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  • 1.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Consequences Of Male Brood Care: Weight And Number Of Newborn In A Sex-Role Reversed Pipefish1992In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 274-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. In the pipefish Syngnathus typhle sex roles are reversed, as females compete for access to males. In this species males provide all brood care (i.e. are 'pregnant') and female reproductive rate exceeds the reproductive rate of males. Consequently females are limited by access to mates and male reproductive success is limited by male brooding ability and/or mate quality. Thus, phenomena like brood reduction and a trade-off between number and weight of newborn may be expected in males. 2. In this paper I demonstrate the following in males of S. typhle: (a) the initial weight of the egg (received from the female) positively influenced the weight of newborn; (b) in the male's brood pouch, number of newborn frequently is less than number of eggs initially received (brood reduction), and the extent of this decrease in brood size positively influenced the weight of newborn; (c) a trade-off between number and weight of newborn was demonstrated in males from field samples and in large experimental males (independent of brood reduction), but not in small males that presumably allocated resources to several other demands (condition, growth, etc.); (d) paternal length, per se, did not affect the weight of newborn. 3. The results indicate that in S. typhle, male reproductive success is limited by their own brooding ability and influenced by the egg size received (indirectly quality of mate), which may be expected in a situation of sex-role reversal.

  • 2.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Stojkovic, Biljana
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute for Biological Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.; Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Rönn, Johanna L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The pace-of-life: A sex-specific link between metabolic rate and life history in bean beetles2017In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 2299-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Metabolic rate (MR) is a key functional trait simply because metabolism converts resources into population growth rate. Yet, our empirical understanding of the sources of within species variation in MR, as well as of its life history and ecological correlates, is rather limited. Here, we assess whether MR lies at the root of a syndrome of correlated rate-dependent life-history traits in an insect.
    2. Selection for early (E) or late (L) age-at-reproduction for >160 generations in the bean beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus has produced beetles that differ markedly in juvenile development, body size, fecundity schedules, ageing and life span. Here, we use micro-respirometry to test whether this has been associated with the evolution of age- and sex-specific metabolic phenotypes.
    3. We find that mass-specific MR is 18% higher in E lines compared to L lines and that MR decreases more rapidly with chronological, but not biological, age in E lines. Males, under sexual selection to “live-fast-die-young”, show 50% higher MR than females and MR decreased more rapidly with age in males.
    4. Our results are consistent with a central role for MR for the divergence in “pace-of-life” seen in these beetles, supporting the view that MR lies at the root of ecologically relevant life-history trait variation within species.
  • 3.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Stojković, Biljana
    Rönn, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The pace-of-life: A sex-specific link between metabolic rate and life history in bean beetles2017In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 2299-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Metabolic rate (MR) is a key functional trait simply because metabolism converts resources into population growth rate. Yet, our empirical understanding of the sources of within species variation in MR, as well as of its life history and ecological correlates, is rather limited. Here, we assess whether MR lies at the root of a syndrome of correlated rate‐dependent life‐history traits in an insect.
    2. Selection for early (E) or late (L) age‐at‐reproduction for >160 generations in the bean beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus has produced beetles that differ markedly in juvenile development, body size, fecundity schedules, ageing and life span. Here, we use micro‐respirometry to test whether this has been associated with the evolution of age‐ and sex‐specific metabolic phenotypes.
    3. We find that mass‐specific MR is 18% higher in E lines compared to L lines and that MR decreases more rapidly with chronological, but not biological, age in E lines. Males, under sexual selection to “live‐fast‐die‐young”, show 50% higher MR than females and MR decreased more rapidly with age in males.
    4. Our results are consistent with a central role for MR for the divergence in “pace‐of‐life” seen in these beetles, supporting the view that MR lies at the root of ecologically relevant life‐history trait variation within species.
  • 4.
    Boberg, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Despite their apparent integration, spur length but not perianth size affects reproductive success in the moth-pollinated orchid Platanthera bifolia2009In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1022-1028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of many floral traits is thought to have been shaped  by pollinator-mediated selection for increased attractiveness or an   improved mechanical fit of flowers to pollinators. Yet, few studies have examined experimentally the independent and interactive effects of   different aspects of flower morphology on plant reproductive success.   In the orchid Platanthera bifolia, perianth size and spur length are   positively correlated within and among populations. To test the hypothesis that pollination success and seed output increases with   increasing perianth size and spur length, we manipulated the two traits   in a factorial design in a long-spurred population of P. bifolia   pollinated by long-tongued hawkmoths. Additionally, to determine   whether differences in selfing rate can explain variation in fruit set   and fruit size, we performed controlled self- and cross-pollination.   Plants with long spurs had more flowers pollinated, more pollen removed   and produced more and larger fruits compared to plants with short   spurs. In contrast, perianth size did not affect the pollination   success or fruit production of P. bifolia.   Fruit production and fruit size did not differ among flowers pollinated   with self- and cross pollen, respectively. This indicates that reduced   pollen deposition rather than pollinator-mediated self-pollination   caused the reduction in fruit set and fruit volume observed after   shortening of the spur.   The results demonstrate that spur length, but not perianth size, is   critical for reproductive success in P. bifolia, and suggest that   among-population differentiation in perianth size may reflect a  correlated response to selection on spur length. The results are  consistent with the hypothesis that visual display is less important   than other cues for the reproductive success of P. bifolia, and   underscore the necessity to experimentally examine the functional   significance of putatively adaptive traits.

