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Carboxylesterases, which convert dabigatran etexilate to its active form, dabigatran, have also been shown to influence lipoprotein metabolism, although any pleotropic effects of the drug based on this possible mechanism has not been evaluated. We examined the effects of dabigatran etexilate on serum lipoprotein markers in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) study. Methods 2513 participants from the RE-LY randomised control trial with baseline and 3-month apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) measurements were included. We prospectively compared the effects of dabigatran 110mg twice daily, dabigatran 150mg twice daily and warfarin on changes in ApoB and ApoA1 concentrations using a mixed model analysis. Results From baseline to 3months, a significant reduction in ApoB concentration was observed with low-dose dabigatran (-0.057 (95% CI -0.069 to -0.044) g/L, p<0.001) and high-dose dabigatran (-0.065 (95% CI -0.078 to -0.053) g/L, p<0.001) but not warfarin (-0.006g/L (95% CI -0.018 to 0.007) g/L, p=0.40). Compared with warfarin, ApoB reduction was significantly greater with both doses of dabigatran (p<0.001 for both groups). Reductions in ApoA1 concentrations did not statistically differ with either dose of dabigatran when compared with warfarin. Conclusions Dabigatran is associated with a significant (approximate to 7%) reduction in ApoB concentration, suggesting a novel effect of this drug on lipoprotein metabolism. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of this observed effect, and its impact on clinical outcomes.

  • 34.
    Khan, Razi
    et al.
    Univ Montreal, Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Lopes, Renato D.
    Duke Univ, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC 27705 USA..
    Neely, Megan L.
    Duke Univ, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC 27705 USA..
    Stevens, Susanna R.
    Duke Univ, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC 27705 USA..
    Harrington, Robert A.
    Stanford Sch Med, Stanford, CA USA..
    Diaz, Rafael
    ECLA Estudios Cardiol Latinoamer, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina..
    Cools, Frank
    Acad Ziekenhuis Klina, Brasschaat, Belgium..
    Jansky, Petr
    Univ Hosp Motol, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Montalescot, Gilles
    Pitie Salpetriere Univ Hosp, Inst Cardiol, Paris, France..
    Atar, Dan
    Univ Oslo, Oslo Univ Hosp, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Lopez-Sendon, Jose
    Univ Hosp La Paz, Madrid, Spain..
    Flather, Marcus
    Royal Brompton Hosp & Harefield NHS Fdn Trust, Clin Trials & Evaluat Unit, London, England..
    Liaw, Danny
    Bristol Myers Squibb Co, Princeton, NJ USA..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Alexander, John H.
    Duke Univ, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC 27705 USA..
    Goodman, Shaun G.
    Univ Toronto, St Michaels Hosp, Terrence Donnelly Heart Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Canadian Heart Res Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Characterising and predicting bleeding in high-risk patients with an acute coronary syndrome2015In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 101, no 18, p. 1475-1484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective In the Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic Events (APPRAISE-2) trial, the use of apixaban, when compared with placebo, in high-risk patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) resulted in a significant increase in bleeding without a reduction in ischaemic events. The aim of this analysis was to provide further description of these bleeding events and to determine the baseline characteristics associated with bleeding in high-risk post-ACS patients. Methods APPRAISE-2 was a multinational clinical trial including 7392 high-risk patients with a recent ACS randomised to apixaban (5 mg twice daily) or placebo. Bleeding including Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major or minor bleeding, International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) major or clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding, and any bleeding were analysed using an on-treatment analysis. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to describe the timing of bleeding, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors of ISTH major or CRNM bleeding and any bleeding. Median follow-up was 241 days. Results The proportion of patients who experienced TIMI major or minor, ISTH major or CRNM, and any bleeding was 1.5%, 2.2% and 13.3%, respectively. The incidence of bleeding was highest in the immediate post-ACS period (0.11 in the first 30 days vs 0.03 after 30 days events per 1 patient-year); however, > 60% of major bleeding events occurred > 30 days after the end of the index hospitalisation. Gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common cause of major bleeding, accounting for 45.9% of TIMI major or minor and 39.5% of ISTH major or CRNM bleeding events. Independent predictors of ISTH major or CRNM bleeding events included older age, renal dysfunction, dual oral antiplatelet therapy, smoking history, increased white cell count and coronary revascularisation. Conclusions When compared with placebo, the use of apixaban is associated with an important short-term and long-term risk of bleeding in high-risk post-ACS patients, with gastrointestinal bleeding being the most common source of major bleeding. The baseline predictors of major bleeding appear to be consistent with those identified in lower-risk ACS populations with shorter-term follow-up.