  • 5.
    Evans, Simon R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Colour in a new light: a spectral perspective on the quantitative genetics of carotenoid colouration2015In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 96-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Carotenoid-based colours are model traits for research on animal signalling and sexual selection but, whereas the consequences of variable expression have been extensively studied, its causes are rarely quantified. This issue is complicated by the composite nature of carotenoid-based colour patches, which combine pigments and a reflective background. Ultimately, the evolution of such colours will be determined by the processes that govern variable expression of these mechanisms. We present a novel approach to assessing the quantitative genetics of colour expression, in which reflectance spectra are analysed directly, thereby avoiding the data loss and inherent subjectivity of summary colour variables. Further, the influence of the component mechanisms can be distinguished in spectral analyses due to their contrasting wavelength-dependencies. Using data from a 6-year study of carotenoid-based plumage reflectance in wild great tits (Parus major), we employ a multi-parallel animal modelling' approach to estimate sources of variance for narrow (2nm) wavebands across the visible spectrum. Moderate heritability estimates were limited to the violet-blue region of the spectrum, diagnostic of the carotenoid content of plumage being heritable. The natal environment effect was limited entirely to the violet-blue, again indicating that it relates to variation in carotenoid content of feathers. Other wavelengths were sensitive to annual and permanent environmental variation but only marginally influenced by additive genetic variation. Hence, background reflectance is the component that is more sensitive to the environment. Analysing reflectance spectra directly provided an objective perspective of the dynamics of colour expression that is not apparent when relying on summary colour scores. In this case, our results suggest that carotenoid deposition may be an effective target of selection and hence could explain the important role carotenoids frequently play in intraspecific signalling.

  • 6. Ferrari, Maud C.O.
    et al.
    McCormick, Mark I.
    Munday, Phil L.
    Meekan, Mark G.
    Dixson, Danielle D.
    Lönnstedt, Oona M.
    Chivers, Douglas P.
    Effects of ocean acidification on visual risk assessment by coral reef fishes2012In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 553-558Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Fricke, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Amaro, Noelia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Female modulation of reproductive rate and its role in postmating prezygotic isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus.2006In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 360-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary:

    1. Mechanisms that come into play after mating but prior to fertilization can prevent hybrid formation and thus promote reproductive isolation. Recent research indicates that the evolution of such barriers to gene exchange between incipient forms appears to be common and is essential for speciation.

    2. We aimed to test if female Bean Weevils (Callosobruchus maculatus) modulate their reproductive rate and/or remating propensity in response to mating with males with varying degrees of relatedness in a manner that limits the number of ‘hybrids’ produced. We also tested if remating with a male from a female's own population, following a first mating with a foreign male, would elevate egg production.

    3. Females varied their egg-production rate depending on the relatedness of their mates, but this effect was not in the predicted direction. Heterospecific C. analis males actually elicited the strongest reproductive response in females, which resulted in up to 9% higher egg production. Male relatedness did not significantly affect female propensity to remate with a second male. Further, females did not generally show a compensatory increase in reproductive rate following rematings with males from their own population.

    4. The mechanisms documented here do not act to limit gene flow and are costly to females, as they suffer reduced life span and egg production late in life following a high reproductive rate early in life. We suggest that sexually antagonistic coevolution within species may have caused the pattern observed.

  • 8.
    Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Strengbom, Joachim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Direct physiological effects of nitrogen on Sphagnum: a greenhouse experiment2012In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 353-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Bogs are nutrient-poor peatland ecosystems that are sensitive to nitrogen (N) deposition. Production of peat mosses (i.e. the peat-forming genus Sphagnum) is known to decrease under elevated N deposition, but the causal mechanisms are poorly understood. 2. It is predicted that increased N deposition will cause changes in Sphagnum species composition, with fast-growing species benefiting from increased N availability in contrast to slow-growing species. Knowledge of species-specific responses to N availability can help us to understand interspecific competitive relationships. 3. We investigated the direct effects of N application on plant physiology in three Sphagnum species by exposing shoots to a range of N doses (corresponding to depositions of 0-5 6 g m) 2 year) 1), over 5 months, in a greenhouse experiment. The species investigated included one that grows high above the water-table (Sphagnum fuscum) and two that grow lower down (Sphagnum balticum and Sphagnum fallax). S. fuscum and S. balticum originate from ombrotrophic and S. fallax from minerotrophic environments. To estimate N responses, we measured the performance and light-capture kinetics of the photosynthetic apparatus (maximum photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm), biomass production, shoot formation, and N and phosphorus (P) concentrations in the tissue. 4. Tissue nitrogen concentration generally increased with N application rate, and photosynthetic rate increased with N concentration, although S. balticum exhibited a unimodal response. With respect to production, a negative response to N application rate was found in S. fallax and S. fuscum (weak), while production in S. balticum was unrelated to application rate. S. fallax was the fastest-growing species, producing two to three times more biomass per shoot compared with the other species. 5. The mismatch between photosynthetic capacity and production could partly be explained by an increased N : P ratio following N application. Phosphorus limitation may not negatively affect photosynthetic capacity, but may hamper production. 6. The fast-growing species S. fallax is considered to benefit from increased N deposition, but we found a negative physiological response, suggesting stoichiometric constraints. Thus, we conclude that responses to N deposition cannot be predicted in a simple way from physiological traits related to growth rate without considering local environmental factors. 

  • 9.
    Janzen, Fredric J
    et al.
    University of Chicago, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Ast, Jennifer C
    University of Chicago, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Paukstis, Gary L
    Influence of the hydric environment and clutch on eggs and hatchlings of two closely related map turtles (Graptemys ouachitensis and G. pseudogeographica)1995In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 9, p. 913-922Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Janzen, Fredric J
    et al.
    University of Chicago, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Ast, Jennifer C
    University of Chicago, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Paukstis, Gary L
    Influence of the hydric environment and clutch on eggs and hatchlings of two closely related map turtles (Graptemys ouachitensis and G. pseudogeographica)1995In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 9, p. 913-922Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Lind, Martin I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Berg, Elena C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Alavioon, Ghazal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Evolution of differential maternal age effects on male and female offspring development and longevity2015In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 104-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal age effects on life-history traits, including longevity, are widespread and can be seen as a manifestation of ageing. However, little is known about how maternal life span may influence the maternal age effect. At a given chronological age, a long-lived parent may be at a younger biological age than a short-lived parent and thus has a less severe parental age effect. However, earlier work using experimentally evolved short- and long-lived lines did not support this hypothesis. We scored developmental time and longevity of 14995 individual seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus derived from replicate short-lived and long-lived lines created via artificial selection on male life span. Offspring from older mothers had shorter life span, which is consistent with most of the literature. We found support for the hypothesis that detrimental maternal age effects evolve to be weaker under selection for long life span. However, this finding was only apparent in males, suggesting that maternal age affects male and female offspring differently. These results suggest that sex-dependent parental age effects should be incorporated in the studies of longevity and ageing evolution and that selection on one sex can cause evolution of parental age effects in the other sex.

  • 12.
    Lind, Martin I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Chen, Hwei-yen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Meurling, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Guevara Gil, Anna Cristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Carlsson, Hanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Zwoinska, Martyna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Larva, Tuuli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Slow development as an evolutionary cost of long life2017In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1252-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between early-life fitness and life span. While the focus traditionally has been on the fecundity-life span trade-off, there are strong reasons to expect trade-offs with growth rate and/or development time. We investigated the roles of growth rate and development time in the evolution of life span in two independent selection experiments in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. First, we found that selection under heat-shock leads to the evolution of increased life span without fecundity costs, but at the cost of slower development. Thereafter, the putative evolutionary links between development time, growth rate, fecundity, heat-shock resistance and life span were independently assessed in the second experiment by directly selecting for fast or slow development. This experiment confirmed our initial findings, since selection for slow development resulted in the evolution of long life span and increased heat-shock resistance. Because there were no consistent trade-offs with growth rate or fecundity, our results highlight the key role of development rate - differentiation of the somatic cells per unit of time - in the evolution of life span. Since development time is under strong selection in nature, reduced somatic maintenance resulting in shorter life span may be a widespread cost of rapid development.