  • 35. Klerdal, Kristina
    et al.
    Varenhorst, Christoph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    James, Stefan K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Blomberg, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Moradi, Tahereh
    Sex as a determinant of prehospital ECG in ST- and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction patients2014In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 100, no 22, p. 1817-1818Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Koutouzis, Michael
    et al.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Omerovic, Elmir
    Matejka, Göran
    Grip, Lars
    Albertsson, Per
    Unfractionated heparin administration in patients treated with bivalirudin during primary percutaneous coronary intervention is associated lower mortality and target lesion thrombosis: a report from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR)2011In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 97, no 18, p. 1484-1488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bivalirudin reduces bleeding events and is associated with a lower mortality than the combination of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the effect of adding UFH in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with bivalirudin during primary PCI is unknown.

    Methods: Patients enrolled in the national Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry who underwent primary PCI due to STEMI with bivalirudin as anticoagulant were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups: those treated with bivalirudin only and those treated with bivalirudin plus a bolus dose of UFH.

    Results: 2996 patients were included in the study: 1928 (64%) received only bivalirudin and 1068 (36%) received bivalirudin plus a bolus dose of UFH. The primary combined endpoint of death or target lesion thrombosis at 30&emsp14;days occurred more often in the bivalirudin group (11.3% vs 6.5%, OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.72, p<0.001). This difference remained significant after adjustment (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.95, p=0.03). Death at 30&emsp14;days and definite target lesion thrombosis at 30&emsp14;days did not differ between the two groups after adjustment (9.2% vs 5.1%, adjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.03, p=0.07 and 2.3% vs 1.5%, adjusted HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.33, p=0.21, respectively).

    Conclusion: An additional bolus dose of UFH is associated with a lower rate of death or definite target lesion thrombosis at 30 days in patients undergoing primary PCI with bivalirudin as anticoagulant.

  • 37.
    Lagerqvist, B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Diderholm, E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lindahl, B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Husted, S
    Kontny, F
    Ståhle, E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Swahn, E
    Venge, P
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Siegbahn, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Wallentin, L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    FRISC score for selection of patients for an early invasive treatment strategy in unstable coronary artery disease2005In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 91, no 8, p. 1047-1052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To develop a scoring system for risk stratification and evaluation of the effect of an early invasive strategy for treatment of unstable coronary artery disease (CAD).

    Design: Retrospective analysis of a randomised study (FRISC II; fast revascularisation in instability in coronary disease).

    Setting: 58 Scandinavian hospitals.

    Patients: 2457 patients with unstable CAD from the FRISC II study.

    Main outcome measures: One year rates of mortality and death/myocardial infarction (MI).

    Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to an early invasive or a non-invasive strategy. From the non-invasive cohort independent variables of death or death/MI were identified.

    Results: Seven factors, age > 70 years, male sex, diabetes, previous MI, ST depression, and increased concentrations of troponins and markers of inflammation (interleukin 6 or C reactive protein), were associated with an independent increased risk for death or death/MI. In patients with ≥ 5 of these factors the invasive strategy reduced mortality from 15.4% (20 of 130) to 5.2% (7 of 134) (risk ratio (RR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.78, p  =  0.006). Death/MI was also reduced in patients with 3–4 factors from 15.7% (80 of 511) to 10.8% (58 of 538) (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.94, p  =  0.02). Neither death nor death/MI was reduced in patients with 0–2 risk factors.

    Conclusion: In unstable CAD, this scoring system based on factors independently associated with an adverse outcome can be used shortly after admission to the hospital for risk stratification and for selection of patients to an early invasive treatment strategy.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Drca, Nikola
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björck, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Bäck, Magnus
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Div Valvular & Coronary Dis, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Mol Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nut consumption and incidence of seven cardiovascular diseases2018In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 104, no 19, p. 1615-1620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Nut consumption has been found to be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease mortality, but the association between nut consumption and incidence of specific cardiovascular diseases is unclear. We examined the association between nut consumption and incidence of seven cardiovascular diseases. Methods This prospective study included 61 364 Swedish adults who had completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire and were followed up for 17 years through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Death Registers. Results Nut consumption was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and abdominal aortic aneurysm in the age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analysis. However, adjustment for multiple risk factors attenuated these associations and only a linear, dose-response, association with atrial fibrillation (p(trend)=0.004) and a non-linear association (p(non-linearity)=0.003) with heart failure remained. Compared with no consumption of nuts, the multivariable HRs (95% CI) of atrial fibrillation across categories of nut consumption were 0.97 (0.93 to 1.02) for 1-3 times/month, 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99) for 1-2 times/week and 0.82 (0.68 to 0.99) for 3times/week. For heart failure, the corresponding HRs (95% CI) were 0.87 (0.80 to 0.94), 0.80 (0.67 to 0.97) and 0.98 (0.76 to 1.27). Nut consumption was not associated with risk of aortic valve stenosis, ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage. Conclusions These findings suggest that nut consumption or factors associated with this nutritional behaviour may play a role in reducing the risk of atrial fibrillation and possibly heart failure. Trial registration number NCT01127711 and NCT01127698; Results.

  • 39.
    Lauw, Mandy N.
    et al.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;Hamilton Hlth Sci, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Gen Hosp 237 Barton St East, Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada.;Acad Med Ctr, Dept Vasc Med, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Eikelboom, John W.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;Hamilton Hlth Sci, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Gen Hosp 237 Barton St East, Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada..
    Coppens, Michiel
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;Hamilton Hlth Sci, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Gen Hosp 237 Barton St East, Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada.;Acad Med Ctr, Dept Vasc Med, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Yusuf, Salim
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;Hamilton Hlth Sci, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Gen Hosp 237 Barton St East, Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada..
    Ezekowitz, Michael
    Jefferson Med Coll, Philadelphia, PA USA.;Lankenau Med Ctr, Philadelphia, PA USA.;Cardiovasc Res Fdn, New York, NY USA..
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Nakamya, Juliet
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;Hamilton Hlth Sci, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Gen Hosp 237 Barton St East, Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada..
    Wang, Jia
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;Hamilton Hlth Sci, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Gen Hosp 237 Barton St East, Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada..
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;Hamilton Hlth Sci, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Gen Hosp 237 Barton St East, Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada..
    Effects of dabigatran according to age in atrial fibrillation2017In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 103, no 13, p. 1015-1023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the risk of stroke and bleeding vary according to age. To estimate effects of dabigatran, compared with warfarin, on stroke, bleeding and mortality in patients with AF in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy (RE-LY) trial according to age, we analysed treatment effects using age as a continuous variable and using age categories.

    Methods: RE-LY included 10 855 (59.9%) patients aged <75 years, 4231 patients (23.4%) aged 75-79 years, 2305 (12.7%) aged 80-84 years and 722 (4.0%) aged >= 85 years at baseline.