  • 13.
    Löbel, Swantje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Trade-offs and habitat constraints in the establishment of epiphytic bryophytes2010In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 887-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Diversity of patch-tracking epiphyte metacommunities depends on successful colonization of new habitats. Habitat constraints and critical stages in the establishment have gained little attention in metacommunity studies, but a trade-off between dispersal ability and establishment rate is often assumed. This assumption remains largely untested, and alternative dispersal and reproductive strategies offer several trade-offs to be explored.

    2. We used in vitro experiments to identify critical stages in the establishment of obligate epiphytic bryophytes with contrasting dispersal strategies [sexual via small (< 20 mu m) or large (> 20 mu m) spores, asexual via gemmae or gemmae-like branchlets], and to identify habitat constraints of diaspore establishment and trade-offs among species traits.

    3. Across all stages of the establishment process, large asexual diaspores performed better than small sexual ones. Asexual species also had a higher ability to establish from fragments than sexual species. Germination of all diaspore types was limited by pH with highest germination rates at intermediate pH. Large moss spores showed a higher desiccation tolerance than small ones, but lower germination and protonemal growth rates. Liverwort spores had the lowest desiccation tolerance, germination and protonemal growth rates, but rapidly developed gametophytic shoots once they had germinated.

    4. Combining the results with earlier studies on dispersal distances in epiphytes, our study demonstrated a trade-off between dispersal distance and establishment ability, which may be central for the evolution of asexual dispersal in epiphytes. The evolution of spore size may additionally involve trade-offs between high germination and protonemal growth rates, desiccation tolerance, and a rapid development from protonema to shoots. We suggest that trade-offs in epiphytes are shaped by conflicting selection pressures imposed by habitat patchiness, landscape dynamics and irregular water supply.

  • 14. Merilaita, Sami
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Marina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Accuracy of background matching and prey detection: predation by blue tits indicates intense selection for highly matching prey colour pattern2014In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1208-1215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Although background matching decreases prey detectability, resemblance between camouflaged prey and their visual background is seldom perfect. This could be because even a moderate resemblance might provide sufficient protection, and additional adjustment of colour pattern might give little benefit. Alternatively, close resemblance to background may not be attained due to trade-offs or constraints. To understand selection on colour patterns of camouflaged prey and the existence of inaccurate background matching, it is necessary to investigate how detectability of a colour pattern varies with its resemblance to the background. 2. We trained wild-caught blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) to search for artificial prey. We manipulated the resemblance of the artificial prey items to the visual backgrounds. 3. For the first half of the twelve repeated prey presentations, we found a nonlinear relationship between resemblance and detectability such that for prey that had high background matching, a change in resemblance resulted in a larger change in detectability than an equal change in resemblance did for prey with lower background matching. However, for the second half of the presentations, this relationship was linear. Moreover, in a two-patch-type habitat, a prey pattern that was a compromise between the two different backgrounds did after few initial presentations equally well as the prey pattern that matched highly one of the backgrounds. 4. Our results indicate an intense selection for close matching in a single background. Yet, in the heterogeneous environment that consisted of two backgrounds, the compromise, which only loosely resembled either background, provided good protection. Therefore, we conclude that cryptic colour patterns that bear only a loose resemblance to a given background, and thus represent inaccurate background matching, may be adaptive outcomes.

  • 15.
    Merilä, Juha
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Svensson, E
    Fat reserves and health state in migrant Goldcrest Regulus regulus1995In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 842-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Although the importance of adequate fat deposits for migrating birds has long been recognized, little is known about causes of intraspecific variation in the size of energy reserves. 2. We studied individual variation in visible fat reserves, body size, state of health and nutrition among autumn migrating Goldcrests Regulus regulus. 3. Birds showing signs of infectious/inflammatory diseases (high red blood cell sedi- mentation rate) or anaemia (low packed red blood cell volume) had significantly smaller fat stores than birds lacking these signs. However, no differences in fat reserves or health state were detected in relation to stage of post-juvenile moult. 4. These results suggest that the ability to deposit fat in the face of an energetically demanding migration may be affected by an individual's state of health.