    Results: Benefits of dabigatran versus warfarin regarding stroke (HR range 0.63 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.86) to 0.70 (0.31 to 1.57) for dabigatran 150 mg twice daily), HR range 0.52 (0.21 to 1.29) to 1.08 (0.73 to 1.60) for dabigatran 110 mg twice daily) and intracranial bleeding were maintained across all age groups (interaction p values all not significant). There was a highly significant interaction (p value interaction <0.001) between age and treatment for extracranial major bleeding, with lower rates with both doses of dabigatran compared with warfarin in younger patients (HR 0.78 (0.62 to 0.97) for 150 mg twice daily, HR 0.72 (0.57 to 0.90) for 110 mg twice daily) but similar (HR 1.50 (1.03 to 2.18) for 110 mg twice daily) or higher rates (HR 1.68 (1.18 to 2.41) for 150 mg twice daily) in older patients (>= 80 years).

    Conclusion: Effects of dabigatran compared with warfarin on stroke prevention and intracranial bleeding are consistent across all age groups. Effects of dabigatran on extracranial major bleeding are age dependent, supporting selection of dabigatran 110 mg twice daily for elderly patients (age >= 80 years).

  • 40. Lawesson, Sofia Sederholm
    et al.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Swahn, Eva
    Gender perspective on risk factors, coronary lesions and long-term outcome in young patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction2010In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 96, no 6, p. 453-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STEMI below age 46 is a more rare condition in women than in men and more often related to cardiovascular risk factors. More than 90% of both men and women had coronary lesions, in women more often single vessel lesions. Female sex is associated with higher in-hospital mortality, while long-term mortality is low without difference between genders.

  • 41.
    Lind, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Stenemo, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Hagström, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Dalarna Univ, Dept Hlth & Social Sci, Falun, Sweden..
    Discovery of new biomarkers for atrial fibrillation using a custom-made proteomics chip2017In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 103, no 5, p. 379-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Apart from several established clinical risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF), a number of biomarkers have also been identified as potential risk factors for AF. None of these have so far been adopted in clinical practice. Objective To use a novel custom-made proteomics chip to discover new prognostic biomarkers for AF risk. Methods In two independent community-based cohorts (Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (978 participants without AF, mean age 70.1 years, 50% women, median followup 10.0 years) and Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) (n= 725, mean age 77.5 years, median follow-up 7.9 years)), ninety-two plasma proteins were assessed at baseline by a proximity extension assay (PEA) chip. Of those, 85 proteins showed a call rate > 70% in both cohorts. Results Thirteen proteins were related to incident AF in PIVUS (148 events) using a false discovery rate of 5%. Of those, five were replicated in ULSAM at nominal multivariable p value (123 events, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)). Of those, NT-pro-BNP and FGF-23 were also associated with AF after adjusting for established AF risk factors. In a prespecified secondary analysis pooling the two data sets, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and adrenomedullin (AM) were also significantly related to incident AF in addition to the aforementioned five proteins (Bonferroni-adjustment). The addition of NT-proBNP to a model with established risk factors increased the C-statistic from 0.605 to 0.676 (p< 0.0001). Conclusions Using a novel proteomics approach, we confirmed the previously reported association between NT-pro-BNP, FGF-23, GDF-15 and incident AF, and also discovered four proteins (FABP4, IL-6, TIM-1 and AM) that could be of importance in the development of AF.

  • 42.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Badertscher, Patrick
    Univ Basel Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel Hosp, CRIB, Basel, Switzerland..
    Boeddinghaus, Jasper
    Univ Basel Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel Hosp, CRIB, Basel, Switzerland..
    Eggers, Kai M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Frick, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci & Educ, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rubini Gimenez, Maria
    Univ Basel Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel Hosp, CRIB, Basel, Switzerland.;UPF, Pneumol Dept, IMIM, Parc Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain.;Emergency Dept, Parc Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain..
    Linder, Rickard
    Danderyd Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ljung, Lina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci & Educ, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Martinsson, Arne
    Capio St Gorans Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Melki, Dina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Huddinge, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nestelberger, Thomas
    Univ Basel Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel Hosp, CRIB, Basel, Switzerland..
    Rentsch, Katharina
    Univ Basel Hosp, Dept Lab Med, Basel, Switzerland..
    Reichlin, Tobias
    Univ Basel Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel Hosp, CRIB, Basel, Switzerland..
    Sabti, Zaid
    Univ Basel Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel Hosp, CRIB, Basel, Switzerland..
    Schubera, Marie
    Univ Basel Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel Hosp, CRIB, Basel, Switzerland..
    Svensson, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Emergency Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Twerenbold, Raphael
    Univ Basel Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel Hosp, CRIB, Basel, Switzerland..
    Wildi, Karin
    Univ Basel Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel Hosp, CRIB, Basel, Switzerland..
    Mueller, Christian
    Univ Basel Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel Hosp, CRIB, Basel, Switzerland..
    An algorithm for rule-in and rule-out of acute myocardial infarction using a novel troponin I assay2017In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 125-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To derive and validate a hybrid algorithm for rule-out and rule-in of acute myocardial infarction based on measurements at presentation and after 2 hours with a novel cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay. Methods The algorithm was derived and validated in two cohorts (605 and 592 patients) from multicentre studies enrolling chest pain patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with onset of last episode within 12 hours. The index diagnosis and cardiovascular events up to 30 days were adjudicated by independent reviewers. Results In the validation cohort, 32.6% of the patients were ruled out on ED presentation, 6.1% were ruled in and 61.3% remained undetermined. A further 22% could be ruled out and 9.8% ruled in, after 2 hours. In total, 54.6% of the patients were ruled out with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.4% (95% CI 97.8% to 99.9%) and a sensitivity of 97.7% (95% CI 91.9% to 99.7%); 15.8% were ruled in with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 74.5% (95% CI 64.8% to 82.2%) and a specificity of 95.2% (95% CI 93.0% to 96.9%); and 29.6% remained undetermined after 2 hours. No patient in the rule-out group died during the 30-day follow-up in the two cohorts. Conclusions This novel two-step algorithm based on cTnI measurements enabled just over a third of the patients with acute chest pain to be ruled in or ruled out already at presentation and an additional third after 2 hours. This strategy maximises the speed of rule-out and rule-in while maintaining a high NPV and PPV, respectively.

  • 43.
    Lindholm, Daniel
    et al.
    AstraZeneca R&D, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sarno, Giovanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Erlinge, David
    Lund Univ, Dept Cardiol, Lund, Sweden.
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Hasvold, Lars Pal
    AstraZeneca, Dept Med, Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Cardiol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Karolinska Inst, Danderyd Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Combined association of key risk factors on ischaemic outcomes and bleeding in patients with myocardial infarction2019In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 105, no 15, p. 1175-1181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In patients with myocardial infarction (MI), risk factors for bleeding and ischaemic events tend to overlap, but the combined effects of these factors have scarcely been studied in contemporary real-world settings. We aimed to assess the combined associations of established risk factors using nationwide registries.

    Methods: Using the Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies registry, patients with invasively managed MI in 2006-2014 were included. Six factors were assessed in relation to cardiovascular death (CVD)/MI/stroke, and major bleeding: age >= 65, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, multivessel disease, prior bleeding and prior MI.

    Results: We studied 100 879 patients, of whom 20 831 (20.6%) experienced CVD/MI/stroke and 5939 (5.9%) major bleeding, during 3.6 years median follow-up. In adjusted Cox models, all factors were associated with CVD/MI/stroke, and all but prior MI were associated with major bleeding. The majority (53.5%) had >= 2 risk factors. With each added risk factor, there was a marked but gradual increase in incidence of the CVD/MI/stroke. This was seen also for major bleeding, but to a lesser extent, largely driven by prior bleeding as the strongest risk factor.

    Conclusions: The majority of patients with MI had two or more established risk factors. Increasing number of risk factors was associated with higher rate of ischaemic events. When excluding patients with prior major bleeding, bleeding incidence rate increased only minimally with increasing number of risk factors. The high ischaemic risk in those with multiple risk factors highlights an unmet need for additional preventive measures.