  • 16.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Söderquist, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Nordström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. Flinders Univ S Australia, Anat & Histol Ctr Neurosci, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia..
    The price of looking sexy: visual ecology of a three-level predator–prey system2017In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 707-718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colour signals and colour vision play a pivotal role in intraspecific communication and predator-prey interactions. However, the costs of expressing conspicuous sexual signals at multiple trophic levels have been largely overlooked. Sexual signals can also experience character displacement in sympatric populations of closely related species, leading to potential changes in conspicuousness. We here investigate a bird-damselfly-fruit fly predator-prey system, where two closely related damselfly species have conspicuous, sexually selected wing coloration. The damselflies can occur in sympatry and allopatry, and reproductive character displacement in the coloration size has been previously reported. We quantify the damselfly wing reflectance from replicated sympatric and allopatric populations, and use receptor noise models to investigate the visual discriminability of the wing coloration for the bird, damselfly and fly vision systems, against natural backgrounds. We perform electroretinograms to study damselfly eye sensitivity. We also estimate damselfly predation risk in natural populations. We find that the chromatic component of wing coloration makes males highly discriminable to the predator, but not to the prey. However, female wing coloration is predominantly cryptic for the predator and prey, and interestingly, also for male damselflies. A female being cryptic to conspecifics likely reduces male harassment. The estimates of predation risk partially support the discriminability results. We also show that there is no difference in colour vision sensitivity between the two damselfly species and sexes, and no difference in wing coloration or its discriminability between sympatric and allopatric populations. Our results suggest that sexually selected traits can be antagonistically selected by predators and prey and that this antagonistic selection can be sex-dependent: males are paying a large cost in terms of conspicuousness, while females remain mostly cryptic. Our study thus emphasizes the need for investigating visual communication at multitrophic levels since the degree of colour discriminability can differ between predators, prey and the focal species.

  • 17.
    Rogell, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Widegren, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hallsson, Lára R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sex-dependent evolution of life-history traits following adaptation to climate warming2014In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 469-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    1. Thermodynamic processes increase metabolic rate and decrease longevity at high temperatures in ectotherms. However, how sustained long-term increase in temperature affects the evolution of longevity is poorly understood.
    2. Stress theory of ageing predicts that increased longevity is positively genetically correlated with resistance to different types of environmental stressors implying that evolutionary trajectories of ageing may be mediated by correlative selection for robust phenotypes under thermal stress.
    3. Here, we test this hypothesis by using replicate populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, evolving under two thermal environments: ancestral 30 °C and incremental increase towards novel 36 °C.
    4. Beetles evolving under climate warming became larger, more fecund and lived longer than the beetles evolving under 30 °C across both environments. However, the increase in longevity was partly due to parental effects because after two generations of acclimatization it persisted only in males.
    5. Our results support the hypothesis that evolution of stress resistance confers increased longevity through positive pleiotropy but demonstrate that such effects can be sex specific. These findings suggest that sex differences can evolve as correlated responses to selection under environmental change.
  • 18. Ruuskanen, Suvi
    et al.
    Doligez, Blandine
    Pitala, Natalia
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Long-term fitness consequences of high yolk androgen levels: sons pay the costs2012In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 884-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Early growth conditions, for example hormonal environment during embryonic development, may have long-lasting effects on behaviour and phenotype, with subsequent fitness consequences. Yolk androgens have been shown to affect various offspring traits in the short-term, but fitness consequences for either offspring or parents, a prerequisite for studying the adaptiveness of this maternal effect, are poorly known in the wild. 2. We experimentally elevated yolk androgen levels of whole clutches in a wild population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) and investigated the long-term effects of yolk androgens on offspring local recruitment, parental return rate, and timing and success of breeding in both parents and offspring in the breeding season(s) following the manipulation. 3. Yolk androgen elevation lowered the local recruitment rate of male, but not female offspring, but had no effect on any breeding parameters of offspring of either sex. Furthermore, yolk androgen elevation of the clutch had no effect on the return rate or any breeding parameters of the parents. 4. Our results indicate that high yolk androgen levels may impose a potential direct fitness cost for male offspring, but no long-lasting additional indirect fitness costs for parents (direct costs of transferring androgens to eggs not considered). Such a sex-specific cost on offspring could constrain yolk androgen deposition and select for sex-specific deposition mechanisms. 5. As yolk androgen levels in this population are heritable, our results on long-term fitness effect of yolk androgens support the idea that hormone-mediated maternal effects may evolve under selection and thereby affect evolutionary processes.