  • 44. Lopes, R. D.
    et al.
    Pieper, K. S.
    Horton, J. R.
    Al-Khatib, S. M.
    Newby, L. K.
    Mehta, R. H.
    Van de Werf, F.
    Armstrong, P. W.
    Mahaffey, K. W.
    Harrington, R. A.
    Ohman, E. M.
    White, H. D.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Granger, Christopher B.
    Short- and long-term outcomes following atrial fibrillation in patients with acute coronary syndromes with or without ST-segment elevation2008In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 94, no 7, p. 867-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess variables associated with the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the relation of AF with short- and long-term outcomes and with other in-hospital complications in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with and without ST-segment elevation. DESIGN: Pooled database of 120 566 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) ACS enrolled in 10 clinical trials. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to identify factors associated with AF and its relation with clinical outcomes. SETTING: ACS complicated by AF. PATIENTS: 120,566 patients with STEMI and NSTE-ACS in 10 clinical trials. INTERVENTIONS: None evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Short- and long-term mortality. RESULTS: Occurrence of AF was 7.5% in the overall population (STEMI 8.0% (n = 84 161); NSTE-ACS = 6.4% (n = 36,405)). Seven-day mortality was higher for patients with AF (5.1%) than for those without (1.6%). After adjusting for confounders, association of AF with 7-day mortality was present in STEMI (hazards ratio (HR) = 1.65; 95% CI 1.44 to 1.90) and NSTE-ACS (HR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.83 to 2.90; p interaction = 0.015). Risk of long-term mortality (day 8 to 1 year) was also higher in STEMI (HR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.79 to 3.15) and NSTE-ACS (HR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.41 to 1.99). AF had a larger impact in NSTE-ACS on risk of short-term mortality (p<0.001), stroke (p<0.001), ischaemic stroke (p<0.001) and moderate or severe bleeding (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: AF is more common in patients with STEMI. An association of AF with short- and long-term mortality among patients with STEMI and NSTE-ACS was found. Understanding these findings may lead to better care of patients with this common arrhythmia.

  • 45. Mälarstig, Anders
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per
    Hamsten, Anders
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Raised Interleukin-10 is an Indicator of Poor Outcome and Enhanced Systemic Inflammation in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome2008In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 94, no 6, p. 724-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To re-evaluate the relation between plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentration at hospital admission and outcome and to investigate the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the IL-10 gene in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS). DESIGN: Determination of IL-10 plasma concentrations and genotyping of SNPs in the IL-10 gene in a prospective trial of patients with ACS and in a group of healthy controls. PATIENTS: 3179 patients in the Fragmin and fast revascularisation during InStability in Coronary artery disease II (FRISC II) trial and 393 healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality and incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) at 12 months. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges of IL-10 were 0.8 (0.5-1.0) pg/ml in healthy controls and 1.1 (0.7-1.9) pg/ml in patients (p<0.001). In patients, IL-10 predicted a crude risk increase of death/MI, with the highest risk observed in the fourth quartile (adjusted odds ratio 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.3)). Adjustment for common risk indicators, including C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, weakened the association to a non-significant level. The 1170 CC genotype weakly predicted increased plasma concentrations of IL-10 in patients (p = 0.04) and in controls (p = 0.03), which was consistent with the modest association of this variant with coronary disease (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: In contrast with some previous reports, we conclude that IL-10 reflects a proinflammatory state in patients with ACS and we therefore suggest that IL-10 is as effective a biomarker for the risk prediction of future cardiovascular events as other markers of systemic inflammation.

  • 46. Möller, J
    et al.
    Ahlbom, A
    Hulting, J
    Diderichsen, F
    de Faire, U
    Reuterwall, C
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy.
    Sexual activity as a trigger of myocardial infarction. A case-crossover analysis in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme (SHEEP).2001In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 387-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate sexual activity as a trigger of myocardial infarction and the potential effect modification of physical fitness.