  • 19.
    Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Katvala, Mari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Correlated evolution between male and female primary reproductive characters in seed beetles2011In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 634-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Because males and females of internally inseminating species interact directly during mating, adaptations in one sex in primary reproductive traits may trigger an evolutionary response in the other sex. Divergent postcopulatory sexual selection is considered the main driving force behind the evolution of many male and female reproductive traits, generating unique morphologies and physiologies that can contribute to reproductive isolation and, ultimately, speciation. 2. The focus of most previous studies of the evolution of primary reproductive characters has been male reproductive traits and ejaculate or sperm characteristics. However, in order to more fully understand the evolution of primary reproductive characters it is crucial that we also include female traits. 3. In insects, both the size and the composition of the ejaculate have been shown to influence female reproduction in numerous ways by affecting female remating behaviour, female fecundity and female life span. Here, we employ a phylogenetic comparative approach to assess correlated evolution between primary reproductive characters in males and those in females in a group of seed beetles (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). We further explore correlated evolution between ejaculate size and female fitness in these insects. 4. Our analyses revealed positive correlated evolution between three internal female reproductive traits and ejaculate weight as well as correlated evolution between ejaculate weight and female fitness. We discuss the causal factors behind this correlated evolution and suggest that the evolution of larger ejaculates, primarily by postcopulatory sexual selection, causes selection for larger primary sexual traits in females to allow females to more rapidly process ejaculates. This may then feedback on postcopulatory selection in males, reinforcing selection for larger ejaculates. 5. Our results show that the primary reproductive traits of males and females show correlated evolution and suggest that intersexual co-evolution may affect the evolution of female fitness.

  • 20. Schaefer, Martin A.
    et al.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Jochmann, Ralf
    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.
    Bussiere, Luc F.
    The developmental plasticity and functional significance of an additional sperm storage compartment in female yellow dung flies2013In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1392-1402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The mechanistic basis for and adaptive significance of variation in female sperm storage organs are important for a range of questions concerning sexual selection and speciation, as such variation influences the evolutionary trajectories of male fertilization related traits and may facilitate speciation through its effects on gamete recognition. 2. Female yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) usually develop three sperm storage compartments, and this subdivision may be an adaptation for sorting sperm during postcopulatory choice. 3. Using lines artificially selected to express four spermathecae (4s), we explored the fitness consequences of the novel phenotype relative to the naturally prevalent three-spermatheca (3s) phenotype by manipulating the opportunity for postcopulatory sexual selection (females mated either with three or only one male prior to oviposition). In addition, we examined the developmental plasticity of spermathecal number in response to different larval food environments and estimated its genetic correlation with growth rate. 4. Mating treatments with and without the opportunity for postcopulatory sexual selection revealed no significant fitness differences between alternative spermathecal phenotypes within selection lines despite overall benefits associated with multiple mating, and moderate egg-to-adult survival costs in response to artificial selection for 4s. Manipulations of the larval food environment revealed that the expression of 4s is highly plastic and tightly linked to environmental conditions promoting fast somatic growth and development. Likewise, siblings with fast intrinsic (genetic) growth were more likely to express 4s within and across food environments. 5. The present results highlight a great potential for rapid evolutionary change in female sperm storage morphology through indirect selection on life-history traits, and further suggest genetic assimilation as a potential mechanism facilitating phylogenetic transitions in spermatheca number as frequently observed within the Dipterans.

  • 21.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Tye, Matthew R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Resource- and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits2017In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Female reproductive success is predicted to be simultaneously limited by the availability of pollen and resources. Selection on floral traits results from both factors, but their relative importance and interaction is poorly understood. 2. We increased nutrient and pollen availability of the orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica in a factorial experiment to quantify resource-and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits. Hand-pollination increased female fitness (number of fruits 9 mean fruit mass) by 74% in both nutrient treatments, whereas nutrient addition did not significantly affect female fitness. 3. There was selection for more flowers and longer spurs, and selection on spur length was significantly pollinator-mediated and of similar strength across nutrient treatments (Delta beta(poll) = 0.54 and Delta beta(poll_NPK) = 0.59). There was no statistically significant resource-mediated selection. Nutrient addition increased flower size the following year, but did not affect flower or fruit production, or selection on any trait. 4. The results demonstrate that D. lapponica does not increase flower production in response to nutrient addition, that the increase in female fitness in response to hand-pollination is not resource limited, and suggest that natural resource variation does not influence selection on floral traits. The study illustrates that crossed manipulations of pollen and resources can clarify their relative importance for selection on floral traits.