    DESIGN: A case-crossover study nested in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme (SHEEP).

    SETTING: Stockholm County from April 1993 to December 1994.

    PATIENTS: All patients with a first episode of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction admitted to coronary care units were eligible, and 699 patients participated in an interview.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals.

    RESULTS: Only 1.3% of the patients without premonitory symptoms had sexual activity during two hours before the onset of myocardial infarction. The relative risk of myocardial infarction was 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7 to 6.5) during one hour after sexual activity, and the risk among patients with a sedentary life was 4.4 (95% CI 1.5 to 12.9).

    CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of myocardial infarction after sexual activity and the further increase in risk among the less physically fit support the hypothesis of causal triggering by sexual activity. However, the absolute risk per hour is very low, and exposure is relatively infrequent. Thus having sex once a week only increases the annual risk of myocardial infarction slightly. Counselling should focus on encouraging patients to live a physically active life and not on abstaining from sexual activity.

  • 47. Norhammar, Anna
    et al.
    Lindbäck, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research center.
    Rydén, Lars
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research center.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Improved but still high short- and long-term mortality rates after myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus: A time-trend report from the Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admission2007In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 93, no 12, p. 1577-1583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to compare time-trends in mortality rates and treatment patterns between patients with and without diabetes based on the Swedish register of coronary care (Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admission [RIKS-HIA]).

    Methods: Post myocardial infarction mortality rate is high in diabetic patients, who seem to receive less evidence-based treatment. Mortality rates and treatment in 1995–1998 and 1999–2002 were studied in 70 882 patients (age <80 years), 14 873 of whom had diabetes (the first registry recorded acute myocardial infarction), following adjustments for differences in clinical and other parameters.

    Results: One-year mortality rates decreased from 1995 to 2002 from 16.6% to 12.1% in patients without diabetes and from 29.7% to 19.7%, respectively, in those with diabetes. Patients with diabetes had an adjusted relative 1-year mortality risk of 1.44 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.52) in 1995–1998 and 1.31 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.38) in 1999–2002. Despite improved pre-admission and in-hospital treatment, diabetic patients were less often offered acute reperfusion therapy (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.90), acute revascularisation (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.87) or revascularisation within 14 days (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.85), aspirin (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.98) and lipid-lowering treatment at discharge (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.86).

    Conclusion: Despite a clear improvement in the treatment and myocardial infarction survival rate in patients with diabetes, mortality rate remains higher than in patients without diabetes. Part of the excess mortality may be explained by co-morbidities and diabetes itself, but a lack of application of evidence-based treatment also contributes, underlining the importance of the improved management of diabetic patients.

  • 48. Norhammar, Anna
    et al.
    Stenestrand, U.
    Lindbäck, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Women younger than 65 years with diabetes mellitus are a high-risk group after myocardial infarction: a report from the Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admission (RIKS-HIA)2008In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 94, no 12, p. 1565-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse gender differences in prognosis, risk factors and evidence-based treatment in patients with diabetes and myocardial infarction. METHODS: Mortality in 1995-2002 was analysed in 70 882 Swedish patients (age <80) with a first registry-recorded acute myocardial infarction stratified by gender and age. Owing to gender differences in mortality, specifically characterising patients below the age of 65 years, a more detailed analysis was performed within this cohort of 25 555 patients. In this group, 5786 (23%) were women and 4473 (18%) had diabetes. Differences in clinical and other parameters were adjusted for using a propensity score model. RESULTS: Long-term mortality in diabetic patients aged <65 years was significantly higher in women than men (RR 1.34; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.55). Compared with diabetic men, women had an increased risk factor burden (hypertension 49 vs 43%; RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.20; heart failure 10 vs 8%; RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.53). Diabetic women aged <65 years were less frequently treated with intravenous beta-blockade during the acute hospital phase and with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at hospital discharge. However, this under-use was not associated with the mortality differences, nor was female gender by itself. CONCLUSION: Women below 65 years of age with diabetes have a poorer outcome than men after a myocardial infarction. This relates to an increased risk factor burden. It is suggested that greater awareness of this situation and improved prevention have the potential to improve what is an unfavourable situation for these women.