  • 22.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Eklöv, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Morphology in perch affects habitat specific feeding efficiency2004In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 503-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Trophic polymorphism is a common phenomenon in many species. Trade-offs in foraging efficiency on different resources are thought to be a primary cause of such polymorphism.

    2. To test for a trade-off in foraging efficiency perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) were used from a population that differs in morphology between the littoral and pelagic habitat of a lake. Indoor aquarium experiments were performed with three different prey types in two different environments. It was predicted that the morphology of the individual would affect foraging efficiency in the different environments and on the different prey types through search and attack behaviour.

    3. Overall the foraging efficiency of perch was found to be related to individual morphology. A connection was also found between individual morphology and search and attack behaviour. Search behaviour but not attack behaviour was affected by the structure in the aquaria. Furthermore our results show that there are relations between search behaviour and detection rates and between attack behaviour and attack success.

    4. Our results give a mechanistic explanation for the differences in foraging efficiency between littoral and pelagic perch. These differences are probably driven by a functional trade-off between foraging performance and general body form.

  • 23. Walters, Richard J.
    et al.
    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Forecasting extinction risk of ectotherms under climate warming: an evolutionary perspective2012In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 1324-1338Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. It has been postulated that climate warming may pose the greatest threat species in the tropics, where ectotherms have evolved more thermal specialist physiologies. Although species could rapidly respond to environmental change through adaptation, little is known about the potential for thermal adaptation, especially in tropical species. 2. In the light of the limited empirical evidence available and predictions from mutation-selection theory, we might expect tropical ectotherms to have limited genetic variance to enable adaptation. However, as a consequence of thermodynamic constraints, we might expect this disadvantage to be at least partially offset by a fitness advantage, that is, the hotter-is-better hypothesis. 3. Using an established quantitative genetics model and metabolic scaling relationships, we integrate the consequences of the opposing forces of thermal specialization and thermodynamic constraints on adaptive potential by evaluating extinction risk under climate warming. We conclude that the potential advantage of a higher maximal development rate can in theory more than offset the potential disadvantage of lower genetic variance associated with a thermal specialist strategy. 4.Quantitative estimates of extinction risk are fundamentally very sensitive to estimates of generation time and genetic variance. However, our qualitative conclusion that the relative risk of extinction is likely to be lower for tropical species than for temperate species is robust to assumptions regarding the effects of effective population size, mutation rate and birth rate per capita. 5. With a view to improving ecological forecasts, we use this modelling framework to review the sensitivity of our predictions to the model's underpinning theoretical assumptions and the empirical basis of macroecological patterns that suggest thermal specialization and fitness increase towards the tropics. We conclude by suggesting priority areas for further empirical research.

  • 24.
    Wiklund, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ecophysiological constraints on spore establishment in bryophytes2004In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 907-913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1.Many threatened bryophytes are restricted to patchy and temporary substrates suchas dead wood and tree stems. Their persistence depends on successful colonizations ofnew patches. Spore germination may then be limited by substrate quality and wetness.

    2.In vitroexperiments were used to test the effects of pH and moisture on the establishmentof spores of the moss speciesNeckera pennataHedw. andBuxbaumia viridis(DC) Moug. & Nestl.

    3.Low pH and water potential prolonged the lag phase preceding germination andreduced final germination. The interaction between pH and moisture suggests that highwater availability facilitates germination at suboptimal pH, andvice versa.

    4.The results reflect the species’ habitats: the wood-inhabitingB. viridishad higher capacityto germinate at low pH, while spores of the epiphyteN. pennatashowed earlier germinationat low water potential and survived longer in a dry state. This supports the notionthat bryophytes are most strongly affected by substrate quality during establishment.

    5.We suggest that a trade-off exists among moss spores between the ability to colonizesubstrates with low moisture-holding capacity and low pH, and that the positive effectof high pH is largely that it speeds up germination thereby enabling the spores toexploit short, moist periods.

1 - 24 of 24
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