  • 49.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Wernroth, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Fibrinolytic therapy and bleeding complications: risk predictors from RIKS-HIA2010In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 96, no 18, p. 1451-1457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Fibrinolytic treatment for ST-elevation myocardial infarction is associated with increased bleeding risk but is still widely used world wide, mainly because of limited access to primary PCI. Objective To analyse contemporary fibrinolytic treatment patterns, in-hospital bleeding risk and prognosis during 2001 to 2006 in unselected Swedish patients. Methods and results The RIKS-HIA registry covers almost all Swedish patients treated for acute coronary syndromes. Major in-hospital bleeding was defined as lethal or intracranial bleeding or bleeding requiring surgery or blood transfusion. Survival status of the 15 373 patients was obtained from the National Cause of Death Register. The number of patients receiving fibrinolysis as reperfusion therapy decreased from 4336 patients in 2001 to 733 in 2006. Cases of major in-hospital bleeding increased from 1.2% (including 0.7% lethal or intracranial) in 2001 to 4.0% (1.1%) in 2006, p<0.001. Higher age, female gender, hypertension, kidney failure, clopidogrel treatment before admission, pre-hospital administration of fibrinolysis and fibrin-specific fibrinolytic agents were identified as predictors for bleeding. Major in-hospital bleeding was the strongest predictor of adverse prognosis with a more than threefold increase in 1-year mortality. Conclusion During 2001 to 2006 the use of fibrinolytic treatment markedly decreased while the incidence of major bleeding complications more than doubled. The latter might in part be explained by increasing use concomitant antiplatelet therapy, pre-hospital treatment and fibrin-specific fibrinolytic agents. Future close monitoring of bleeding complications is warranted, especially when considering the increased use of various combinations of antithrombotic drugs in conjunction with fibrinolysis and the great impact of bleeding on long-term mortality.

  • 50.
    Olsson, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Cardiovascular Surgery Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granath, Fredrik
    Ståhle, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Family history, comorbidity and risk of thoracic aortic disease: a population-based case-control study2013In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 99, no 14, p. 1030-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To examine the risk of thoracic aortic disease (TAD) when one or more first-degree relatives are affected, and to relate the risk of family history to the risk of other cardiopulmonary comorbidity.

    DESIGN:

    Population-based, matched, case-control study.

    SETTING:

    Registry-based investigation. PATIENTS: All cases, nationwide, of TAD diagnosed 2001-2005 in individuals born 1932 or later (n=2436) were identified, and a random control-group (n=12 152) matched for age, sex and geography was generated. First-degree relatives were identified in the Multigeneration Registry. Family history of TAD was assessed by cross-linking nationwide health registries.

    INTERVENTIONS:

    None.

    RESULTS:

    Family history was present in 108 cases (4.4%), compared with 93 (0.77%) controls (p<0.0001). The risk of TAD increased with number of affected relatives: OR 5.8 (95% CI 4.3 to 7.7) vs OR 20 (2.2 to 179) with one versus two or more affected relatives. The relative risk of TAD was highest in the youngest (≤49 years) age group and slightly more pronounced in women than in men (OR 7.2 (4.2 to 12) vs OR 5.5 (3.9 to 7.7)). Among cardiopulmonary comorbidities, heart failure conferred the highest relative risk, OR 6.3 (4.1 to 9.8).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Family history confers a significantly increased (sixfold to 20-fold) relative risk of TAD. The effect is more pronounced in women and in younger subjects, and is not conveyed by cardiopulmonary comorbidity. Knowledge of family history is important to counselling, treatment indications, surveillance and screening protocols.

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